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Sample records for mentally disabled persons

  1. Mental Disability and the Right to Personal Liberty in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enonchong, Laura-Stella

    2017-01-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights is leading an initiative to draft a disability protocol. This is particularly important for persons with mental disability as the draft protocol makes specific provisions guaranteeing their right to personal liberty, a right currently unavailable to them under article 6 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights as interpreted by the African Commission in Purohit & Moore v The Gambia. This article analyses the changes introduced by ...

  2. Work support for persons with mental disabilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Aya; Kono, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the methods and the activities of occupational therapists (OTs) in the field of work support for persons with mental disabilities in Japan. Necessary information is gathered through review of literatures. Japanese OTs are working in myriad locations across a number of areas in the field of mental disabilities, including medical institutions, self-support facilities, public employment security offices, employment and life support centers for persons with disabilities, public health centers, and vocational rehabilitation centers. Work support has been implemented in each setting, and there is a diverse range of implementations. In discussing work support in Japan, it is important to note that it is still often implemented in a conventional way - that is to say, through a gradual-support methodology, based on the working-readiness model. However, some of the work support initiatives have begun to embrace cutting-edge approaches, such as network-oriented implementation. It is necessary for OTs in Japan to implement work support using the most effective means available. Repeating such efforts will drive a paradigm shift facilitating a transition from the outdated working-readiness model, andhelp persons with disabilities to have decent jobs.

  3. The rights of persons with Disability Bill, 2014: How "enabling" is it for persons with mental illness?

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    Rao, Gundugurti Prasad; Ramya, Vemulokonda Sri; Bada, Math Suresh

    2016-01-01

    India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Person with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2007. This is a welcome step towards realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to change their local laws, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted two important bill the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 (RPWD Bill, 2014) and Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 (MHC Bill, 2013). There is no doubt that persons with mental illness are stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. This situation becomes worse with regard to providing mental health care, rehabilitation and social welfare measures to persons with mental illness. There is an urgent need to address this issue of attitudinal barrier so that the rights of persons with mental illness is upheld. Hence, this article discusses shortcomings in the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 (RPWD Bill, 2014) from the perspective of persons with mental illness. Further, the article highlights the need to synchronize both the RPWD Bill, 2014 and Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 to provide justice for persons with mental illness.

  4. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Mental Health Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD) took effect in 2008. This paper discusses a number of flashpoints where the CRPD will require real and significant reconsideration of English mental health and mental capacity law. The CRPD introduces a new paradigm into international disability law, relying on the social model of disability. While that is no doubt a good thing, there is as yet no clear sense as to how that is to be implemented. After providing ...

  5. Stigma of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan: Examining the pathways from stereotyping to mental distress.

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    Trani, Jean-Francois; Ballard, Ellis; Peña, Juan B

    2016-03-01

    Despite evidence that stigma of disability is frequently reflected through stereotyping and often results in mental distress, very limited literature demonstrates the pathways through which stereotyping has an impact on mental health. Drawing from a large sample of 1449 participants interviewed between December 2012 and September 2013 from an Afghan community-based rehabilitation program, we examined the structure of stigma associated with disability in Afghanistan. Labeling and negative stereotypes, associated with a specific cause of disability, result in social exclusion that in turn impacts mental health. Using structural equation modeling with latent variables, we examined the mediation effect of stereotypes associated with disability on mental distress and anxiety. We found a mediating role of social exclusion between stereotypes and mental distress but only in the case of persons with disabilities from birth. Comparing the total effect of 'disabled at birth' and mental distress 0.195 (95% CI: 0.018-0.367) the effect size of this mediation effect was 0.293 (95% CI: 0.173-0.415). There was no significant direct effect between 'disabled at birth' and mental distress once mediation effect was accounted for in our model. These findings suggest that a multipronged policy approach that recognizes the driving forces of stigma and promotes social participation directly alongside psychosocial interventions on mental distress of persons with disabilities is necessary to achieve wellbeing for a group that has been historically and systematically excluded from development interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Web Interface for Education of Mentally Disabled Persons for Work in Horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    P. Benda; M. Šmejkalová

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a suitable web interface for the education of persons with mental disabilities to work in horticulture. The research is based on the testing of several forms of web navigation by the group of mentally disabled persons. Testing was performed for seven weeks in a model course which acquainted the participants with working activities in horticulture. A partial research has also identified a suitable device and the form of control the web part of model cou...

  7. Mental health law and the UN Convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler, George; Daw, Rowena; Callard, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    People with a mental illness may be subject to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), depending on definitions of terms such as 'impairment', 'long-term' and the capaciousness of the word 'includes' in the Convention's characterisation of persons with disabilities. Particularly challenging under the CRPD is the scope, if any, for involuntary treatment. Conventional mental health legislation, such as the Mental Health Act (England and Wales) appears to violate, for example, Article 4 ('no discrimination of any kind on the basis of disability'), Article 12 (persons shall 'enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life') and Article 14 ('the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty'). We argue that a form of mental health law, such as the Fusion Law proposal, is consistent with the principles of the CRPD. Such law is aimed at eliminating discrimination against persons with a mental illness. It covers all persons regardless of whether they have a 'mental' or a 'physical' illness, and only allows involuntary treatment when a person's decision-making capability (DMC) for a specific treatment decision is impaired - whatever the health setting or cause of the impairment - and where supported decision making has failed. In addition to impaired DMC, involuntary treatment would require an assessment that such treatment gives the person's values and perspective paramount importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disability and quality of life among elderly persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri; Rao, N Suryanarayana; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the level of disability and quality of life of elderly persons with chronic and persistent mental illnesses and to compare it with those who were elderly but well with no illness. For the purpose 200 elderly persons with mental illness (PMI), attending psychiatric services were included in the study. A comparison group of 103 well elderly persons was drawn from the same study area as control group (CG). They were assessed using WHO-DAS and WHOQOL-BREF. Results revealed that PMI experienced higher disability compared to the CG. Deficits in the domain of moving around, getting along with people, engaging in life activities and participation in society contributed most to the high level of disability in the PMI group. PMI from rural area had higher disability compared to the urban group. As for QOL, elderly PMI had a poor quality of life compared to the CG. Quality of life was found to be negatively associated with level of disability. Higher the level of disability, lower was the quality of life. The authors opine that persons with chronic mental illness continue to experience psychiatric disability in old age and this cannot be attributed to normal aging. Level of disability has a negative impact on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Personality Characteristics, Emotional Intelligence and Quality of Life Mental Health of People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Heydari Pour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to assess the relationships between personality characteristics, emotional intelligence and quality of life with Mental Health Status of people with disabilities. Materials & Methods: This Descriptive Correlation study randomly selected (60 of the physical disabilities. Including (30 girls, 30 boys of SET Educational Beneficence Tavanyaban of Mashhad. Order to collecting data was completed four Questionnaire: General Health (GHQ Questionnaire, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire characteristics of personality, Questionnaire (NEO and Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis Results: Data analysis showed a significant positive correlation between personality characteristics and quality of life with the four dimensions of mental health. (r=0.86, r=0.87, P0.05 Positive and significant correlation exists between the components of personality characteristics and components of quality of life (P>0.05, r=0.12 negative correlation exists between the components of emotional intelligence and personality characteristics and quality of life (r=-0.13, r=-0.09 P>0.050 This correlation was not statistically significant. Multiple Regression analysis showed that personality characteristics and quality of life are associated and predictors of Mental Health. Conclusion: Personality characteristics and its components and quality of life are in a direct relationship with mental health and may be regarded as significant predictors of Mental Health

  10. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal conditions to the rest of the people. The consequence of this analysis is that Spain must guarantee the right to vote of all persons with disabilities regardless the type of disability (physical, intellectual, mental o sensory, being necessary the adaptation of its domestic laws to international engagements and obligations; therefore, the Spanish authorities are obliged to remove or reform of the article 3 of Electoral General Organic Law.

  11. All-Cause, 30-Day Readmissions Among Persons With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness.

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    Balogh, Robert; Lin, Elizabeth; Dobranowski, Kristin; Selick, Avra; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2018-03-01

    Early hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge are common and costly. This research describes predictors of all-cause, 30-day hospital readmissions among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), a group known to experience high rates of hospitalization. A cohort of 66,484 adults with IDD from Ontario, Canada, was used to create two subgroups: individuals with IDD only and those with IDD and mental illness. The rates of hospital readmission were determined and contrasted with a comparison subgroup of people without IDD who have mental illness. Compared with those with mental illness only, individuals with IDD and mental illness were 1.7 times more likely to experience a hospital readmission within 30 days. Predictors of their readmission rates included being a young adult and having high morbidity levels. The high rate of hospital readmission suggests that individuals with IDD and mental illness need attention regarding discharge planning and outpatient follow-up.

  12. Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward.

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    Scholten, Matthé; Gather, Jakov

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted among medical ethicists that competence is a necessary condition for informed consent. In this view, if a patient is incompetent to make a particular treatment decision, the decision must be based on an advance directive or made by a substitute decision-maker on behalf of the patient. We call this the competence model. According to a recent report of the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights, article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a wholesale rejection of the competence model. The High Commissioner here adopts the interpretation of article 12 proposed by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. On this interpretation, CRPD article 12 renders it impermissible to deny persons with mental disabilities the right to make treatment decisions on the basis of impaired decision-making capacity and demands the replacement of all regimes of substitute decision-making by supported decision-making. In this paper, we explicate six adverse consequences of CRPD article 12 for persons with mental disabilities and propose an alternative way forward. The proposed model combines the strengths of the competence model and supported decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Therapeutic effect of lyophilized, Kefir-fermented milk on constipation among persons with mental and physical disabilities.

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    Maki, Rumiko; Matsukawa, Mayumi; Matsuduka, Atsuko; Hashinaga, Masahiko; Anai, Hirofumi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hanada, Katsuhiro; Fujii, Chieko

    2017-11-06

    Constipation is a serious problem for persons with mental and physical disabilities in Japan. However, prophylaxis is extremely difficult because the major causes of constipation in these individuals are related to their mental and physical disabilities. Constipation can be successfully treated with glycerol enemas (GEs) and other aperients. As constipation is a lifetime issue for these persons, dietary regimens to prevent constipation can be important. This study evaluated the probiotic effects of kefir-fermented milk for preventing constipation in 42 persons with mental and physical disabilities. The participants were administered 2 g of lyophilized kefir with each meal for 12 weeks and their bowel movements, the administration of GE and other aperients, and stool shape were recorded. The intake of kefir significantly reduced constipation, compared with the baseline status. Some individuals showed complete relief of constipation, whereas others showed no effect. Despite individual variations, consuming kefir daily could prevent constipation. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  14. Employment status and mental health among persons with and without a disability: evidence from an Australian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; LaMontagne, A D; Aitken, Z; Bentley, R; Kavanagh, A M

    2014-11-01

    Unemployment and economic inactivity are associated with worse mental health in the general population, but there is limited understanding of whether these relationships are different for those persons with mental or physical disabilities. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in mental health by labour force status among persons with and without disabilities. Over eight annual waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a total of 2379 people with disabilities and 11 417 people without disabilities were identified. Mental health using the Mental Component Summary (MCS) from the Short Form 36 was modelled as a function of labour force status using fixed-effects regression models to control for time invariant confounding. Differences between those with and without disabilities were assessed by including an interaction term in regression models. After finding evidence of effect modification, regression models were stratified by disability status. After adjustment, unemployment and economic inactivity were associated with a -1.85 (95% CI -2.96 to -0.73, p=0.001) and -2.66 (95% CI -3.46 to -1.86, punemployment (-0.57, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.12, p=0.013) and economic inactivity (-0.34, 95% CI -0.64 to 0.05, p=0.022). These results suggest a greater reduction in mental health for those persons with disabilities who were unemployed or economically inactive than those who were employed. This highlights the value of employment for people with disabilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal co...

  16. [What Psychiatrists Should Know about the Medical Documentation They Issue: Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, Mental Health Disability Certification, etc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatrists issue a wide variety of documentation, among which are torms such as Registration of Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Periodic Report of Condition, Certification of Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, and Mental Health Disability Certification, which are required under laws such as the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled. These documents are important in that they are related to protecting the human rights of people with mental disorders, as well as securing appropriate medical and welfare services for them. However, in the course of reviewing and evaluating documentation at our Mental Health and Welfare Center, we encounter forms which are incomplete, or which contain inappropriate content. In order to protect the human rights of people with mental disorders, and to ensure the provision of appropriate medical and welfare services for them, I call on psychiatrists to issue carefully written and appropriate documentation. In this talk I will focus primarily on what psychiatrists should know when filling in forms in the course of their day-to-day clinical work.

  17. What makes generalist mental health professionals effective when working with people with an intellectual disability? A family member and support person perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Janelle; Fisher, Karen R; Trollor, Julian N

    2018-05-01

    Generalist mental health professionals are inadequately equipped to meet the rights of people with intellectual disability. A better understanding of the attributes of effective professionals may assist in the development of workforce capacity in this area. Twenty-eight family/support persons of people with intellectual disability participated in four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken applying the Intellectual Disability Mental Health Core Competencies Framework. Participants described attributes that aligned with current professional expectations such as working together and new attributes such as differentiating between behaviour and mental health. An unexpected finding was the need for professionals to be able to infer meaning by interpreting multiple sources of information. Participants also wanted professionals to acknowledge their professional limitations and seek professional support. Family/support persons identified a range of attributes of effective mental health professionals to support people with intellectual disability. Further research is necessary, particularly from the perspective of people with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vitality and mental health in disability: Associations with social relationships in persons with spinal cord injury and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Hannah; Fekete, Christine; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Siegrist, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Various social relationship constructs have been proposed to affect mental health. However, these constructs have rarely been studied in a comprehensive way in persons with chronic disabilities and their partners, inhibiting researchers from evaluating their relative importance. To investigate 1) the variation in the quantity and quality of social relationships in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners; 2) dyadic coherence within social relationship constructs; 3) the interrelationships between social relationship constructs; and 4) the associations of social relationship constructs with vitality and mental health. Cross-sectional survey data from 133 couples of persons with SCI and their partners was used. Quantitative (social networks) and qualitative aspects (social support, relationship quality, loneliness, and reciprocity in partnerships) of social relationships were assessed. Correlations were performed to analyse dyadic coherence and interrelationships of social relationship constructs and multivariable regressions were applied to examine associations with vitality and mental health. Loneliness, larger social networks and higher relationship quality were more prevalent in SCI. All social relationship constructs, apart from loneliness, were more similar within couples than between couples and the interrelationships between different constructs were small. Qualitative aspects of relationships were more important than the quantitative aspects in their associations to vitality and mental health. These associations were most consistent for loneliness, reciprocity and relationship quality in both groups. In the long-term management of community functioning in persons with SCI and their partners, the fostering of high quality intimate relationships should take priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing violence, exploitation and abuse of persons with mental disabilities: Exploring the monitoring implications of Article 16 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Judy

    Article 16 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes the right to be free from all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse. In pursuance of this aim, Article 16 (3) imposes an obligation on States Parties to 'ensure that all facilities and programmes designed to serve persons with disabilities are effectively monitored by independent authorities'. Effective independent monitoring is viewed as a key mechanism to help safeguard people from violence, exploitation and abuse. This is highly pertinent in the wake of the highly publicized abuse of patients in care homes and hospitals in England in the last few years. This article examines the monitoring requirements of Article 16 and, by drawing on the author's research into the Care Quality Commission (the national health and social care regulator and mental health monitor) in England, assesses the extent to which independent inspection of hospitals and care homes can play a part in realizing Article 16(3) to prevent violence, abuse and exploitation of persons with mental disabilities. The potential scope and reach of Article 16 is extremely wide: this brings with it great potential but, at the same time, significant challenges for achieving effecting monitoring. Some of these challenges are explored and the paper concludes with some consideration of how monitors/inspectors, such as the Care Quality Commission in England, can strengthen their protection for people with mental disabilities, in line with the ethos and aspirations of the CRPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A conceptual framework to facilitate the mental health of student nurses working with persons with intellectual disabilities.

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    van Rensburg, Elsie S Janse; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2015-11-25

    Student nurses (SNs) experience emotional discomfort during placement in the clinical psychiatric learning environment. This may negatively influence their mental health. Limited support is available to assist both SNs working with persons with intellectual disabilities and nurse educators during clinical accompaniment. This article aims to discuss the generation of this framework to enhance student support. A theory-generative, qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, contextual design was utilised to develop the framework by applying four steps. In step 1 concept analysis identified the central concept through field work. Data were collected from 13 SNs purposively selected from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng through two focus group interviews, reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes and analysed with thematic coding. The central concept was identified from the results, supported by a literature review and defined by essential attributes. The central concept was classified through a survey list and demonstrated in a model case. In step 2 the central concepts were placed into relationships with each other. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated in step 3 and guidelines for implementation were described in step 4. The focus of this article will be on generating the conceptual framework. The central concept was 'the facilitation of engagement on a deeper emotional level of SNs'. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated. The conceptual framework can enhance the educational practices of nurse educators and can SN's practices of care for persons with intellectual disabilities.

  1. [What roles can posters and television play to influence social participation of persons with mental disabilities?].

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    El Shourbagi, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, Québec has fostered the integration and social participation of people with an intellectual disability. However, few adaptations have been made in the context of integration. The current situation of these people is characterized by poverty, dependency, illiteracy and isolation. The "Processus de production du handicap" (Disability Creation Process) shows that this situation can be improved by adapting certain environmental elements, such as television and posters, to the characteristics of these people. These two modes of communication could respond to the needs of people with an intellectual disability by more directly fostering their social participation. This would contribute to increased acceptance of their differences on the part of the general population, encourage them to act on their own behalf, encourage them to feel they are capable of and will succeed at accomplishing a task, and better serve them in terms of accessing information. In addition, creators of media messages should assume the responsibility of adapting their messages to the characteristics and needs of people with an intellectual disability by such means as simplifying texts or adding pictograms.

  2. Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.

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    Slobogin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work in mental health peer services: a qualitative study using self-determination theory.

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    Moran, Galia Sharon; Russinova, Zlatka; Yim, Jung Yeon; Sprague, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with psychiatric disabilities have low rates of employment and occupational rehabilitation success. Mental health peer services are a new occupational modality that opened a promising occupational path: persons with serious mental illnesses employed to provide support to others with psychiatric conditions. However challenges to successful peer work exist. Work motivation is central to understanding and supporting peer workers, yet little is known about sources of motivation to work as mental health peer providers. The aim of this study was to identify what drives individuals to mental health peer work using self determination theory (SDT). Motivations of 31 mental health peer workers were explored as part of a larger study. A theory driven approach was employed to emerging qualitative data using SDT concepts: external motivation and internally regulated motivations derived from basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness). External motivations included generic occupational goals and getting away from negative work experiences. Internal motivations corresponded with SDT basic needs: autonomy met-needs was reflected in having freedom to disclose and finding that work accords with personal values; competence met-needs was reflected in using personal experience as a resource to help others; and relatedness met-needs were reflected in having opportunity to connect intimately and reciprocate with consumers. This study identified external and internal motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work as peer providers-a novel occupation in mental health. Employing personal experience and enabling peer contact emerge as major motivational tenets of mental health peer work. According to SDT instrumental occupational goals are considered more external than satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The study demonstrates the applicability of SDT in the design of autonomy supported environments to promote work engagement and sustenance of mental

  4. Civic and legal advances in the rights of caregivers for persons with severe mental illness related disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareesh Angothu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers for persons with disabilities are very important in the process of recovery and rehabilitation, irrespective of the cause of disability. Their services are equally important as of the health professionals. Often it is the caregivers who bear the major burden by assisting for daily needs of persons with disabilities apart from providing financial and social supports to their dependant persons with disabilities. In the process of caregiving they may have to forego their opportunities to attend work of their choice, to earn money, to progress in career, to spend satisfactory social life, and even to spend time leisurely. Yet, the informal caregiving process and the caregivers as a service provider, for persons with disabilities, have received less attention from civic societies and various state systems. However, change of paradigm of caregiving process as family responsibility to society′s collective responsibility and a stronger voice of caregiver associations has brought certain recent changes in this field. There are few governments who have recognized the importance of caregivers for their informal services and sacrifices and started providing benefits for them, thus caring for the caregivers. We review and discuss such policies and regulations which protect the rights of caregiver in this article.

  5. The preventive approach: OPCAT and the prevention of violence and abuse of persons with mental disabilities by monitoring places of detention.

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    Sveaass, Nora; Madrigal-Borloz, Victor

    Adopted in December 2002, the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment establishes a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The article explores how this collaboration between national and international bodies, with independent mandates to carry out such unannounced visits, represents an important effort in the process of protecting persons with mental disabilities who are detained and who are particularly exposed to exploitation and other forms of serious human rights violations, contrary to Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental health and inequity: a human rights approach to inequality, discrimination, and mental disability.

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    Burns, Jonathan Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency

  7. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

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    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  8. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  9. Social support of mentally retarded persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.

  10. Siblings, Parents and Professionals Working Together to Advance Knowledge and Service. Proceedings of the Annual National Seminar Dealing with Siblings of Mentally Retarded and Developmentally Disabled Persons. (2nd, New York, New York, June 11-12, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Meyer S., Ed.

    Eleven papers from a June, 1984, seminar on siblings of mentally retarded and developmentally disabled persons are presented. The following papers are included: "An Adult Sibling Network: A Sharing of Experiences" (B. Cohen); "Siblings as Change Agents for Their Brothers and Sisters: Opportunity or Problem?" (G. Wolpert); "Adult Siblings: The…

  11. Is the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Impacting Mental Health Laws and Policies in High-Income Countries? A Case Study of Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali

    2016-11-11

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further

  12. Reproductive rights of mentally retarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinić, Sanja; Sendula-Jengić, Vesna; Sendula-Pavelić, Martina; Zudenigo, Slaven

    2012-03-01

    Mental retardation denotes sub-average intellectual functioning, based on IQ, i.e. the inability of normal learning, accompanied by behavioral and developmental disorders. Persons with impairments (cognitive, motor, sensory or psychiatric) have often been, both through human history and today victims of discrimination and deprived of their basic human rights, both in the public and the private life spheres. Since the end of the 20th century, throughout the developed world, many disabled persons can accomplish their dreams and rights. However, the issue of sexuality is still an obstacle in realizing oneself as a whole person, of course in accordance with personal psychophysical abilities. The greatest problem is present in persons with severe disablement, considered not apt enough for information on sexuality and for expressing themselves as persons with their own sexual needs. Thus it is desirable to observe each disabled person individually and flexibly enough in order to establish parameters for the functioning of an intimate affair on the level of understanding and assent. The legal system must protect the most vulnerable and ensure for them the right of choice and consent, as well as the possibility of fulfilling their sexual needs, so that they could love and be loved. Naturally, the system must be built on foundations that satisfy the needs of its users, but also of persons engaged in work with them. Sex education should contain information regarding biological, socio-cultural and spiritual dimensions of sexuality, including cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. Unfortunately, very few educational programs with such aims provide sex education, not only for the disabled young population but also for the healthy. This review article is based on international investigations and Croatian legislative postulates. Its aim is to focus the attention of both professionals and non-professionals on this delicate problem.

  13. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; de Schipper, J.C.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Kef, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities

  14. Interaction Model of Mental Disability (IMMD) based on ICIDH

    OpenAIRE

    YAMANE, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    I propose an "Interaction Model of Mental Disability (IMMD)". Several models based on ICIDH are being proposed and tested around the world focusing on different aspects of disability. Though ICIDH is an inclusive model in health services, social security, insurance, education, and so on, the remarkable point of IMMD is to visualize the mutual relation of mental disability (impairment, disability and handicap) and other factors (environmental factors, personal factors). IMMD is a practical reh...

  15. THE IMPACTS OF MENTAL DISABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Results revealed that there is an increasing impact of mental disability on the mentally challenged individuals in the Nigerian context, given the influences on their socio-economic context, poor educational attainment, limited social interaction and inability to maintain appropriate parenting role. Also revealed is the need for ...

  16. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; de Schipper, Johanna Clasien; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities face in mental health and social participation. Research on attachment and intellectual disabilities is reviewed on its importance for knowledge, assessment and intervention. Progress was found in understanding and distinguishing attachment behaviours, attachment relationships, attachment representations, attachment styles and attachment disorders and their respective implications for assessment and intervention. Of the various attachment-related concepts, insights into attachment behaviours and relationships showed the most promise for practical applications in the field of intellectual disabilities. Findings on representations, styles and disorders were inconclusive or preliminary. Attachment-informed research and practice can be part of emerging developmental understanding of functioning with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Li-Li; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2017-06-20

    Mental disorders are strongly associated with disabilities. National survey on disability could provide a reliable basis for policymaking in care and rehabilitation of disabled persons. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence rates attributed to mental disorders, their distribution by sociodemographic factors, and utilizations of service. This study is a secondary data analysis of the Second National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006. The disability and severity were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Mental disorders were diagnosed according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Using descriptive and analytic epidemiological methods, prevalence rates of disability attributed to mental disorders and service use were calculated. Data of 2,526,145 respondents were analyzed. The disability prevalence rate attributed to mental disorders in China was 6.3‰, accounting for 9.9% of all disabled people. Regarding disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders, it showed that gender, residential area, marital status, education level, and economic area were related to the prevalence distributions. The proportions of mild disability were highest in the disabled people with onset age of 18-64 years, while the proportion of extremely severe disability was highest in the disabled people with onset age of 65 years and above. Only 58.6% of disabled people attributed to mental disorders used some of the services. There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  18. ["Target groups 1-3" must be granted priority access to health care services. Health care needs of somatically and mentally disabled persons in Robetsfors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, G; Westman, G

    2001-09-19

    People with serious functional disabilities do not always call attention to their needs for care, and are therefore a vulnerable group in our society. In Sweden, The Act Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS) is intended to provide for them. Our research found that people with serious physical or psychiatric disability suffer more often from intercurrent disease and have more problems with their eyesight, hearing and dental health than do other individuals. The responsibility for their respective health care needs must be clarified, so that the group is given priority access to the health care system and services for rehabilitation.

  19. Prognostic factors of long term disability due to mental disorders : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    Introduction In the past few decades, mental health problems have increasingly contributed to sickness absence and long-term disability. However, little is known about prognostic factors of return to work (RTW) and disability of persons already on sick leave due to mental health problems.

  20. A comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence, comorbidity and disability: an analysis of the Ukrainian Internally Displaced Person's Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hyland, P; Vallières, F; Bisson, J; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Shpiker, M; Roberts, B

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization (ICD-11) have both revised their formulation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The primary aim of this study was to compare DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence and comorbidity rates, as well as the level of disability associated with each diagnosis. This study was based on a representative sample of adult Ukrainian internally displaced persons (IDPs: N = 2203). Post-traumatic stress disorder prevalence was assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the International Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-11). Anxiety and depression were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD (27.4%) was significantly higher than ICD-11 PTSD (21.0%), and PTSD rates for females were significantly higher using both criteria. ICD-11 PTSD was associated with significantly higher levels of disability and comorbidity. The ICD-11 diagnosis of PTSD appears to be particularly well suited to identifying those with clinically relevant levels of disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ASPECTS OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF MENTALLY DISABLED PEOPLE THROUGH SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Dan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practiced in educational institutions but also in leisure, sport became a profession requiring not only active involvement but also participation to the show offered by him, thus having a large social area. Purpose. Emphasizing the importance of sport as a primary approach of social integration for people with mental disabilities. Methods. We analyzed the specialized literature using bibliographic study and we identified a total of 23 references from which we selected a number of 12 bibliographic materials that were representative to bring an additional argument to the importance of sport as a primary approach of social integration of persons with mental disabilities. In terms of form documents were consulted books and journals, various graphic and electronic information sources (internet. Results. Bibliographic references cited support the idea of the importance of social integration of people with mental disabilities through sports and they are addressing different aspects that together provide an overview of the complexity of this process, emphasizing the necessity to develop the right environment, both in terms of material and human resources, to achieve this goal in optimal conditions. Discussions. Scientific research results and practical experience have shown the importance of exercise practice in general, and sport, especially for people with disabilities, which leads to the idea that the state, society must give more importance to the role of sport in his social policy and strategy regarding the protection of persons with disabilities.

  2. Rights, laws and tensions: A comparative analysis of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the WHO Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Richard M; Kelly, Brendan D

    Good mental health legislation is essential for ensuring high quality mental health care and protecting human rights. Many countries are attempting to bring mental health legislation in line with the UN - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (UN-CRPD). The UN-CRPD requires policy-makers to rethink the 'medical model' of mental illness and existing laws. It also challenges WHO guidelines on drafting mental health law, described in the WHO Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (WHO-RB). This study examines the relationship between the UN-CRPD and the WHO-RB. It compares the documents, highlighting similarities and identifying areas of disagreement. The WHO-RB contains a checklist of human rights standards it recommends are met at national level. This study analyses each component on this checklist and identifies the relevant sections in the UN-CRPD that pertain to each. Both the UN-CRPD and WHO-RB address more than just acute exacerbations of illness, providing guidelines on, inter alia, treatment, education, occupation and housing. They are patient-centred and strongly influenced by social rights. The UN-CRPD, however, gives just superficial consideration to the management of acute illness, forensic and risk issues, and does little to identify the role of family and carers. The UN-CRPD has evolved from disability research and strong advocacy organisations. Careful consideration is needed to enable it to address the specific needs encountered in mental illness. Both the UN-CRPD and WHO-RB highlight common tensions that must be resolved by clinicians, and provide some guidance for stakeholders who commonly need to observe one principle at the expense of another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality disorders are important risk factors for disability pensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, Kristian Amundsen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Gjerde, Line C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk of disability pensioning in young adults, independent of other common mental disorders. 2,770 young adults from the general population were assessed for PDs by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, and for common mental disorders by the Composite of International Diagnostic Interview. These data were linked to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration's recordings of disability benefits for a 10-year period. Logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between PDs and disability pensioning. The analyses were conducted for three types of PD measures: categorical diagnoses (any PD), dimensional scores of individual PDs and higher order components retrieved by principal component analyses. Having any PD was strongly associated with disability pensioning, regardless of disability diagnosis. The estimated odds ratio (OR) was substantially higher for PDs [OR 4.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-8.5)] than for mood disorders [OR 1.3 (CI 0.7-2.3)] and anxiety disorders [OR 2.3 (CI 1.3-4.3)]. Measured dimensionally, all PD traits except antisocial traits were significantly associated with disability pensioning. After adjusting for co-occurring traits of other PDs, only schizoid, dependent and borderline PD traits showed a significant positive association with disability pension, while antisocial traits showed a significant negative association. The principal component analyses showed that negative affectivity, psychoticism, and detachment was associated with an increased risk of disability pensioning, while antagonism/disinhibition and obsessivity were not. PDs are strongly associated with disability pensioning in young adults, and might be more important predictors of work disability than anxiety and depressive disorders. Certain aspects of pathologic personalities are particularly important predictors of disability.

  4. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  5. Physical-recreational activities and persons with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potić Srećko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational activities represent individual or organized group activities chosen by free will, which help individuals to maintain good health, physical and working condition. In addition to the required physical segment, recreation also includes mental component which refers to strengthening of the will and determination, acquisition and development of self-control. With physical and mental aspect of recreational activities, many authors especially emphasize the importance of socio-psychological component of recreation. The aim of this paper is to review the so far published scientific and professional works in which the problem of recreational activities of persons with cerebral palsy, sight impairment, intellectual disability and autism is discussed, by studying the available literature. During the research we used the electronic data base of Serbian Library Consortium for Coordinated Acquisition, Google Scholar, as well as published material available in print. The participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities in the community is determined by the individual characteristics of the person, but with the community factors as well. The results of many studies show that persons with disabilities participate less in leisure and physical recreational activities and that is largely related to the level of social integration of these persons. Taking into account the fact that the participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities largely correlates with the quality of life of these persons, it is necessary to increase the number of recreational services that the community offers, as well as to specialise, modify and adapt some of them in relation to the needs of these persons. Also, it is recommended that as an integral part of all therapeutic approaches to persons with disability, the training of these persons for the appropriate use of their leisure time be included.

  6. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  7. Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danser, Helen Lisanby

    The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

  8. The association between contact and Intellectual Disability and Mental Health literacy and stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the association between personal contact with people with intellectual disabilities and schizophrenia and literacy and stigma of the lay public. Contact is seen as a key route to tackling stigma, however the research in intellectual disabilities and mental health is limited by many previous studies assessing contact as present or absent only. Part one is a literature review examining the relationship between personal contact with people with intellectual disabilities and ...

  9. [Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems were initially discussed from the perspective of personal liberty. However, the autonomy of persons with mental health problems has been growing in importance as an issue of involuntary placement and treatment since the last part of the twentieth century, because the purpose of involuntary placement is not the deprivation of liberty but to provide adequate treatment under medical supervision. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adds a new perspective from non-discrimination and equality. Article 14 of CRPD states that "the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty." This provision should be construed from a perspective of non-discrimination. Conventional types of involuntary placement mainly based on dangerousness (UN-MI Principle 16-1a) and incompetency (UN-MI Principle16-1b) are not allowed by Article 14. There is a discussion on the difference between "mental disability" and "mental illness". Some people argue that CRPD should apply not to persons with mental illness, but to those with mental disabilities. However, CRPD does not provide a definition of "disability". It states that its definition is developing. ICF also mentions that ICD-10 and ICF should complement each other. Thus, CRPD should apply to the involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental illness as well. It is clear that Article 14 intends to change the situation whereby persons who have been described using various terms, such as madness, lunacy, insanity, mental illness, mental disability, mental health problems, and users, are involuntarily hospitalized/placed. The significance of Article 14 will be lost if it cannot be applied to psychiatric hospitalization. From the perspective of non-discrimination, we have to universalize involuntary placement and treatment or completely abolish them. We cannot tolerate a situation where a type of

  10. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraharisetti, Ramya; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-07

    Over twenty million persons with disability in India are increasingly being offered poverty alleviation strategies, including employment programs. This study employs a spatial analytic approach to identify correlates of employment among persons with disability in India, considering sight, speech, hearing, movement, and mental disabilities. Based on 2001 Census data, this study utilizes linear regression and spatial autoregressive models to identify factors associated with the proportion employed among persons with disability at the district level. Models stratified by rural and urban areas were also considered. Spatial autoregressive models revealed that different factors contribute to employment of persons with disability in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, having mental disability decreased the likelihood of employment, while being female and having movement, or sight impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. In urban areas, being female and illiterate decreased the likelihood of employment but having sight, mental and movement impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. Poverty alleviation programs designed for persons with disability in India should account for differences in employment by disability types and should be spatially targeted. Since persons with disability in rural and urban areas have different factors contributing to their employment, it is vital that government and service-planning organizations account for these differences when creating programs aimed at livelihood development.

  11. The Validity of a Personality Disorder Diagnosis for People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Jessica; Hendy, Steve; Brown, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has long been appreciated that people with intellectual disabilities experience mental health problems. Studies into the prevalence of personality disorder in the population of people with an intellectual disability indicate significant variations, which have no clear explanation. Method: Work on personality disorder and personality…

  12. Upper and Lower Limbs Disability and Personality Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)

  13. Teaching Persons with Disabilities to SCUBA Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Louis W.

    This booklet is designed to sensitize and inform the scuba diving instructor on appropriate attitudes and successful methods for teaching scuba diving to persons with physical disability. It addresses misconceptions about people with disabilities and the importance of effective two-way communication and mutual respect between instructors and…

  14. [Supporting the health of the disabled person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emilie

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, the French national agency for the assessment and quality of social and medical-social institutions and services (ANESM) issued recommendations concerningthe support of the health of disabled people. These guidelines underline that the training and support of professionals are necessary, as well as the participation of the disabled person in their care project.

  15. Employing Disabled Persons in Leisure Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, John W.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses a study that explored barriers to the employment of physically disabled persons in leisure services and the extent to which selected actions would increase the potential employment of these individuals. (JMK)

  16. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  17. High prevalence of early onset mental disorders among long-term disability claimants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M. R.; Brouwer, S.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To provide information on prevalence, comorbidity, age-of-onset and severity of mental disorders among persons claiming disability after long-term sickness absence. Method: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of Dutch disability claimants (n=346). Composite International Diagnostic

  18. High prevalence of early onset mental disorders among long-term disability claimants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M R; Brouwer, S; Groothoff, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide information on prevalence, comorbidity, age-of-onset and severity of mental disorders among persons claiming disability after long-term sickness absence. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of Dutch disability claimants (n = 346). Composite International Diagnostic

  19. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  1. Disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Petukhova, Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; Burger, Huibert; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hwang, Irving; Karam, Elie; Kawakami, Norito; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Williams, David R; Zhang, Mingyuan; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-05-01

    Advocates of expanded mental health treatment assert that mental disorders are as disabling as physical disorders, but little evidence supports this assertion. To establish the disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Community epidemiological surveys were administered in 15 countries through the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Respondents in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries attributed higher disability to mental disorders than to the commonly occurring physical disorders included in the surveys. This pattern held for all disorders and also for treated disorders. Disaggregation showed that the higher disability of mental than physical disorders was limited to disability in social and personal role functioning, whereas disability in productive role functioning was generally comparable for mental and physical disorders. Despite often higher disability, mental disorders are under-treated compared with physical disorders in both high-income and in low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  3. Availability and Accessibility of Treatment for Persons with Mental Illness Through a Community Mental Health Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravya Raghunandan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes experiences in implementing a community mental health and development project in a rural district in southern India, including the  position of persons with mental illness when the project was initiated, the challenges the faced and the strategies that were developed to overcome these challenges. The authors conclude that when  services are locally available, persons with mental illness can be treated and rehabilitated within their own community. They can live with dignity and their rights are respected. There is a great need for inclusion of persons with mental illness in the existing developmental activities and in disabled persons’ organizations.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.58

  4. No Magic Bullet: A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Markov Transition Probabilities in Studies of Service Systems for Persons With Mental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Hugh Stephen; Chow, Clifton M; Graves, Stephen C

    2017-03-01

    A random-effects meta-analysis of studies that used Markov transition probabilities (TPs) to describe outcomes for mental health service systems of differing quality for persons with serious mental illness was implemented to improve the scientific understanding of systems performance, to use in planning simulations to project service system costs and outcomes over time, and to test a theory of how outcomes for systems varying in quality differ. Nineteen systems described in 12 studies were coded as basic (B), maintenance (M), and recovery oriented (R) on the basis of descriptions of services provided. TPs for studies were aligned with a common functional-level framework, converted to a one-month time period, synthesized, and compared with theory-based expectations. Meta-regression was employed to explore associations between TPs and characteristics of service recipients and studies. R systems performed better than M and B systems. However, M systems did not perform better than B systems. All systems showed negative as well as positive TPs. For approximately one-third of synthesized TPs, substantial interstudy heterogeneity was noted. Associations were found between TPs and service recipient and study variables Conclusions: Conceptualizing systems as B, M, and R has potential for improving scientific understanding and systems planning. R systems appear more effective than B and M systems, although there is no "magic bullet" system for all service recipients. Interstudy heterogeneity indicates need for common approaches to reporting service recipient states, time periods for TPs, service recipient attributes, and service system characteristics. TPs found should be used in Markov simulations to project system effectiveness and costs of over time.

  5. Developing an Estimate of Supported Housing Needs for Persons with Serious Mental Illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Waegemakers Schiff, Jeannette; Schiff, Rebecca; Schneider, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A rich body of literature attests to the importance of affordable accommodation and support services necessary, appropriate, and acceptable to persons disabled by a mental illness. However, there is a little which provides a means for housing and service planners to determine the gap between available supportive housing and need. Such understandings are needed to prepare strategies and develop the resources needed to accommodate persons with a disabling mental illness in the community. While ...

  6. Mental health, social functioning, and disability in postwar Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Bilukha, Oleg O; Crawford, Carol A Gotway; Shaikh, Irshad; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Gerber, Michael L; Anderson, Mark

    2004-08-04

    More than 2 decades of conflict have led to widespread human suffering and population displacement in Afghanistan. In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other collaborating partners performed a national population-based mental health survey in Afghanistan. To provide national estimates of mental health status of the disabled (any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner considered normal for a human being) and nondisabled Afghan population aged at least 15 years. A national multistage, cluster, population-based mental health survey of 799 adult household members (699 nondisabled and 100 disabled respondents) aged 15 years or older conducted from July to September 2002. Fifty district-level clusters were selected based on probability proportional to size sampling. One village was randomly selected in each cluster and 15 households were randomly selected in each village, yielding 750 households. Demographics, social functioning as measured by selected questions from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, depressive symptoms measured by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25, trauma events and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and culture-specific symptoms of mental illness and coping mechanisms. A total of 407 respondents (62.0%) reported experiencing at least 4 trauma events during the previous 10 years. The most common trauma events experienced by the respondents were lack of food and water (56.1%) for nondisabled persons and lack of shelter (69.7%) for disabled persons. The prevalence of respondents with symptoms of depression was 67.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.6%-80.7%) and 71.7% (95% CI, 65.0%-78.4%), and symptoms of anxiety 72.2% (95% CI, 63.8%-80.7%) and 84.6% (95% CI, 74.1%-95.0%) for nondisabled and disabled respondents, respectively. The prevalence of symptoms of PTSD was similar for both groups (nondisabled, 42.1%; 95% CI

  7. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination ...

  8. Organising healthcare services for persons with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Robert; McMorris, Carly A; Lunsky, Yona; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Bourne, Laurie; Colantonio, Angela; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C

    2016-04-11

    When compared to the general population, persons with an intellectual disability have lower life expectancy, higher morbidity, and more difficulty finding and obtaining healthcare. Organisational interventions are used to reconfigure the structure or delivery of healthcare services. This is the first update of the original review. To assess the effects of organisational interventions of healthcare services for the mental and physical health problems of persons with an intellectual disability. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and other databases, from April 2006 to 4 September 2015. We checked reference lists of included studies and consulted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials of organisational interventions of healthcare services aimed at improving care of mental and physical health problems of adult persons with an intellectual disability. We employed standard methodological procedures as outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions, in addition to specific guidance from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group. We identified one new trial from the updated searches.Seven trials (347 participants) met the selection criteria. The interventions varied but had common components: interventions that increased the intensity and frequency of service delivery (4 trials, 200 participants), community-based specialist behaviour therapy (1 trial, 63 participants), and outreach treatment (1 trial, 50 participants). Another trial compared two active arms (traditional counselling and integrated intervention for bereavement, 34 participants).The included studies investigated interventions dealing with the mental health problems of persons with an intellectual disability; none focused on physical health problems. Four studies assessed the effect of organisational interventions on behavioural problems for persons with an intellectual disability, three assessed care giver burden, and

  9. PUBLIC POLICIES REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

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    Vlad Barbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze public policies regarding people with disabilities. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: children, and as they continue to become adults, in the short term, in order to diminish suicide attempts, they must be monitored so that the traceability of the integration of persons with disabilities can be determined from the moment of their institutionalization. In the long run, these people with disabilities will integrate and from sustained people will become supporters of social health, unemployment and pension insurance institutions, relevant to the change process.

  10. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL LAWS FOR THE PROTECTION AND REALIZATION OF RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

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    Sedžad Milanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulation of the persons with mental disabilities their support primarily finds in international legal acts of which provisions each state by their free determination incorporate into their regulations and coordinate them with the national legal norms. The persons with the mental disabilities are the persons with some degree of mental retardation who in greater or lesser extent are not able to independently take care of the realization and protection of their rights. Bosnia and Herzegovina, though it is a signatory of a great number of the international legal acts for the protection of the persons with mental disabilities, contrary to the international modern standards, has a very few institutes in which are placed in the aforementioned persons, in order to be treated, rehabilitated and engaged in the social life.

  11. Service development for intellectual disability mental health: a human rights approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E; Howlett, S; Kremser, T; Simpson, J; Kayess, R; Trollor, J

    2012-11-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) experience higher rates of major mental disorders than their non-ID peers, but in many countries have difficulty accessing appropriate mental health services. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of mental health services for people with ID using Australia as a case example, and critically appraise whether such services currently meet the standards set by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The literature regarding the current state of mental health services for people with ID was reviewed, with a particular focus on Australia. The review highlighted a number of issues to be addressed to meet the mental health needs of people with ID to ensure that their human rights are upheld like those of all other citizens. Many of the barriers to service provision encountered in Australia are likely also to be relevant to other nations, including the culture of division between disability and mental health services, the inadequate training of both disability and mental health workers in ID mental health, and the lack of relevant epidemiological data. None of these barriers are insurmountable. Recommendations are made for adopting a human rights-based approach towards the development and provision of mental health services for people with ID. These include improved policy with measurable outcomes, improved service access via clear referral pathways and the sharing of resources across disability and mental health services, and improved service delivery through training and education initiatives for both the mental health and disability workforce. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mental Health and Students with Disabilities: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Julie M.; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing mental health difficulties, but may not be recognised as an at-risk population in the design of school-based prevention and intervention efforts. Understanding the link between disability and mental health is important for school psychologists and guidance counsellors, teachers, and…

  13. Interagency Collaboration in Vocational Rehabilitation for Persons with Mental Health Problems: The Perspective of the Service Users and the Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Per; Hillborg, Helene; Danermark, Berth

    2011-01-01

    There is an aspiration and policy within the European Union to fully involve persons with disabilities in the community; this implies an opportunity to gainful employment. A large percentage of disabled persons remain unemployed despite this policy, especially persons with mental health problems. This study aims at investigating how people with…

  14. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Shang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  15. SEX EDUCATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

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    Olivera RASHIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available All children have a need to acquire knowledge about their own body and the way it functions. Also it is neccesary to learn the rules of the society they live in, understand what is accetable, and what is unaccetable behavior. Starting off previous experiences we supposed that in an insufficient measure and in an inadequate way have been provided the sex education in the frames of educational institutions and families of the persons with disabilities in the Republic of Macedonia. According to that the basic assignment of the paper, using the methods of structural, descriptive and comparative analysis and the questioners as instruments, was to give detail image of the factice situation.By the analysis of the 314 examinees, including control group, special educators and rehabilitators and parents, we determinate that the knowledge about sexual development, characteristics and sex relationships the examinees with disabilities at most acquire by the mediums and peers conversations.The got results pointed the fact that knowledge of this topic, which persons with disabilities have, is superficial and often unexplained, where to there is misunderstanding between the persons with disabilities.

  16. Underemployment and its impacts on mental health among those with disabilities: evidence from the HILDA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; King, Tania Louise; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Aitken, Zoe; Petrie, Dennis; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    Underemployment (defined as when a person in paid employment works for fewer hours than their desired full working capacity) is increasingly recognised as a component of employment precarity. This paper sought to investigate the effects of underemployment on the mental health of people with disabilities. Using 14 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, we used fixed-effects models to assess whether the presence of a disability modified the association between underemployment and mental health. Both disability and underemployment were assessed as time-varying factors. Measures of effect measure modification were presented on the additive scale. The experience of underemployment was associated with a significantly greater decline in mental health when a person reported a disability (mean difference -1.38, 95% CI -2.20 to -0.57) compared with when they did not report a disability (mean difference -0.49, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.14). The combined effect of being underemployed and having a disability was nearly one point greater than the summed independent risks of having a disability and being underemployed (-0.89, 95% CI -1.75 to -0.03). People with disabilities are more likely to experience underemployment and more likely to have their mental health adversely affected by it. There is a need for more research and policy attention on how to ameliorate the effects of underemployment on the mental health of persons with disabilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other person...

  18. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  19. Interface between Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: hermeneutic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjus, Luciana Togni de Lima e Silva; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko

    2014-01-01

    A literature review was conducted aiming to understand the interface between the Intellectual Disability and Mental Health fields and to contribute to mitigating the path of institutionalizing individuals with intellectual deficiencies. The so-called dual diagnosis phenomenon remains underestimated in Brazil but is the object of research and specific public policy internationally. This phenomenon alerts us to the prevalence of mental health problems in those with intellectual disabilities, limiting their social inclusion. The findings reinforce the importance of this theme and indicate possible diagnostic invisibility of the development of mental illness in those with intellectual disabilities in Brazil, which may contribute to sustaining psychiatric institutionalization of this population.  PMID:25119948

  20. Interface between intellectual disability and mental health: hermeneutic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjus, Luciana Togni de Lima e Silva; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko

    2014-06-01

    A literature review was conducted aiming to understand the interface between the Intellectual Disability and Mental Health fields and to contribute to mitigating the path of institutionalizing individuals with intellectual deficiencies. The so-called dual diagnosis phenomenon remains underestimated in Brazil but is the object of research and specific public policy internationally. This phenomenon alerts us to the prevalence of mental health problems in those with intellectual disabilities, limiting their social inclusion. The findings reinforce the importance of this theme and indicate possible diagnostic invisibility of the development of mental illness in those with intellectual disabilities in Brazil, which may contribute to sustaining psychiatric institutionalization of this population. 

  1. Assessment of prison life of persons with disability in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbe, Joslin; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Edusei, Anthony; Plange-Rhule, Gyikua; Addofoh, Nicholas; Baffour-Awuah, Sandra; Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Hammond, Charles; Owusu, Michael

    2016-08-08

    Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are a unique group that are often overlooked in many developing countries due to systemic weaknesses, lack of political commitment and inadequate support from government and non-governmental agencies. The population of these individuals is however steadily on the increase and currently corresponds to 15 % of the world population. Although much data exist on lifestyle and conditions of prisoners with disabilities in the western world, scanty information is available in Africa. In Ghana, there is insufficient data on the occurrence and social characteristics of prisoners with disabilities. The purpose of this current study was therefore to identify the occurrence, types and causes of disabilities among prisoners serving sentences in Ghanaian prisons. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in the Male and Female Regional Prisons in Kumasi, Sunyani and the Nsawam Medium Security Prison, from November to December 2011. PWDs were selected by prisons officers and interviewed using structured questionnaires on variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, causes of disabilities and accessibility to recreational facilities. Ethical approval was obtained from the security services and the Committee of Human Research Publications and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). We screened 6114 records of prisoners of which 1852 (30.3 %) were from the Kumasi Central Prisons, 3483 (57 %) from the Nsawam Medium Security and 779 (12.8 %) from the Sunyani Central Prisons. A total of 99 PWDs were identified with the commonest disability being physical, followed by visual, hearing, speech, mental and albinism. Most of the disabilities were caused by trauma (68.8 %) followed by infection (16.7 %), and drug related mental disabilities (6.3 %). Fifty (50.5 %) out of the 99 PWDs were not provided with assistive devices although they admitted the need

  2. Sterilization of mentally retarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, J V; Roux, J P

    1987-08-01

    South Africa's Abortion and Sterilization Act No 2 (1975) authorizes sterilization for severely retarded women provided the procedure is performed in a state hospital, certified by 2 medical practitioners (1 a psychiatrist), and the parent or guardian gives informed consent. Since 1975, 152 sterilizations (140 female, 12 male) have been performed under the provisions of this Act at Pretoria's H F Verwoerd Hospital. 92% of the patients were under 20 years of age. The majority were classified as profoundly or severely retarded (74) or moderately severely retarded (68). There were 20 patients with Down's syndrome and 22 with cerebral palsy. Hysterectomy was the method of choice in the 109 women in whom menstrual hygiene was a pertinent factor; the remaining 31 women were sterilized by tubal ligation. 98% of the parents or guardians of hysterectomy acceptors surveyed were satisfied with their decision and its outcome. Several indicated their daughter was more calm, cooperative, productive, and less irritable once relieved of her menstrual periods. A multidisciplinary team approach to the decision making process and the individualization of each case are essential to protect the rights of the mentally retarded. Factors such as the psychological trauma likely to result from pregnancy and childbirth, an inability to use contraception, and unsuitability to rear a child must be demonstrated. To ensure that legislation pertaining to the sterilization of the mentally retarded does not lead to abuse, inputs from the mental health professions are required.

  3. Impact of UNCRPD on the status of persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Smitha

    2011-01-01

    The sanctity of human life is a fundamental human value and the medical profession has been ethically charged with respecting and enhancing the value of all human beings' lives. However, disability-selective abortion has been perceived as an acceptable health intervention to eliminate disabilities, and is provided for in law as well as in policies and healthcare programmes related to disability. Advanced medical technologies are being utilised not to maximise the lives of persons with disabilities but to prevent the birth of disabled people by medically terminating foetuses diagnosed with disability. Evidently, disability is seen as undesirable per se by society, and life with disability as not worth living. The disability rights perspective argues that such laws, policies and programmes deny persons with disabilities the right to life and thereby discriminate against them. They violate the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities that recognises the inherent human dignity of all human beings and treats persons with disabilities on an equal basis with all other human beings. This paper examines the question of whether disability-selective abortion as a prevention strategy diminishes the value of persons with disabilities, in the context of the right to life and dignity of life accorded by the UNCRPD to persons with disabilities. This is discussed in the context of a selected summary of international and Indian policy and law on this subject.

  4. Co-occurring mental illness, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder among clients of forensic mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Stigmatising of persons with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.......Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...

  6. Heart age differentials and general cardiovascular risk profiles for persons with varying disabilities: NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David W; Lewis, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are at risk for secondary conditions, including allostatic load contributing to cardiovascular disease. The General Cardiovascular Risk Profile (GCRP) estimates cardiovascular disease risk for individuals. The GCRP variables are present in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the Healthy People 2010 decade. The objective of this study was to compare persons with varying disabilities versus persons without disabilities on GCRP cardiovascular disease risk estimates across the Healthy People 2010 decade. Weighted cross-sectional one-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analyses compared persons with each of eight disability types versus persons without disabilities for point estimate GCRP heart vascular age differential and Cox regression model ten-year risk estimate in each NHANES survey year for 2001-2010. Persons with mobility or vision disabilities had significantly (p disabilities. The GCRP dual models conflict for certain disabilities (e.g., hearing, physical/mental/emotional) but are consistently reliable measures of GCRP for persons with mobility limitations and vision disabilities. With higher CVD risk among persons with disabilities, there is a clear need for increased interventions to benefit the health of persons with disabilities. The GCRP represents a valuable, simple measurement that uses routinely collected examination data. Physicians and nurses can use the GCRP to make immediate CVD assessments and to provide point-of-contact counseling to patients with and without disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stigmatising of persons with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark....

  8. Effects of homelessness on the quality of life of persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, A F; Kernan, E; DeForge, B R; Dixon, L

    1995-09-01

    This study assessed the relationship between homelessness and specific quality-of-life problems for persons with severe and persistent mental illness. The objective and subjective quality of life of 106 homeless persons with severe mental illness who lived on the streets or in shelters in Baltimore was compared with that of 146 domiciled persons with severe mental illness who lived in the community. Objective and subjective quality of life of the homeless subjects was clearly worse than that of the domiciled group in the areas of living situation, family and social relations, employment, daily activities, and legal and safety problems. Homeless subjects were also less likely to have federal disability entitlements. Poorer quality of life is associated with homelessness among persons with severe mental illness. Their quality of life may be improved by efforts to increase their access to disability entitlements and treatment services and to help them develop supportive social networks.

  9. Implicit Association Tests of Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adrian; Vaughn, Edwin D.; Doyle, Andrea; Bubb, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed 3 of the currently available implicit association tests designed to measure attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The Revised Multiple Disability Implicit Association Test, the Implicit Association Test for Attitudes Toward Athletes With Disabilities, and the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test were related to…

  10. Promoting Equality and Non-Discrimination for Persons with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Broderick, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities is an important facilitator of participation and inclusion in society. Both the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the Council of Europe Disability Strategy 2017-2023 address equality and

  11. STRUCTURE OF BODY DEFORMATIES AMONG PERSONS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess body structure deformities among people with mental retardation.Knowing the structure of people with mental retardation’s physical deformities is the starting basis of a quality program for preventive and corrective work. Also, it is a starting point in the process of special education and rehabilitation in regards to their removal and mitigation.The structure of the physical deformities among persons with mental retardation were analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to everyday life activities.The inquiry covered 170 respondents with mental retardation in both sexes. All respondents were placed in an institution for treatment of persons with severe and profound mental retardation (Special Institute Deep River. On the basis of two criteria, participants are divided into groups. The first criterion forestablishing a group of level of mental retardation: Group I - severe mental retardation (TMR and Group II - profound mental retardation (DMR. A second criterion for establishing the age group of respondents: Group I - age 18 years; Group II- Age 19 - 30 years and Group III - over 31 years. The structure of the physical deformities was analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to activities in everyday life.For the purposes of the planned research , an integral protocol is established for the evaluation of physical deformities among persons with disabilities, including: an application form for general information about the respondents, a questionnaire to assess somatic status, and a clinical sheet and test activities in everyday life (Test ASZH, Rusk, 1971. All data obtained by the research are expressed quantitatively and treated with the following statistical methods and procedures: number of repetitions, frequency and percentages, measure of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation, χ2 and Fisher Exact - test

  12. Volunteerism among homeless persons with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Larry G; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Gardiner, Giovanina

    2010-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities have been historically excluded from mainstream society. Using the strength-based perspective, volunteerism was explored among homeless persons with self-reported developmental disabilities. It was hypothesized that volunteerism would be associated with indicators of healthy community integration. This would include volunteerism associated with unemployment due to disposable time and desire to gain job-related skills. Nearly half volunteered (n = 29), were older, visited friends or family monthly, and reported employment status that was associated with volunteerism. Logistic regression indicated that visiting with friends or family monthly increased volunteering, but unemployment decreased volunteering. Volunteerism might be a way "to give back" to agencies assisting them. Similarly, visiting family or friends suggests maintenance of social and community ties, suggesting healthy community integration.

  13. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  14. The impacts of mental disability: implications for social work practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore the impacts of mental disability and the social work intervention measures in response to the phenomenon. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of this study consisted of all family members - male and female - of patients with mental disorders ...

  15. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health: a challenge for psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  16. United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilities: a roadmap for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2012-09-01

    This study considers the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as a tool for promoting the full social inclusion of people with a mental or intellectual disability. The United Nations Convention has ushered in a new era of discourse that moves beyond a consideration of individual impairments, to focus on the social and environmental barriers that prevent full and effective social participation of people with disabilities. It provides an important social justice framework to guide and integrate disability policy within and across countries. In order to realize its potential, the mental health community must now actively develop a new disability discourse - one that moves beyond the traditional focus on negative protections, such as against forced confinement or coercive treatment, to one that examines the services and supports that are needed to allow people who have a mental illness to become fully functioning members of society. To meet the monitoring requirements of the Convention, the mental health community must actively seek population data to assess the nature of prejudice and discrimination experienced by people with a mental illness. An approach used by Statistics Canada is provided as one such example. The United Nations Convention is an important roadmap for change, which can be used to shift current mental health discourse from a discussion emphasizing the protection of negative rights, such as from involuntary detention or coerced treatment, to one emphasizing social rights and civic participation.

  17. Disability and common mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ana; Frasquilho, Diana; Azeredo-Lopes, Sofia; Neto, Daniel; Silva, Manuela; Cardoso, Graça; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Common mental disorders are highly prevalent and disabling, leading to substantial individual and societal costs. This study aims to characterize the association between disability and common mental disorders in Portugal, using epidemiological data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Twelve-month common mental disorders were assessed with the CIDI 3.0. Disability was evaluated with the modified WMHS WHODAS-II. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between disability and each disorder or diagnostic category (mood or anxiety disorders). Among people with a common mental disorder, 14.6% reported disability. The specific diagnoses significantly associated with disability were post-traumatic stress disorder (OR: 6.69; 95% CI: 3.20, 14.01), major depressive disorder (OR: 3.49; 95% CI: 2.13, 5.72), bipolar disorder (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04, 11.12) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.90). Both categories of anxiety and mood disorders were significantly associated with disability (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.86 and OR: 3.94; 95% CI: 2.45, 6.34 respectively). The results of this study add to the current knowledge in this area by assessing the disability associated with common mental disorders using a multi-dimensional instrument, which may contribute to mental health policy efforts in the development of interventions to reduce the burden of disability associated with common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Can We Reduce Our Implicit Prejudice toward Persons with Disability? The Challenge of Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Rohmer, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The present research further extends recent data revealing implicit attitude towards persons with disability, with the aim to explore if meditation practice can reduce automatic mental processes initiating prejudice. Forty adult experienced meditators and 34 meditation-naïve individuals performed an evaluative priming task. None of them presented…

  19. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    School of Education,. College of Education,. Ekiadolor Benin. Abstract. The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... inclusion of intellectual disabled in their educational system will make the ... synonym for people with significantly below average cognitive ability.

  20. [Mentalization based treatment and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F

    2017-08-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the

  1. Changing Attitudes of Disabled Persons through Outdoor Adventure Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Iva Dene; Chesteen, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of physically disabled adults toward work and employment and the effects of an outdoor adventure program on reducing attitudinal barriers of able-bodied individuals in hiring and working with disabled persons. Joint wilderness trips involving both groups resulted in improved attitudes by both disabled and…

  2. Identifying the Key Concerns of Irish Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. Aims: This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in…

  3. Foundations for Emotional Intervention with Siblings of the Mentally Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Concha; Ibarrola-Garcia, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is very important to attend to the emotional experience of disabled persons' siblings. Instead of ignoring, minimizing or exaggerating their psychosocial needs, this article promotes thoughtful consideration of the wide range of emotional aspects--both positive and negative--that arise from having a disabled brother or sister.…

  4. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and ...

  5. Relationship between personality and disability in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Medine Yazici; Hocaoğlu, Ciçek

    2011-01-01

    The co-morbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD ) with personality disorders (PDs) in patients with long-standing work disability at a psychiatry clinic was investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate personality for contributing to disability in patients with MDD and to investigate the relationship with these two psychometric characters in patients with MDD. Seventy-two patients with a MDD and 72 healthy controls were assessed by means of both clinician and self-rating scales for depression, anxiety, disability, and the SCID-II personality inventory. There was no difference between the personality parameters of the groups regarding schizotypal and antisocial PDs. Avoidant personality was found to be less common in the patient group (p=0.030). Dependent (p less than 0.001), obsessive (p=0.003), passive-aggressive (p=0.025), self-defeating (p less than 0.001), paranoid (p less than 0.001), schizoid (p=0.012), histrionic (p=0.001), narcissistic (p less than 0.001), and borderline (p less than 0.001) PDs in patients were more common than in controls. On the disability sub-scales, physical role limitation, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health were significantly lower in patient group than normal control group. While Cluster A was not related to any disability subscale, Cluster B had a positive correlation with vitality and mental health, whereas Cluster C and Cluster NOS had a negative correlation with emotional role limitation. Only the emotional role limitation predicts the presence of depression, whereas only self-defeating, obsessive, paranoid, and passive aggressive personality predict the emotional role limitation. Patients with MDD have personality and disability problems. PDs in depression contribute to disability. Our results demonstrated that the emotional role limitation is the unique sub-scale that predicts the MDD group.

  6. Developing an Estimate of Supported Housing Needs for Persons with Serious Mental Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Waegemakers Schiff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rich body of literature attests to the importance of affordable accommodation and support services necessary, appropriate, and acceptable to persons disabled by a mental illness. However, there is a little which provides a means for housing and service planners to determine the gap between available supportive housing and need. Such understandings are needed to prepare strategies and develop the resources needed to accommodate persons with a disabling mental illness in the community. While housing studies that examine shelter needs of the homeless acknowledge that a sizable proportion has a disabling mental illness, these numbers underestimate need in the cohort that experiences disabling mental illnesses. This underestimate exists because many of those who are disabled by mental illness and in need of supportive housing are among the hidden homeless: doubled-up, couch-surfing, and temporarily sheltered by friends and family. Thus, little is known about the size of this cohort or their supportive shelter needs. The present analysis examines two approaches and offers one methodology as most feasible and parsimonious which can approximate housing need and may be extrapolated to other urban locations.

  7. Clinical psychology and disability studies: bridging the disciplinary divide on mental health and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Thomas, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Clinical psychology and disability studies have traditionally occupied very different academic, philosophical and political spaces. However, this paper aims to illustrate the positive consequences and implications of attempts to understand and bridge this disciplinary divide. A narrative review format was used with evidence selected pragmatically as opposed to systematically. The construction of the argument determined the evidence selected. The concept of psycho-emotional disablism, which originated within disability studies, is argued to be a useful concept to bridge the divide between understandings of distress from both disability studies and clinical psychology perspectives. However, this can be usefully augmented by psychological research on the mechanisms through which disablism can affect individuals. Perspectives from both disability studies and clinical psychology can be usefully combined to bring important new perspectives; combined, these perspectives should help - on theoretical, service and social levels - to improve the mental health of disabled people. Implications for Rehabilitation Mental health is an important determinant of overall health-related quality of life and psychological therapy should be available for those disabled people who would value it. Psychological therapists working with disabled people should be more aware of the challenging social context in which disabled people live. Understandings of distress should not just include individual factors but also incorporate the psychological impact of stresses caused by societal barriers preventing inclusion. Psychologists should be more willing to work and engage at a societal and political level to influence change.

  8. Religion, culture, and discrimination against persons with disabilities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Etieyibo

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Given the unfairness and wrongness of these practices they ought to be deplored. Moreover, the Nigerian government needs to push through legislation that targets cultural and religious practices which are discriminatory against persons with disabilities as well as undertake effective and appropriate measures aimed at protecting and advancing the interests of persons with disabilities.

  9. Disability and Borderline Personality Disorder in Chronic Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy A Sansone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the relationship between disability and borderline personality symptomatology, and, among those that have, findings have been inconsistent. In the present study, the relationship between medical disability and borderline personality symptomatology was examined in a sample of chronic pain patients.

  10. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  11. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Minh Thuy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having a child with a disability is a heavy burden for mothers, especially in developing countries, where there is little available financial or other government support. Having a child with a disability is also linked to mental health problems and poor quality of life. Communities rich in social capital and individuals who have high levels of personal social capital generally enjoy day-to-day and long-term health and social benefits but this has not been investigated in Vietnam among mothers of children with disabilities. This study aims to investigate these mothers’ distress in terms of their social capital. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on an interviewer-assisted survey included 172 mothers of children with moderate/severe disabilities in two provinces of Vietnam (one in the North and one in central Vietnam, using a newly translated and modified version of the Australian community participation questionnaire, several measures of personal social cohesion, and Kessler's 10-item measure of general psychological distress. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, multiple components of structural and cognitive social capita, and mothers’ distress controlling for a wide range of socio-demographic characteristics, the nature of the child's disability, and mothers’ personality (extroversion. Results: Mothers in this study were highly and multiply disadvantaged, and they had very high levels of distress and low levels of community participation. Furthermore, most forms of participation were associated with greater, not less, distress. Socio-demographic characteristics, child's disability, and mothers’ personality did little to explain variance in mothers’ distress, but types and amounts of participation were important predictors. The final regression model explained 29% of variance in distress, with major contributions made by living in a mountainous

  12. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Berry, Helen L

    2013-02-11

    Having a child with a disability is a heavy burden for mothers, especially in developing countries, where there is little available financial or other government support. Having a child with a disability is also linked to mental health problems and poor quality of life. Communities rich in social capital and individuals who have high levels of personal social capital generally enjoy day-to-day and long-term health and social benefits but this has not been investigated in Vietnam among mothers of children with disabilities. This study aims to investigate these mothers' distress in terms of their social capital. A cross-sectional study based on an interviewer-assisted survey included 172 mothers of children with moderate/severe disabilities in two provinces of Vietnam (one in the North and one in central Vietnam), using a newly translated and modified version of the Australian community participation questionnaire, several measures of personal social cohesion, and Kessler's 10-item measure of general psychological distress. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, multiple components of structural and cognitive social capita, and mothers' distress controlling for a wide range of socio-demographic characteristics, the nature of the child's disability, and mothers' personality (extroversion). Mothers in this study were highly and multiply disadvantaged, and they had very high levels of distress and low levels of community participation. Furthermore, most forms of participation were associated with greater, not less, distress. Socio-demographic characteristics, child's disability, and mothers' personality did little to explain variance in mothers' distress, but types and amounts of participation were important predictors. The final regression model explained 29% of variance in distress, with major contributions made by living in a mountainous area, having a 'reserved' personality, and frequency and

  13. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Berry, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Having a child with a disability is a heavy burden for mothers, especially in developing countries, where there is little available financial or other government support. Having a child with a disability is also linked to mental health problems and poor quality of life. Communities rich in social capital and individuals who have high levels of personal social capital generally enjoy day-to-day and long-term health and social benefits but this has not been investigated in Vietnam among mothers of children with disabilities. This study aims to investigate these mothers’ distress in terms of their social capital. Methods A cross-sectional study based on an interviewer-assisted survey included 172 mothers of children with moderate/severe disabilities in two provinces of Vietnam (one in the North and one in central Vietnam), using a newly translated and modified version of the Australian community participation questionnaire, several measures of personal social cohesion, and Kessler's 10-item measure of general psychological distress. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, multiple components of structural and cognitive social capita, and mothers’ distress controlling for a wide range of socio-demographic characteristics, the nature of the child's disability, and mothers’ personality (extroversion). Results Mothers in this study were highly and multiply disadvantaged, and they had very high levels of distress and low levels of community participation. Furthermore, most forms of participation were associated with greater, not less, distress. Socio-demographic characteristics, child's disability, and mothers’ personality did little to explain variance in mothers’ distress, but types and amounts of participation were important predictors. The final regression model explained 29% of variance in distress, with major contributions made by living in a mountainous area, having a

  14. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  15. The rights of persons with disability bill, 2014: Implications for neurological disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Gupta, Anupam; Yadav, Ravi; Shukla, Dhaval

    2016-10-01

    India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2007. This is a welcome step toward realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers, which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to make suitable changes in the existing laws of the country, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers, and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill (RPWD Bill), 2014. It is evident that neurological disorders are emerging as priority health problems worldwide. They not only contribute to mortality but also contribute to huge morbidity. Further, shortage of neurologists, huge treatment gap, and stigma add to the burden. The situation becomes worse with regard to providing quality care, comprehensive rehabilitation, and social welfare measures to persons with neurological disability. There is no doubt that persons with neurological disability do not get adequate representation, stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. Hence, this article is a critique of the RPWD Bill, 2014 from the perspective of persons with neurological and neurosurgical disability. Further, this article also discusses challenges in quantifying and certifying disability in neurological disability.

  16. The rights of persons with disability bill, 2014: Implications for neurological disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Bada Math

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD in 2007. This is a welcome step toward realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers, which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to make suitable changes in the existing laws of the country, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers, and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill (RPWD Bill, 2014. It is evident that neurological disorders are emerging as priority health problems worldwide. They not only contribute to mortality but also contribute to huge morbidity. Further, shortage of neurologists, huge treatment gap, and stigma add to the burden. The situation becomes worse with regard to providing quality care, comprehensive rehabilitation, and social welfare measures to persons with neurological disability. There is no doubt that persons with neurological disability do not get adequate representation, stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. Hence, this article is a critique of the RPWD Bill, 2014 from the perspective of persons with neurological and neurosurgical disability. Further, this article also discusses challenges in quantifying and certifying disability in neurological disability.

  17. THE PSYCHOMOTOR CAPACITY OF STUDENTS WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES AGED 11

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea VOINEA

    2014-01-01

    The proposed experiment is based on the hypothesis that the development level of psychomotor capacity of students with mental disability is, in the absence of a psychomotor educational program, below that of their biological age. We evaluated the psychomotor ability by using Guillmain Ozeretsky and Piaget-Head tests,in order to validate the hypothesis and to obtain the psychomotor diagnosis of the students with mental deficiencies. I found by descriptive statistical methods that the research ...

  18. Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    While the prevalence of mental illness or cognitive disability is higher among homeless people than the general population in Western countries, few studies have investigated its prevalence in Japan or other Asian countries. The present study conducted a survey to comprehensively assess prevalence of mental illness, cognitive disability, and their overlap among homeless individuals living in Nagoya, Japan. Participants were 114 homeless individuals. Mental illness was diagnosed based on semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, simplified version) was used to diagnose intellectual/ cognitive disability. Among all participants, 42.1% (95% CI 33.4-51.3%) were diagnosed with a mental illness: 4.4% (95% CI 1.9-9.9%) with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, 17.5% (95% CI 11.6-25.6%) with a mood disorder, 2.6% (95% CI 0.9-7.5%) with an anxiety disorder, 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6%) with a substance-related disorder, and 3.5% (95% CI 1.4-8.8%) with a personality disorder. Additionally, 34.2% (95% CI 26.1-43.3%) demonstrated cognitive disability: 20.2% (95% CI 13.8-28.5%) had mild and 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6%) had moderate or severe disability. The percent overlap between mental illness and cognitive disability was 15.8% (95% CI 10.2-23.6%). Only 39.5% (95% CI 26.1-43.3%) of the participants were considered to have no psychological or cognitive dysfunction. Participants were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability. Only individuals with a cognitive disability reported a significant tendency toward not wanting to leave their homeless life. This is the first report showing that the prevalence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability among homeless individuals is much higher than in the general Japanese population. Appropriate support strategies should be devised and executed based on the specificities of an individual's psychological and

  19. Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nishio

    Full Text Available While the prevalence of mental illness or cognitive disability is higher among homeless people than the general population in Western countries, few studies have investigated its prevalence in Japan or other Asian countries. The present study conducted a survey to comprehensively assess prevalence of mental illness, cognitive disability, and their overlap among homeless individuals living in Nagoya, Japan.Participants were 114 homeless individuals. Mental illness was diagnosed based on semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, simplified version was used to diagnose intellectual/ cognitive disability.Among all participants, 42.1% (95% CI 33.4-51.3% were diagnosed with a mental illness: 4.4% (95% CI 1.9-9.9% with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, 17.5% (95% CI 11.6-25.6% with a mood disorder, 2.6% (95% CI 0.9-7.5% with an anxiety disorder, 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6% with a substance-related disorder, and 3.5% (95% CI 1.4-8.8% with a personality disorder. Additionally, 34.2% (95% CI 26.1-43.3% demonstrated cognitive disability: 20.2% (95% CI 13.8-28.5% had mild and 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6% had moderate or severe disability. The percent overlap between mental illness and cognitive disability was 15.8% (95% CI 10.2-23.6%. Only 39.5% (95% CI 26.1-43.3% of the participants were considered to have no psychological or cognitive dysfunction. Participants were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability. Only individuals with a cognitive disability reported a significant tendency toward not wanting to leave their homeless life.This is the first report showing that the prevalence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability among homeless individuals is much higher than in the general Japanese population. Appropriate support strategies should be devised and executed based on the specificities of an individual's psychological

  20. Mathematical models in simulation process in rehabilitation of persons with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorie, Nina; Dolga, Valer; Mondoc, Alina

    2012-11-01

    The problems of people with disability are varied. A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these. The major disabilities which can appear in people's lives are: the blindness, the deafness, the limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, the orthopedic impairment, the visual impairment. A disability is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. A disability may occur during a person's lifetime or may be present from birth. The authors conclude that some of these disabilities like physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental can be rehabilitated. Starting from this state of affairs the authors present briefly the possibility of using certain mechatronic systems for rehabilitation of persons with different disabilities. The authors focus their presentation on alternative calling the Stewart platform in order to achieve the proposed goal. The authors present a mathematical model of systems theory approach under the parallel system and described its contents can. The authors analyze in a meaningful mathematical model describing the procedure of rehabilitation process. From the affected function biomechanics and taking into account medical recommendations the authors illustrate the mathematical models of rehabilitation work. The authors assemble a whole mathematical model of parallel structure and the rehabilitation process and making simulation and highlighting the results estimated. The authors present in the end work the results envisaged in the end analysis work, conclusions and steps for future work program..

  1. Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Tough

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has consistently found that favourable exchange with one’s proximal social environment has positive effects on both mental health and wellbeing. Adults with physical disabilities may have fewer opportunities of favourable exchange, and therefore the effects on mental health and wellbeing may be less advantageous. The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. Methods The databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published between 1995 and 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants’ characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesize findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality. Results Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal. Most studies included a measure of social support (n = 58, while other concepts were less often studied (social networks n = 6; negative social interaction n = 3; family functioning n = 2; relationship quality n = 1. Over half of studies included depression as outcome (n = 33, followed by wellbeing (n = 14, composite mental health measures (n = 10, anxiety (n = 8, psychological distress (n = 7, posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3, and hopelessness (n = 1. Although trends for associations of social support with mental health and wellbeing were consistent, around a quarter of studies failed to report significant associations. Social networks were related to depression, but not to other mental health or wellbeing measures. Family functioning, negative social interactions and relationship quality showed consistent

  2. Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Hannah; Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine

    2017-05-08

    Research has consistently found that favourable exchange with one's proximal social environment has positive effects on both mental health and wellbeing. Adults with physical disabilities may have fewer opportunities of favourable exchange, and therefore the effects on mental health and wellbeing may be less advantageous. The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published between 1995 and 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants' characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesize findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality. Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal. Most studies included a measure of social support (n = 58), while other concepts were less often studied (social networks n = 6; negative social interaction n = 3; family functioning n = 2; relationship quality n = 1). Over half of studies included depression as outcome (n = 33), followed by wellbeing (n = 14), composite mental health measures (n = 10), anxiety (n = 8), psychological distress (n = 7), posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3), and hopelessness (n = 1). Although trends for associations of social support with mental health and wellbeing were consistent, around a quarter of studies failed to report significant associations. Social networks were related to depression, but not to other mental health or wellbeing measures. Family functioning, negative social interactions and relationship quality showed consistent associations with mental health and wellbeing

  3. Health behaviours and mental health status of parents with intellectual disabilities: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2013-12-01

    The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health and Stress Management and Mental-health Disability Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  6. Efficiency of Homes for the Mentally Disabled in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eggink; J.L.T. Blank

    2001-01-01

    This volume describes an extensive study of the efficiency of homes for the mentally disabled in the Netherlands. It sets out the theoretical and empirical background to the research, which employs both a parametric (cost function model) and a non-parametric (Data Envelopment Analysis) method to

  7. Family Life Education Needs of Mentally Disabled Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Adams, Donna U.

    1987-01-01

    Administered 50 needs statements to 134 minimally and mildly mentally disabled adolescent students to identify their family life education needs as a basis for curriculum development. Identified six clusters or groups of family life education needs: Basic Nutrition, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex Education, Developmental Tasks of Adolescents, Marriage and…

  8. The experiences of parents of children with mental disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Method: Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and ...

  9. 38 CFR 21.3047 - Extended period of eligibility due to physical or mental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility due to physical or mental disability. 21.3047 Section 21.3047 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... period of eligibility due to physical or mental disability. (a) General. (1) An eligible spouse or... education within the otherwise applicable period of eligibility because of a physical or mental disability...

  10. How Should Community Mental Health of Intellectual Disability Services Evolve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Bouras, Nick; Craig, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Services for people with Intellectual Disability (ID) and coexisting mental health problems remain undeveloped; research into their effectiveness has been lacking. Three linked recent studies in the UK have provided evidence on essential service provision from staff, service users and carers. Interfaces with mainstream mental health services were seen as problematic: the area of crisis response was seen as a particular problem. Further services’ research is needed, focusing on service components rather than whole service configurations. There was not support for establishing more intensive mental health services for people with ID only. The way forward is in developing new ways of co-working with staff in “mainstream” mental health services. Mental health of ID staff might often be best situated directly within these services. PMID:25158137

  11. Dating persons with physical disabilities: the perceptions of South Africans without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Swartz, Leslie; Carew, Mark Thomas; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2018-02-01

    There is good reason to believe that the attitudes of persons without disability towards dating a person with a physical disability might be unfavourable. However, in general, and in the Global South in particular, there is a dearth of research in this area. This study sought to take the first step in addressing this lack of enquiry, by surveying the attitudes of a general population sample in South Africa towards dating people with physical disabilities, using a vignette. Data from 1723 survey respondents were analysed thematically. Findings reveal largely negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. Respondents without disability perceived numerous barriers to dating a person with a physical disability, including social stigma, anxiety and concerns about the burden of care they believed such a relationship would place upon them. However, there was some evidence to suggest that some positive attitudes do exist, and a few respondents were open to dating a person with physical disabilities. Findings contribute to a nuancing and expanding of the 'myth of asexuality' among physically disabled people by showing that people with physical disabilities are actively desexualised by persons without disability. Future research is needed to explore how the inclusive attitudes, of which we did find evidence here, can be further cultivated.

  12. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  13. What we know about homelessness among mentally ill persons: an analytical review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, L L

    1992-05-01

    Although extensive research on the homeless mentally ill population has been conducted, existing studies have failed to answer three important questions: the prevalence of chronic mental illness among homeless persons, whether deinstitutionalization has precipitated increased homelessness in this population, and what kinds of services should be offered. The author suggests that future research will require clearer definition of the terms used in discussing this population and calls for increased federal direction in making policies to respond to their problems, especially the problems of those who are geographically mobile. Successful service planning must address the full array of disabilities experienced by homeless mentally ill persons, including psychiatric symptoms, secondary responses to the experience of illness, and disabilities resulting from stigma and lack of societal opportunity.

  14. Chronic medical conditions and mental health in older people : disability and psychosocial resources mediate specific mental health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Kempen, GIJM; Penninx, BWJH; Brilman, EI; Beekman, ATF; VanSonderen, E

    Background. This study describes the differences in psychological distress, disability and psychosocial resources between types of major medical conditions and sensory impairments (collectively denoted as CMCs); and tests whether disability and psychosocial resources mediate CMC-specific mental

  15. Disclosure of Mental Disability by College and University Faculty: The Negotiation of Accommodations, Supports, and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-profile shootings and student suicides have made mental health issues on college campuses a major national issue. College students are usually the focus of this conversation, while little attention beyond anecdotal accounts has been paid to faculty with mental health issues. In response to this lack of broad-scale research, a first-of-its-kind cross-institutional survey of faculty with mental disabilities was conducted. Respondents self-identified as faculty with mental disabilities, mental illness or mental-health histories. Results from 267 respondents indicated that nearly 70% had no or limited familiarity with accommodations, and even fewer used them (87%. A majority of respondents (62% disclosed to at least one person on campus, primarily colleagues (50% and department chairs (21%. Respondents felt most supported by spouses/significant others (75% very or extremely supported and friends (51% rather than colleagues (29% and supervisors (25%. In our discussion of these findings, we offer suggestions for practice that will improve environments, rather than focusing on case-by-case "fixes" for those who disclose. We also suggest directions for further research into this topic, which is frequently mentioned (in both scholarly and popular publications but rarely investigated systematically or on a wide scale.

  16. European Charter for Sport for All: Disabled Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Committee for the Development of Sport.

    This Council of Europe document begins with the text of Recommendation No. R(86)18 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Charter on Sport for All: Disabled Persons, along with an explanatory memorandum for implementation of the recommendation. The memorandum discusses disability and sport definitions, why sports for…

  17. Disabled person: construction of concept by this population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to build the concept of disabled person. Methods: study of analysis of concept using the phases field work andstatistical analysis with 120 individuals divided into three groups of 40 people with hearing, visual and motor disability.Results: there was predomination of men (68%, 18-29 years old (55%, with superior education (35% and married/common-law married (75%. The attribute accepted was person with limitation and still able to perform activity, witha difference between groups (p = 0.018; the keyword accepted was limitation (p = 0.001; the expression was disabledperson, with intergroup difference (p = 0.013. Concept of choice by group was deaf (97.51%; blind (45% and person withvisual disability (45% and; person with physical disability (27.5%. Conclusion: attributes, keywords used in the literatureand public policy were not accepted. They prefer to be called deaf; blind or visually impaired; They reject people with motordisability and wheelchair user.

  18. Rehabilitation Counseling with Persons with Learning Disabilities: An Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Introduces ecological framework for assessment and rehabilitation planning of learning disabled persons to facilitate integration of information and perspectives. Operationalizes framework through four dimensions: individual attributes; environmental attributes; nature, quality, and sequence of interactions; and perceptions of involved…

  19. The Effects of Social Reforms on Mental Disability in China: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have explored how mental disabilities have changed with the waves of Chinese social reforms that occurred between 1912 and 2006. The present study evaluated population-based data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability to investigate these trends and their effects on mental disabilities. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association between social reforms and mental disabilities. The confounding variables considered were as follows: survey age, gender, residence in 2006, ethnicity, and living arrangements in 2006. The highest risks of mental disabilities were observed in subjects born during the Mao Zedong era. Subjects who experienced social turbulence during their early development may have increased risks of mental disabilities in adulthood. The results and discussion herein contribute to our understanding of mental disabilities in China within the context of changing political, socioeconomic, and health system conditions and a developing mental health system. © 2016 APJPH.

  20. Prenatal screening and its impact on persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D

    1993-09-01

    A lawyer from the World Institute on Disability uses a disability perspective to explore some policy effects of prenatal screening. This perspective is grounded in life experiences of persons with disabilities who hold academic, scientific, and social positions that allow them the opportunity to share their on the value of living with a disability. Society must first clarify what goals it wants to attain before it considers the effectiveness of prenatal screening. If society wants to save future humans from suffering a terrible quality of life, it must be confident that a link exists between predictable genetic consequences and a negative life experience. If the goal is to deal with economic or social disadvantages related to genetic disabilities, society should at least study whether methods other than prenatal screening can achieve this goal and society should scrutinize these alternatives. Even though the disability rights movement acknowledges economic and social disadvantages, it also knows that many persons with disabilities have satisfying jobs, happy family situations, and various community roles. Thus, the disadvantages can be eliminated without getting rid of persons with disabilities. Advocacy for civil rights protection, legislation to eliminate environmental obstacles, agendas to promote and make available technology, and more effective social support programs are ways the disability rights movement tries to remove social and economic barriers. Prenatal screening seems to not match the goals of the movement. Further, many of its leaders challenge its value and ethical basis. Some people view prenatal screening as a technology that is advancing without a firm foundation in social policy. The constant growth of information about human genetics makes it more complex to address the value and ethical questions. Society must incorporate persons with disabilities into prenatal diagnosis research and examination of policy alternatives. The disability community

  1. Disability Discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    StudentLab

    challenges in the enjoyment of their human rights'. 8. All of us need to understand how cultural, social ... The International Labour Organisation. (ILO) and various countries, including South Africa, ..... Goodwill Industries International 2011 Talent Has No Boundaries: People with. Disabilities are an Asset to the Workplace ...

  2. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  3. The national libraries and information services for disabled persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Santillán-Rivero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services and specific documents for disabled persons require of investment and internal restructuring of libraries and document centers. The National Libraries should to face the same problem because the disabled persons are potential users. At the present the libraries web pages has been used to promote the products and services for all users, included disabled. By this reason, we have observed the existence of this services in ten National Libraries web pages, and the results showed that the electronic services and resources for this social group would be restructured to efficient access

  4. Ethical values in personal assistance: narratives of people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadensten, Barbro; Ahlström, Gerd

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of persons with severe functional disabilities who receive personal assistance in their homes, the focus being on their daily life in relation to the ethical principles represented in the Swedish Disability Act: autonomy, integrity, influence and participation. Qualitative interviews were performed with 26 persons and thereafter subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The experiences of personal assistance were very much in accordance with the said principles, the most important factor being that one is met with understanding. The participants described situations in which their integrity was violated in that they were not treated as competent adults. This indicates the importance of future efforts in nursing to support personal assistants with ethical knowledge and supervision so that they can empower people with disabilities and thereby enable them to maintain their self-esteem and dignity.

  5. Predictors of health-promoting lifestyles in persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuifbergen, A K; Becker, H A

    1994-02-01

    Persons with disabilities have been largely overlooked in investigations of health and health behaviors. The primary purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the usefulness of Pender's (1987) Health Promotion Model in explaining the occurrence of health-promoting behaviors among adults with disabilities. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze questionnaire responses from a sample of 117 adults with disabilities. Adults with disabilities were more likely to engage in a health-promoting lifestyle if they had higher specific self-efficacy for health behaviors, higher general self-efficacy, a wellness-oriented definition of health, required less mechanical assistance, and were female. Findings from this study suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing health promotion behaviors among persons with disabilities would be strengthened by addressing perceived ability to master situations, particularly the ability to successfully carry out health-promoting behaviors.

  6. Prevalence of mental disorder and associated factors in civilian Guatemalans with disabilities caused by the internal armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Rivera, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ferraz, Marcos Pacheco de Toledo

    2008-09-01

    The 34-year-long, Guatemalan war left at least 1,841 persons disabled in the country. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of mental disorders in individuals who acquired their disability as a result of the war, and to identify probable risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a group of 99 civilians with a disability in Guatemala. Participants were selected from four civilian organizations serving disabled persons in the municipality of Nebaj, Quiche. The diagnostic instrument was the computerized version of the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument 2.1 (CIDI 2.1). Data were collected from 2002 to 2004. Of the 99 disabled persons who completed the interview, 44 had some type of lifetime psychiatric disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most prevalent, with 34.34% (34 cases), followed by dysthymia, with 10.10% (10 cases), and depression, with 6.06% (6 cases). The traumatic events experienced during the conflict caused long-term psychological sequelae in people who were disabled as a result of the war. Increased exposure to traumatic events, being married, physical disability, illiteracy and advanced age were identified as probable risk factors for mental disorders .

  7. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    BATEMAN, ANTHONY; FONAGY, PETER

    2010-01-01

    Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the tre...

  8. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  9. [Psychological barriers to professional inclusion of people with mental disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberon, S

    2014-06-01

    Mental health in the workplace today are ubiquitous and cause significant dysfunction in organizations (turnover, absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, long sick…). Statements of professional unfitness for depression is of particular concern. The human and financial costs associated with the support of mental disability is important, in France it is estimated to 14 billion euros. Mental disorder in the workplace also has a significant impact on the individual. If not always leads to actual inability to work, it usually causes, from the disclosure of the disorder, professional inequalities related to perceived environmental work disability. Therefore, this type of public remains largely on the sidelines of a stable occupation and all forms of recognition and undergo disqualifications and some forms of exclusion. Instead of saving, the workplace can promote relapse and even constitute a real obstacle to improving health. These exclusionary behavior result in persistent employment resistance in France and elsewhere, especially because of the prejudice of employers. These resistances persist despite legal obligations in this regard (e.g. in France: Law of 11 February 2005 on Equal Rights and Opportunities). To address the issue of sustainable professional inclusion (recruitment, integration and job preservation) of people with mental disabilities, studies are especially developed for the rehabilitation in the workplace of this public or accompanying us in their professional reintegration into protected workplaces. We propose a reflection on the adaptation of knowledge about psychological processes of hiring discrimination in the particular employment situation of people with mental disabilities in ordinary workplaces. Researches on social representations, stereotypes and prejudices applied in the workplace help to understand the negative attitudes and resistance to the hiring of people with mental disabilities despite regulations. Representations of

  10. Managing psychiatric emergencies in persons with mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing psychiatric emergencies in persons with mental health issues at a primary care clinic. ... Nigerian Journal of Family Practice ... cross-sectional study and participants were health care staff of the clinic who were attending a seminar on Management of Psychiatric emergencies in Persons with Mental Health Issues.

  11. States' strategies for promoting supported housing for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, J A; Srebnik, D; Srebnick, D

    1991-11-01

    Survey data were used to analyze state government efforts to promote supported housing for persons with psychiatric disabilities in five states--Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin. States worked to increase mental health service consumers' access to affordable housing by increasing the number of state staff who address housing issues, by developing housing units, and by increasing consumers' income. Legislative mandates and financial incentives were used to encourage service providers to offer more flexible support services. States promoted consumers' involvement in the mental health system by encouraging their participation in state-level decision making and by providing financial support to consumer organizations.

  12. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  13. Access to Justice for Persons with Disabilities: An Emerging Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Larson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with disabilities often find themselves marginalized by society and by our justice systems. We can improve access to justice by training better advocates. Advocates not only must be knowledgeable concerning relevant laws and regulations, but also must be able to interact effectively on a personal, professional level with persons who have disabilities. We also want to make certain that persons with disabilities have the opportunity to learn to advocate for themselves and for other persons with disabilities. Technologies are available that can help us accomplish these goals. This article provides a brief survey of legal protections (and gaps in such protection for persons with disabilities. Successful advocate training programs from around the world are identified and described. The article provides examples of how technology is being used to support these efforts and provides suggestions regarding additional ways in which technology could be employed. Law schools around the world have begun to embrace the goal of better advocacy, but improving access will require well-prepared advocates to answer the call. Training advocates to provide services to a population that may have significantly different needs even within that population may be a more efficient and effective way to improve access to justice than by attempting to draft laws and regulations that somehow address all possible circumstances.

  14. Graduation Prospects of College Students with Specific Learning Disorder and Students with Mental Health Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…

  15. Disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders across the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Petukhova, Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Burger, Huibert; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Maria Haro, Josep; Hwang, Irving; Karam, Elie; Kawakami, Norito; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Williams, David R.; Zhang, Mingyuan; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Background Advocates of expanded mental health treatment assert that mental disorders are as disabling as physical disorders, but little evidence supports this assertion. Aims To establish the disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders in high-income and low- and

  16. Developing a uniformed assessment tool to evaluate care service needs for disabled persons in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Teiji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Hiroki

    2008-05-01

    Until recently, the care services for disabled persons have been under rigid control by public sectors in terms of provision and funding in Japan. A reform was introduced in 2003 that brought a rapid increase of utilization of services and serious shortage of financial resources. Under these circumstances, the "Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act" was enacted in 2005, requiring that the care service provision process should be transparent, fair and standardized. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective tool for assessing the need for disability care. In the present study we evaluate 1423 cases of patients receiving care services in 60 municipalities, including all three categories of disabilities (physical, intellectual and mental). Using the data of the total 106 items, we conducted factor analysis and regression analysis to develop an assessment tool for people with disabilities. The data revealed that instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) played an essential role in assessing disability levels. We have developed the uniformed assessment tool that has been utilized to guide the types and quantity of care services throughout Japan.

  17. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. METHO....... The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation....

  18. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  19. [Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.

  20. Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  2. Unemployment among Canadians with physical and a co-morbid mental disability: an examination of the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Erin; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Stuart, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Co-occurring disabilities are common and data indicate that those with both physical and mental disabilities face greater discrimination in the workforce. However, studies that consider disability type in determining labor market outcomes are needed; particularly in Canada. The objective was to examine the association of disability type and unemployment among working-aged Canadians using data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). The 2006 PALS is a post-censal sample survey of individuals whose everyday activities are limited due to a physical/mental condition. The study design is cross-sectional. Two groups were compared: persons with one or more physical disabilities exclusively vs. those with one or more physical disabilities and a mental disability. We calculated the prevalence of unemployment and used multiple logistic regression to measure the association between disability type and unemployment, while considering relevant covariates. The prevalence of unemployment was 20% overall; 35.4% in those with a co-morbid mental disability and 18.5% in those with exclusively physical disabilities. Those with a mental co-morbidity had approximately double the odds of being unemployed relative to those with exclusively physical disabilities and the effect remained significant (at p disability severity. Compared to those with exclusively physical disabilities, individuals with co-morbid physical and mental disabilities were found to be at a significantly greater disadvantage when accessing employment. More research is needed to clarify whether these findings are indicative of discrimination and to proceed toward removing workplace barriers that persist in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Mental Health Promotion Among the Chronic Disabled Population in the Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Societal ageing and the rising prevalence of chronic disease are important causes that underlie the growth in the number of disabled individuals. The disease-induced psychological distress experienced by this population not only decreases quality of life but also increases demand for healthcare. The healthcare policy for the disabled population currently focuses on community healthcare. Therefore, developing appropriate programs to promote mental health among the disabled population in community settings is a critical issue. The present paper reviews current mental health promotion initiatives that target the disabled population in the community and addresses mental healthcare issues that are prevalent among the chronically disabled; strategies of mental health promotion that use music therapy, reminiscence therapy, and horticultural therapy; and the roles and responsibilities of community professionals in mental healthcare. We offer these perspectives as a reference to promote mental health and to establish holistic community healthcare for chronically disabled individuals.

  4. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and it is very comprehensive in its structure, scope and coverage, promoting developmental activities too in order to realize disabled people’s socio-economic rights. Furthermore it calls for international and regional development cooperation. Prior to its adoption, in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the Untied Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of development targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, they represent a framework for achieving sustainable and "just" human development through broadening the benefits of development for all categories individuals, women and men, the poor and the rich, the disabled and the non-disabled. The very first goal of the MDG is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability. Poverty and disability reinforce one another. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that persons with disabilities be an integral part of efforts to achieve MDGs, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation, primary education, gender, employment and international development cooperation. In the Asian and Pacific region, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP has proclaimed two decades of disabled persons 1993-2002, and 2003-2013 (to which Iran became a signatory in 1994, and promoted the inclusive, barrier-free and rights

  5. Between Equality and Discrimination: Disabled Persons in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Loreni BACIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a qualitative approach based on aninstitutional ethnography of social organization ofwork inclusion for disabled persons, the currentpaper addresses the specifi c ways in which theindividual experiences of the Romanian disabledpersons, in society and on the labor market, areinfl uenced and shaped by the social relations oftextually mediated discourse. It draws on the resultsof a larger study, conducted between 2014and 2015 in Romania, as part of a research projectfocusing on the dysfunctionalities that impedethe labor market access of disabled personsin Romania and the institutional arrangementsand structural mechanisms that underpin thesedysfunctionalities. The paper reveals a particulartype of consonance between the Romanianlegislative provisions, institutional arrangementsand local practices, that allows for the concept of‘protection’ of the disabled persons to transcendits initial purpose and philosophy and start workingagainst the disabled persons. The article alsosheds some light on the way in which the fragmentationand parallelism that currently governthe system of protection for the disabled personshamper the development of a consistent vision,backed by a homogenous approach, in dealingwith or managing the multiple negative issuesassociated with disability in Romania.

  6. Persons with disabilities, cancer screening and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamyr Sulyvan de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to describe persons with disabilities (PwD being subjected to cancer screening and the relationship between some social variables and inequalities in performing these tests. A cross-sectional study of cancer screening among PwD was conducted in 2007 with 333 participants interviewed in residence in 4 cities of São Paulo. Variables in the practice of cancer screening, disabilities, gender, age, income of main family breadwinner, ethnicity, use of health services, assistance required, private health insurance, and coverage by the family health program were studied. Frequencies, χ²-test, trend χ² percentages and the Odds Ratios (OR were used for data analysis. 44% of PwD attended at least one cancer screening at the appropriate time. Persons with visual disabilities and with hearing disabilities were subjected to more screening examinations than those with mobility disabilities and women were attended in screening exams more than men. Persons between the ages of 21 and 60 reported cancer screening more frequently than those between 80 and 97 years of age. The outcomes indicate that PwD have different attitudes toward cancer screening according to the type of disability, gender, and age, which were the variables that directly influenced cancer screening exams.

  7. Application of Early Childhood Education to the Training of Developmentally Disabled Persons (A Model for Training Trainers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sidney T.

    An Arkansas project is providing on site competency based training to undergraduate and graduate level personnel of day service centers serving mentally handicapped and otherwise developmentally disabled persons. The program has included five training components: (1) academic courses in early childhood education, (2) an exchange of ideas between…

  8. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S G; Premarajan, K C; Kattimani, S; Kar, S S

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537). Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%), followed by moderate (21, 11.6%), severe (8, 4.4%), and profound (1, 0.6%) mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064), widowed status (AOR = 27.022), separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674), currently married status (AOR = 18.487), being illiterate (AOR = 4.352), having 1st-10th standard education (AOR = 2.531), being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287) or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025), belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816), and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259) were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and conflicts were associated with mental disability after adjusting other variables. Multicentric

  9. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537. Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%, followed by moderate (21, 11.6%, severe (8, 4.4%, and profound (1, 0.6% mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064, widowed status (AOR = 27.022, separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674, currently married status (AOR = 18.487, being illiterate (AOR = 4.352, having 1st–10th standard education (AOR = 2.531, being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287 or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025, belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816, and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259 were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and

  10. [Community trajectories of mentally ill and intellectually disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.

  11. Role of common mental and physical disorders in partial disability around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Demyttenaere, Koen; Alonso, Jordi; Alhamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M; Varghese, Matthew; Williams, David R; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-06-01

    Mental and physical disorders are associated with total disability, but their effects on days with partial disability (i.e. the ability to perform some, but not full-role, functioning in daily life) are not well understood. To estimate individual (i.e. the consequences for an individual with a disorder) and societal effects (i.e. the avoidable partial disability in the society due to disorders) of mental and physical disorders on days with partial disability around the world. Respondents from 26 nationally representative samples (n = 61 259, age 18+) were interviewed regarding mental and physical disorders, and day-to-day functioning. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess mental disorders; partial disability (expressed in full day equivalents) was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in the CIDI 3.0. Respondents with disorders reported about 1.58 additional disability days per month compared with respondents without disorders. At the individual level, mental disorders (especially post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and bipolar disorder) yielded a higher number of days with disability than physical disorders. At the societal level, the population attributable risk proportion due to physical and mental disorders was 49% and 15% respectively. Mental and physical disorders have a considerable impact on partial disability, at both the individual and at the societal level. Physical disorders yielded higher effects on partial disability than mental disorders.

  12. Does disability status modify the association between psychosocial job quality and mental health? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p unemployment (-0.39 and -0.66 respectively). For those with consistent disability, the difference in mental health when employed in an optimal job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Language of disability as a factor of discrimination of persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Filip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorrect labeling of people with disabilities as people with special needs constitutes not only a violation of equality but also a special criminological and criminal justice phenomenon. There are no special needs, but just different ways of satisfying them. The subject of this paper is an analyses of the impact of labeling people with disabilities and language disability on a discriminatory process and considers whether the victimization of persons with disabilities engenders inequality. The labeling of people with disabilities throughout history will also be considered. A questionnaire was distributed via Facebook in order to explore the opinions of users of social networks on language disability and its impact on discrimination. The aim of the paper is to highlight the effect labeling has on the overall social situation of people with disabilities. It is argued that the accurate usage of appropriate linguistic terminology would help prevent the victimization of persons with disabilities and accentuate the realization of their full participation in contemporary society.

  14. Quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness: results from the course-of-homelessness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, G; Burnam, A; Koegel, P; Hollenberg, J

    2000-09-01

    The quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness was compared with that of homeless persons without mental illness. Subjective and objective quality-of-life ratings were obtained in face-to-face interviews with 1,533 homeless adults in Los Angeles, who were identified using probability sampling of people on the streets and at shelters and meal facilities; 520 subjects were tracked for 15 months. Ratings of homeless persons with and without mental illness were compared using chi square tests and regression analyses. Mentally ill homeless persons were significantly more likely than those without mental illness to receive Supplemental Security Income, Social Security Disability Insurance, Veterans Affairs disability benefits, or Medicaid. However, those with mental illness still fared significantly worse in terms of physical health, level of subsistence needs met, victimization, and subjective quality of life. Differences between groups in the subjective quality-of-life ratings were accounted for by modifiable factors such as income and symptoms rather than by nonmodifiable demographic characteristics. Interventions most likely to improve the quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness include those that stress maintenance of stable housing and provision of food and clothing and that address physical health problems and train individuals to minimize their risk of victimization. Interventions that decrease depressive symptoms might also improve subjective quality of life.

  15. SEXUAL EDUCATION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar KARANFILOSKI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities for intellectual and movement devel­opment of children with disabilities are part of the research that is provided within special education and rehabilitation. But we think that the forgotten component of this research that must have appro­priate principles and methods of its work is the sexual education. Our experience shows that this is not just a problem in Macedonia, but wider in the Balkan. We must have in mind that people with disabilities are intellectually and movement dis­abled, but their body hormonally develops as in any other individual. Thus, disharmony appears that causes even more problems when these people maturate. The need to satisfy the sexual urge must be appropriate and developed properly. They also develop a need for self care and life and need some decisions and activities to be involved in without their parents’ support. In their development when they are mature they want their one company that is not their mom and dad. This usually happens in the puberty. Parents often make mistakes in not recognizing their children’s needs and behave over protectively, and take care for their children more than it is needed, and they not let their children make their own decisions which can help for their inclusion in the society.

  16. Legal protection of the right to work and employment for persons with mental health problems: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardodkar, Renuka; Pathare, Soumitra; Ventriglio, Antonio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Javate, Kenneth R; Torales, Julio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    The right to work and employment is indispensable for social integration of persons with mental health problems. This study examined whether existing laws pose structural barriers in the realization of right to work and employment of persons with mental health problems across the world. It reviewed disability-specific, human rights legislation, and labour laws of all UN Member States in the context of Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It wes found that laws in 62% of countries explicitly mention mental disability/impairment/illness in the definition of disability. In 64% of countries, laws prohibit discrimination against persons with mental health during recruitment; in one-third of countries laws prohibit discontinuation of employment. More than half (56%) the countries have laws in place which offer access to reasonable accommodation in the workplace. In 59% of countries laws promote employment of persons with mental health problems through different affirmative actions. Nearly 50 years after the adoption of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and 10 years after the adoption of CRPD by the UN General Assembly, legal discrimination against persons with mental health problems continues to exist globally. Countries and policy-makers need to implement legislative measures to ensure non-discrimination of persons with mental health problems during employment.

  17. Attachment to employment and education before work disability pension due to a mental disorder among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2016-05-13

    We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. The data comprised all persons aged 18-34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to employment records from a period of three years before the disability pension. We analysed the factors associated with attachment to employment or education with log-binomial regression analysis. Fifty percent of the participants were attached to employment or education before work disability pension. The attached were more often women; had higher basic and vocational education; had mood disorder rather than psychosis diagnosis as a primary diagnosis; and had no record of harmful alcohol use or drug use, or recorded symptoms of mental disorders already at school-age. The level of attachment to employment or education before work disability pension is low among young adults with mental disorders and several risk factors predict poor attachment; severe or comorbid mental disorder, early-life psychiatric morbidity, substance use, male sex, low basic education, and lacking vocational education.

  18. Embracing the New Disability Rights Paradigm: The Importance of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) commenced operation. The CRPD has created a dynamic new disability rights paradigm that empowers disability people's organizations and creates a new paradigm for disability scholars. This paper analyses the impact of the CRPD and provides practical guidance as…

  19. Personality organization, five-factor model, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverdière, Olivier; Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis; Hébert, Etienne; Larochelle, Sébastien; Descôteaux, Jean

    2007-10-01

    Otto Kernberg has developed a model of personality and psychological functioning centered on the concept of personality organization. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the relationships between this model, the five-factor model, and mental health. The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (Diguer et al., The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form-II (PODF-II), 2001), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. 1992a), and the Health-Sickness Rating Scale (Luborsky, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1962;7:407-417) were used to assess these constructs. Results show that personality organization and personality factors are distinct but interrelated constructs and that both contribute in similar proportion to mental health. Results also suggest that the integration of personality organization and factors can provide clinicians and researchers with an enriched understanding of psychological functioning.

  20. Persons with Mental Retardation and Technology Use Patterns and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBiervliet, Alan

    A questionnaire examining consumer needs, spending, travel, credit options and utilization practices in adaptive/assistive and educational technology was answered by 2,201 Arkansans with disabilities of all ages. This paper emphasizes results relating to Arkansans with mental retardation. Results indicate Medicare/Medicaid as the single most…

  1. Public dental health care program for persons with disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the organization and content of the Danish public oral health care program for persons with disability, and (2) to analyse possible variations in relation to the goals and requirements set by the health authorities. Data were collected by means...... attended the program, ranging from 0.03% to 1.53%. In large municipalities, and where internal providers delivered oral health care, relatively more persons were enrolled in the program (p

  2. Weight Status of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marian A.; van Knijff-Raeven, Ankie G. M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.; Veenstra, Marja Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim was to study the weight and weight status of the study group in 2002 and 2007, and to study the differences in weight and weight status between 2002 and 2007 and the risk groups for (becoming) overweight/obese. Materials and Methods: The Body Mass Index (BMI) of 336 clients of a Dutch service provider for persons with…

  3. Personal Integration Resources of Mentally Handicapped Teenagers into Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…

  4. Older Mentally Retarded Persons: Demographic Profile and Service Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    An overview is presented on current knowledge about elderly mentally retarded persons. Definitional and incidence issues are addressed, and support is voiced for use of a lower cut-off for the beginning of old age among the retarded than for the general population. Conflicting findings of age-related differences in mentally retarded adults are…

  5. Estimating mental states of a depressed person with bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel C.A.; Modena, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this work in progress paper we present an approach based on Bayesian Networks to model the relationship between mental states and empirical observations in a depressed person. We encode relationships and domain expertise as a Hierarchical Bayesian Network. Mental states are represented as latent

  6. Does modifying personal responsibility moderate the mental contamination effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tinisha S; Simonds, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect. Male students (N = 60) imagined giving either a consensual or non-consensual kiss. Personal responsibility for the kiss was manipulated in one of two non-consensual kiss conditions by way of the inclusion of social influence information. Feelings of mental contamination were assessed by self-report and through a behavioural index. Mental contamination was successfully induced in the two non-consensual kiss conditions. There was evidence to support the hypothesis that reducing personal responsibility might moderate specific components of mental contamination (shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse). The effect of responsibility modification was evident in the self-report measures, but not in the behavioural index. The sample comprised male university students which limits generalizability of the findings. The behavioural assessment of mental contamination was limited to a proxy measure. Imagined moral violations are associated with increases in indices of mental contamination. Further research should investigate whether feelings of shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse are particularly responsive to responsibility modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the right to education for persons with disabilities in accordance with the special report “The right to education of persons with disabilities” United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/251 2007. Specifically, this article discusses the definition of persons with disabilities, the definitions and purposes of inclusive education, inclusive education in the Islamic perspective, inclusive education in Indonesia, the major determinants and sustainability of inclusive education, and the state’s obligation to education for persons with disabilities. In the perspective of Islam, there is a common ties or the intersection of inclusive education with Islamic teachings value that can be used as the basis of the importance of education for people including those with disabilities. The tangent point of which is education as a liability/rights, the principle of non-segregation, the holistic perspective of looking at learners and way of looking at the barriers that are more oriented to external factors, especially the school environment. This article recommends a series of policies and measures that need to be done by all parties, both government and society to realize the right to inclusive education include all parties, both the government, the community and the parents should actively participate and cooperate in implementing inclusive education in Indonesia and the government should aim to improve the quality of inclusive education in Indonesia, both in terms of students, teachers, facilities and infrastructure, teaching, learning and evaluation.

  8. Pica in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Pica is a very serious and often life threatening problem which occurs largely in persons with developmental disabilities. The topic has received sporadic attention from researchers for several decades. This paper reviews definitions, diagnostic implications, causes, prevalence, and assessment methods that have been described in the research…

  9. Deterrent libraries: Denying persons with disability | Tudzi | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonetheless, less than two per cent of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in Ghana are able to attain higher education. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether libraries, which are major components of Higher Education Institutions, are physically accessible to even the limited number of PWDs in such Institutions.

  10. Attitudes of Arab Americans toward Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative cross-sectional study examines the overall attitudes of a sample of Arab Americans toward persons with disabilities. A convenience sample of 372 Arab Americans was recruited from various not-for-profit Arab organizations within 30 States. Participants in the study completed an online self-administered (Qualtrics) survey that…

  11. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Persons with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care in Israel

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    Joav Merrick

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori was identified in 1982 by researchers from Australia as a pathogenic factor in peptic ulcer disease. Due to the few studies on H. pylori infection conducted in the population of persons with intellectual disability it was decided to conduct a clinical study in Israel. The purpose of the study was to determine the occurrence of H. pylori infection in persons who presented with severe dyspeptic symptoms and to monitor clinically the effect of treatment. The Division for Mental Retardation in Israel provides service to 6,022 persons in 53 residential care centers and 1 in central Israel was selected for this pilot study. The study has been performed since 1999 and each patient who came to the medical clinic of the institution with severe dyspeptic symptoms was examined clinically and a blood specimen drawn for IgG antibodies to H. pylori (ELISA, Pharmatop Millenia. In case of positive serology, triple drug treatment (amoxycillin, metronidazole, and pantoprazole or omepra-zole was initiated for 1 week. Since 1999 a total of 43 persons (total population in care was 224 had severe dyspeptic symptoms and 42 persons (98%, 26 males, 16 females, mean age 45 years, mean institutionalization 20 years had Helicobacter infection. All patients were treated for 1 week, but six patients received an extra month of omeprazole due to persistent symptoms. At follow-up, clinically all patients had improvement and only seven still had minor complaints (83% treatment success. Persons with developmental disability, intellectual disability, or mental retardation in residential care presenting with severe dyspeptic symptoms had a high incidence of H. pylori infection. Therefore, we recommend serology or urea breath investigations in this population presenting with dyspeptic symptoms and triple drug treatment for 1 week in case of positive findings.

  12. SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT, EDUCATION AND SEXUAL ABUSE OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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    Olivera RASHIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At social community level there are still myths and stereotypes, which refer to sexuality of the persons with disabilities. The most common wrong assumptions are those stating that persons with disabilities are asexual – long life children and the opposite ideas which state that persons with disabilities are sexually impulsive. The truth is that sexuality is an integral part of each life starting in the childhood and stretching throughout the whole life. The main goal of this master thesis, presented on 190 sheets, was to elaborate the characteristics of sexual development of persons with disabilities, more exactly of persons with mental retardation, vision impairments, auditive impairments and persons with physical impairments. Furthermore, to determine the degree and manner of acquired sex education and to make comparison in terms of prevalence and reasons for sexual abuse of persons with different types and degrees of disabilities, as well as to stress the possibilities for prevention.The sample of the research was consisted of 317 examinees separated in 6 groups and one control group. The first group included 98 examinees with mental retardation, out of which 36 at the age between 10 and 15 years from the Special Primary Schools “Idnina” and “Dr. Zlatan Sremac”, 29 examinees with mild mental retardation older than 15 years from the State Secondary School for Rehabilitation and Education “St. Naum Ohridski”, 33 examinees with moderate mental retardation no older than 10 years of age, from Institution for Rehabilitation of the Children and Youth – Topansko Pole. The second group included 25 persons with visual impairments from the Institution for Rehabilitation of Children and Youth with Visual Impairments “Dimitar Vlahov”, out of which 8 were at the age between 10 and 15 years and 17 examinees were older than 15 years. The third group included 19 examinees with auditive impairments at the age between 10 and 15 years from

  13. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  14. A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A G C; Simms, L J

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.

  15. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend <0.01, but had a negative association with extremely severe mental disability (p for trend <0.01. Moreover, wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  16. Hall v. Florida: Capital Punishment, IQ, and Persons With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K; Delalot, Dominque; Werner, Tonia L

    2015-06-01

    The United States Supreme Court has ruled on the question of persons with intellectual disability and capital punishment in several notable cases, including Penry v. Lynaugh (1989) and Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hall v. Florida. Although Florida Statute § 921.137 prohibits imposing a sentence of death on a defendant convicted of a capital felony if it is determined that the defendant is intellectually disabled, the Florida Supreme Court strictly interpreted the law so that, because Mr. Hall's IQ was not below the cutoff of 70, further evidence could not be presented to show that he had an intellectual disability. In Hall v. Florida, the Court analyzed the relevance of the standard error of measurement of IQ testing, whether there is a consensus among the states regarding capital punishment, and whether there is a consensus among professional associations regarding these questions. The Court also adopted the term "intellectual disability" as opposed to "mental retardation," following changes in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the U.S. Code and Code of Federal Regulations. We examine the Court's decision and offer commentary regarding the overall effect of this landmark case. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  17. Impact of Mental Health Training for Frontline Staff Working with Children with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The risk factors for young people with intellectual disabilities developing a mental health disorder are higher than those found in the general population, yet training is very rarely available to frontline staff. A recent study in the United Kingdom cited prevalence rates of mental ill health among adults with intellectual disabilities ranging…

  18. Barriers and Enablers to Accessing Mental Health Services for People with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Erin Louise; Fisher, Karen R.; Reppermund, Simone; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Trollor, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Background: It is well established that people with an intellectual disability have high rates of mental health problems, yet rates of uptake of services do not match need. Aim: To identify the current literature pertaining to the barriers and facilitators to access to mental health services for people with an intellectual disability. Method: A…

  19. Prevalence of mental illness, intellectual disability, and developmental disability among homeless people in Nagoya, Japan: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuura, Kenshin; Tamura, Osamu; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki

    2015-09-01

    While it has been reported that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in homeless people than in the national population, few studies have investigated the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disability among the homeless. In this study, we conducted a survey to comprehensively assess these mental problems among homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. The subjects were 18 homeless men. Mental illness was diagnosed with semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. We used the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III to diagnose intellectual disability. Discrepancies between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III subtest scores were used as criteria for developmental disability. Eleven of the 18 participants were diagnosed with mental illness: six with mood disorder, two with psychotic disorder, and six with alcohol problems. The mean IQ of all subjects was 83.4 ± 27.4. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was 96.2-69.1. Seven participants were found to have intellectual disability. Three men showed discrepancies of more than 10 between subtest scores, and all of them were diagnosed with a mental illness. We divided the participants into four groups: those with mental illness only; those with intellectual disability only; those with both problems; and those without diagnosis. The men with intellectual disability only were significantly younger and had been homeless since a younger age than the other groups. Participants diagnosed with a mental illness had been homeless for longer than those without mental health problems. Although the sample size was limited, this study revealed the high prevalence of mental illness and intellectual disability, 61% (95%CI, 35-83%) and 39% (95%CI, 17-64%), respectively, in homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Social position of persons with disabilities in and out of residential institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Milan M.

    2014-01-01

    persons with disabilities that live in the community and those living in institutional settings - institutions for collective housing. In both areas of education and economic activity, the results tell us very much about a much more problematic status of those living in residential settings. Overall, the access to education is much lower with residents, making an even more negative picture about this smaller group of persons with disabilities in Serbia. In the area of economic activity, the percentage of economically active persons with disabilities in residential settings does not climb to one percent (0.30% excluding the homes for adults and the elderly, which is indeed a worrying situation. Having in mind well known facts on the effects of institutionalization of persons with disabilities in terms of almost all their rights and freedoms, the results that we have encountered are to confirm a negative status of those living in residential settings. Experiences of discrimination, marginalization, segregation and exclusion are evident in the census results. Even if one tries to focus only on analyzing the equality of opportunity in the given context, in comparison with the general population, or even only with the contingent of persons with disabilities out of the residential settings, those living in institutions in Serbia are seriously suffering from lack of access to education, training, labour market and other important areas of life and social functioning. In addition, a potentially relevant insight has been made into the correlation of the type of problem and the status within economic activity and education of persons with disabilities in Serbia. The results confirm that those persons identified through census questions that aim at detecting problems of mental health (intellectual and psycho-social disability are in the least favourable position in both of the observed areas. Such conclusions should also be connected to a specifically problematic social inclusion

  1. Narrative ethics in nursing for persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Herman P

    2005-04-01

    Both in The Netherlands and in Britain, practices of 'life story work' have emerged in nursing for persons with intellectual disabilities. The narrative approach to care and support may at the same time be considered as an attempt to compensate for the 'disabled authorship' of many persons with intellectual disabilities and as a sign of controversy with standard practices of diagnosis and treatment that tend to neglect the personal identities of both clients and care givers, their particular historical and relational contexts and their spiritual needs. This paper argues that narrative ethics not only offers an appropriate moral framework for practices of life story work, but that these practices are a narrative ethics in action. Starting with an account of the concept of 'life story work' as it has been introduced in nursing practices in the field of intellectual disability, the paper explains its relationship with key characteristics of narrative ethics. The teleological dimension in narrative ethics and in practices of life story work sparks off a dialectic process of understanding of the client and self-understanding of the care giver. It also invites a respect for life in its openness toward the future and presupposes an openness toward other possible versions of the life narrative. The phenomenological and hermeneutic-interpretative methodologies in narrative ethics aim at a 'sudden moment of intimacy' in relationships of nurses and clients. The 'epiphany' of this essential moment of recognition, insight and engagement cannot, however, be brought about by methodology.

  2. Factors related to environmental barriers experienced by persons with and without disabilities in diverse African settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    Full Text Available This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011-2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400-500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested. The combined file comprised 9,307 participants. The Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors was used to assess the level of environmental barriers. Transportation, the natural environment and access to health care services created the biggest barriers. An exploratory factor analysis yielded support for a one component solution for environmental barriers. A scale was constructed by adding the items together and dividing by number of items, yielding a range from one to five with five representing the highest level of environmental barriers and one the lowest. An overall mean value of 1.51 was found. Persons with disabilities scored 1.66 and persons without disabilities 1.36 (F = 466.89, p < .001. Bivariate regression analyses revealed environmental barriers to be higher among rural respondents, increasing with age and severity of disability, and lower for those with a higher level of education and with better physical and mental health. Gender had an impact only among persons without disabilities, where women report more barriers than men. Structural equation model analysis showed that socioeconomic status was significantly and negatively associated with environmental barriers. Activity limitation is significantly associated with environmental barriers when controlling for a number of other individual characteristics. Reducing barriers for the general population would go some way to reduce the impact

  3. Design for All in Social Research on Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Toboso-Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social studies on disability have increased in number and importance in Spain and other countries over the last few years. Nevertheless, the majority of the available sources and studies do not adequately represent this heterogeneous group, which currently makes up about 9 per cent of the Spanish population. The implementation of social measures requires representative sources and studies containing relevant information. The aim of this paper is to identify the main diffi culties involved in designing and developing social research methods concerning persons with disabilities, and offer proposals and recommendations in order to advance towards a more inclusive social research using the concepts of accessibility and design for all.

  4. Persons with intellectual disabilities and problematic sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy M; Fedoroff, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Persons with intellectual disabilities who have been identified because they committed a sexual offense may have done so because of a sexual paraphilia. However, special consideration in assessment is required to determine whether the offense is caused by a paraphilia alone or whether other factors relating to the individual's intellectual disabilities may be especially significant. This article reviews some factors that have been identified as significant and provides an overview of treatment approaches from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does it exist a personality core of mental illness? A systematic review on core psychobiological personality traits in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Sobrero, C; Abbate Daga, G

    2013-12-01

    Research investigating the relationship between mental disorders and personality traits leads to interesting results. Individuals affected by several mental disorders have been worldwide assessed according to the psychobiological model of personality. This review aims to explore which temperament and character traits are recurrent in mental disorders and to highlight what traits may be shared determinants or consequences of the expression of a mental disorder. Systematic search of Medline database between 1998 and 2011 has been conducted to select the studies exploring the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) dimensions in the most relevant axis I psychiatric disorders. Of the 110 studies that were retrieved, 88 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were analyzed. High HA (HA) and low self-directedness are recurrent and can be considered as a "personality core" regardless of the diagnosis. They may be risk factors and relapse-related, they can indicate incomplete remission or chronic course of mental disorders, and consistently influence patients' functioning. Furthermore, they can be modified by medications or psychotherapy and represent outcome predictors of treatments. This "core" may represent a personality diathesis to psychopathology. Relational environment can influence the development of both temperament and character, thus prevention of mental disorders should promote a positive development of these traits. Although further research is needed, psychotherapeutic interventions should be performed also considering that mental disorders could benefit from HA desensitization and SD reinforcement. Finally, these traits may be used to provide diagnostic, prognostic, quality of life and efficacy inferences on psychiatric treatments.

  6. Rehabilitation of Older Persons Disabled by Cancer, Stroke, and Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty-Fried, Pamela; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation of older persons disabled by cancer, stroke, or heart disease is discussed. Aspects of each disability are described, and the importance of timely and appropriate intervention with older persons is emphasized. Barriers generally faced by older disabled persons are briefly outlined. (Author)

  7. [Poverty and mental disability in the criminal law: The invisibles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Ezequiel N

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i.e., executive functions), hippocampus (learning and memory), amygdala (i.e., fear and emotional processing) and Left Occipitotemporal and Perisylvian Regions (Language and Reading) In recent years, international studies show a growing population with intellectual disabilities in prisons. However, in criminal justice, people with mild intellectual disabilities suffer a normalization process. A lack of access to adequate diagnosis operate as an omission this vulnerable group, as a result the State deprive access to support systems guaranteed in international declarations of Human Rights. Furthermore neglect, discrimination, lack of access to comprehensive health and appropriate social interventions deepen in prison. It is for this reason that from a current human rights perspective a person with disability in jail becomes a doubly vulnerable subject.

  8. Effects of Personality Disorder and Other Variables on Professionals' Evaluation of Treatment Features in Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hazel, Teunis; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis personality disorder is often found among samples of adults with mild intellectual disability and severe behavioral and mental health disorders. The number of studies on the adverse effects of this diagnosis are scarce. Using vignettes in the present study, we have explored the relationship between the diagnosis personality disorder…

  9. Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Background While the prevalence of mental illness or cognitive disability is higher among homeless people than the general population in Western countries, few studies have investigated its prevalence in Japan or other Asian countries. The present study conducted a survey to comprehensively assess prevalence of mental illness, cognitive disability, and their overlap among homeless individuals living in Nagoya, Japan. Methods Participants were 114 homeless individuals. Mental illness was diagn...

  10. Can people with disabilities gain from education? Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Tomas; Kjellberg, Anders; Danermark, Berth; Boman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    More knowledge is needed of occupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e., the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship. To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability. 3396 informants with disabilities and 19,004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups. Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantly larger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups. Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.

  11. Use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine in persons with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, M; Sihvo, S; Haukkala, A; Kiviruusu, O; Pirkola, S; Isometsä, E

    2008-07-01

    Few studies investigated the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by subjects with mental disorders. We examined the relationship between depressive, anxiety and alcohol-use disorders and their comorbidity, as well as the relationship between use of CAM and use of mental health services. The Finnish adult (> or =30 years) population-based Health 2000 Study (n = 5987) collected information on use of CAM plus health and mental health care services. Generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder were positively associated and alcohol abuse was negatively associated with use of CAM. The prevalence was highest in persons with comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders. The use or perceived usefulness of mental health services did not differ between CAM users and other participants. The relationship between the use of CAM and mental disorders appears to vary depending on the type of mental disorder. Use of CAM seems unrelated to the use and the perceived usefulness of mental health services.

  12. Mental health and professional help-seeking among college students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coduti, Wendy A; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D; Youn, Soo Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that providing appropriate supports and services on campus can improve both mental health and academic outcomes for students with disabilities (Emerson, Honey, Madden, & Llewellyn, 2009; Stumbo, Martin, & Hedrick, 2009), but little is known about the specific mental health needs of this population. The purpose of this exploratory study, therefore, was to identify the mental health needs of college students with various types of disabilities. Researchers analyzed data, collected by the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, of 5,696 students with, and without, disabilities who utilized counseling services on campuses in the 2013-14 academic year. A nonclinical (students not in counseling) sample of 1,620 students with, and without, disabilities was also explored. Compared to students without disabilities, students with disabilities report more anxiety and academic-related distress, as well as higher rates of suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury among both students in counseling and not in counseling. Although in certain areas students with disabilities show similar levels of distress as students without disabilities, students with disabilities have higher levels of distress in areas which could impact their academic success. Self-harming tendencies are higher for students with disabilities overall, but more so for specific disability types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  14. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  15. Integrated Disability Management: Implementing a Customized Whole-Person Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Phil

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how incorporating integrated disability management can address business challenges. It includes case studies featuring organizations that used a "whole-person approach" to result in (1) greater and more effective communication and reporting, (2) more satisfied and productive employees and (3) cost savings through quicker return to work when legally and medically appropriate, all in alignment with the particular needs of a given firm. One size most definitely does not fit all.

  16. Access to dental public services by disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Rocha, Lyana; Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Maria; Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira-Meyer, Anya

    2015-03-13

    According to the World Health Organization, one in every 10 people has a disability, and more than two-thirds of them do not receive any type of oral dental care. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 guarantees all civilians including disabled people the right to healthcare, shaping the guidelines of the Brazilian National Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde--SUS). However, there is limited information about the true accessibility of dental services. This study evaluated the accessibility of public dental services to persons with disabilities in Fortaleza, Ceará, which has the third highest disability rate in Brazil. A cross-sectional quantitative study using structured questionnaires was administered to dentists (n = 89) and people with disabilities (n = 204) to evaluate the geographical, architectural, and organizational accessibility of health facilities, the communication between professionals and patients with disabilities, the demand for dental services, and factors influencing the use of dental services by people with motor, visual, and hearing impairments. 43.1% of people with disabilities do not recognize their service as a priority of Basic Health Units (BHU), 52.5% do not usually seek dental care, and of those who do (n = 97), 76.3% find it difficult to receive care and 84.5% only seek care on an emergency basis. Forty-five percent are unaware of the services offered in the BHU. Of the dentists, 56.2% reported difficulty in communicating with deaf patients, and 97.8% desired interpreters stationed in the BHU. People with disabilities gave better accessibility ratings than dentists (p = 0.001). 37.3% of the patients and 43.8% of dentists reported inadequate physical access infrastructure (including doors, hallways, waiting rooms, and offices). Dentists (60%) reported unsafe environments and transportation difficulties as geographical barriers, while most people with disabilities did not report noticing these barriers. While access to dental

  17. New mentalization-based therapy for borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterised by deficits in affect and impulse regulation, along with interpersonal difficulties (Lieb et al., 2004). It is thought to develop through a complex relationship between adverse childhood events, such as childhood abuse and genetics. A recent developmental model of BPD and one that is gaining popularity focuses on mentalization. Following their exposition of the mentalizing model of BPD, Bateman and Fonagy deve...

  18. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    OpenAIRE

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Stu...

  19. Services for mentally ill homeless persons: street-level integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M; Hoge, M A; Fisk, D

    1998-07-01

    The key elements of a systems integration approach to delivery of human services are reviewed in terms of their application to services for mentally ill homeless persons. The example of a mental health outreach project illustrates the service- and systems-integrating influences of clinical case management with this population, and the ability of a "bottom-up" street-level approach to improve coordination and service accessibility for clients in general is discussed.

  20. The association between psychotic experiences and disability: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, F; Alonso, J; Lim, C C W; Saha, S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Chatterji, S; Degenhardt, L; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Fayyad, J; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; Medina-Mora, M E; Ojagbemi, A; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Stagnaro, J C; Xavier, M; Kendler, K S; Kessler, R C; McGrath, J J

    2017-07-01

    While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Lifetime occurrences of six types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between PEs and high disability scores (top quartile) with various adjustments. Respondents with PEs were more likely to have top quartile scores on global disability than respondents without PEs (19.1% vs. 7.5%; χ 2  = 190.1, P mental or general medical disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  2. [Being personal: the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Shu-Jen; Lee, Shu-Hong

    2009-08-01

    Community psychiatric mental health nursing care emphasizes humanistic values and focuses on serving patient and family needs. In Taiwan, such care is delivered largely as part of patient discharge care plans and hospital / community based service models. Issues involved underscore the importance of operating an effective and integrated transfer system, the role and function of nurses and training in relevant competencies (Shiau, Huang & Lin, 2005). This article again emphasizes the importance of 'being personal' in the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing in Taiwan. Critical issues to consider include humanization, empowerment, nursing competencies, regulations, relating on a personal level, and facilitating empowerment and enlightenment on the healing process.

  3. [Autonomous dwellings: a device for social inclusion of mentally disabled young adults and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The precedents linked to experiences of vital spaces developed until the late 20th century have shown types of dwellings for mentally disabled individuals characterized by an asylum modality. These base their action in the need to separate the "abnormal" from the community, on account of the supposed lack of responsibility attributed to them as well as to the concurrent difficulty attributed around the impossibility they possess to take care of themselves. In comparison to what has been exposed, we present an experience of autonomous dwellings for intellectually handicapped young adults and adults developed in Argentina, where a small group of peers live in an autonomous way, with the support of orientators, in a condominium, integrated to the community. This programme of autonomous dwellings provides support centred in the persons needs and focuses on equalling their opportunities. It constructs alternatives to the work that lead to the development of abilities and attitudes, contributing to the expansion of possibilities of self-determination and autonomy of mentally disabled people, maximizing their degrees of independence and social inclusion.

  4. Paradoxes of Personal Responsibility in Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Personal responsibility is widely considered important in mental health recovery as well as in popular models of alcohol and drug treatment. Neo-liberal socio-political rhetoric around consumerism in health care often assumes that people are informed and responsible for their own choices and behaviour. In the mental health care context and especially in emergency or crisis settings, personal responsibility often raises particular paradoxes. People often present whose behaviour does not conform to the ideals of the responsible consumer; they may seek and/or be granted absolution from irresponsible behaviour. This paradox is explored and clinicians are urged to consider the context-bound nature of personal responsibility and how attributions of personal responsibility may conflict with policy and their own professional responsibilities to intervene to protect others.

  5. Personality and mental health: Arabic Scale of Mental Health, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Neo Five Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore associations of mental health and personality factors through two studies. Two separate convenience samples of volunteer Kuwaiti college students took part in the study (n1 = 193, n2 = 128). Their ages ranged between 18 and 32 years. They responded, in small group sessions, to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and to Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Factors in their Arabic forms. In addition, both samples responded to the Arabic Scale of Mental Health (ASMH). In the first study, scorers on the ASMH were significantly correlated (r) with Neuroticism (-.63), Extraversion (.57), and Lie (.22) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health and Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Psychoticism versus Lie." In Study 2, mental health scores were significantly positively correlated with Conscientiousness (.62), Extraversion (.59), Agreeableness (.34), and Openness (.26) scores, and negatively with Neuroticism (-.62) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health, Agreeableness, Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Openness, Conscientiousness, and Mental health." It was concluded that the salient associations of the ASMH were with positive traits and scores on Extraversion, Conscientiousness (positive), and with Neuroticism (negative), indicating good construct validity of the ASMH.

  6. Access to health care for persons with disabilities in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergunst, R; Swartz, L; Hem, K-G; Eide, A H; Mannan, H; MacLachlan, M; Mji, G; Braathen, S H; Schneider, M

    2017-11-17

    Global research suggests that persons with disabilities face barriers when accessing health care services. Yet, information regarding the nature of these barriers, especially in low-income and middle-income countries is sparse. Rural contexts in these countries may present greater barriers than urban contexts, but little is known about access issues in such contexts. There is a paucity of research in South Africa looking at "triple vulnerability" - poverty, disability and rurality. This study explored issues of access to health care for persons with disabilities in an impoverished rural area in South Africa. The study includes a quantitative survey with interviews with 773 participants in 527 households. Comparisons in terms of access to health care between persons with disabilities and persons with no disabilities were explored. The approach to data analysis included quantitative data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequency and cross tabulation, comparing and contrasting the frequency of different phenomena between persons with disabilities and persons with no disabilities, were used. Chi-square tests and Analysis of Variance tests were then incorporated into the analysis. Persons with disabilities have a higher rate of unmet health needs as compared to non-disabled. In rural Madwaleni in South Africa, persons with disabilities faced significantly more barriers to accessing health care compared to persons without disabilities. Barriers increased with disability severity and was reduced with increasing level of education, living in a household without disabled members and with age. This study has shown that access to health care in a rural area in South Africa for persons with disabilities is more of an issue than for persons without disabilities in that they face more barriers. Implications are that we need to look beyond the medical issues of disability and address social and inclusion issues as well.

  7. Access to health care for persons with disabilities in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vergunst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global research suggests that persons with disabilities face barriers when accessing health care services. Yet, information regarding the nature of these barriers, especially in low-income and middle-income countries is sparse. Rural contexts in these countries may present greater barriers than urban contexts, but little is known about access issues in such contexts. There is a paucity of research in South Africa looking at “triple vulnerability” – poverty, disability and rurality. This study explored issues of access to health care for persons with disabilities in an impoverished rural area in South Africa. Methods The study includes a quantitative survey with interviews with 773 participants in 527 households. Comparisons in terms of access to health care between persons with disabilities and persons with no disabilities were explored. The approach to data analysis included quantitative data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequency and cross tabulation, comparing and contrasting the frequency of different phenomena between persons with disabilities and persons with no disabilities, were used. Chi-square tests and Analysis of Variance tests were then incorporated into the analysis. Results Persons with disabilities have a higher rate of unmet health needs as compared to non-disabled. In rural Madwaleni in South Africa, persons with disabilities faced significantly more barriers to accessing health care compared to persons without disabilities. Barriers increased with disability severity and was reduced with increasing level of education, living in a household without disabled members and with age. Conclusions This study has shown that access to health care in a rural area in South Africa for persons with disabilities is more of an issue than for persons without disabilities in that they face more barriers. Implications are that we need to look beyond the medical issues of disability and address

  8. Life without Barriers: Prospects and Changes in the Situation of Children with Disabilities and Lifelong Disabled Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko E.Y.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of Russian ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Problem analysis of kind of services for chil- dren with disabilities and lifelong disabled persons is performed using a schema “Alternative living models for a lifelong disabled person in Russia”. The article demonstrates the main content of early intervention programs and the role and place of a multidisciplinary team of program experts. We discuss the main aspects of the problems related to education for disabled children, the features of linkage between social services and social support for children with disabilities and families raising them. Attention is paid to the development and widespread implementation of hospital- substituting technologies. The article presents con- cept of a pilot project of the Foundation for children in difficult life situation to facilitate the social adaptation of disabled persons. Author made a conclusions on increasing authorities’ attention to disable person’s needs, the need for change in the current legislation according to UN Convention, and annexations to federal legislation governing the rights of disabled children and lifelong disabled persons, the need to develop public policies using all available resources and the experience of socially oriented NGOs primarily.

  9. Health promoting attitudes and behaviors among persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H A; Stuifbergen, A K; Ingalsbe, K; Sands, D

    1989-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of maintaining and improving the health status of persons with disabilities, there has been little research conducted to determine their health care attitudes and behaviors and what interventions might serve to enhance their health. Using Pender's Model of Health Promotion (1987), this study investigated the factors associated with the occurrence of health promoting behaviors among 135 adults with disabilities. Staff and peer counsellors from two Independent Living Centres in Texas administered the questionnaires and conducted brief semi-structured interviews with participants. Seventy-three percent of the sample rated their current health as good or excellent. Findings from both interviews and questionnaires suggest that participants are more likely to define health as being able to function well than as simply the absence of illness. High scores on Adaptive definition of health, the Self-Efficacy-Scale, age, and low scores on the Barriers to Health Promotion Activity for Disabled Persons scale accounted for 31% of the variance in scores on a self-report measure of health promoting behaviors. These findings suggest that interventions which address self-perceived barriers to health promotion, work to build participants' sense of mastery of their health behaviors, and encourage a definition of health that is broader than simply absence of illness may be more effective than those that focus only on information about good health practices.

  10. Resilience in persons with disabilities: the logotherapy vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Canalhe Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Viktor Frank’s logotherapy (1905-1990 offers a vision of humankind which can instrument, and provide tools to understand and foster resilience in persons with disabilities. This theoretical approach anticipates the human spirit’s potential for resistance to face adversity, which includes being born with or acquiring a disability throughout life. Both logotherapy, as well as the concept of resilience have in common the recognition of protective factors, and the transformation of difficulties into new opportunities, distancing itself from a pathological focus on deficits to prioritize potential mechanisms that every human being possesses when it comes to resistance and recovery. The perspective which encompasses a biological, psychological and spiritual view, and the logotherapy concepts of the meaning of suffering, the possibility of realization of values in any situation, the ability of human beings to distance themselves from problems, as well as the ability to self-transcend, offers the theoretical and practical reference for the pillars of resilience in persons with disabilities.

  11. Use of mental health services by veterans disabled by auditory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Caroline J; Rosenheck, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether veterans disabled by auditory disorders face barriers to receipt of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. We compared use of VA mental health services by veterans disabled by auditory disorders with use of such services by veterans disabled by four other chronic illnesses. We hypothesized that disabled veterans with auditory disorders, including tinnitus and/or hearing loss, would be less likely to use VA mental health services than other disabled veterans because of communication difficulties. The study sample was based on national VA administrative data for veterans with a diagnosed mental health disorder who were not receiving VA compensation for that disorder but who were receiving VA compensation for another disorder, either physical or auditory, at the end of fiscal year 2005. After controlling for potentially confounding factors, we unexpectedly found that veterans disabled by auditory disorders were more likely than other disabled veterans to use VA mental health services at least once. Among users, however, those with auditory disorders accessed slightly fewer visits than those disabled by other conditions, although the reasons for the difference remain unclear.

  12. Exploring the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district, KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Celenkosini T. Nxumalo; Gugu G. Mchunu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stigma in mental illness is a serious social problem which has a multitude of consequences on the individual concerned, as well as his or her family. Research has shown that families of persons living with mental illnesses are often subjected to stigma by virtue of their association with such a person. The stigma of families is seen in the form of assignment of blame, social isolation and rejection. This stigma subsequently perpetuates a cycle of disability on the part of the pati...

  13. Knowledge about persons with disability act (1995) among health care professionals dealing with persons affected by disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, B S; Devapitchai, K S; Raju, M S

    2009-01-01

    To assess the level of awareness about the different provisions of the persons with Disability Act (1995) among the health care professionals, 201 health care professionals dealing with the disabled persons from different parts of India were interviewed using structured interview checklist. The data were analysed through statistical package of social sciences software. Chi-square test were applied on the variables and the Pvalues were ascertained. The results show that 48.3% knew about administration hierarchy, 53.7% of respondents were aware of the free education available for the disabled, 68.5% were aware of the employment scheme, 62.7% about poverty alleviation schemes, 59.2% know about the traveling benefits, 56.2% of professionals were aware of the benefits for people with low vision. Only 29.9% of respondents knew about provisions to overcome architectural barriers. 43.8% of them knew about the least disability percentage whereas only 28.4% were aware of research and manpower schemes. Regarding affirmative action, 32.17% told correctly and 52.7% of the professionals responded correctly with respectto non- discrimination schemes. The level of awareness among the professionals working in rural regions is lower with regard to administration hierarchy and poverty alleviation schemes. Informations regarding disabled friendly environments and research and manpower development were found to be low among respondents of all professions which need to be effectively intervened. Gender did not show any influence with respect to the components of the act. The study showed that there is an ample need for educational interventions among the health care professionals in all socio-demography. Inclusion of PWD Act in the curriculum of medical schools as a topic in conferences and workshops for health care professionals are suggested.

  14. Mentalization in borderline personality disorder: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison

    2015-10-01

    The current special issue focuses on the potential of mentalizing as a translational construct for the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mentalizing, which provides the central construct around which mentalization-based therapy (MBT) and theory is organized, refers to the capacity to meaningfully reflect on the mind of others as well as the self. In this introductory article to the special issue, we begin by discussing the need for and nature of translational research. We contend that translational research in mental health and personality disorder, in particular, lags behind that of other medical disorders because of the challenges inherent in meeting translational criteria. We discuss these criteria and we demonstrate the potential of the construct of mentalizing to meet translational criteria in the context of BPD. This article thereby provides the context for the other 3 papers in this special issue which each represent a different point along the translational spectrum. In all, our aim is to provide a foundation for the further evaluation of the usefulness and potential of mentalizing as translational construct in the context of BPD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. It's the "Person First" Then the Disability. PHP-C31

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the proper way to speak to or about someone who has a disability and why it is important to say it differently for a person with a disability. In speaking or writing, remember that children or adults with disabilities are like everyone else--except they happen to have a disability. This article offers a few tips for…

  16. Humility when responding to the abuse of adults with mental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Paul

    Legal theorists often reduce the ethics of responding to the abuse of another person to a clash between the principles of autonomy and protection. This reduction is a problem. Responding to suspected abuse requires humility - the potential responder must be aware of and respect their own limits - but humility cannot be usefully reduced to protection and autonomy. Using examples from the Court of Protection of England and Wales, this article examines the different ways that someone responding to abuse should respect their own limits, and suggests that a failure to do so will disproportionately affect people with mental disabilities. It is therefore necessary to attend to whether the law fosters humility among those who respond to abuse, although this must be tempered by humility about legal reform itself. Finally, the article shows how attention to humility can assist the interpretation of Article 16 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; and suggests that, so interpreted, the Convention may help to promote humility when responding to abuse. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 45 CFR 507.2 - Payments to persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments to persons under legal disability. 507.2... disability. Any awards or any part of an award payable under sections 5(i) and 6(f) of the Act to any person under legal disability may, in the discretion of the Commission, be certified for payment for the use of...

  18. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-08-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  19. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.

  20. The Refund of Social Insurance Contributions of Disabled Persons Conducting Non-agricultural Economic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Szabłowska-Juckiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Disabled persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity may apply for the refund of social insurance contributions from the State Fund for Rehabilitation of the Disabled Persons. The exception to the general rule of financing social insurance contributions of persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity by the insured persons themselves, entirely from their own funds, constitutes one of the instruments introduced by the law-maker to enhance vocational activation of disabled pe...

  1. Mapping Persons With Disabilities (PWDs In Indonesia Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Halimatussadiah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (PWD has recently attracted the attention of the Indonesian government. Several initiatives have been made to empower their life, especially the establishment of Act No. 8/2016 which enhances their right to inclusive economic activities. This study aims to map PWD in Indonesian labor market. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of employed and unemployed PWD. It explored Labor Force Survey (Sakernas, which began to concern on disability issue in 2016. The results show that PWD prevalence varies highly among provinces led by West Sumatera, East Nusa Tenggara, and South Sulawesi and that PWD has lower labor participation rate than that of PWOD. It may indicate the significant presence of discouraged workers among PWD.

  2. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  3. The association between psychotic experiences and disability: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Saha, Sukanta; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Chatterji, Somnath; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M.; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria E.; Ojagbemi, Akin; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McGrath, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Method Lifetime occurrences of 6 types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between PEs and high disability scores (top quartile) with various adjustments. Results Respondents with PEs were more likely to have top quartile scores on global disability than respondents without PEs (19.1% vs. 7.5%; χ2 = 190.1, pmental or general medical disorders. PMID:28542726

  4. Supportive Psychotherapy with the Dual Diagnosis Patient: Co-occurring Mental Illness/Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Jackson, Carroll S.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals can offer much in the care of patients with intellectual disabilities, including state-of-the-art medication regimens, psychotherapy, and other behavior therapies. Individuals with intellectual disabilities experience the full range of mental illnesses, but are often thought to be incapable of participating in or responding to psychotherapy. The following composite cases illustrate some of the psychotherapy techniques employed in a community...

  5. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin SAEIDINIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single  stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56 yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5% cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8% individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2% cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6% with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3% of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%, Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2% and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%. Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6% individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.

  6. Inclusion of People with Mental Retardation and other Developmental Disabilities in Communities of Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jeannine; Polloway, Edward A.; Smith, J. David

    2006-01-01

    Our focus in this paper is on efforts to include persons with developmental disabilities in faith communities. We provide a review of the relevant literature on religious participation and faith communities for persons with disabilities and blend the limited data available on these topics with the perspectives of individuals whose efforts focus on…

  7. Improving health care communication for persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D C; Wadsworth, J S

    1992-01-01

    There has been little effort directed at training health care professionals in behaviors and attitudes that are effective in communicating with persons with mental retardation. Such training would be beneficial not only to assist those with congenital cognitive deficits but for those with acquired central nervous system conditions as well, for example, dementia. Persons with mental retardation are living in community settings in greater numbers and increasingly participating in vocational, residential, and health care programs. Yet, most health care professionals are not routinely offered an opportunity to gain experience interacting with people who have limited ability to express and understand health care information. An education program was focused on health care professionals' use of basic communication skills when providing health information to an adult who is mentally retarded. A self-study instructional text and a 20-minute companion video provided methods of communicating with a patient with mental retardation in medical and dental care settings. Resident physicians, medical students, nurses, and nursing assistants improved their communication skills, knew more about mental retardation, and were more proactive in health care interviews following training. Health care training needs to incorporate educational opportunities focusing on skills to assist special populations. Brief, structured, and interactive skill training in communication offered early in the health care professional's career has positive benefits for the recipient and the provider.

  8. Role of common mental and physical disorders in partial disability around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Demyttenaere, Koen; Alonso, Jordi; AlHamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Varghese, Matthew; Williams, David R.; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Background Mental and physical disorders are associated with total disability, but their effects on days with partial disability (i.e. the ability to perform some, but not full-role, functioning in daily life) are not well understood. Aims To estimate individual (i.e. the consequences for an

  9. Violent Video Games and the Military: Recruitment, Training, and Treating Mental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to the small collection of art education studies on video games (Parks, 2008; Patton, 2013; Sweeny, 2010) by critically examining the association between violent video games, the U.S. military, and mental disability--from a critical disability studies perspective. Derby overviews the controversies surrounding violent video games…

  10. Investigation of medical board reports of disability due to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yildiz

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We think that this report might be helpful for regulations related to disabled people, and might guide adult psychiatric services for patients who present to medical boards for disability due to mental health problems. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 253-258

  11. UNITED NATION CONVENTION AND ISLAMIC APPROACH ON THE RIGHT OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Azmin Mokhtar; Ikmal Hisham Md Tah

    2017-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, either acquired or developed at some stages of his life due to factors such as injury and disease, are still a person with the same legal status and rights as individuals who do not have any disability. This paper, through conceptual and doctrinal analysis, explores the similarities and differences between human rights based’s approach and Shariah’s approach towards people with disability. People with disability have equal right to live and to have a noble livelihoo...

  12. Co-occurring mental disorder and intellectual disability in a large sample of Australian prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Shannon; Ware, Robert S; Kinner, Stuart A; Lennox, Nicholas G

    2013-10-01

    Prisoners with intellectual disability who have a coexisting mental health issue often have unmet health needs and are more likely to reoffend than those with intellectual disability alone. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of co-occurring mental disorder among prisoners with intellectual disability and to explore the association between intellectual disability and mental disorder. Cross-sectional study of adult prisoners within 6 weeks of release from custody in seven prisons in Queensland, Australia between August 2008 and July 2010. Intellectual disability was assessed using a practical composite screening tool. Prisoners who scored prisoners completed the HASI: 316 (24%) scored below the recommended cut off for further diagnostic assessment of intellectual disability, 181 (14%) reported attending a special school, and 56 (4%) reported that they had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. On our composite measure, 115 (9%) participants were identified as having an intellectual disability. Among prisoners with intellectual disability, the estimated lifetime and current prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders was 52.5% (95% CI 43.3-61.5) and 37.2% (95% CI 28.8-46.5), respectively. Of those with intellectual disability, 13.5% (95% CI 8.3-21.1) reported very high psychological distress, as measured by the K10. Prisoners with intellectual disability were significantly more likely than their non-disabled peers to report a current diagnosis of depression [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.2] or substance dependence (AOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6-8.4], after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Prisoners with intellectual disability were also significantly more likely than their non-disabled peers to use antipsychotic medication (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Prisoners with an intellectual disability were more likely than their non-disabled peers to have elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidity and unmet treatment needs. There

  13. Mental disorders among persons with arthritis: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Zhang, M; Lin, E H B; Bruffaerts, R; Posada-Villa, J; Angermeyer, M C; Levinson, D; de Girolamo, G; Uda, H; Mneimneh, Z; Benjet, C; de Graaf, R; Scott, K M; Gureje, O; Seedat, S; Haro, J M; Bromet, E J; Alonso, J; von Korff, M; Kessler, R

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies in the USA have reported higher rates of mental disorders among persons with arthritis but no cross-national studies have been conducted. In this study the prevalence of specific mental disorders among persons with arthritis was estimated and their association with arthritis across diverse countries assessed. The study was a series of cross-sectional population sample surveys. Eighteen population surveys of household-residing adults were carried out in 17 countries in different regions of the world. Most were carried out between 2001 and 2002, but others were completed as late as 2007. Mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Arthritis was ascertained by self-report. The association of anxiety disorders, mood disorders and alcohol use disorders with arthritis was assessed, controlling for age and sex. Prevalence rates for specific mental disorders among persons with and without arthritis were calculated and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the association. After adjusting for age and sex, specific mood and anxiety disorders occurred among persons with arthritis at higher rates than among persons without arthritis. Alcohol abuse/dependence showed a weaker and less consistent association with arthritis. The pooled estimates of the age- and sex-adjusted ORs were about 1.9 for mood disorders and for anxiety disorders and about 1.5 for alcohol abuse/dependence among persons with versus without arthritis. The pattern of association between specific mood and anxiety disorders and arthritis was similar across countries. Mood and anxiety disorders occur with greater frequency among persons with arthritis than those without arthritis across diverse countries. The strength of association of specific mood and anxiety disorders with arthritis was generally consistent across disorders and across countries.

  14. Chronic Pain Among Homeless Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Marc; Frank, Anastasia; Choi, Fiona; Strehlau, Verena; Nikoo, Nooshin; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian; Krausz, Michael R; Schütz, Christian G

    2017-12-01

    Chronic pain is an important public health issue. However, characteristics and needs of marginalized populations have received limited attention. Studies on prevalence and correlates of chronic pain among homeless persons are lacking. We assessed chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness in the At Home/Chez Soi study. Cross-sectional data from a randomized controlled trial on homelessness and mental health. Data collected between 2009 and 2013 in three Canadian cities. One thousand two hundred eighty-seven homeless persons with mental illness. Data on chronic pain and utilization of prescribed and nonprescribed interventions was assessed using a chronic pain screening instrument. Mental illness was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Forty-three percent reported moderate to severe chronic pain, interfering with general daily activities (80%), sleep (78%), and social interactions (61%). Multivariate analysis indicated that increasing age and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mood disorder with psychotic features, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were independent predictors of chronic pain. Chronic pain was further associated with increased suicidality. Among participants reporting chronic pain, 64% had sought medical treatment and 56% treated pain with prescribed drugs, while 38% used illicit drugs for pain relief. Chronic pain is very common among homeless persons with mental illness and affects activities of daily living. Clinicians treating this population should be aware of the common connections between chronic pain, depression, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. While the data indicate the contribution of chronic pain to complex treatment needs, they also indicate a clear treatment gap. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  16. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent and respond to violence against persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Maguire, Holly; Shakespeare, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Persons with disabilities make up some 15% of the world's population and are at higher risk of violence. Yet there is currently no systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent violence against them. Thus the aim of this review was to systematically search for, appraise the quality of, and synthesize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to prevent and mitigate the consequences of all the main forms of interpersonal violence against people with all types of disabilities. The method used consisted of searches of eleven electronic databases, hand searches of three journals, scanning of reference lists of review articles, contact with experts, appraisal of risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and narrative synthesis of results. This resulted in 736 titles being identified, 10 of which met the inclusion criteria and 6 and 2 addressed people with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities, respectively. Only one was from a low- and middle-income country. All studies received a weak rating on the quality assessment tool and none could be considered effective after taking risk of bias into account. In sum, the current evidence base offers little guidance to policy makers, program commissioners, and persons with disabilities for selecting interventions. More and higher quality research is required, particularly from low- and middle-income countries and on other forms of disability such as physical impairments, sensory impairments, and mental health conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Sickness allowance histories among disability retirees due to mental disorders: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Blomgren, Jenni; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to describe sickness allowance histories before disability retirement due to mental disorders and to examine whether receiving sickness allowance due to mental disorders and somatic conditions predicts future disability retirement. Pre-retirement sickness allowance histories were traced backwards for 7 years among Finnish residents aged 25-64 years who had retired due to mental disorders in 2011 (n=5.544). For each retiree, five sex- and age-matched controls were drawn from the non-retired population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk for disability retirement by sickness allowance history and to control for the effects of educational level, social class, marital status and the urbanisation level of the municipality. The proportion of sickness allowance recipients increased steadily during the years preceding disability retirement, and was highest among those who retired due to bipolar disorders or depression. Those who had received sickness allowance due to mental disorders 6-7 years earlier had 6.5 times higher risk and those with sickness allowance 1-2 years earlier 11.7 times higher risk for disability retirement. Sickness allowance due to somatic conditions increased the risk for disability retirement 1.6-1.9 times. Sickness allowance most strongly predicted retirement due to bipolar disorders and depression. Adjustment for covariates had little effect. Those who retired due to mental disorders more often had sickness allowance due to both mental disorders and somatic conditions, but in particular sickness allowance due to mental disorders predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Community participation of persons with disabilities: volunteering, donations and involvement in groups and organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site

  19. Sibling Voices: The Self-Reported Mental Health of Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Minett, Belinda; Kapoor, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the experiences and well-being of siblings growing up with a brother or sister with a disability in Australia. However, research to date has primarily obtained parent reports of sibling adjustment and mental health. Therefore, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to report on the mental health…

  20. Implications of State Policy Changes on Mental Health Service Models for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…

  1. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children

  2. The association between psychotic experiences and disability : Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Mateu, F.; Alonso, J.; Lim, C. C. W.; Saha, S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Chatterji, S.; Degenhardt, L.; de Girolamo, G.; de Jonge, P.; Fayyad, J.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Hu, C.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ojagbemi, A.; Pennell, B. -E.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Stagnaro, J. C.; Xavier, M.; Kendler, K. S.; Kessler, R. C.; McGrath, J. J.

    Objective: While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Method: Lifetime

  3. Families of Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Comorbid Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the families of individuals dually diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) and comorbid mental health problems. The review examines the impact of caring for individuals with ID and comorbid mental health problems on family well-being, the impact of the family on these individuals, and intervention and support needs of…

  4. The Mental Health Condition of Manufacturing Front-line Workers: The Interrelationship of Personal Resources, Professional Tasks and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.

  5. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  6. Housing as an intervention on hospital use: access among chronically homeless persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    2010-12-01

    A study examining demographics and hospital utilization for chronically homeless persons with disabilities was conducted at pre-housing enrollment and at 6 months post-housing. Of the 20 participants, 70% (n = 14) were Black American and 30% (n = 6) were White; 100% (n = 20) were non-Hispanic; 90% (n = 18) were men; 40% (n = 8) were veterans; Median years since last permanent housing and total homelessness were 7 and 10.5 respectively. The following increases were observed: employment (0 to 1); income (20%, n = 4 to 35%, n = 7); primary care (25%, n = 5 to 95%, n = 19); and mental health service use (25%, n = 5 to 60%, n = 12). Known disabilities included HIV (15%, n = 3); hepatitis C (45%, n = 9); mental illness (60%, n = 12) and substance abuse (80%, n = 16) with 45% (n = 9) dually diagnosed. Over the course of the study, Emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalization use decreased. While these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.31, respectively), they translate to an estimated $250,208 savings.

  7. Hallucinations in borderline personality disorder and common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan E

    2017-03-01

    Hallucinations are classically associated with psychotic disorders. Recent research, however, has highlighted that hallucinations frequently occur outside of the context of psychosis. Despite this, to our knowledge, there has been no epidemiological research to compare the prevalence of hallucinations across common mental disorders with the prevalence in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey ( n = 7403), we investigated the prevalence of hallucinations in individuals with a range of mental disorders and BPD. Hallucinations were prevalent in all disorders (range 11-24%). Hallucinations were no more prevalent in individuals with BPD (13.7%) than in individuals with a (non-psychotic) mental disorder (12.6%) (χ 2 = 0.03, P = 0.92). © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  8. Thirty-Day Mortality After Infection Among Persons With Severe Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Vestergaard, Mogens; Katon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persons with severe mental illness die 15-20 years earlier on average than persons without severe mental illness. Although infection is one of the leading overall causes of death, no studies have evaluated whether persons with severe mental illness have a higher mortality after infection...... than those without. METHOD: The authors studied mortality rate ratios and cumulative mortality proportions after an admission for infection for persons with severe mental illness compared with persons without severe mental illness by linking data from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The cohort...... consisted of all persons hospitalized for infection during the period 1995-2011 in Denmark (N=806,835), of whom 11,343 persons had severe mental illness. Within 30 days after an infection, 1,052 (9.3%) persons with a history of severe mental illness and 58,683 (7.4%) persons without a history of severe...

  9. The conception of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...

  10. 'Your experiences were your tools'. How personal experience of mental health problems informs mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool

  11. Borderline personality disorder and mental healthcare service use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, L; Jeannot, M; Rodgers, R; Guelfi, J D; Perez-Diaz, F; Pham-Scottez, A; Corcos, M; Speranza, M

    2013-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is believed to be frequent among adolescents. While several prospective studies have assessed the use of mental health services among adults who suffer from BPD, few studies have provided adolescent data. This paper presents findings from the first assessment point of the European Research Network on Borderline Personality Disorder (EURNET BPD) study. In this study, we describe lifetime treatment utilization for 85 adolescents with BPD (Mean age: 16.3 years old). In line with adult findings, adolescents with BPD reported greater mental healthcare service use (outpatient: 98%; inpatient: 79%) compared to controls. Phenothiazine, a sedative neuroleptic, was the most frequently prescribed treatment. 47% of patients had received psychotherapy; in one our of three cases this was psychodynamic therapy. Patients who had received psychotherapy did not differ on any psychopathological variables from those who did not receive psychotherapy; however, psychotherapy was more frequent among females.

  12. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  13. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in an... professional that an individual's previous emotional, mental, or personality disorder is cured, under control...

  14. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  15. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E

    2015-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143

  17. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  18. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  19. Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-11-06

    Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived needs, self-reported health and disability among displaced persons during an armed conflict in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Suraj Bahadur; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-04-01

    Most internally displaced persons (IDPs) live in low-income countries and have experienced war. Few studies have assessed their psychosocial needs and disability. We carried out a comprehensive assessment of perceived needs, self-reported health, and disability among IDPs in Nepal and examined factors associated with disability. A cross-sectional survey among 290 IDPs in Nepal was conducted between June and July 2003. We used the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule-II (WHO-DAS II) with additional local items to assess disability symptoms and a separate checklist to identify their perceived needs. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-25), while the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Different perceived needs such as financial help (70%), housing (40%), food and education for their children (20%) were expressed by the IDPs. Self-reported health status was strongly associated with distress and disability scores. Factors independently associated with disability were higher age, self-reported health, depression, anxiety but not PTSD. There was good correlation between WHO-DAS II and the locally identified items of disability measurement. The reporting of findings only about psychiatric symptoms is insufficient in studying the mental health of displaced and potentially traumatized populations living in low-income countries. Assessments of perceived needs and factors associated with disability give a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying needs among crisis populations, and this can inform intervention programs. Depression and anxiety should be treated effectively to avoid disability.

  1. Appreciating the work of nurses caring for adults with intellectual disability and mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a study exploring the nurses' experience of caring for adults with intellectual disability and mental health issues in inpatient settings. Semi structured interviews were undertaken with 13 nurses from various regions of New Zealand. Methods suggested by an Appreciative Inquiry methodology were used to explore the nurses' positive experiences of their role. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Contextualising behaviour', 'Communication', 'Confidence to care' and 'Time'. Participants reflected upon their experiences offering personal interpretations in identifying the aspects of nursing that mattered and that worked. What is shown is that nurses were able to describe a range of creative and adaptive ways of nursing in responding to numerous complex factors they faced in their roles. This suggests a strong foundation on which to advance nursing care in this field. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. PMID:25997381

  3. The Experience of Stress and Personal Growth among Grandparents of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the contribution of internal and external resources to stress and personal growth among grandparents of children with and without an intellectual disability. Ninety-four grandparents of children with intellectual disability and 105 grandparents of children without intellectual disability completed the…

  4. Japanese Laws and Policies Concerning Persons with Disabilities: To Develop a Normalized Society through Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, since the Tokyo Paralympics and the National Sports Games for the Disabled were held, public awareness was heightened towards the issue of disability. In 1970, a law which was to ensure that persons with disabilities could participate in recreational, sports and cultural activities was passed. The Japanese government has implemented…

  5. Communicating about Disability: Attitudes and Preferences of Persons with Physical Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, David; Edwards, Tom

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed physically disabled persons to learn their opinions and preferences with regard to self-disclosure as a stigma management strategy. Results revealed that disabled subjects were frequently open to disclosing, but did not often ask about the disabilities of others or feel more at ease themselves after disclosing. (Author/NB)

  6. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...

  7. The Meaning and Predictive Value of Self-rated Mental Health among Persons with a Mental Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry

    2018-02-01

    Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.

  8. Effects of systematic mental intervention on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-zhen WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods  Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results  The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion  Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.

  9. Enabling Disabled Persons to Gain Access to Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Glenn; OGrady, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user's head movements and eye blinks into cursor movements and mouse clicks to enable hands-free control of the computer.) To accommodate large variations in movement capabilities among disabled individuals, one of the enhancements was the addition of a graphical user interface for selection of parameters that affect the way the software interacts with the computer and tracks the user s movements. Tracking algorithms were improved to reduce sensitivity to rotations and reduce the likelihood of tracking the wrong features. Visual feedback to the user was improved to provide an indication of the state of the computer system. It was found that users can quickly learn to use the enhanced software, performing single clicks, double clicks, and drags within minutes of first use. Available programs that could increase the usability of NaviGaze were identified. One of these enables entry of text by using NaviGaze as a mouse to select keys on a virtual keyboard.

  10. Health Policy for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Experiences from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Halperin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a life-long disability characterized by impaired cognitive and adaptive skills. Over the past few decades, a shift has occurred in the conceptualization and treatment of people with ID and research in health policy and health-care delivery has become increasingly global with a notable disparity between the developed and developing world. This review presents a literature overview of global health policy for ID with the intent to focus specifically on the policy and treatment within Israel. The methodology involved sites visits to care centers, discussions with stakeholders in health policy, and a literature review. We believe that Israel is in a unique position between a developed and developing culture. In particular, the distinct problems faced by the Arab and Bedouin community in terms of ID must be formally accounted for in Israel's future policies. Research from the developing world would be instructive to this end. The global approach in this presentation led to certain policy recommendations that take into account the uniqueness of Israel's position from a social, economic, religious, and demographic perspective. It is the hope that this paper will lead to an increased awareness of the challenges faced by persons with ID and their providers in all sectors of Israeli society and that the necessary policy recommendations will ultimately be adopted.

  11. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Neto, José Pereira; dos Santos, Fabiano de Sant'Ana; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Scannavino, Fábio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Alex Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity. PMID:26266071

  12. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Novo-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity.

  13. Morse code recognition system with fuzzy algorithm for disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-M; Luo, C-H

    2002-01-01

    It is generally known that Morse code is an efficient input method for one or two switches and it is made from long and short sounds separated by silence between the sounds. The long-to-short ratio in the definition is always 3 to 1, but the long-to-short ratio variation for a disabled person is so large that it is difficult to recognize. In the last few years, several Morse code recognition methods have been successfully built on the LMS adaptive algorithms and neural network algorithm. But LMS-related adaptive algorithms need mass computation to infer the characteristic of the controller; also the neural network must learn first, by inputting some data before it is used to recognize the Morse code sequence. In this study, two fuzzy algorithms are used to recognize the unstable Morse code sequences and the result demonstrates a significant improvement of recognition for real time signal processing in a single-chip microprocessor.

  14. The Intellectual Disabled (Mentally Impaired) in the Inclusive Type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The schools are responsible for providing appropriate education and many teachers and parents' feels that inclusion of intellectual disabled in their educational system will make the intellectual disabled feel as a part of the society and will make others understand them better in their special needs and capabilities.

  15. Family impact in intellectual disability, severe mental health disorders and mental health disorders in ID. A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Almudena; Gutiérrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazábal, Marcia; Marsà, Ferrán; García, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with intellectual disability clients of the Carmen Pardo-Valcarce Foundation's sheltered workshops and vocational employment programmes in Madrid (Spain), 203 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from four Spanish Community Mental Health Services (Barcelona, Madrid, Granada and Navarra) and 90 adults with mental health problems in ID (MH-ID) from the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu Health Care Site in Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain) were asked to participate in the present study along with their main caregivers. Family impact experienced by caregivers was assessed with the ECFOS-II/SOFBI-II scale (Entrevista de Carga Familiar Objetiva y Subjetiva/Objective and Subjective Family Burden Interview). In global terms, results showed that the higher family impact was found between caregivers to people with MH-ID. The interaction of both conditions (ID and mental health problems) results in a higher degree of burden on families than when both conditions are presented separately. There was also an impact in caregivers to people with schizophrenia, this impact being higher than the one detected in caregivers to people with intellectual disability. Needs of caregivers to people with disability should be addressed specifically in order to effectively support families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital mental health and intellectual disabilities: state of the evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-11-01

    The use of digital technologies in the management of mental illness, and more generally in the promotion of well-being and mental health, has received much recent attention and is a focus of current health policy. We conducted a narrative review to explore the opportunities and risks of digital technologies in mental healthcare specifically for people with intellectual disability, a sometimes marginalised and socially excluded group. The scope of digital mental health is vast and the promise of cheaper and more effective interventions delivered digitally is attractive. People with intellectual disability experience high rates of mental illness and could benefit from the development of novel therapies, yet seem to have been relatively neglected in the discourse around digital mental health and are often excluded from the development and implementation of new interventions. People with intellectual disability encounter several barriers to fully embracing digital technology, which may be overcome with appropriate support and adaptations. A small, but growing, literature attests to the value of incorporating digital technologies into the lives of people with intellectual disability, not only for promoting health but also for enhancing educational, vocational and leisure opportunities. Clearly further evidence is needed to establish the safety and clinical efficacy of digital mental health interventions for people with and without intellectual disability. A digital inclusion strategy that explicitly addresses the needs of people with intellectual disability would ensure that all can share the benefits of the digital world. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations about fitness to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J T; Davis, F J; Wardale, S; Vassos, M; van Dooren, K; Nankervis, K; Lennox, N G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the socio-demographic, clinical and legal determinants of mental health court decisions of unsoundness of mind and unfitness to stand trial for people with cognitive disability. We aimed to estimate the association between severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations of unsoundness or unfitness and describe the socio-demographic, clinical and legal factors that predict these determinations. Case file data were extracted on 92 individuals who had a criminal case referred to the Queensland Mental Health Court between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 due to cognitive disability. We fit a modified multivariable Poisson regression model to estimate the association between severity of cognitive impairment and mental health court determination, controlling for socio-demographic, clinical and legal factors. Adjusting for covariate effects, severity of cognitive impairment was positively associated with being found unfit to stand trial (adjusted prevalence risk ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 2.33; P = 0.023), and comorbid psychotic disorder predicted an increased risk of being found unsound of mind at the time of offence (adjusted prevalence risk ratio = 3.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.38, 9.54; P = 0.009) by the Queensland Mental Health Court. Severity of cognitive disability is associated with determinations of unfitness but does not predict determinations of unsoundness in the Queensland Mental Health Court. Psychiatric assessments of cognitive impairment play a pivotal role in mental health court determinations for people with cognitive disability. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Complete mental health in adult siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Madeleine; Taylor, Amanda; Roberts, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Sibling relationships have lifelong significance and childhood chronic illness and disability can have considerable impacts on healthy siblings, influencing development into adulthood. Research has not yet assessed well-being in this population using measures of both mental health and mental illness. Thus, this study assessed well-being in a comprehensive manner using the complete mental health (CMH) model. Participants (N = 144) included both adult siblings of those with chronic illness or disability and adults with healthy siblings. Measures of positive social, psychological and emotional well-being were used to assess mental health and a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress was used to assess mental illness. A high proportion of participants, both with and without siblings with a chronic illness or disability, were experiencing symptoms of mental illness, accompanied by high wellbeing. This indicates that many participants fit into the struggling category of the CMH model. The present research highlights the need for early intervention services to ensure that siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability are well supported in developing strengths, as well as managing difficulties. Results also indicate that targeting students in mental health promotion is important to encourage participation in services. Implications for rehabilitation Siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability need to be included in assessments in order to understand the experience of the family unit. It is important for families and clinicians to be aware of the needs of healthy siblings and encourage them to interact with support services in order to maximise and maintain well-being. Skills-based support could be beneficial, particularly for providing caregivers with strategies to meet the needs of both their child with a chronic illness or disability and their healthy children.

  19. Does social support modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health? A longitudinal study of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Kavanagh, Anne Marie; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Milner, Allison

    2017-10-01

    Disability acquisition in adulthood is associated with deterioration in mental health. Social support may act as a "buffer" against poor mental health following disability acquisition. We tested the hypothesis that women and men with low social support experienced larger declines in mental health on acquisition of a disability compared to women and men with high social support. We assessed whether social support, measured both prior and subsequent to disability acquisition, modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health using 14 annual waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (2200 participants, 15,724 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to estimate average differences in mental health between waves with and without disability, for women and men separately. We tested for effect measure modification of the association by social support, including a three-way interaction between disability and social support prior and subsequent to disability acquisition. Though the effects of disability acquisition on mental health were much larger for women, for both women and men there was a consistent pattern of association with social support. There was evidence that social support modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health, with the largest effects for those experiencing a change from high to low social support subsequent to disability and for people with consistently low social support. These findings highlight the importance of developing new policy and practice strategies to improve the mental health of people with disabilities, including interventions to promote social support at the time of disability acquisition.

  20. Burden of care for persons with disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Nguyen Thuy; Dung, Pham; Wright, E Pamela

    2014-11-01

    Vietnam has more than 6 million persons with disabilities (PWD), or 7.8% of the population. To provide better services for them, it is important to investigate the care they currently receive, and to obtain evidence on the health outcomes from that care. This study aimed to estimate the quality of life and functional status of a group of PWD in Vietnam and the cost of care they receive. This was an analytical study exploring the time and cost of informal care, the cost of illness (prevalence-based, patient perspective), quality of life using EuroQoL and functional status using the Barthel Index. The sample was selected from urban and rural areas of Quang Tri province in Central Vietnam, using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews, and in a 1-month diary recorded during July-August 2010 for summer and in December 2010 for winter. The costs are presented in 2010 USD values. The data were analysed by descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistics to summarise and explore the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The study sample included 210 PWD, with an average age of 38 years and duration of disability on average 26 years. The health-related quality of life measured in terms of the health utility score (0 = death, 1 = full health) was on average 0.44 and 0.39 in summer and winter respectively. The total cost of illness per year per case was USD 971 (83% of gross domestic product per capita); explanatory variables were the age of the PWD, receiving community-based rehabilitation, receiving government support and the severity of the disability. This illustrates the importance of services and support for reduction of the economic burden on the family. In conclusion, the results of this study provide information on the burden caused by disabilities in rural and urban households in Vietnam. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increasing earnings of social security disability income beneficiaries with serious mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkever, David S; Gibbons, Brent; Drake, Robert E; Frey, William D; Hale, Thomas W; Karakus, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    Persons with severe and persistent mental disorders (SPMD) have extremely low earnings levels and account for 29.1 percent of all U.S. Social Security Disability Income (SSDI) disabled worker beneficiaries under age 50. Social insurance and disability policy experts pointed to several factors that may contribute to this situation, including disincentives and obstacles in the SSDI program, as well as lack of access to evidence-based behavioral-health interventions. In response, the Social Security Administration (SSA) funded the Mental Health Treatment Study (MHTS) demonstration that included 2,238 beneficiaries of SSDI whose primary reason for disability is SPMD. The demonstration, implemented in 23 different localities, consisted of two evidence-based services (individual placement and support supported employment (IPS-SE), systematic medication management (SMM)), and provision or coverage of additional behavioral-health services (OBH). This study focused on estimating MHTS intervention effects on earnings in the intervention period (two-years). The main outcome variable was self-reported average monthly earnings. Subjects were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Data were drawn from the baseline survey, seven follow-up quarterly surveys, a final follow-up survey, and SSA administrative data. In all surveys, respondents were asked about earnings prior to the interview. Dependent variables were average past-30-days earnings reported in all follow-up surveys, similar averages for the first four follow-ups and for the last four follow-ups, fraction of surveys with prior earnings above SSA's substantial gainful activity (SGA) threshold, and final-follow-up earnings for the past 90 days. Regression analyses compared earnings of intervention vs. control group subjects. Covariates included baseline values of: (i) beneficiary demographic and social characteristics; (ii) beneficiary physical and mental health indicators; (iii) beneficiary recipiency

  2. Mental Health in Rural Caregivers of Persons With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Werntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal caregiving for dementia is common and often affects caregiver mental health. In addition to typical stressors faced by caregivers of persons with dementia (PWDs, rural caregivers often face additional stressors associated with living in more remote locations; unfortunately, this group is largely understudied. Ninety-three caregiver–PWD dyads completed measures of social support, perceived control, self-efficacy, burden, and cognitive functioning. Measures of PWD activities of daily living and mental functioning were also collected. These variables were hypothesized to predict caregiver self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Contrary to predictions, only caregiving-related self-efficacy and caregiver burden predicted the caregiver’s mental health. Future interventions for improving rural caregiver self-reported mental health should target cognitions associated with caregiving self-efficacy and caregiver burden. Health care providers for rural families should focus on ways to reduce feelings of caregiver burden and provide caregivers with useful skills and tools for caregiving.

  3. A Theoretical Framework for Studying Media Portrayal of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clogston, John S.

    Arguing that little research has been done on media portrayals of persons with disabilities, this paper reviews mass communication content studies of media portrayal of women and blacks in terms of deviance and minority group theories, and also reviews studies of media treatment of persons with disabilities from the rehabilitation and education…

  4. Keeping Them Happy: Job Satisfaction, Personality, and Attitudes toward Disability in Predicting Counselor Job Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emily R.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Jobe, Brian M.

    2006-01-01

    Employee retention was studied in 48 counselors working at a summer camp for children and adults with disabilities. We hypothesized that attitudes toward persons with disabilities, personality characteristics of counselors, job satisfaction, and previous counselor experience would predict whether counselors would elect to return to work the…

  5. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  6. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  7. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S. de; Freriksen, E.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students’ attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and

  8. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-08-07

    Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. A cohort of 36304 non-retired individuals aged 16-64 years at 31.12.2004 with at-least one sickness absence spell due to stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) initiated in 2005 in Sweden was followed-up with regard to disability pension (2006-2010) by linkage of registers. Uni- and multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, were estimated using Cox regression for several risk markers. During the follow-up period, 2735 individuals (7.5%) were granted a disability pension, predominantly due to mental diagnoses (n = 2004, 73.3%). In the multivariate analyses, female sex, age exceeding 35 years, low educational level, being born in a country outside EU25 and Northern Europe, residing outside big cities, living alone, having had a long duration of the first spell due to SRMD (>90 days); mental disorders necessitating frequent specialised health care as well as comorbid somatic disorders were found to be predictive of granting disability pension. Some different patterns emerged for risk factors related to diagnosis-specific disability pension and for younger and older individuals. Several predictors could be identified as risk markers for disability pension. The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation.

  9. Nursing in family environment: caring for person in mental suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the experience of nursing care to person in mental suffering (PMS in the family context. Developed by nursing academic during home attendance, in the 2008.2 semester. The results showed that: is undeniable the family function of the PMS care, becoming the main partner of the heath teams, the care in the perspective of psychosocial rehabilitation influences the attitudes, patterns of response and participation in treatment, resulting in the empowerment of PMS and family. It’s concluded that home attendance contributes to the process of psychosocial rehabilitation of the PMS and assessment of mental health services, subsidizing the formulation of public policies for the sector, especially, in regard to care in perspective of the whole human life.

  10. Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-05-01

    Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stigmatization towards persons with mental and intellectual difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with mental and intellectual difficulties are the most stigmatized social groups of all. Consequences of stigma towards these people present themselves in a wide range including social withdrawal; feelings of loneliness; low self-esteem; failure to take care of oneself; avoidance of seeking help; low enrolment in any kind of treatment; financial poverty and total social marginalization. Although most of the attempts to overcome stigmatization towards this population have shown a very pessimistic perspective, it is important to overcome our own helplessness in treating this issue and continue with the efforts to combat stigma. The only way to succeed is through continuous and careful analysis of the factors that contribute to a human tendency to stigmatize that could then be utilized as the ground base in development of mechanisms to battle this issue. This paper summarizes ways that the stigmatization of persons with mental and intellectual difficulties is manifested as well as the negative influences it has on the people who are stigmatized. Factors that contribute to the stigmatization of persons are carefully considered, as well as possible mechanisms that could be utilized as part of efforts to combat stigma.

  12. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  13. The "long arm" of childhood health: linking childhood disability to late midlife mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kenzie

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research underscores the early origins of health in later life; however, relatively little is known about the relationship between childhood physical health and adult mental health. This research explores the relationship between childhood disability and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of late midlife adults (N = 3,572). Using data from Waves 8-10 (2006-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study, a series of ordinary least squares regression models were created to assess the number of depressive symptoms. Childhood disability was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms; however, late midlife social and health factors accounted for differences between those with and without childhood disability. Late midlife physical health appeared to be a particularly salient mediator. Individuals who experience childhood disability may accumulate more physical impairment over the life course, thus experiencing worse mental health such as greater depressive symptoms in late midlife. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Mental disorders among persons with heart disease - results from World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Von Korff, Michael; Burger, Huibert; Scott, Kate; Demyttenaere, Koen; Huang, Yue-qin; Posada-Villa, José; Pierre Lepine, Jean; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kawakami, Norito; Karam, Elie; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Gureje, Oye; Williams, David; Haro, Josep Maria; Bromet, Evelyn J; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ron

    2007-01-01

    While depression and heart disease often co-occur in Western countries, less is known about the association of anxiety and alcohol use disorders with heart disease and about the cross-cultural consistency of this association. Consistency across emotional disorders and cultures would suggest that relatively universal mechanisms underlie the association. Surveys with 18 random population samples of household-residing adults in 17 countries in Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the South Pacific were carried out. Medically recognized heart disease was ascertained by self-report. Mental disorders were assessed with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured diagnostic interview. Specific mood and anxiety disorders occurred among persons with heart disease at rates higher than those among persons without heart disease. Adjusted for sex and age, the pooled odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.1 (1.9-2.5) for mood disorders, 2.2 (1.9-2.5) for anxiety disorders and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) for alcohol abuse/dependence among persons with versus those without heart disease. These patterns were similar across countries. An excess of anxiety disorders and that of mood disorders are found among persons with heart disease. These associations hold true across countries despite substantial between-country differences in culture and mental disorder prevalence rates. These results suggest that similar mechanisms underlie the association and that a broad spectrum of mood-anxiety disorders should be considered in research on the comorbidity of mental disorders and heart disease.

  15. Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Pelicioni, Americo Focesi; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti de; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2010-08-01

    To analyze the use of medicines and the main therapeutic groups consumed by persons with physical, hearing and visual disabilities. A cross-sectional study was performed, where data from the 2002 Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP - São Paulo State Multicenter Health Survey), as well as the 2003 Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital - City of São Paulo Health Survey), Southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. Respondents who reported having disabilities were studied, according to variables that comprise the database: geographic area, gender, income, age group, ethnic group, use of medicines and types of drugs consumed. The percentage of use of drugs by persons with disabilities was 62.8% among the visually impaired; 60.2% among the hearing impaired; and 70.1% among the persons with physical disabilities. Individuals with physical disabilities consumed 20% more medications than non-disabled ones. Among persons with visual disabilities, the most frequently consumed drugs were diuretics, agents of the renin-angiotensin system and analgesics. Persons with hearing disabilities used more analgesics and agents of the renin-angiotensin system. Among those with physical disabilities, analgesics, antithrombotics and agents of the renin-angiotensin system were the most frequently consumed medicines. There was a greater use of medicines among persons with disabilities than non-disabled ones. Persons with physical disabilities were those who most consumed medicines, followed by the visually impaired and the hearing impaired.

  16. Uninsured persons with disability confront substantial barriers to health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2011-10-01

    Despite social "safety net" programs, many U.S. residents with disabilities lack insurance coverage and thus risk financial barriers to accessing care. The study objectives were to characterize working-age adults with disabilities who lack health insurance and to examine their self-reported barriers to care. The authors conducted analyses of nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2000 through 2006. During this time period, 14.8% of working-age U.S. residents lacked health insurance, including 11.6% of persons with disabilities. Focusing only on uninsured individuals, persons with disabilities were significantly (p = .001) more likely than those without disabilities to have a usual source of care. However, on 6 other access measures (those that comprised our composite indicator of access barriers), uninsured persons with disabilities reported barriers significantly (p = .001) more often than did individuals without disabilities: 36.0% of uninsured persons with disabilities reported being unable to get necessary medical care, compared with 9.5% of uninsured, nondisabled persons; and 26.9% of uninsured persons with disabilities reported being unable to get necessary medications, compared with 5.3% of uninsured individuals without disabilities. Having a cognitive impairment produced the largest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of reporting any access barrier (1.64, 95% CI 144-1.87), while having lower body functional limitations or hearing deficits also produced relatively high AORs (1.47, 1.32-1.65 and 1.48, 1.11-1.98, respectively). Uninsured individuals with disabilities confront significantly more barriers to accessing care than do nondisabled persons without health insurance. Certain types of disabilities appear especially associated with experiencing access barriers, suggesting areas requiring particular attention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparing for the European Championships: A six-step mental skills training program in disability sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case example and six-step mental-skills training program for high-performance athletes in disability sports. Starting out with a basic description about applied sport psychology in disability sports, the author proceeds to describe the mental skills training program...... with the woman's national goalball team in Denmark (high-performance athletes with visual impairment). The author provides a detailed description of six steps from initiation of the program, group sessions, and action plans, to on-court training and evaluation of the program across six months, and finishes...

  18. ersonal smart travel agent for empowering persons with disabilities using public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn SCHLINGENSIEPEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today's public transport is not easy to use by people having mental problems or those who are disabled. Traffic planning today is powered by online time tables calculating the optimal way to use public transport in terms of time and costs. Therefore usually a graph representing the public transport network is set up and algorithms taken from graph theory or operations research are used to find optimal routes. This is not suitable for a group of travellers having constraints in using vehicles, vehicle types or particular stations for health reasons. On the other hand, since most of those people are not able to drive a car on their own, making public transport available and moreover easily usable enable these people to improve their mobility and their quality of life in general. This paper shows an approach developed within the mobile project funded by The German Federal Ministry of economy and energy that allows supporting this group of users during a travel using public transport and undertaking personal constraints in route planning. This allows getting personalized advice during travel and while travel planning. This is implemented by generation of a second graph representing the public transport network not in dimension of time and costs but in preferences and dislike of a given traveller. The second graph is an overlay to the standard graph to get a personalized graph that allows finding a suitable route respecting the constraints of the user.

  19. Corporate culture and the employment of persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Lisa; Kruse, Douglas; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses key questions arising from the economic and social disparities that individuals with disabilities experience in the United States. For instance, "What role does corporate culture play in the employment of people with disabilities?" "How does it facilitate or hinder their employment and promotional opportunities, and how can corporations develop supportive cultures that benefit people with disabilities, non-disabled employees, and the organization as a whole?" Corporate culture can create attitudinal, behavioral, and physical barriers for workers and job applicants with disabilities. This research concludes that if the employment prospects of people with disabilities are to be improved significantly, attention must be paid to the ways in which corporate culture creates or reinforces obstacles to employees with disabilities, and how these obstacles can be removed or overcome. Ultimately, we will make the case that corporate culture and societal attitudes must change if people with disabilities are to be accepted and incorporated fully into the workplace. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A literature review exploring the preparation of mental health nurses for working with people with learning disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Stephanie; Collier, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this literature review is to explore whether mental health nurses are being appropriately prepared to care for learning disabled patients who also suffer from mental ill health. A systematic approach was adopted in order to identify relevant literature for review on the topic. Five electronic databases were searched; CINAHL, Medline, ERIC, PubMed and Scopus. Searches were limited to the years 2001-2013. A total of 13 articles were identified as relevant to the topic area for review. Three main themes were identified relating to (a) attitudes (b) practice and (c) education. There appears to be a lack of research that directly addresses this issue and the existing literature suggests that there are considerable deficits in the ability of mental health nurses to be able to provide appropriate care for those with both a learning disability and mental ill health. The findings of this review would suggest that this topic area is in urgent need of further investigation and research. Further research into this area of practice could possibly help to inform education regarding this subject at pre-registration and post qualifying levels, which could therefore in turn, improve the delivery of mental health nursing care to this particular client group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive autonomy of women and girls under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2018-01-01

    Women and girls with disabilities have historically been denied the freedom to make their own choices in matters relating to their reproduction. In the healthcare sector they experience multiple discriminatory practices. Women and girls with intellectual disabilities are particularly vulnerable to coerced or forced medical interventions. The present article considers the contribution the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities makes towards affirming the rights of women and girls with disabilities to enjoy reproductive autonomy, including autonomy related to reproductive health, on an equal basis with individuals without disabilities. The Convention is paradigm-setting in its maximal approach to affirming the rights of individuals with disabilities to make autonomous choices under conditions of equality and non-discrimination. The Convention is the first human rights treaty to clearly affirm that impairment of decision-making skills is not a justification for depriving a person with cognitive or intellectual disability of legal capacity. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. The paraplegic Viking and the one-armed pianist--some well known persons with locomotor disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensman, R

    1983-01-01

    A review is given of persons from history, culture and science, with locomotor disability, who by different reasons have become well known. It is shown that these persons, in spite of their disabilities, have reached prominent positions.

  3. 76 FR 76601 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... American dream and comprehensive opportunities in education, health care, and employment within reach for... of people with disabilities. From the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 to the Twenty-First... disability community--affirm our commitment to an equitable and just society where every American can play a...

  4. Physical fitness related to disability in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Heuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Brouwer, WH; De Greef, MHG

    2000-01-01

    Background: In today's aging society, preventing or reducing disability is important. Physical activity may serve this goal. Generally, physical activity aims to enhance physical fitness, which in turn may prevent disability. The relationship between physical fitness and disability has been much

  5. 75 FR 76251 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... promote human rights, fair opportunity, and equal access for people with disabilities. Last year, the... Disabilities, the first new human rights treaty of the 21st century. Like our laws in the United States, this..., and they have paved the way for countless Americans with disabilities to share their talents and...

  6. Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities' Experiences of Mental Health Problems: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Samantha; Hewitt, Olivia

    2018-01-01

    Research addressing people with intellectual disabilities' experiences of mental health problems has mainly focused on the perspectives of family members or professionals, or has been driven by service evaluation. Few studies have sought the views of people with intellectual disabilities about their own mental health experiences. This study…

  7. Mental Health Services, Free Appropriate Public Education, and Students with Disabilities: Legal Considerations in Identifying, Evaluating, and Providing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell; Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, the provision of mental health services in public schools has received considerable attention. When students with disabilities are eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mental health services are required if such services are needed to provide…

  8. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David

    2008-11-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.

  9. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266

  10. Towards Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities--And Why It Matters for Education of People with Disability in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights convention that sets out the fundamental human rights of people with disabilities. The Convention sets out general and specific obligations for…

  11. The person in the disabled body: a perspective on culture and personhood from the margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Maayan; Sa'ar, Amalia; Araten-Bergman, Tal

    2016-09-15

    Persons with disabilities (PWD) are one of the most marginalized groups in Western societies. These inequalities are manifested through various disadvantages in the psychosocial, cultural, and economic domains. Inspired by the World Health Organization's holistic conceptualization of disability, the present study examines the relation between the body and personhood in Israeli culture, through cases of newly diagnosed adults with disability. Participant observation at a rehabilitation daycare center was carried out for a period of two years. The analysis is based on field notes recorded during these observations, including interviews with individuals with disabilities, their family members, and service providers. The analysis reveals the agonizing experience of individuals who have become disabled in adulthood, who undergo symbolic diminution and social exclusion after their former acceptance as whole and normative persons. This ongoing multifaceted process includes infantilization, denial of their sexuality/sensuality, transgression of gender boundaries, and their construction as categorically different from the "healthy" people around them. At the same time, the analysis also demonstrates the ways in which daily routine at the daycare center also complicates the normative healthy-disabled binary, indicating a continuum on which attendees may attempt to reposition themselves. This paper aims to make a dual contribution. We draw on anthropological understandings of"person" as a holistic category to resurrect the personhood of individuals with disabilities, as a correction tothe overwhelming tendency to reduce their humanity to their physical injury. We likewise reverse theanalytical gaze by using these individuals' experiences to understand the normative, culture-bound perception of "healthy" persons. We thus highlight Israeli culture's conditioning of normative personhood on having a perfect body, and its concomitant construction of individuals with physical

  12. Interference and Inhibition in Tasks of Selective Attention by Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.

    2006-01-01

    Persons with mental retardation often exhibit greater interference in visual selective attention tasks than do persons matched with them on CA. My goal here was to evaluate whether differences in distractor interference between persons with and without mental retardation may be related to differences in negative priming. Fifteen participants with…

  13. A Picturesque View to Able-Bodied Persons in the City and the Stigma of Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Today, in Turkey, the percent of the disabled is %12. Thus, there are 10 million disabled people and when you take the disabled into account with their families half of the Turkish society is affected directly from disability. In addition to that, if we take elders, pregnant, children, obsesses and very tall or short persons who suffer from a kind of temporary or permanent disability into account, we face an incredible situation. These people in city who are limited in terms of motion feel th...

  14. Mental Indices in Consumers with Disabilities. Research Brief. Summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard-Jones, Kathy; Butler, Laura Smith; Prout, H. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Kentucky's National Core Indicators project exists to develop a set of data elements that are used to report, on a statewide and national basis, the quality of services supporting people with disabilities. This is accomplished in Kentucky by performing a minimum of 400 direct interviews with consumers and their families annually. Collected data…

  15. Mental Health Problems in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Impact on Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…

  16. Family Participation in Assistive Technology Assessment for Young Children with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses a family-centered approach to assistive technology assessment for young children with mental retardation or developmental disabilities and their families. After a literature review, legal definitions of assistive technology are examined, and a model is presented for supporting and involving families in technology assessment…

  17. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  18. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  19. An Adolescent with Moderate Mental Disabilities Tutors a 1st-Grade, Nondisabled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, Vonda A.; Blackbourn, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    An adolescent with moderate mental disabilities tutored a seven year old in arithmetic. The peer tutoring program increased the mathematics performance of the first grader, successfully integrated the adolescent into a more typical classroom environment, improved the accuracy of the tutor's mathematics performance, and resulted in changes in…

  20. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  1. Accessing Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Services: Some Haitian Issues and Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumain, Maryse Noel

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of equal access to mental health and developmental disabilities services for Haitian immigrants in New York State. Demonstrates that Haitians' needs are not being met due to lack of program availability and poor quality care. Presents barriers to access that include cultural, political, legal, and institutional factors. (JS)

  2. [Mental health service utilization among borderline personality disorder patients inpatient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, L; Thalamas, C; Garrido, C; Birmes, P; Lapeyre-Mestre, M

    2015-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability and impulsivity. Several North American prospective studies support the high level of mental health care utilization in this population. There is little data in other systems of health organization, such as France. Furthermore, little is known on the variables associated with the mental health service utilization among BPD patients. The main objective was to compare the utilization of mental health care among BPD patients, to the general population and patients with another personality disorder (PD) and to describe the demographic and clinical factors associated with the group of patients who use the most health care. A multi-center (5 public and private centers), epidemiological study. Data were collected prospectively (database of an insurance fund covering 80% of the population) and viewed, retrospectively. We used the data collected during the five years previously to the inclusion. Inclusion criteria were age (18-60 years) and membership in the health insurance fund targeted. Patients on legal protection, forced hospitalization, with a chronic psychotic disorder, manic, mental retardation, or not reading French were excluded. First, four groups were composed: BPD, other PD, control groups for PD and other PD. The first two groups were recruited from a screening of inpatients including a self-administered questionnaire (Personality Disorder Questionnaire 4+). Assessment by a psychologist including the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) was given straight to those who had a score above 28. This questionnaire allowed us to distinguish one group of subjects with BPD and a group with other PD (without BPD). Clinical evaluation included Axis I (MINI), Axis II (SIDP-IV), psychopathological features (YSQ-I, DSQ-40), demographic variables and therapeutic alliance (Haq-II). Matched controls (age, sex) composed the 3rd and 4th group (BPD control and

  3. Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance; listing of impairments--mental disorders--SSA. Proposed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-04

    These proposed amendments revise the medical evaluation criteria for mental disorders for the disability program in title II and title XVI of the Social Security Act. No substantial revisions have been made to these criteria since 1979. The proposed revisions reflect advances in medical treatment and in methods of evaluating certain mental impairments, and will provide up-to-date medical criteria for use in the evaluation of disability claims based on mental disorders.

  4. The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its take on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ruiz, Felipe

    2017-05-01

    After analysing the concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, hereafter referred to as the Committee, this paper examines how the Committee has sustained a protective, medical, and gender binary model to address the sexual and reproductive rights of persons with disabilities. To break away from this narrow approach to sexuality, I call for an understanding of sex/gender that is more fluid and shifting, recognising the ability of persons with disabilities to express and act upon desire consensually, and bringing into the discussion issues of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  5. Perspectives on Employment Integration, Mental Illness and Disability, and Workplace Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nene Ernest Khalema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the interplay between employment integration and retention of individuals diagnosed with mental health and related disability (MHRD. Specifically, the paper addresses the importance of an integrative approach, utilizing a social epidemiological approach to assess various factors that are related to the employment integration of individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness. Our approach to the review incorporates a research methodology that is multilayered, mixed, and contextual. The review examines the literature that aims to unpack employers’ understanding of mental illness and their attitudes, beliefs, and practices about employing workers with mental illness. Additionally we offer a conceptual framework entrenched within the social determinants of the mental health (SDOMH literature as a way to contextualize the review conclusions. This approach contributes to a holistic understanding of workplace mental health conceptually and methodologically particularly as practitioners and policy makers alike are grappling with better ways to integrate employees who are diagnosed with mental health and disabilities into to the workplace.

  6. Mentalization and Self-Efficacy as Mediators between Psychological Symptom Severity and Disabilities in Activities and Participation in Psychotherapy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dehoust, Maria; Brütt, Anna Levke; Schulz, Holger; Pieh, Christoph; Andreas, Sylke

    2018-01-01

    Psychotherapy patients can be more or less disabled by their psychological symptoms. The present study investigated whether mentalization and self-efficacy contribute to the association between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. The data of 216 psychotherapy inpatients were examined in a cross-sectional design. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were performed to investigate whether self-efficacy and mentalization are mediators between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. The Hamburg Modules for the Assessment of Psychosocial Health-49 were used to measure psychological symptom severity and self-efficacy, mentalization was assessed with the Mentalization Questionnaire, and disabilities in activities and participation were operationalized with the ICF-Mental-A & P questionnaire. Mentalization as well as self-efficacy functioned as mediators between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation (p < 0.05). They were equally strong mediators, and both remained significant mediators when statistically controlling for the other mediator (p < 0.05). Mentalization as well as self-efficacy explain a significant proportion of the relationship between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. Working on mentalizing and self-efficacy might be important mechanisms to reduce disability due to symptoms. The cross-sectional design is a limitation of the study. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.

  8. Perceptual-motor coordination in persons with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Bar-Yossef, Tamar; Ariav, Claudette; Levy, Ran; Liebermann, Dario G

    2008-01-01

    There is limited experimental evidence to support the view that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have a deficit in motor control. This work is a first attempt to evaluate their motor coordination. The study assessed the relationship between cognitive ability and sensorimotor integration. The clinical hypothesis is that adults with ID fall below non-ID adults in motor skills that involve hand-eye coordination. A group of 42 adults with ID (ID group) was compared to 48 age-matched typical adults (TA) using a mixed experimental design ('Task' as the within-subjects factor and 'Group' as the between-subjects factor). Participants performed the following tests twice: Box-and-Blocks, 25-Grooved-Pegboard, Stick Catching and overhead Beanbag-Throw. Pearson correlations and ANOVAs were used to test the hypothesis (p hand used during for the assessment. However, TA individuals scored significantly better with one hand (i.e., the preferred and dominant hand) as opposed to persons with ID, who exhibited no hand preference. Test-retest correlations among the first and second assessment scores yielded moderate-strong coefficients, depending on the type of test (Box-and-Blocks = 0.92 and 0.96, 25-Grooved-Pegboard = 0.69 and 0.83, Stick-Catching = 0.88 and 0.94, Beanbag-Throw = 0.58 and 0.91 for ID and TA, respectively). Difficulties in the integration of perceptual information into motor action may result in inadequate solutions to daily motor problems. As it stems from our results, intellectual disability relates to inability to integrate visual inputs and hand movements. In people with mild ID such inability is observed using both hands (i.e., they show no hand preferences). Poor perceptual-motor coordination might have a functional significance in that it may lead to exclusion from vocational and recreational activities, and a decreasing competence of ADL. Assessing coordination in adults with ID may contribute to understanding the nature of the ID condition and

  9. Directly replaces of a minors and “exemplary” of a disability person: The patrimony of a persons with disability or minors 14 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Fernanda Moretón Sanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study the law, the jurisprudence and the law literatury of aspects of replaces of a minors and “exemplary” of a disability persons. It is fact that used by the testator, have different impact about the patrimony of de minors and persons whit disability. In the substitution or replaces, the object will depend on the means the testator deciding on the disposal heritage. Specifically, despite certain resistance from legal thought and case-law, in the substitution of a minor and in exemplary replace, the substitute (parent or legal representative may dispose of all the of the person substituted (child under 14 years of age or legal incapacitated person. Therefore, both types of substitution affect to the persons substituted and the patrimony of them

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine contacts by persons with mental disorders in 25 countries: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, P; Wardenaar, K J; Hoenders, H R; Evans-Lacko, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Dinolova, R V; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E G; Karam, G; Lee, S; Lépine, J-P; Levinson, D; Makanjuola, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Tachimori, H; Williams, D; Wojtyniak, B; Kessler, R C; Thornicroft, G

    2017-12-28

    A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders. In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18-100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction. An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6-17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both. CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental

  11. Quality of life among persons with physical disability in udupi taluk: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kuvalekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under

  12. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.

  13. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with

  14. HIV testing and receipt of test results among homeless persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mayur M; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of HIV testing and receipt of results among homeless adults with serious mental illness in the initial 3-month period after contact with a community-based case management program. Baseline and follow-up interview data came from clients (N=5,890) in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports program, an 18-site, 5-year federally sponsored demonstration designed to evaluate the effect of service system integration on outcomes for homeless persons with serious mental illness. Overall, 38.0% of clients were tested for HIV in the 3 months after program entry; of these, 88.8% returned to receive their test results. Likelihood of being tested was independently associated with having been tested before, more severe psychiatric symptoms and drug problems, level of worry about getting AIDS, younger age, less education, minority status, longer-term homelessness, being sexually assaulted, being arrested, and health services utilization. Among those tested, likelihood of receiving the test results was higher among those with a history of prior testing and return for results, a higher frequency of testing, and more years of education and lower among those with drug abuse problems, outpatient medical service utilization, disability, and sexually transmitted disease. Interaction analyses showed that, for men, greater social support increased the likelihood of both HIV testing and receipt of results, while sexual victimization during follow-up decreased the likelihood that men would return for their HIV results. The majority of homeless clients enrolled in an intensive case management program were not tested for HIV during the 3-month period after program entry. Among those tested, however, nearly 90% reported receiving their results. The findings may enhance the development and targeting of strategies to increase testing and awareness of HIV serostatus among high-risk mentally ill homeless

  15. 77 FR 72909 - International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... they travel, conduct business, study, or reside overseas. Ratifying the Convention in the Senate would reaffirm America's position as the global leader on disability rights and better position us to encourage... disabilities is guaranteed. Today, let us renew our commitment to meeting that challenge here in the United...

  16. Persons with Disabilities as Parents: What is the Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the recent debate on parenting by people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. By and large this debate has been dominated by disastrous examples of child abuse and neglect in families where one or both parents have a disability. Feeding on horror stories

  17. Teaching about Psychosocial Aspects of Disability: Emphasizing Person-Environment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some psychosocial aspects of disability linked to the person--environment relation that teachers should share in the psychology classroom. Disability is an often-overlooked form of diversity, one that teachers should discuss alongside race, gender, sexual orientation, social class/socioeconomic status (SES), religiosity, and…

  18. 3 CFR 8462 - Proclamation 8462 of December 2, 2009. International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disabilities still experience discrimination in the workplace and in their communities. In developing nations... are all too often subjected to deep discrimination. If we are to move forward as a people, both at... Persons with Disabilities.” We must continue to embrace diversity and reject discrimination in all its...

  19. Surveying Community Nursing Support for Persons with an Intellectual Disability and Palliative Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Maria; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care services have developed over the years to support all persons with life-limiting conditions. Moreover, services for people with an intellectual disability have moved from the traditional institutional setting to supporting people with an intellectual disability to live in their own community and family home. The expansion of…

  20. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  1. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Notes on Genealogy and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Margret; Mazurek, Kas

    2014-01-01

    The dense and complex "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" (CRPD) is both a human rights treaty and a development tool. It supplements the web of existing human rights instruments insofar as they relate to disability. Schooling is enshrouded as a rights-based case; inclusive education as a development tool for all…

  2. Effects of Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Trainings Conducted Under the California Mental Health Services Authority: An Evaluation of Disability Rights California and Mental Health America of California Trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Cerully, Jennifer L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Roth, Elizabeth; Marks, Joyce; Yu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Describes the methods and results of a RAND evaluation of stigma and discrimination reduction trainings delivered by two program partners, Disability Rights California and Mental Health America of California.

  3. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  4. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality disorders can lead to some disability. However, little is known about the disability prevalence and function impairments. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution, impairments of daily activities and social functions, and risk factors in China. Methods: Using a descriptive and analytic epidemiological method, data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 were analyzed. The disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution in different people and regions, and risk factors were statistically calculated. Results: Respondents included 1,909,205 adults. The disability prevalence rate attributed to personality disorders in China was 5.9/100,000. The disability rate attributed to personality disorders of males was higher than that of females (P = 0.012), while the rate of the unemployed was higher than that of the employed (P personality disorders, mild disability accounted for a majority or 60% of the respondents. The data showed that disability mainly impaired respondents’ ability to engage in daily activities, get along with people, and participate in social situations. According to the case-control study, marriage, employment, and higher education were protective factors of disability. Conclusions: The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population. PMID:27453222

  5. Nurses' perceptions of personal attributes required when working with people with a learning disability and an offending background: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A; Bailey, J

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Learning disability nursing in the area of people with a learning disability and an offending background has developed considerably over recent years, particularly since the publication of the Bradley (). There has been limited work into the competencies nurses require to work in this area, and even less about the personal attributes of learning disability nurses. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Learning disability nursing's specific contribution to the care of this population lies in their knowledge of the interaction between the learning disability, an individual's, sometimes abusive, personal history and an understanding of the subsequent offending behaviour. The knowledge base of nurses working with people with learning disabilities and an offending background needs to reflect the changing service user group. This is particularly in relation to substance misuse, borderline personality disorder, and mental health and the way such factors inter-relate with the learning disability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further research is required into the relationship among decision making, risk taking or reluctance to do this, and the personal attributes required by nurses to work in secure learning disability care. Learning disability secure services are likely to continue to undergo change as circumstances alter and the offending population demonstrate greater complexity; nursing competencies and personal attributes need similarly to adapt to such changes. Mental health nursing has a great deal to contribute to effective working with this population, specifically with regard to developing strong relationships when concerns around borderline personality disorder or substance misuse are particularly in evidence. Aim To identify and discuss the personal attributes required by learning disability nurses to work effectively with people with an offending background in secure and community settings. Background This study

  6. Assessment of the state of dentition and oral hygiene in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachurski, P; Warsz, M; Rudnicka-Siwek, K; Zioło, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to assess the state of dentition and oral hygiene in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability in comparison with a control group of healthy young people at the same age. The research was carried out in a special School and Tutelary Centre in Lublin. A group of 144 young people aged 16-25 with mild and moderate mental disability (group I) among them 75 girls and 69 boys participated in the research. A group of 50 healthy young people aged 16-25 (group II) among them 24 girls and 26 boys was a control group. Determined: frequency of dental caries, DMF number, dental caries treatment index (DTI), oral hygiene index (OHI), percentage of traumatic injuries of teeth, percentage of sealed teeth. The frequency of dental caries in both groups was 100%. The average DMF was 11.96 (group I) and in the control group II: 6.58. The largest number of teeth with active caries--8.21 teeth with caries per person was found in group I, but 2.72 in group II. Dental caries treatment index (DTI) was 0.24 in group I and 0.59 in the control group II. Oral hygiene index OHI in group I was 1.78, in group II this index was 0.34, 0.29 in girls and 0.38 in boys. 1. The state of dentition in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability is unsatisfactory. 2. Higher values of OHI index were in group I. 3. The obtained results of the state of dentition and oral hygiene in the group of young people with mental disability are at the same level both in the girls and boys. 4. The above mentioned results suggest the need for special dental care for young people with mild and moderate mental disability.

  7. Physical activity and persons with intellectual disability: some considerations for Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A; Stanish, Heidi I

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity is a personal and societal investment in health. In Latin America, rates of non-communicable diseases are growing and there is burgeoning interest in physical activity as a preventative health measure. This paper describes physical activity among adults with intellectual disability from a public health perspective; and provides recommendations related to the need for, and measurement of, physical activity among persons with intellectual disability in Latin America.

  8. Self-rated health among disabled persons: the multifaceted relevance of social integration

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA PIRANI

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has stressed the importance of social networks and participation for maintaining good health at all stages in the life cycle. Evidence specifically for disabled people, or persons more likely to be restricted in their social life and with reduced opportunities for social integration, is very sparse, however. In this study we aimed at assessing if and to what extent different domains of social integration are associated with self-rated health of Italian disabled persons. Empi...

  9. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Jeong, RN, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. Methods: The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Results: Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Keywords: disabled persons, metabolic syndrome X, physical activity, obesity

  10. Comparing the Parenting Role Tasks in Parents of Children with Mental/Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P

  11. Social work with transport disabled persons: a wayfinding perspective in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B; Taylor, A

    1996-01-01

    Transport disabled persons confront extensive architectural and psychosocial barriers during their travel to community based health care services by mass transit. The current health care reform movement affords social work an opportunity to consolidate its expertise with this population. The Certificate of Need program is a method with which social work can provide service to people with transportation disabilities. Social work can also continue its use of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Urban Mass Transportation Act to assist people with transport disabilities to access community based health care services.

  12. Empowerment and self-help agency practice for people with mental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, S P; Silverman, C; Temkin, T

    1993-11-01

    During the past 15 years, there has been tremendous growth in the number of self-help groups and agencies for mental health clients. This article examines the self-help perspective in relation to problems with traditional mental health services and the need for client-run services. Self-help agencies see their goal as empowerment on an individual, organizational, and societal level. They strive to accomplish this by helping members obtain needed resources and develop coping skills; providing means of enhancing members' self-concept and lessening the stigma of perceived mental disability; giving members control in the agencies' governance, administration, and service delivery; and furthering member involvement in social policy-making. The goal of this article is not to endorse the self-help perspective but to use it as the basis for raising research questions that will further the mental health practitioner's understanding of this service modality.

  13. Primary vaginal calculus in a middle-aged woman with mental and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Oda, Katsutoshi; Matsuzawa, Naoki; Shimizu, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal calculi are rarely encountered and are often misdiagnosed as bladder calculi because of the difficulty in achieving an appropriate diagnosis. Most vaginal calculi result from the presence of a urethrovaginal fistula; those occurring in the absence of such fistulas are extremely rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old bedridden woman with mental and physical disabilities who had been misdiagnosed for a decade as having a bladder calculus. We removed the calculus nonsurgically and the analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of a primary vaginal calculus. Vaginal calculi may occasionally occur in disabled women, but further investigation of the etiology of such calculi is required.

  14. Higher Education in Persons with Disabilities: Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzhanykh E.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents statistical research data on teaching/learning in individuals with disabilities enrolled in higher education programmes. The analysis is based on the information drawn from a statistical form VPO-1 “Information on educational organization offering bachelor’s, master’s and specialist programmes in higher education”. The following indicators were analysed: the dynamics of the number of students with disabilities studying at universities; distribution of students according to the level of higher education and the type of their disability; distribution of students according to the chosen profession; and the data collected in the Russian regions. The paper concludes that even though the available statistical data do not allow for a full complex exploration into the subject of higher education in students with disabilities, the scope of the accessible information is reasonably wide.

  15. Assistive Technology for Persons with Physical Disabilities: Evaluation and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigby, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a compilation of published studies that evaluated assistive technology interventions for children and adults with physical disabilities. The first chapter introduces the need for and the challenges involved in studying the outcomes of assistive technology interventions. The

  16. Treatment of Sexual Offenses by Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Beverly A.

    1991-01-01

    A case history of a young man with mild mental retardation who had engaged in pedophilia and was successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate is presented. The role of antiandrogen treatments of mentally retarded sexual offenders is discussed including issues of informed consent and ethical aspects of treatment. (Author/DB)

  17. Persons with disability, social deprivation and an emergency medical admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, Seán; Conway, Richard; Byrne, Declan; O'Riordan, Deirdre; Silke, Bernard

    2018-01-16

    The community level of disability and social deprivation may result in an emergency hospitalisation; we have examined the annual admission incidence rate for emergency medical conditions in relation to the community prevalence of such factors. All emergency medical admissions (96,305 episodes in 50,612 patients) within the institution's catchment area were examined between 2002 and 2016. The frequency of disability, level of full-time carers and unemployment for the 74 electoral divisions of the catchment area was regressed against admission rates; incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using truncated Poisson regression. Disability was present in 12.1% of the catchment area population (95% CI = 9.7-15.0). The annual admission incidence rates/1000 population across disability quintiles for the more affluent areas increased from Q1 7.6 (95% CI = 7.4-7.8) to Q5 27.3 (95% CI = 27.0-27.5) and for the more deprived area from Q1 16.6 (95% CI = 16.4, 16.8) to and Q5 40.4 (95% CI = 40.1-40.7). Disability status influenced the overall admission IRR (compared with Q1/Q3) for Q4/Q5 1.11 (95% CI = 1.09-1.13) showing an increased rate of hospitalisation for the more deprived areas. Community disability levels interacted with local area unemployment and frequency of full-time carers; as they increased, a linear relationship between disability and the admission rate incidence was demonstrated. Local catchment area disability prevalence rates in addition to social deprivation factors are an important determinant of the annual incidence rate of emergency medical admissions.

  18. Ageing and mental health resources for older persons in the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the organisation of care for older persons, data are being collected to reduce the imbalance between 'disease information\\' and 'resource information\\' – information that addresses older persons\\' needs in terms of mental health care. This review presents some results from the continent. Mental health ...

  19. Mental disorders and personality traits as determinants of impaired work functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michon, H. W. C.; ten Have, M.; Kroon, H.; van Weeghel, J.; de Graaf, R.; Schene, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Both mental disorders and personality characteristics are associated with impaired work functioning, but these determinants have not yet been studied together. The aim of this paper is to examine the impairing effects that mental disorders and personality characteristics (i.e.

  20. A Study On Association Among Sleep Pattern, Sleep Disturbance And Problem Behavior In Persons With Developmental Disabilities In India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganaie; S.A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep patterns of persons with developmental disabilities are different from those of age matched peers. Persons with developmental disabilities are taking more time to fall asleep as compared with other persons without disabilities (Piazza, Fisher, & Kahng, (1996). Sleep disturbances seem to decrease one’s ability to regulate, control, or inhibit emotion and behavior (Dahl, 1996, Wolfson and Carskadon, 1998). Brylewski and Wiggs (1999) found that persons with developmental disabi...

  1. UNITED NATION CONVENTION AND ISLAMIC APPROACH ON THE RIGHT OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Azmin Mokhtar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Persons with disabilities, either acquired or developed at some stages of his life due to factors such as injury and disease, are still a person with the same legal status and rights as individuals who do not have any disability. This paper, through conceptual and doctrinal analysis, explores the similarities and differences between human rights based’s approach and Shariah’s approach towards people with disability. People with disability have equal right to live and to have a noble livelihood. The Convention on Rights of People with Disabilities of the United Nations has adopted the concept of human rights-based approach which requires people with disability tobe treated in a proper way. The convention believes that this group should not be treated differently and given similar opportunity to be developed and progressed as any other human being. On the same note, Islam sees disability as morally neutral. It is seen neither as a blessing nor as a curse. Accordingly, disability is accepted as being an inevitable part of the human condition. It is simply a fact of life which has to be addressed appropriately by the society of the day. In Islam people with disabilities are not being arbitrarily segregated and being discriminated unjustly. They should be given equal opportunity to progress and develop their potential just like any other human being. The final analysis shows that there is harmonious interpretation between Western human right and Islamic jurisprudence to protect this minority.

  2. The problem of tolerance to persons with mental disorders in the modern Russian megapolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodina L.G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tolerance to persons with mental disorders is actual and practically meaningful both for the state and society. 97 Moscow citizens aged 21 to 55 were interviewed in order to study the attitude of the society to people with mental disorders. The research data are presented. Survey results reflect the general tendencies towards the formation of a tolerant attitude towards persons with mental pathology.

  3. Perceptions of quality of life and disability in homeless persons with schizophrenia and persons with schizophrenia living in non-institutional housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, A. G. M.; Hoek, H. W.; van Hoeken, D.; Valencia, E.; van Hemert, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Homelessness is common in persons with schizophrenia. It is unclear how housing conditions and homelessness affect their quality of life and their disability. Aims: To explore the self-perceived quality of life and disability of homeless persons with schizophrenia and of those of persons

  4. Interlocking oppressions: the effect of a comorbid physical disability on perceived stigma and discrimination among mental health consumers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Allison; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2009-02-01

    People living with mental health problems often face stigma and discrimination; however, there is a lack of research that examines how comorbid conditions affect this perceived stigma. This study sought to determine whether people who have a comorbid physical and psychiatric disability experience more stigma than those with only a psychiatric disability. It also looked at how perceived stigma and discrimination affect physical and mental health. A secondary analysis on data from interviews with 336 former and current clients of the mental health system in a mid-size Canadian city in 2005 was performed. Of these, 203 (60.4%) reported they had a psychiatric disability, 112 (33.0%) reported that they had a physical disability, with 74 reporting both a psychiatric and a physical disability. People with a self-reported psychiatric disability and a self-reported comorbid physical disability faced more overall perceived discrimination/stigma (P = 0.04), than those with a psychiatric disability alone. Perceived discrimination/stigma was positively correlated with psychiatric problem severity (P = 0.02), and negatively correlated with self-rated general health (P disability on the perceived stigma for those living with a mental illness, and also strengthen the knowledge that stigma and discrimination have a negative impact on health. Healthcare providers should recognise this negative impact and screen for these comorbid conditions. Policy-makers should take measures such as improving access to housing and employment services to help reduce stigma and discrimination against this particularly vulnerable group.

  5. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  6. De la discapacidad como elección personal Una manera de superarla y transcenderla Disability as personal election A manner to overcome and trascend disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Díez Echavarría

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Existe en nuestro medio social una marcada resistencia a aceptar una discapacidad de cualquier orden: físico, sensorial o intelectual. Se considera que las personas en esta situación son nulas, inservibles e inválidas. De esta manera, se cree que discapacidad es sinónimo de debilidad, inseguridad e indefensión total. Se generan sentimientos de lástima, hacia sí mismo cuando la vivencia es propia, y hacia las personas que viven esta condición, cuando la discapacidad no nos ha tocado de alguna manera. Con este artículo intento demostrar que la discapacidad es una elección de cada quien y que los discapacitados poseemos la capacidad de enseñar a personas en las mismas condiciones, y al mundo en general, que somos más de lo que vemos afuera, que somos seres humanos como todos, incluyendo nuestra diferencia, y que las personas “completas” o “normales” también pueden vivir con algún tipo de vacío o funcionamiento diferente, es decir, con dificultades emocionales, espirituales y de relación con los demás. En mi caso particular, la discapacidad me ha abierto un mundo diferente, ha constituido un elemento de crecimiento y de transformación personal y espiritual.There is in our social milieu marked resistence to accept any class of disability weather physical, sensorial or intelectual. Persons afflicted by disabilities are considered nonentities, useless or invalid persons. In such a way disability becomes synonymous with weakness, lack of security and total helplessness and a sense of pity develops towards ourselves and other afflicted people. In this article my purpose is to demostrate that disability is a personal election and that as disabled and handicapped people we have the capacity to teach persons in the same conditions, and to the whole world, that we are superior to our external appearance since we are ordinary human beings, despite of our difference. “Normal” or “complete” persons can as well suffer

  7. Base-rate estimates of criminal behavior by homeless mentally ill persons in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, D A; Rosner, R; Harmon, R B

    1995-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of homelessness among mentally disordered offenders entering the criminal justice and forensic mental health systems, to compare base rates of arrest for violent and nonviolent criminal charges among homeless and domiciled persons with mental illness, and to examine patterns in the categories of victims chosen by these two groups. The authors analyzed data from structured psychiatric interviews and criminal and psychiatric records of 77 homeless defendants and 107 domiciled defendants referred for psychiatric examination by the criminal and supreme courts in Manhattan over a six-month period. Mentally disordered defendants had 40 times the rate of homelessness found in the general population, and 21 times the rate in the population of mentally ill persons in the city. The overall rate of criminal offenses was 35 times higher in the homeless mentally ill population than in the domiciled mentally ill population. The rate of violent crimes was 40 times higher and the rate of nonviolent crimes 27 times higher in the homeless population. Homeless defendants were significantly more likely to have been charged with victimizing strangers. Homeless mentally ill persons appear to be grossly overrepresented among mentally disordered defendants entering the criminal justice and forensic mental health systems and to have a higher base rate of arrest for both violent and nonviolent crimes than domiciled mentally ill persons.

  8. Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Holt, J

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK health policy is clear that researchers should involve the public throughout the research process. The public, including patients, carers and/or local citizens can bring a different and valuable perspective to the research process and improve the quality of research undertaken. Conducting health research is demanding with tight deadlines and scarce resources. This can make involving the public in research very challenging. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first time the attitudes of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services towards PPI have been investigated. The principles of service user involvement in mental health and learning disability services may support PPI in research as a tool of collaboration and empowerment. This article extends our understanding of the cultural and attitudinal barriers to implementing PPI guidelines in mental health and learning disability services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Researchers in mental health and learning disability services need to champion, share and publish effective involvement work. Structural barriers to PPI work should be addressed locally and successful strategies shared nationally and internationally. Where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. Introduction Patient and public involvement (PPI) is integral to UK health research guidance; however, implementation is inconsistent. There is little research into the attitudes of NHS health researchers towards PPI. Aim This study explored the attitude of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services in the UK towards PPI in health research. Method Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight researchers. A

  9. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...... in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed....

  10. Legal capacity as a universal human right and a determinant of social status of people with mental disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Milan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brought about a core shift to how the international community and human rights law see and treat human disability in general. This paradigm shift materilizes itself in a number of provisions ranging from those which catalogue the proclaimed human rights as they are in the context of special implementation and protection of people with disabilities, to those that introduce a level of specificity in light of their holders' particular needs. But the strongest presence of the shift to this regard can be found in the Article 12 CRPD that sheds new light on the concept of (legal capacity of people with (mental disabilites. According to this norm and put quite simply - there should be no difference in observing and treating capacity of a person with disabilities to that of any other person. This is not only the matter of prohibiting discrimination on grounds of mental impairments, but furthermore preventing the system from establishing a classification in which a person with psychosocial or intellectual impairment would be a second-rate citizen, an object of law or a victim of legal, social and family abuse, someone who is a burden to his entire environment, someone who does not have a say in any case concerning his own life and wellbeing. Legal capacity should not be a goal to be fighting for, but a universal human right. Of course and unfortunatelly, such a shift is purely a formal one, when not causing due reform within the national systems and without proper implementation in the member states. What is thought urgently needed and directly required by the given provision is removing the system features that allow deprivation of legal capacity on the bases of mental impairments and introducing a humane and human rights oriented model in which the decision making of these people would be autonomous and supported, and with only very restricted exceptions, done by them and not

  11. Struggling for existence-Life situation experiences of older persons with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Gunilla; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Lindholm, Christina; Wiklund-Gustin, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders represent a vulnerable group of people with extensive and complex needs. The older population is rapidly increasing worldwide and, as a result of deinstitutionalization in mental health care, older persons are remaining at home to a greater extent. Although they constitute a large proportion of the population, older persons with mental disorders have been neglected in research as well as in care organizations. As there is little previous knowledge concerning older persons' experiences of their own situations, this study aimed to illuminate the meaning of the life situation as experienced by older persons with mental disorders (excluding dementia disorders). Interviews were conducted with seven older persons and the text was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical research method, inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. "Struggling for existence" emerged as a main theme in the older persons' narratives, understood as a loss of dignity of identity and involving being troubled and powerless as well as yearning for respect. The older persons fought to master their existence and to be seen for who they are. The study highlights the importance for caregivers, both formal and informal, to avoid focusing on the diagnoses and rather acknowledge the older persons and their lifeworld, be present in the relation and help them rebuild their dignity of identity. This study brings a new understanding about older persons with mental disorders that may help reduce stigma and contribute to planning future mental health care.

  12. Melatonin Decreases Daytime Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…

  13. Providing disabled persons in developing countries access to computer games through a novel gaming input device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel input device is presented for use with a personal computer by persons with physical disabilities who would otherwise not be able to enjoy computer gaming. This device is simple to manufacture and low in cost. A gaming application...

  14. The impact of psychological attributes on changes in disability among low-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; van Sonderen, E; Ormel, J

    We studied the impact of four psychological attributes (neuroticism, extraversion, mastery or perceived control, and general self-efficacy expectancies) on, changes in disability in a community-based sample of 575 low-functioning elderly persons between 1993 and 1995. Unlike elderly persons with low

  15. Parenting by persons with intellectual disability: an explorative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, D. L.; de Vries, J.-N.; Isarin, J.; Reinders, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a sequel to a report by the Health Council of the Netherlands on contraception in persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs), a fierce debate about parenthood by such persons occurred, in which a lack of knowledge about parenting competences became clear. Therefore, the Ministry of

  16. Parenting by Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: an explorative study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, J.S.; Willems, D.L.; de Vries, J.N.; Isarin, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: As a sequel to a report by the Health Council of the Netherlands on contraception in persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs), a fierce debate about parenthood by such persons occurred, in which a lack of knowledge about parenting competences became clear. Therefore, the Ministry of

  17. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  18. Structure, Fit and Coherence of Two Circumplex Assessments of Personality in a Population with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W. R.; Steptoe, L.; Hogue, T. E.; Mooney, P.; Taylor, J. L.; Morrissey, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted investigating the way in which personality constructs relate to people with intellectual disabilities. The small amount of research that does exist suggests that underlying personality structure may be considerably different to that found in mainstream research. This hypothesis is, however, untested…

  19. Using Personal Construct Theory to Explore Self-Image with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Butler, Richard; Hare, Dougal Julian; Green, David

    2011-01-01

    A young person's construct of self can be fundamental to their psychological well being (Glick 1999; Emler 2001). However limited research has been conducted in the United Kingdom to explore self-image with adolescents with learning disabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the effective use of personal construct theory with children…

  20. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  1. Public dental health care program for persons with disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    of self-administered questionnaires completed by the person responsible locally for the program in each municipality. The response rate was 84%. The following topics were included: (1) Number of persons attending the program, (2) procedure for identification of persons eligible for the program, (3...... attended the program, ranging from 0.03% to 1.53%. In large municipalities, and where internal providers delivered oral health care, relatively more persons were enrolled in the program (p

  2. Predicting dropout in outpatient dialectical behavior therapy with patients with borderline personality disorder receiving psychiatric disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Sara J; Chalker, Samantha A; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2016-01-01

    Rates of treatment dropout in outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in the community can be as high as 24 % to 58 %, making dropout a great concern. The primary purpose of this article was to examine predictors of dropout from DBT in a community mental health setting. Participants were 56 consumers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who were psychiatrically disabled participating in a larger feasibility trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy- Accepting the Challenges of Exiting the System. The following variables were examined to see whether they predicted dropout in DBT: age, education level, baseline level of distress, baseline level of non-acceptance of emotional responses, and skills module in which a consumer started DBT skills group. These variables were chosen based on known predictors of dropout in consumers with BPD and in DBT, as well as an interest in what naturally occurring variables might impact dropout. The dropout rate in this sample was 51.8 %. Results of the logistic regression show that younger age, higher levels of baseline distress, and a higher level of baseline non-acceptance of emotional responses were significantly associated with dropout. The DBT skills module in which an individual started group did not predict dropout. The implications of these findings are that knowledge of consumer age and pretreatment levels of distress and non-acceptance of emotional responses can impact providers' choice of commitment and treatment strategies to reduce dropout. Future research should examine these strategies, as well as the impact of predictor variables on outcome and reasons for dropout.

  3. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M; Post, Marcel W; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    To clarify relationships between activities, participation, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and specify how personal factors (self-efficacy, neuroticism, appraisals) interact with these components. We hypothesized that (1) activities are related directly to participation, participation is related directly to mental health and life satisfaction, and mental health and life satisfaction are 2 interrelated outcome variables; and (2) appraisals are mediators between participation and mental health and life satisfaction, and self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and life satisfaction and indirectly through appraisals. Follow-up measurement of a multicenter prospective cohort study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with specialized SCI units. Persons (N=143) aged 18 to 65 years at the onset of SCI. Not applicable. Mental health was measured by using the Mental Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and life satisfaction with the sum score of "current life satisfaction" and "current life satisfaction compared with life satisfaction before SCI." Structural equation modeling showed that activities and neuroticism were related to participation and explained 49% of the variance in participation. Self-efficacy, neuroticism, and 2 appraisals were related to mental health and explained 35% of the variance in mental health. Participation, 3 appraisals, and mental health were related to life satisfaction and together explained 50% of the total variance in life satisfaction. Mental health and life satisfaction can be seen as 2 separate but interrelated outcome variables. Self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and indirectly to life satisfaction through the mediating role of appraisals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rights Versus Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Studied homeless mentally ill patients who had been released into the community. Discusses mentally ill clients' rights to self-determination versus immediate survival needs and the potential mental restoration that could be provided through commitment to a psychiatric hospital. Presents two case studies. (Author/ABL)

  5. Usefulness of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) for persons with other than intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, G; Kuppens, S; Buntinx, W; Molleman, C; Van den Abeele, A; Maes, B

    2009-01-01

    In response to the shift from a system-centred care model to a person-centred support model, the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) has been developed as an instrument to assess the support needs of persons with intellectual disabilities. The instrument is used as a tool for constructing individual support plans, as well as a tool for resource allocation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the SIS for persons with other than intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the SIS were investigated in a sample of 1303 persons with other than intellectual disabilities. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to support the originally proposed six-factor model within this sample. However, an explorative examination of the underlying structure resulted in a shortened version of the SIS, including four subscales and 22 items. Further analyses revealed satisfying results for reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity of the shortened assessment tool (SIS-NID).

  6. The Socio-Economic Problems of Involving Persons with Disabilities in the Labor Activity in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explores and analyzes the socio-economic problems of citizens with disabilities in Ukraine, determining the reasons for the difficulties in employing this category of population, and shortcomings in the legislative framework for ensuring the rights of disabled persons. Relevance of the present topic has been substantiated on the basis of studying the needs of people with disabilities and statistical information. Methods and ways of addressing the problems identified have been suggested. The analysis of statistical information and the effective legislation has provided an opportunity to identify the potential for improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities and ensuring their socio-economic identity. The necessity to involve persons with disabilities in the social and working life has been proven and substantiated. Prospect for further research is related to the sociological researches on the social observance of the legal norms of the Ukrainian Law «On the foundations for protection of disabled persons in Ukraine».

  7. Community Gardens as Health Promoters: Effects on Mental and Physical Stress Levels in Adults with and without Mental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaning Sani Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on psychological and physical effects of stress while performing community garden activities of various intensity levels. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological and physical effects in adults with (case group and without (control group mental disabilities. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels and the stress response scale (SRS-18 were used for the psychological analysis (n = 42. For physical assessment (n = 13, electrocardiogram (ECG, surface electromyogram (sEMG, and respiration rate were continuously measured while performing the activities using a multichannel telemetry system. The results showed that following the activities, the case group exhibited decreasing sAA levels while control group exhibited increasing sAA levels. However, both groups exhibited lower SRS-18 results following the activities. Compared with the control group, the case group had a significantly lower increase in the ratio of the heart rate (IRHR (5.5% during low-intensity work (filling pots with soil, but a significantly higher IRHR (16.7% during high-intensity work (turning over soil. The case group experienced significantly higher levels of fatigue during high-intensity work (digging than during the rest condition. These findings indicate that appropriate workload allocation, according to health, is necessary in the community garden setting because reducing the intensity of work assignments for people with mental disabilities will reduce their physical stress.

  8. The Role of Social Support and Coping Strategies on Mental Health of a Group of Iranian Disabled War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Aflakseir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of social support on the mental health of disabled war veterans alongside the role of physical disability and deployment type. The second aim of the study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies and mental health. "n Method: 85 disabled Iranian war veterans participated in this study. All of the participants were asked to complete the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS ,Social Support Survey, Impact of Event-Revised Scale (IES-R, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, The Short Form (SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire, and Brief COPE Scale. Results: The results showed that social support had a significant contribution on the mental health of the participants above and beyond the physical disability and deployment type. The physical disability also predicted the mental health of veterans, but deployment type did not have any significant contribution on mental health of the participants. The findings also showed that those veterans who used constructive coping strategies had better mental health status . "nConclusion: The findings suggest that after more than twenty years of war, social support still plays an important role in the life of Iranian disabled war veterans.

  9. [Medical students' attitudes towards mental illness: a matter of studies or personality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Obliers, Rainer; Albus, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Stigmatization of mental illness is a widespread phenomenon even among health professionals. To explore the origins of this inappropriate attitude, medical students at the beginning and in the end of their studies were examined with self-report measures of social distance towards mentally ill persons, beliefs about etiology of mental disorders, valuation of psychotherapy and the personality features empathy and narcissism. While the students' attitudes turn out to be unrelated to the personality features, significant differences between the two groups were found indicating that distance towards mentally ill patients in the medical role and ambivalence about the etiological factors of mental disorders are stronger pronounced in the end of the studies compared to the beginning. These findings underline the need to prepare medical students better for contacts with mentally ill patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Physical Punishment, Mental Health and Sense of Coherence among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related…

  11. Involving Impaired, Disabled, and Handicapped Persons in Regular Camp Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Information and Research Utilization Center.

    The publication provides some broad guidelines for serving impaired, disabled, and handicapped children in nonspecialized or regular day and residential camps. Part One on the rationale and basis for integrated camping includes three chapters which cover mainstreaming and the normalization principle, the continuum of services (or Cascade System)…

  12. Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemitsu, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the…

  13. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  14. Relationships Between Activities, Participation, Personal Factors, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Post, Marcel W.; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    van Leeuwen CM, Post MW, Westers P, van der Woude LH, de Groot S. Sluis T, Slootman H, Lindeman E. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:82-9. Objective: To clarify

  15. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile

    2017-10-01

    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  16. 20 CFR 404.322 - When you may apply for a period of disability after a delay due to a physical or mental condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... When you may apply for a period of disability after a delay due to a physical or mental condition. If because of a physical or mental condition you did not apply for a period of disability within 12 months... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When you may apply for a period of disability...

  17. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2016-08-05

    Personality disorders can lead to some disability. However, little is known about the disability prevalence and function impairments. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution, impairments of daily activities and social functions, and risk factors in China. Using a descriptive and analytic epidemiological method, data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 were analyzed. The disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution in different people and regions, and risk factors were statistically calculated. Respondents included 1,909,205 adults. The disability prevalence rate attributed to personality disorders in China was 5.9/100,000. The disability rate attributed to personality disorders of males was higher than that of females (P = 0.012), while the rate of the unemployed was higher than that of the employed (P employment, and higher education were protective factors of disability. The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  18. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter JM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  20. Personality and coping: a context for examining celebrity worship and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liza; McCutcheon, Lynn E; Gillett, Raphael; Houran, James; Ashe, Diane D

    2004-11-01

    The adaptational-continuum model of personality and coping suggests a useful context for research areas that emphasize both personality and coping. The present paper used Ferguson's (2001) model integrating personality and coping factors to further conceptualize findings around celebrity worship. Three hundred and seventy-two respondents completed measures of celebrity worship, personality, coping style, general health, stress, positive and negative affect and life satisfaction. Celebrity worship for intense-personal reasons is associated with poorer mental heath and this relationship can be understood within the dimensions of neuroticism and a coping style that suggests disengagement. Such findings suggest the utility of examining the relationship between celebrity worship and mental health within both personality and coping variables, which have practical implications for understanding and addressing mental health problems that may occur as the result of engaging in celebrity worship for intense-personal reasons.

  1. Overprotection and lowered expectations of persons with disabilities: the unforeseen consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Karen Y

    2006-01-01

    Lowered expectations and overprotection of the individual with a disability can cause lowered self esteem which can result in a life time of underachievement and failure to reach their full potential. Both lowered expectations and overprotection are forms of discrimination. Internalization of discrimination causes the person with a disability to believe that they are less capable than a person without a disability. Parents and care providers of children with disabilities may overprotect the child to shield them from harm; however this can actually cause more damage. Successful parenting skills are required to help children and adolescents develop a positive self concept and high self esteem. Guidelines have been developed to assist parents, educators and other professionals regarding the effects of overprotection and lowered expectations.

  2. Critical Analysis of a Population Mental Health Strategy: Effects on Stigma for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Yani; Ary, Ayelet; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Stigma is widely identified as an issue affecting the health and well-being of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and those with mental illnesses. To address this issue, a population mental health strategy, which includes a focus on reducing stigma and discrimination, was developed by the government of…

  3. Urban-Rural Differences in the Nature and Prevalence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…

  4. Screening for Mental Health Problems in Adults with Learning Disabilities Using the Mini PAS-ADD Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Maurice; Taggart, Laurence; McLornian, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence rates vary considerably regarding the mental health of people with learning disabilities. This variation is a consequence of the assessment methods used to identify such clinical conditions and also different populations studied. The aim of this study was to screen for mental health problems in adults with mild-to-moderate learning…

  5. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF ARTICLE 7 OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNACIO CAMPOY CERVERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to carry out an in-depth analysis of Article 7, “Children with disabilities”, of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. First of all it is explained how the Article 7 is the result of two different models of human rights: the “renewed” protectionism in relation with the children’s rights and the social model in relation with the rights of persons with disabilities. After, it is explained how was the development of the creation of Article 7 within the Ad Hoc Committee which was created for the elaboration of the Convention. In an extensive section it is analysed the wording of Article 7, particularly taking account of the General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Finally, the analysis of the meaning and scope of Article 7 is completed, taking into account other articles of the Convention and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

  6. Struggling for existence—Life situation experiences of older persons with mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Lindholm, Christina; Wiklund-Gustin, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders represent a vulnerable group of people with extensive and complex needs. The older population is rapidly increasing worldwide and, as a result of deinstitutionalization in mental health care, older persons are remaining at home to a greater extent. Although they constitute a large proportion of the population, older persons with mental disorders have been neglected in research as well as in care organizations. As there is little previous knowledge concerning older persons’ experiences of their own situations, this study aimed to illuminate the meaning of the life situation as experienced by older persons with mental disorders (excluding dementia disorders). Interviews were conducted with seven older persons and the text was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical research method, inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. “Struggling for existence” emerged as a main theme in the older persons’ narratives, understood as a loss of dignity of identity and involving being troubled and powerless as well as yearning for respect. The older persons fought to master their existence and to be seen for who they are. The study highlights the importance for caregivers, both formal and informal, to avoid focusing on the diagnoses and rather acknowledge the older persons and their lifeworld, be present in the relation and help them rebuild their dignity of identity. This study brings a new understanding about older persons with mental disorders that may help reduce stigma and contribute to planning future mental health care. PMID:22693537

  7. Effect of Charity Rehabilitation Centers on the Welfare of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Hosseinkhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems with which mentally challenged children and adolescents are faced in the healthcare systems of the world is that the importance of their problems have often been neglected by decision-makers.1 The problem looks more severe when we investigate health care services to mentally disable children. Generally, a child’s health problem creates an economic burden for families but caring for a child with mental problems affects financial situation of families more as compared to caring for a child with other disorders.2 The available economic resources to provide high quality services for the mentally challenged children are limited. In many countries, mental disorders are a source of fear by people and it might even lead to rejection of the mentally challenged by the community.3 There are many shortcomings in the welfare of children with mental health problems. One of the ways to overcome these shortcomings is involvement of non-governmental organizations(NGOs.3 In many countries, NGOs are in charge of health services in particular areas or among specific populations.4 Their significant part in global health diplomacy shows the emergence of this field.5 The involvement of grassroots communities help is of utmost importance in providing care for the mentally disabled.3 The role of privately funded sectors in providing an alternative to public sector services should be considered as a possible solution for limited resources. There are 10,000 registered NGOs in healthcare fields of activities in Iran.6 The citizens of Fars province have donated approximately thirty eight billion Tomans (Iranian currency, to the health care centers across the province from 2002 to 2005. There are 2 known charity centers in Iran for mentally disabled children, i.e. Shiraz Narjes in Shiraz and Kahrizak in Tehran.3 Although the health care expenditures have been increased rapidly over the past few years in Iran,7 these NGOs continue to provide their

  8. Perspectives: the mental health care gap in intellectual disabilities in Spain: impact analysis and knowledge-to-action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Poole, Miriam; Salinas-Perez, Jose A; Tamarit, Javier; Garcia-Ibanez, Jose; Almenara-Barrios, Jose; Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2013-09-01

    Intellectual developmental disorder or Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevalent condition with a high impact along the life-span particularly when associated to other mental disorders (MD). To estimate the unmet needs and to design a knowledge to action plan to reduce the care gap in ID-MD in Spain. We followed a 5-step `maxi' impact assessment and a mixed qualitative/quantitative design including expert panels, secondary analysis of databases and a prospective survey in the 17 regions in Spain. Schizophrenia was used as comparator due to similar prevalence rates and burden. Persons with ID-MD had ten times less outpatient contacts and hospital admissions than patients with schizophrenia. The outpatient case load was 2.31% in ID and 14.6% in schizophrenia. ID had the lowest hospitalization rate amongst all mental disorders but the highest length of stay. The expert panel estimated that half of persons with ID-MD are not adequately assessed and 95% do not receive the required care in Spain. Basic care needs include 6.5 beds and an ID-MD outpatient service per 1 million population. At least 134 specialized psychiatrists and psychologists and 277 beds are needed to reach the minimum standards in Spain. This study quantifies the ID-MD care gap in Spain and the basic specialized services needed. In spite of the societal and health implications of ID-MD the knowledge-to-action plan had a modest impact limited at the regions where ID-MD programmes were already implemented. Specific priority setting on ID-MH should be incorporated to mental health strategy at the Ministry of Health within a broader health and ID plan. National and regional policies should incorporate an integrative care approach through the life cycle. The development of excellence centers on ID-MD and a national observatory on this topic should be encouraged.

  9. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Crone, Travis; DeLeon, Martha; Ajayi, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities. PMID:29536000

  10. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Craft DeFreitas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities.

  11. Violence and abuse against people with disabilities: A comparison of the approaches of the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Oliver; Campbell, Ann

    This paper explores how, and how effectively, two systems of international law have addressed exploitation, violence and abuse of people with mental disabilities. The two international systems reviewed were the Council of Europe's European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The two issues dealt with are (a) forced institutionalisation and denial of community-based services and (b) medically-sanctioned treatment as abuse or violence. The paper offers a comparative analysis of the way in which the two bodies have dealt with exploitation, violence and abuse of people with disabilities, and offers recommendations as to how the two bodies could adjust their approaches to come into closer alignment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Trends in work disability with mental diagnoses among social workers in Finland and Sweden in 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P

    2017-12-01

    Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in

  13. Gait Transitions of Persons with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Yun, Joonkoo; Pavol, Michael J.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the walk-to-run transition speed (W-RTS) and the run-to-walk transition speed (R-WTS) were different or more variable between participants with and without intellectual disability (ID). Nine adults with ID and 10 adults without ID completed in a series of walk-to-run and run-to-walk trials on a treadmill. W-RTS and…

  14. Labour Law for Persons with Disability in Iran: From First International Efforts to Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Abadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis and Matching the legal system of Work for Persons with disability in Iran with Standards of International Labor Organization concerning to Decent Work. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive – Analytic study , after studying International efforts around Labor law for Persons With Disability , in the context of general and special Human rights documents and ILO ‘s Standards, the present Legal system for the work of persons with disability in Iran, Include Laws and Regulations has been considered by Using the Library – documentation method. Results: In the scope of fundamental Rights, Iranian legal system 1- About Disabled compulsory Work has enough guarantees like other workers, and there is not any deficiency. 2- About Freedom of syndicalism: there is not any deficiency too, and there is not any limitation for Disabled workers and employers membership in present associations. 3- In subject of equal remuneration, despite of non-ratification any special approval, but the Base Wage has determined the same for disabled workers (like the others in article 41 of the Labor Law. 4- About nondiscrimination, also based on present legal foundations, any kind of discrimination because of disability has been prohibited, and in field of employment, by ratification the comprehensive law recently in 2004 and by joining to convention for persons with disability in 2008 has taken serious steps too. Specially the significant gap of facilities presented in various areas of rationing public sector employment, Direct and Indirect Educational services for entering the labor market , and self –employment between war reterans and other groups of disability has been narrowed. Conclusion: Based on results of present comparative research, legal principles for fundamental Rights of vocation for people with disabilities in Iran attempt to meet the basic standards of Decent Work and thus it seems that the crucial issue, besides the passing the

  15. Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ≥ 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials. PMID:20158554

  16. Social Support in the Structure of Personality Resources in Individuals with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Leontiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.

  17. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between physical ill-health and mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A; Kinnear, D; Allan, L; Smiley, E; Cooper, S-A

    2018-05-01

    People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health. To identify any associations between types of physical ill-health and mental ill-health. A total of 1023 adults with intellectual disabilities underwent comprehensive health assessments. Binary logistic regressions were undertaken to establish any association between the independent variables: total number of physical health conditions, physical conditions by International Classification of Disease-10 chapter and specific physical health conditions; and the dependent variables: problem behaviours, mental disorders of any type. All regressions were adjusted for age, gender, level of intellectual disabilities, living arrangements, neighbourhood deprivation and Down syndrome. The extent of physical multi-morbidity was not associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities as only 0.8% of the sample had no physical conditions. Endocrine disease increased the risk of problem behaviours [odds ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.47], respiratory disease reduced the risk of problem behaviours (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99) and mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), and musculoskeletal disease reduced the risk of mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98). Ischaemic heart disease increased the risk of problem behaviours approximately threefold (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.02-10.60). The extent of physical multi-morbidity in the population with intellectual

  19. Access to HIV/AIDS services for disabled persons in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    a complex external-internal dialectic, and created at the boundaries that a society creates between “normals” and “outsiders”. This project explores what it means to be infected with HIV/AIDS and/or disabled in Uganda and how this affects a person’s identity. The lower social value of disabled persons......Abstract This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person...... prevents them from participating in processes of reciprocal exchange in areas such as education, employment, and marriage among other things. Especially normative expectations related to sexual behaviour seem to be determinants when disabled persons “choose” to cover up their serum-status, instead...

  20. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  1. The demands of human dignity: Sexuality in the young person with intellectual disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Earl K.; Fernandes, Ashley K.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of sexuality among the disabled is often ignored within Catholic seminaries; within pediatrics, it is treated as a “problem” where the best solution is contraception or sterilization. In this article, the authors argue for an approach to sexuality in disabled youth that is grounded in the inherent dignity of the person, borne out of Christ's own humanity. Because sexuality is a part of the human person in his or her totality, it cannot be ignored or obscured; on the other hand, it cannot also be the overriding “problem” which defines them. Rather, by friendship, love, and covenantal solidarity with the disabled person, we can begin to set an example for them and for society that there are goods to be strived for beyond the physical. The demands of dignity require practical changes in seminary and medical education and practice. PMID:25473132

  2. Selected Developments in South African Labour Legislation related to Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Basson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa marginalised groups have historically been afforded legislative protection in order to ensure that the rights of these groups are respected, protected, promoted and fulfilled. Examples of two such groups are older persons, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Older Persons Act 13 of 2006 and children, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Children's Act 38 of 2005. Persons with disabilities have, however, not yet been the subject of dedicated legislation outlining the content of the rights to which they are entitled. As a result of this lack of dedicated legislation, the rights of persons with disabilities are dealt with in a piecemeal fashion, often in disparate pieces of legislation. In addition to this focus on the rights of persons with disabilities, South African labour law has recently undergone extensive amendments. These amendments have led to the rights of persons with disabilities in the workplace being affected substantially. Since these amendments are as yet untested, little scrutiny of these provisions and the effect they may have on persons with disabilities has been undertaken. This article will thus discuss selected amendments of the labour legislation, and interrogate the practical effect these amendments may have on the rights of such persons. Of particular importance for the purposes of this article is the updating of an existing institution known as Sheltered Employment Factories, as well as the introduction of harsher penalties for employers who remain non-compliant with certain provisions of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998.

  3. Education of persons with intellectual disabilities in India Educación de las personas con discapacidad intelectual en India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Govinda Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically in India, persons with disabilities enjoyed co-existence, though at different times, the treatment and attitudes were at variance. Out of all the types of disabilities, an intellectual disability poses greater challenges than the other types. The families of persons with intellectual disabilities do also have needs different from others, which cannot be segregated from the needs of children with intellectual disability. Specific legislations have been put in place to ensure empowerment of persons with disabilities. Through Rehabilitation Council of India, human resource development programs are standardized. The National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped has developed many service models and contributed toward human resource development and research. Many Non-Government Organizations have started special education and vocational training programs. National Trust, a statutory body, supports the individuals and families and seeks to protect those individuals having no parents. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All, has special focus on education of children with disabilities. Vocational training centres have an obligation to develop eco-centric and commercially viable jobs. As per the National Policy, the Government of India envisages that every child with a disability should have access to appropriate preschool, primary and secondary level education by 2020.Históricamente en India las personas con discapacidades han disfrutado siempre de la coexistencia, si bien a veces el tratamiento y las actitudes podían contrastar. De entre todos los tipos de discapacidad, la intelectual es la que presenta los mayores desafíos. Las familias de las personas con discapacidad intelectual tienen asimismo necesidades distintas de las demás, inseparables de las necesidades de los niños con discapacidad intelectual. Se ha implementado legislación específica para asegurar el apoderamiento de las personas con discapacidades. Los programas

  4. [Mental illness and over-indebtedness. Mental illness, social networks and financial strain in over-indebted persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Heiko; Löffler, Isabel; Ochsmann, Elke; Alsmann, Christine; Letzel, Stephan; Münster, Eva

    2010-07-01

    In Germany, over-indebtedness of private households has been steadily increasing and is currently estimated to affect about 3 million private households. It is almost unknown in the German-speaking part, to what extent financial strain due to excessive debts is accompanied by mental health problems in affected persons. A cross-sectional study including over-indebted persons was conducted between July 2006 and March 2007 in Rhineland-Palatinate by an anonymously filled-in questionnaire of clients of debt counselling services. Altogether 666 persons (51% women) aged between 18-79 years took part (participation rate: 35.5%). 40% of the collective reported a current mental disorder. Especially persons experiencing over-indebtedness as a threat and cannot rely on a functioning social network are in danger of experiencing mental illnesses. When treating mental illnesses, the financial situation of the diseased person should be taken into account and the support of debt counselling services should be used at an early stage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  5. Co-designing person-centred mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Why should future mental health care be co-designed with users, and how do we do it? Based on our research we try yo answer these questions.......Why should future mental health care be co-designed with users, and how do we do it? Based on our research we try yo answer these questions....

  6. Sex between persons with 'mental retardation': an ethical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiecker, B.; Steutel, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity"

  7. Stigma Perception and Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.

    Two studies attempted to assess the effect of the mental retardation label on the formation of social impressions in mentally retarded (MR) adults. In the first study, 123 mildly retarded students, half of whom were institutionalized were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about individuals pictured (some of whom were labeled as MR).…

  8. A Picturesque View to Able-Bodied Persons in the City and the Stigma of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Polat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, in Turkey, the percent of the disabled is %12. Thus, there are 10 million disabled people and when you take the disabled into account with their families half of the Turkish society is affected directly from disability. In addition to that, if we take elders, pregnant, children, obsesses and very tall or short persons who suffer from a kind of temporary or permanent disability into account, we face an incredible situation. These people in city who are limited in terms of motion feel the necessity of design approaches which minimize physical and spatial hindrances in order to travel and wander around in a safe way in places. In addition to the accessibility of the physical environment by the disabled, environmental factors being the cause of disability is quite significant in terms of urban spaces. In this paper, what cities of Turkey, urban planning and design offer to the disabled and what they do not is being investigated, in particular and in general, what is attainable by the help of a universal and inclusive design and universal and inclusive planning to reach a universal, accessible, livable, usable, fair and inclusive city.

  9. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed.

  10. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O.; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Method Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Results Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Discussion Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed. PMID:26046352

  11. Heritage and Stigma. Co-producing and communicating the histories of mental health and learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rob

    2017-06-01

    University engagement with mental health services has traditionally been informed by the vocational and pedagogical links between the two sectors. However, a growth in the interest in public history and in the history of mental healthcare has offered new opportunities for those in the humanities to engage new audiences and to challenge perceptions about care in the past. The introduction of the 'impact agenda' and related funding streams has further encouraged academics to contribute to historical debates, and to those concerning current services. One such example of this is the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded Heritage and Stigma project at the University of Huddersfield, which was conceived to support mental health and learning disability charities in the exploration and dissemination of their own histories. Using this project as a case study, this paper will draw on primary source material to reflect on the opportunities and challenges of working in partnership with such groups. In particular, it will consider the need to address issues of stigma and exclusion in tandem with a critical understanding of the moves to 'community care' instigated by landmark legislation in the form of the 1959 Mental Health Act. Overall, it provides evidence of an inclusive, coproductive model of design and highlights the positive contribution to communicating mental health made by those based in the humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  13. Evaluation of Auditory Sensory Memory of Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Edward M.; Meyer, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    Performance of mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded persons was compared in two experiments designed to identify processes of auditory sensory memory. A theoretical model was proposed to incorporate the current pattern of results. (Author)

  14. Prediction of Mental Health Based on Mental Toughness by the Mediation of Personality Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Naji

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Some features of mental toughness regardless of the effect of the character can cause mental health that According to the findings, emotional control and self-confidence are more important. It is suggested that these items be taught to improve mental health.

  15. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  16. A new indicator of the oral hygiene habits of disabled persons: relevance of the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeres, J; Martínez, F; Feijoo, J F; Ramos, I; Liñares, A; Diz, P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether there is a relationship between the oral hygiene habits of individuals with severe disability the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health. The study group was formed of 60 disabled persons and their respective carers who came for the first time to consultation in the Special-Needs Dentistry Unit of the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. All the carers answered a standardised questionnaire of 28 questions divided into four sections: disabled individual's demographic data, disabled individual's general medical details, social aspects of the carer (personal appearance of the carer and interest in oral health), and disabled individual's oral hygiene habits. The personal appearance of the carers and their interest in the disabled individual's oral health were evaluated using independent scales designed specifically for the study, with five binary items in each scale. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health showed a statistically significant relationship with the individual's oral hygiene habits, particularly with respect to the frequency and duration of toothbrushing, need for physical restraint during toothbrushing, use of a manual toothbrush and use of toothpaste. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health are good indicators of the oral hygiene habits of an individual with severe disability. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of these aspects as a complementary element of the dental record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical Decision Making and Mental Health Service Use Among Persons With Severe Mental Illness Across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Zenter, Nadja; Ay, Esra-Sultan; Loos, Sabine; Slade, Mike; De Rosa, Corrado; Luciano, Mario; Berecz, Roland; Glaub, Theodora; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Krogsgaard Bording, Malene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram; Puschner, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The study explored relationships between preferences for and experiences of clinical decision making (CDM) with service use among persons with severe mental illness. Data from a prospective observational study in six European countries were examined. Associations of baseline staff-rated (N=213) and patient-rated (N=588) preferred and experienced decision making with service use were examined at baseline by using binomial regressions and at 12-month follow-up by using multilevel models. A preference by patients and staff for active patient involvement in decision making, rather than shared or passive decision making, was associated with longer hospital admissions and higher costs at baseline and with increases in admissions over 12 months (p=.043). Low patient-rated satisfaction with an experienced clinical decision was also related to increased costs over the study period (p=.005). A preference for shared decision making may reduce health care costs by reducing inpatient admissions. Patient satisfaction with decisions was a predictor of costs, and clinicians should maximize patient satisfaction with CDM.

  18. The Role of Parenting for the Adjustment of Children with and without Learning Disabilities: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkauskiene, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…

  19. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with SCI: an exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  20. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  1. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  2. [Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, P; Schabos, O; Juckel, G; Hoffmann, K

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common with a high prevalence of 3.5 % in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present article reviews different aspects (epidemiology, aetiology, clinical features, diagnostic methods and treatment). A computerized search of the relevant literature was done using Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Difficulties in diagnosing obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults with ID result from difficulties in differentiating true compulsions from stereotypical and repetitive behaviors as also from the fact that patients with ID have cognitive and language impairments. Genetic diseases are most frequently the cause of congenital intellectual disability but only a few with ID are affected by OCD symptoms. Low-dose serotonergic anti-depressants are used in the treatment of OCD symptoms. However, there are only a few controlled treatment studies of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in people with ID. Further research especially regarding treatment of OCD in people with ID is urgently needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Educational nurse-led lifestyle intervention for persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Audulv, Åsa; Enmarker, Ingela; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David

    2017-11-24

    Although persons with severe mental illness face an increased risk of mortality and of developing negative health outcomes, research has shown that lifestyle interventions can sufficiently support their health. In response, this study examined a nurse-led lifestyle intervention developed in cooperation with members of municipal and county councils to gauge its impact on the quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and body composition of persons with severe mental illness. Lasting 26 weeks and involving 38 persons with severe mental illness, the intervention prioritised two components: the interpersonal relationships of persons with severe mental illness, staff, and group leaders and group education about physical and mental health. Pre-post intervention measurements of quality of life collected with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, cognitive performance with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, walking capacity with a 6-min walk test, and body composition in terms of waist circumference and body mass index were analysed using a nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results suggest that the intervention afforded significant improvements in the health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference for persons with severe mental illness. However, long-term studies with control groups and that examine parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors are essential to ensure the sustained impact of the intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. Methods: 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23. Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. Results: All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Conclusion: Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Keywords: Borderline personality, Mental health, Suicidality

  5. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers...

  6. Perceptions of quality of life and disability in homeless persons with schizophrenia and persons with schizophrenia living in non-institutional housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, A G M; Hoek, H W; van Hoeken, D; Valencia, E; van Hemert, A M

    2012-11-01

    Homelessness is common in persons with schizophrenia. It is unclear how housing conditions and homelessness affect their quality of life and their disability. To explore the self-perceived quality of life and disability of homeless persons with schizophrenia and of those of persons with schizophrenia living in non-institutional housing. Seventy-six not-homeless and 50 homeless persons with schizophrenia were assessed using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life - short version (WHOQOL-Bref) and Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-II). Univariate comparisons of the two groups were made for sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, perceived quality of life and disability. A regression model was used to adjust for potential confounding factors between quality of life, disability and housing. After controlling for age, gender, marital status and age of first hospital admission, homeless persons had more positive scores for the quality of life domain 'health', for the disability domain 'getting along with people' and for the total disability score than persons in non-institutional housing. Contrary to our expectations, the persons in non-institutional housing reported a lower quality of life and more disability than the homeless people. Future research should clarify whether non-institutional housing in and of itself can improve the well-being of people with schizophrenia.

  7. Personal impact of disability in osteoarthritis: patient, professional and public values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Hewlett, Sarah; Learmonth, Ian D; Cavendish, Victoria J

    2006-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability. Numerous tools are available to assess this, but they fail to place a patient value upon disability. In rheumatoid arthritis, research has shown patients have different importance values for similar disabilities, and these individual values can be used to weight disability levels, creating a measure of personal impact. Firstly, to determine if the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) can be used as the basis for an importance value scale by assessing if it includes activities considered important by OA patients. Secondly, to determine if the weights used for the value scale should be based on population, healthcare professional or patient values. Twenty-five OA patients, 25 healthy controls and 25 healthcare professionals rated the importance of the items on the HAQ and shortened Modified HAQ (MHAQ). Prior to completing the HAQ, patients generated a list of activities that were important to them. The HAQ contained 69% of items that patients considered important. No items were consistently deemed unimportant by patients. There was low agreement within and between groups about the importance of the items on the HAQ and MHAQ. The HAQ is a suitable basis for a value scale for an OA disability impact score. Importance values for function differed for patients, healthcare professionals and the general population; therefore individual patient weightings need to be used. Further work is under way to validate a measure of the personal impact of disability in patients with lower limb OA. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Affirmation through disability: one athlete's personal journey to the London Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Emma

    2012-03-01

    This article explores the personal narrative of a British Paralympic wheelchair tennis player who experienced a spinal cord injury (SCI) following a motorcycle accident in 2001 that left her paralysed from the waist down. The study responds to the call by Swain and French, among others, for alternative accounts of disability that demonstrate how life following impairment need not be empty and meaningless, but can actually reflect a positive, if different, social identity. This study draws upon life history data to investigate the journey of one athlete who has managed to achieve international sporting success following a life-changing accident. A pseudonym has not been used for this study as the athlete wanted to be named in the research account and for her story to be shared. A chronological approach was adopted to map the pre- and post-accident recovery process. The account examines life before the trauma, the impact of the accident, the process of rehabilitation and the journey to athletic accomplishment. Negative views of disability can be challenged if disability is viewed in the context of positive life narratives. The story of one Paralympian demonstrates how an 'ordinary' person has made the most of an extraordinary situation and become a world-class athlete. This paper demonstrates that in contrast to typical discourse in disability studies, becoming disabled or living with a disability need not be a tragedy but may on the contrary enhance life and lead to positive affirmation.

  9. Mentalization in Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder: A Comparison With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Jeremy; Melvin, Glenn A; Bennett, Clair; Gordon, Michael S; Saeedi, Naysun; Newman, Louise K

    2018-02-22

    Mentalization is proposed to underlie the disturbed interpersonal relatedness that is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite growing evidence of BPD in adolescents, studies examining mentalization in relation to adolescent BPD have remained limited. Given contradictory findings of this relationship, particularly with adults, further research of mentalization in adolescents with BPD is warranted. The current study further clarifies the nature of mentalizing impairments, related to BPD, by examining different aspects of mentalization between adolescents with BPD (n = 26) and a group of healthy controls (n = 25). Findings support studies that suggest that mentalization may be an important treatment target, influencing BPD symptoms and interpersonal functioning in adolescents with BPD. They also support the importance of examining mentalizing abilities in relation to varying levels of complexity, interpersonal contexts, and levels of arousal. Limitations and further research are discussed.

  10. Innovative methods and tools for professionals working in supported living services for intellectually disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruiz, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy of mid-seriously and seriously intellectually disabled persons is encouraged both by legislations on human rights and the modern social care and services. The process leading to the maximum possible autonomy is illustrated by a developmental spiral in our model. Specialty of the development is that the personal educational projects are realized during everyday activities. The process requires conscious professionals with an empowering and motivating attitude, with adult relationship to the intellectually disabled persons and versatile skills and tools. In this educational relationship the social professional and the supported person are equal partners moving together along the spiral of human development. An innovative tool-battery has been developed aiding support-staff in the 'pedagogical' task embedded into everyday social services. The tool-battery and its first application in supported living services of the Hungarian Down Foundation are introduced in this paper.

  11. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Bandiera

    Full Text Available The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761 in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6% and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%, as compared to the general population (30.7%. The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30% was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.

  12. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.

  13. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vîrgă, D.; Curseu, P.L.; Maricuţoiu, L.; Sava, S.A.; Macsinga, I.; Măgurean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested

  14. The ICF framework and third party disability: application to the spouses of persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threats, Travis

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for understanding functioning and disability of persons with a health condition. WHO refers to "third party disability" as the study of the life functioning of family members when faced with a health condition of their significant others. The spouses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) have been referred to as the "hidden victims" of aphasia. Traditionally, rehabilitation and societal efforts have been directed solely at the person who has the overt disability. Although it has been long acknowledged that the spouses of PWAs can also have significant difficulties, the focus and resources of therapy are usually not provided to address spouses' problems directly. In addition, PWAs depend on their communicative environments to maintain and develop the skills learned in therapy. The long-term outcomes of aphasia therapy are greatly influenced by being in a facilitative environment. Thus, understanding and providing appropriate intervention and support services for spouses may help not only the spouses but also the PWAs to have positive long-term outcomes. This article examines whether the ICF framework can be used to study third party disability of the spouses of PWAs and how the ICF could be used to develop clinically applicable research in this crucial area.

  15. MEMENTA—‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’. A cross-sectional epidemiological multisite study assessing prevalence of psychiatric symptomatology, needs for care and quality of healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability in Germany: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andrea; Vogel, Anke; Holzmann, Marco; Pfennig, Andrea; Salize, Hans Joachim; Puschner, Bernd; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study ‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’ (MEMENTA) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in three different regions of Germany. Its main aim is to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID) as well as quality of mental healthcare for this population. Methods and analysis The target population are persons aged between 18 and 65 years with a mild or moderate ID. The study population will be recruited through service providers. A representative sample is realised by two-stage sampling. First, institutions providing services for people with ID (sheltered workshops) are selected in a stratified cluster sampling, with strata being (1) types of service-providing non-governmental organisations and (2) sizes of their sheltered workshops. Then persons working in selected sheltered workshops are selected by simple random sampling. An estimated number of 600 adults with ID will be included. Information will be obtained from the group leaders in the sheltered workshops, informal carers or staff members in sheltered housing institutions and the person with ID. Besides the main outcome parameter of psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour, other outcome parameters such as needs for care, quality of life, caregiver burden, health services utilisation and costs for care are assessed using well-established standardised instruments. If a comorbid mental disorder is diagnosed, quality of mental healthcare will be assessed with open questions to all interview partners and, in addition, problem-focused interviews with a small subgroup. Analyses will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ethics and dissemination Approval of all three local ethics committees was obtained. Research findings will add much needed empirical information in order to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Trial

  16. Personal assistance for disabled people and the understanding of human being

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Teodor

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores personal assistance - a practice considered crucial for supporting the independence and social inclusion of disabled people. The starting point of the analysis is the presumption that the significance of personal assistance goes well beyond welfare, touching upon existential-ontological issues. In order to uncover these issues, a phenomenological approach is used. The aim is to highlight the understanding of human being which is mediated by an internationally prominent mod...

  17. Inclusive and exclusive invironments in the teaching-learning process of mentally disabled people in physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar de Carvalho Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of interest in the world educational scenario to proceed in the established dilemma concerning the implications of the organization of inclusive (that proposes the simultaneous attendance of students with and without disability and exclusive (formed exclusively by students with some kind of disability environments in the development of teaching-learning processes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the teaching-learning process in Physical Education classes, with basic movements from Tae-Kwon-Do in exclusive and inclusive environments for attending students who showed mental disability. Six students from a special school, with mental disability, and twenty-six students from a regular school took part in this research. Along the first school semester of 2007, students with mental disability were submitted to alternate classes in exclusive and inclusive environments. Results showed that there was no difference in the motor response of students from the special school, concerning the exclusive and the inclusive environments. More than just discuss if the educational attendance to students with mental disability should occur in inclusive or exclusive environments, it is important to improve the environment organization so that they could be really able to learn.

  18. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with receipt of physical disability benefits in substance abuse treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shannon A; Cherniack, Martin G; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    Opioid dependence is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and opioid dependent patients have substantial medical, as well as psychiatric, conditions that impact their ability to work. This study evaluated the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and receipt of physical disability payments in methadone maintenance patients. Using data from 115 drug and alcohol abusing methadone maintained patients participating in two clinical trials, baseline characteristics of individuals receiving (n=22) and those not receiving (n=93) physical disability benefits were compared, and a logistic regression evaluated unique predictors of disability status. Both an ASPD diagnosis and severity of medical problems were significant predictors of disability receipt, ps<.05. After controlling for other variables that differed between groups, patients with ASPD were more than five times likelier to receive physical disability benefits than patients without ASPD (odds ratio=5.66; 95% confidence interval=1.58-20.28). These results demonstrate a role of ASPD in the receipt of disability benefits in substance abusers and suggest the need for greater understanding of the reasons for high rates of physical disability benefits in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  20. Access to HIV/AIDS services for disabled persons in Uganda - problems of stigma and discrimination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    -internal dialectic, and created at the boundaries that a society creates between “normals” and “outsiders”. This project explores what it means to be infected with HIV/AIDS and/or disabled in Uganda and how this affects a person’s identity. The lower social value of disabled persons prevents them from participating......This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person with disabilities...... as important issues regarding attendance at these services for PWDs. Those obstacles are there, but according to my fieldwork the physical barriers in the “healthcare system” do not seem to be as important as barriers outside the “healthcare system”. These barriers are constituted through a complex external...

  1. The regulation of informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill persons: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nienaber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the legal requirements relating to the informed consent of mentally ill persons to participation in clinical research in South Africa. First, the juridical basis of informed consent in South African law is outlined; and second, the requirements for lawful consent developed in South African common law and case law are presented. Finally, the article deliberates upon the requirements for the participation of mentally ill persons in research as laid down by the Mental Health Care Act and its regulations, the National Health Act and its (draft regulations, and the South African Constitution.

  2. Differences in quality of care as perceived by persons with intellectual disabilities and their relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speet, M.; Delnoij, D.M.; Sixma, H.J.; Groenendijk, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health care organizations involve their clients in policymaking to deliver lient-orientated care and to improve the quality of care. However, in the care delivered to persons with intellectual disabilities, because of problems with communication skills, proxies are often used to gain

  3. Personality Characteristics and Attitudes Toward the Disabled by Students in the Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Richard

    1971-01-01

    This study attempted to verify Holland's theory of intellectual and social orientations by use of Jung's typological characteristics. Support was obtained for the original hypotheses for male subjects on three of the four personality variables. The results for female subjects were insignificant except for attitudes toward the disabled. (Author)

  4. Motivational Correlates of Physical Activity in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Y.; Korsensky, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to systematically retrieve, examine and discuss scientific studies focusing on motivational correlates that both contribute to, and can be assumed to be effects of, participation in sport, recreation, or health-related physical activities in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A systematic…

  5. Characteristics of People Providing Family Placements to Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana

    2005-01-01

    The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…

  6. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  7. A Review of Balance and Gait Capacities in Relation to Falls in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in mobility are common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). As balance and gait capacities are key aspects of mobility, the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also expected to be high in this population. The objective of this study was to critically review the available literature on balance and gait characteristics…

  8. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  9. Teaching Personal Finance Mathematical Problem Solving to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi

    2017-01-01

    The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…

  10. Convenience of achieving a software platform leading to increased travel safety for disabled persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a qualitative marketing research, achieved by the focus group method, one of a series of marketing researches proposed with a view to determining the extent to which it is opportune to achieve a software platform containing a database with safe tourist routes and images, accessible for disabled persons, which may tested/ visualized by virtual reality.

  11. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  12. Positive Contributions of Persons with Disabilities to Their Families. Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Shirley

    This literature review addresses perceived positive contributions of disabled persons to their families and proposes a new framework for such research. Considered first is the theoretical framework underlying Family Stress and Coping Theory, specifically the ABCX model of R. Hill and its modifications. Next, family research trends in the…

  13. Developing an Education Intervention for Staff Supporting Persons with an Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; McCarron, Mary; Connaire, Kevin; McCallion, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Generally, staff working in settings that provide care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not received specific education with respect to extended care for terminal illnesses or late-stage dementia. Equally, staff working in specialist palliative care often are not familiar with the unique issues of supporting persons with…

  14. Equality of What? The Capability Approach and the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Broderick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is indispensable in unlocking other substantive human rights and in ensuring full and equal participation of persons with disabilities in mainstream society. The cornerstone of Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities seeks to ensure access to inclusive education for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others as well as the full development of human potential. Since the adoption of the Convention, there has been much theorising about inclusive education; however, there has been little focus on the meaning of equality in the context of the right to education for persons with disabilities. The capability approach, developed by Amartya Sen and further refined by Martha Nussbaum, focuses on ensuring equality and developing human potential. It is often viewed as a tool that can be used to overcome the limitations of traditional equality assessments in the educational sphere, which only measure resources and outcomes. This article explores whether the capability approach can offer new insights into the vision of educational equality contained in the Convention and how that vision can be implemented at the national level.

  15. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  16. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  17. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr) was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed. PMID:29370275

  18. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr) was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed.

  19. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brailovskaia

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed.

  20. A Follow-Up Study of Graduates with Learning Disabilities from a College of Education: Impact of the Disability on Personal and Professional Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russak, Susie; Daniel Hellwing, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined three issues connected to the experiences of graduates with learning disabilities (LD) from a college of education (N = 45): support services that had been most beneficial during studies, positive and negative effects of the disability on personal, and professional life. Additionally, demographic data were collected. A…