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Sample records for mental health symptoms

  1. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  2. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms...... the Danish registers. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription...... for psychiatric medicine. Approximately one-third received psychotherapy at the Military Psychological Division. In those reporting high PTSD symptomatology, 83% utilized 1 or more types of mental health service. At predeployment and homecoming, high PTSD symptomatology was significantly (P

  3. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  4. Does anonymity increase the reporting of mental health symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Fear, Nicola T; Seddon, Rachel; Jones, Norman; Greenberg, Neil; Wessely, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no doubt that the perceived stigma of having a mental disorder acts as a barrier to help seeking. It is possible that personnel may be reluctant to admit to symptoms suggestive of poor mental health when such data can be linked to them, even if their personal details are only used to help them access further care. This may be particularly relevant because individuals who have a mental health problem are more likely to experience barriers to care and hold stigmatiz...

  5. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  6. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Willem F.; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A. Gotway

    2004-01-01

    Context Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living

  7. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Does anonymity increase the reporting of mental health symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, Nicola T; Seddon, Rachel; Jones, Norman; Greenberg, Neil; Wessely, Simon

    2012-09-17

    There is no doubt that the perceived stigma of having a mental disorder acts as a barrier to help seeking. It is possible that personnel may be reluctant to admit to symptoms suggestive of poor mental health when such data can be linked to them, even if their personal details are only used to help them access further care. This may be particularly relevant because individuals who have a mental health problem are more likely to experience barriers to care and hold stigmatizing beliefs. If that is the case, then mental health screening programmers may not be effective in detecting those most in need of care. We aimed to compare mental health symptom reporting when using an anonymous versus identifiable questionnaire among UK military personnel on deployment in Iraq. Survey among UK military personnel using two questionnaires, one was anonymous (n = 315) and one collected contact details (i.e. identifiable, n = 296). Distribution was by alternate allocation. Data were collected in Iraq during January-February 2009. No significant difference in the reporting of symptoms of common mental disorders was found (18.1% of identifiable vs. 22.9% of anonymous participants). UK military personnel were more likely to report sub-threshold and probable PTSD when completing questionnaires anonymously (sub-threshold PTSD: 2.4% of identifiable vs. 5.8% of anonymous participants; probable PTSD: 1.7% of identifiable vs. 4.8% of anonymous participants). Of the 11 barriers to care and perceived social stigma statements considered, those completing the anonymous questionnaire compared to those completing the identifiable questionnaire were more likely to endorse three statements: "leaders discourage the use of mental health services" (9.3% vs. 4.6%), "it would be too embarrassing" (41.6% vs. 32.5%) and "I would be seen as weak" (46.6% vs. 34.2%). We found a significant effect on the reporting of sub-threshold and probable PTSD and certain stigmatizing beliefs (but not common mental

  9. Does anonymity increase the reporting of mental health symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fear Nicola T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no doubt that the perceived stigma of having a mental disorder acts as a barrier to help seeking. It is possible that personnel may be reluctant to admit to symptoms suggestive of poor mental health when such data can be linked to them, even if their personal details are only used to help them access further care. This may be particularly relevant because individuals who have a mental health problem are more likely to experience barriers to care and hold stigmatizing beliefs. If that is the case, then mental health screening programmers may not be effective in detecting those most in need of care. We aimed to compare mental health symptom reporting when using an anonymous versus identifiable questionnaire among UK military personnel on deployment in Iraq. Methods Survey among UK military personnel using two questionnaires, one was anonymous (n = 315 and one collected contact details (i.e. identifiable, n = 296. Distribution was by alternate allocation. Data were collected in Iraq during January-February 2009. Results No significant difference in the reporting of symptoms of common mental disorders was found (18.1% of identifiable vs. 22.9% of anonymous participants. UK military personnel were more likely to report sub-threshold and probable PTSD when completing questionnaires anonymously (sub-threshold PTSD: 2.4% of identifiable vs. 5.8% of anonymous participants; probable PTSD: 1.7% of identifiable vs. 4.8% of anonymous participants. Of the 11 barriers to care and perceived social stigma statements considered, those completing the anonymous questionnaire compared to those completing the identifiable questionnaire were more likely to endorse three statements: “leaders discourage the use of mental health services” (9.3% vs. 4.6%, “it would be too embarrassing” (41.6% vs. 32.5% and “I would be seen as weak” (46.6% vs. 34.2%. Conclusions We found a significant effect on the reporting of sub

  10. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  12. Mental Health Conditions and Symptoms in Pediatric Hospitalizations: A Single-Center Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Stephanie K; Henry, M Katherine; Bae, Hanah; Litman, Jessica; Turner, Shanarra; Scharko, Alexander M; Feudtner, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents necessitating hospitalization for physical health conditions are at high risk for mental health conditions; however, the prevalence of mental health conditions and symptoms among hospitalized children and adolescents is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hospitalized children and adolescents who have diagnosed mental health disorders or undiagnosed mental health problems. In this single-center point prevalence study of hospitalized children between the ages of 4 and 21 years, patients or their parents reported known mental health diagnoses and use of services using the Services Assessment for Children and Adolescent, and they reported patient mental health symptoms using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 17-item form (PSC-17). Of 229 eligible patients, 119 agreed to participate. Demographic characteristics of patients who enrolled were not statistically significantly different from those of patients who declined to participate. Among participants, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-35%) reported a known mental health diagnosis. On the PSC-17, 29% (95% CI, 21%-38%) of participants had a positive screen for mental health symptoms. Of those with a positive screen, 38% (95% CI, 21%-55%) had no known mental health diagnosis, and 26% (95% CI, 12%-43%) had not received ambulatory mental health services in the 12 months before hospitalization. Mental health conditions and symptoms are common among patients hospitalized in a tertiary children's hospital, and many affected patients are not receiving ambulatory mental health services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  14. Obesity and the association with maternal mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Elovitz, Michal A; Stringer, Marilyn; Epperson, C Neill; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal obesity and mood disorders including depression, anxiety, stress, and pregnancy-specific stress during pregnancy. This was a planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study investigating factors associated with preterm delivery. The cohort included women who initiated prenatal care before 20 weeks with a singleton pregnancy. Maternal mental health was assessed using four standard psychosocial behavioral measures to screen for depression, pregnancy-specific stress, anxiety, and stress. Screen positive scores for each tool were established based on previously published "high" scores. Of the 1010 women included in the cohort, 355 (35.1%) were obese. There was no significant difference in the number of obese women with stress (64.2% versus 68.4%, p = 0.18), pregnancy-specific stress (26.2% versus 22.1%, p = 0.15), or anxiety (38.6% versus 41.2%, p = 0.42); however, a greater number of obese women did report symptoms consistent with major depression when compared to women with BMIs Obese women had higher rates of depression in early pregnancy compared to nonobese women. As many of the health behavior interventions for obese women during pregnancy have proven ineffective, incorporating depression screening and treatment into prenatal care may improve perinatal outcomes.

  15. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep

  16. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  17. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. Methods: 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23. Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. Results: All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Conclusion: Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Keywords: Borderline personality, Mental health, Suicidality

  18. Relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction: The mediating effects of mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-09-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them. Methods A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypothesis that borderline personality symptoms are associated with the severity of Internet addiction directly and also through the mediation of mental health problems. Results SEM analysis revealed that all paths in the hypothesized model were significant, indicating that borderline personality symptoms were directly related to the severity of Internet addiction as well as indirectly related to the severity of Internet addiction by increasing the severity of mental health problems. Conclusion Borderline personality symptoms and mental health problems should be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs for Internet addiction.

  19. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms and homeless children's mental health: risk and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B S

    1998-02-01

    Homelessness places children at risk for mental health problems. Maternal depression may influence child outcomes through its effects on the mother-child relationship. This study examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child mental health in a sample of homeless mothers and their preschool children. The relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems was not significant. The data suggest that mental health services for homeless mothers and their young children are needed. However, 70% of the children in this sample had no behavior problems. Their adaptation reflects resilience to extraordinary stressors and provides a unique opportunity to understand child resiliency.

  1. The Influence of Psychological Symptoms on Mental Health Literacy of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report two studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. PMID:26052815

  2. Fathers' mental health as a protective factor in the relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Hagen, Kristine A; Villabø, Marianne A; Arnberg, Kasper; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Torgersen, Svenn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between parental and child depressive symptoms has been found to be stronger for mothers than for fathers. Does this mean that fathers' mental health is less important in the context of child depressive symptoms? The goal of the current study is to test whether the degree of fathers' depressive symptoms moderate the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Our knowledge about such interaction effects between mothers' and fathers' symptoms is limited. We examined depressive symptoms in 190 children (age 7-13, 118 boys) referred to child community clinics and their parents. Mothers and fathers reported on their own and their child's depressive symptoms, whereas children only reported on their own symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed significant interaction effects of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms on mother- and father-reported child depressive symptoms, while no effects were found for child reports. When fathers reported few depressive symptoms for themselves, no relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms was observed. The more depressive symptoms in fathers, the stronger the relationship between mothers' and children's symptoms. Fathers' mental health may be a protective factor in the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Thus, researchers and practitioners would benefit from considering not only depressive symptoms in mothers, but also in fathers, when examining and working with child depressive symptoms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  4. Perceived discrimination and mental health symptoms among Black men with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J; Sticklor, Laurel A

    2011-07-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, than do members of the general public. We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales; all p values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmata when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH.

  5. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  6. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  7. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving m...

  8. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  9. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C; Rizzo, Christie J; Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment ( N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth.

  10. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  12. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  13. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  14. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms : findings from a general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, J.F.; Ten Have, M.; Rijnders, C.A.; Van Marwijk, H.W.; de Graaf, R.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence

  15. Violence exposure is associated with adolescents' same- and next-day mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Russell, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Young people exposed to violence are at increased risk for mental health and behavioral problems. However, very little is known about the immediate, or same-day, associations between violence exposure and adolescents' mental health symptoms or whether daily symptom or behavioral reactivity marks future problems. Young adolescents were assessed three times a day for 30 consecutive days using mobile-phone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) (N = 151 adolescents). Over 12,500 assessments and 4,329 person days were obtained via the EMA. Adolescents were recruited from low-income neighborhoods based on parent-reported risk for externalizing symptoms. Mental health symptoms were assessed via parent and child report at baseline, multiple times per day via EMA assessments of the adolescents, and again 18 months later when 93% of the adolescents were reinterviewed. Results from multilevel models illustrated that young adolescents were more likely to experience symptoms of anger (OR = 1.74, CI: 1.31-2.30), depression (OR = 1.66, CI: 1.26-2.19), and conduct problems (OR = 2.63, CI: 1.71-4.04) on days that they were exposed versus not exposed to violence. Increases in depressive symptoms were also observed on days following violence exposure (OR = 1.46, CI: 1.09-1.97). Adolescents with the highest levels of violence exposure across the 30-day EMA were less behaviorally reactive to violence exposures in daily life, and heightened behavioral reactivity predicted increased risk for substance use across early adolescence. Findings support the need to focus on both the immediate and long-term associations between violence exposure and adolescents' mental health and behavior. Results also suggest that heightened behavioral reactivity during early adolescence may signal emerging substance use problems. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...

  17. Symptoms in the cancer patient - Of importance for their caregivers’ quality of life and mental health?

    OpenAIRE

    Valeberg, Berit Taraldsen; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the level of symptom burden in a sample of cancer patients in a curative and palliative phase, In addition, to determine a) whether the patients’ symptom burden and patients’ demographic variables, and b) the and caregivers’ demographic variables’ impact on the caregivers’ quality of life and mental health. Method: This descriptive, cross-sectional study combines data from two samples. The first group consists of caregivers of hospitalized patients with cancer in the late ...

  18. Treatment of veterans with mental health symptoms in VA primary care prior to suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneson, Lauren M; Williams, Holly B; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Dobscha, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    We describe Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care received by veterans with mental health symptoms in the year prior to suicide to identify opportunities to improve care. Death certificate data from 11 states were linked to VA national patient care data for veterans who died by suicide in 2009 and had received VA care. We identified 118 age-, sex- and clinician-matched case-control pairs (suicide decedents and living controls) with mental health symptoms. Using McNemar's chi-square and paired t tests, we compare primary care follow-up received during the year prior to death. Cases and controls received similar primary care clinician follow-up and treatment for mental health symptoms. Cases were less likely than controls to fill 90 or more total days of an antidepressant during the year (P=.02), despite no differences in prescription orders from clinicians (P=.05). Cases and controls were equally likely to fill 90 or more consecutive days of an antidepressant (P=.47). Across both groups, 48% (n=113) received assessment for suicidal ideation in primary care. We identified two areas to improve primary care for veterans at risk for suicide: monitoring antidepressant treatment adherence and improving suicidal ideation assessment and follow-up for veterans with mental health symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  20. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  1. Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep and Mental Health Symptoms in Youth With Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Nelson, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child's sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental health symptoms were highly related at the daily level. Between-person effects were found to be most important and significant bidirectional relationships exist. Identifying and addressing sleep problems in the context of mental health treatment is important, as poor sleep is associated with increased symptomology and may contribute to worsened mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse.The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education.A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding.The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care.The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. 

  3. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  4. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  5. Using the interaction of mental health symptoms and treatment status to estimate lost employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Scuffham, Paul A; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-02-01

    In Australia it has been estimated that mental health symptoms result in a loss of $ AU2.7 billion in employee productivity. To date, however, there has been only one study quantifying employee productivity decrements due to mental disorders when treatment-seeking behaviours are considered. The aim of the current paper was to estimate employee work productivity by mental health symptoms while considering different treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 60 556 full-time employees responded to the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. This questionnaire is designed to monitor the work productivity of employees for chronic and acute physical and mental health conditions. Contained within the questionnaire is the Kessler 6, a scale measuring psychological distress along with an evaluation of employee treatment-seeking behaviours for depression, anxiety and any other emotional problems. A univariate analysis of variance was performed for employee productivity using the interaction between Kessler 6 severity categories and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 9.6% of employees have moderate psychological distress and a further 4.5% have high psychological distress. Increasing psychological distress from low to moderate then to high levels is associated with increasing productivity decrements (6.4%, 9.4% and 20.9% decrements, respectively) for employees in current treatment. Combining the prevalence of Kessler 6 categories with treatment-seeking behaviours, mean 2009 salaries and number of Australian employees in 2009, it is estimated that psychological distress produces an $ AU5.9 billion reduction in Australian employee productivity per annum. The estimated loss of $ AU5.9 billion in employee productivity due to mental health problems is substantially higher than previous estimates. This finding is especially pertinent given the global economic crisis, when psychological distress among employees is likely to be increasing. Effective

  6. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Paddiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  7. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.

  8. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cogniti...

  9. Anxiety Symptoms in Psychotic Disorders: Results from the Second Australian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Peter; Mancuso, Sam G; Castle, David J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among Australians with psychotic disorders was examined as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP). A two-phase design was used. Of 7,955 people who were screened positive for psychosis and eligible, there were 1,825 participants (18-34 years and 35-64 years) interviewed. Data were collected on symptomatology, substance use, cognitive ability, functioning, disability, physical health, mental health service utilization, medication use, education, employment and housing. Anxiety symptomatology was divided into generalized anxiety, panic, phobic, social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most common ICD-10 diagnoses were schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (63.0%) and bipolar (mania) disorder (17.5%). Overall, 59.8% (n=1,092) of participants reported experiencing anxiety symptoms in the previous twelve months. Female gender was highly associated with all domains of anxiety. Smoking was significantly associated with all domains of anxiety, except generalized anxiety. The presence of any depressive symptoms in the previous twelve months was significantly associated with all anxiety symptoms. Medication side effects were associated with phobic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Social dysfunction was associated with social anxiety, and less so for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms are common in people with psychotic disorders. Appropriate screening and treatment should be a clinical priority.

  10. Effects of Sleep Quality on the Association between Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health Symptoms in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuman; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukun; Zhang, Shichen; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-01-01

    Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is a risk factor for both adolescents’ sleep quality and mental health. It is important to examine the potential negative health effects of PMPU exposure. This study aims to evaluate PMPU and its association with mental health in Chinese college students. Furthermore, we investigated how sleep quality influences this association. In 2013, we collected data regarding participants’ PMPU, sleep quality, and mental health (psychopathological symptoms, anxiety, and depressive symptoms) by standardized questionnaires in 4747 college students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess independent effects and interactions of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health. PMPU and poor sleep quality were observed in 28.2% and 9.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression models suggested independent associations of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health (p sleep quality may play a more significant role in increasing the risk of mental health problems in students with PMPU than in those without PMPU. PMID:28216583

  11. Effects of Sleep Quality on the Association between Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health Symptoms in Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuman; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukun; Zhang, Shichen; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-02-14

    Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep quality and mental health. It is important to examine the potential negative health effects of PMPU exposure. This study aims to evaluate PMPU and its association with mental health in Chinese college students. Furthermore, we investigated how sleep quality influences this association. In 2013, we collected data regarding participants' PMPU, sleep quality, and mental health (psychopathological symptoms, anxiety, and depressive symptoms) by standardized questionnaires in 4747 college students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess independent effects and interactions of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health. PMPU and poor sleep quality were observed in 28.2% and 9.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression models suggested independent associations of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health ( p mental health problems in students with PMPU than in those without PMPU.

  12. Parents' Reports of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: Associations with Parents' Mental Health Symptoms and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika

    2017-06-01

    This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  13. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  14. Does Mother–Child Interaction Mediate the Relation Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children’s Mental Health Problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This

  15. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  16. The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.

  17. Perceived norms moderate the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Hunter, Sarah B; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-09-01

    There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking.

  18. [Trauma history and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents attending a mental health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    Systematic exploration of potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress symptoms of patients attending a hospital for child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy. The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV was filled in by 413 children and adolescents and 403 caregivers at their first attendance at the clinic. At least one traumatic event was reported by 46.9% of the children and adolescents and/or caregivers. Clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms were reported in 22.9%. In the investigated sample routinely performed screening assessments can identify clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms in almost one of four patients of child mental health services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Reporting Mental Health Symptoms: Breaking Down Barriers to Care with Virtual Human Interviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale M. Lucas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common barrier to healthcare for psychiatric conditions is the stigma associated with these disorders. Perceived stigma prevents many from reporting their symptoms. Stigma is a particularly pervasive problem among military service members, preventing them from reporting symptoms of combat-related conditions like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, research shows (increased reporting by service members when anonymous assessments are used. For example, service members report more symptoms of PTSD when they anonymously answer the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA symptom checklist compared to the official PDHA, which is identifiable and linked to their military records. To investigate the factors that influence reporting of psychological symptoms by service members, we used a transformative technology: automated virtual humans that interview people about their symptoms. Such virtual human interviewers allow simultaneous use of two techniques for eliciting disclosure that would otherwise be incompatible; they afford anonymity while also building rapport. We examined whether virtual human interviewers could increase disclosure of mental health symptoms among active-duty service members that just returned from a year-long deployment in Afghanistan. Service members reported more symptoms during a conversation with a virtual human interviewer than on the official PDHA. They also reported more to a virtual human interviewer than on an anonymized PDHA. A second, larger sample of active-duty and former service members found a similar effect that approached statistical significance. Because respondents in both studies shared more with virtual human interviewers than an anonymized PDHA—even though both conditions control for stigma and ramifications for service members’ military records—virtual human interviewers that build rapport may provide a superior option to encourage reporting.

  20. Material Hardship and Mental Health Symptoms Among a Predominantly Low Income Sample of Pregnant Women Seeking Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Crean, Hugh F; Cerulli, Catherine; Poleshuck, Ellen L

    2018-03-14

    Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients. Results About 56% of the sample reported some form of material hardship. About 19% of the sample reported elevated depression, and 17% reported elevated anxiety. Both depression and anxiety were uniquely associated with lower income and greater material hardship, even after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, relationship status, and number of children in the home. Furthermore, material hardship partially mediated the effect of income on mental health symptoms. Discussion The physical, emotional, and social effects of deprivation of basic daily needs may contribute to pregnant women's experiences of mental health symptoms. These results converge with the broader literature focused on the social determinants of physical and mental health. When symptoms of depression and anxiety reflect distress related to material hardship, addressing unmet social needs may be more effective than mental health treatment.

  1. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D.; Hickie, Ian B.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample from the US adolescents. Measurements and Results: A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors

  2. Racial matching and adolescent self-disclosure of substance use and mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureche, Daniel J; Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Tabb, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining accurate assessment data from adolescents in treatment aids clinical decision making and facilitates more accurate outcome evaluations. However, findings could be biased due to underreported substance use and mental health symptoms. This article compares self-reports of youth in non-White matched client-assessor dyads and those in nonmatched dyads. There were no differences on self-reported substance use, but matched youth reported significantly fewer attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms versus the comparison group. One possible reason for these findings is the effect of in-group stereotype threat. Future studies should examine the potential effect that in-group stereotyping and perceived racism have on the therapeutic relationship.

  3. Substance Dependence among those without symptoms of Substance Abuse in the World Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer; Kessler, Ronald C.; Sampson, Nancy; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; de Galvis, Yolanda Torres; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for data collection and operationalizes diagnoses using DSM-IV criteria. The first 13 WMH surveys used CIDI version 3.0, which only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse, while subsequent surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. The aim of the current report is to compare results across the two sets of surveys to assess the implications of the revised skip logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse in the earlier surveys. Prevalence of lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of WMH surveys (0.3% for alcohol and 0.2% for drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half-samples. There were minimal difference in the distributions of imputed and reported cases in the validation dataset for important correlates such as age, gender and quantity though higher numbers of additional mental disorders and number of days out of role were found in the imputed than reported cases. Concordance between imputed and observed estimates of total lifetime dependence in the full sample was high both for alcohol dependence (sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.5% and AUC 0.94) and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8% and AUC 1.00). This study provides cross-national evidence of the degree to which each of lifetime alcohol dependence and lifetime drug dependence occur without symptoms of abuse. Additionally imputation of substance dependence without symptoms of abuse in the earlier WMH surveys will result in improved estimates of lifetime prevalence for comparison with other epidemiological studies both cross-nationally and over time. PMID:28211594

  4. Validity of the Associated Symptom Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Observations From the Singapore Mental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Ong, Clarissa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-05-01

    Previous findings on the diagnostic validity and reliability of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-associated symptom criteria suggest need for further evaluation. The current study examined convergent validity and specificity of GAD-associated symptoms in a representative Singapore community sample. The Singapore of Mental Health Study a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among 6166 Singapore residents aged 18 and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 was used to diagnose mental disorders. Associated symptoms in the GAD criteria and autonomic hyperactivity symptoms showed convergent validity with a GAD diagnosis. However, associated symptoms of GAD were also linked to major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, suggesting lack of adequate specificity. The inability of the diagnostic criteria to differentiate GAD from symptoms of other conditions highlights the need to better define its associated symptoms criteria. The relationship of overlapping symptoms between GAD and MDD is also discussed.

  5. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  6. Health correlates of insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D; Hickie, Ian B; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. National representative cross-sectional study. Population-based sample from the US adolescents. A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors, and suicidality. Comorbid mental disorders potentiate the

  7. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  8. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Community. A total of 396 children (51% female). N/A. Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9-10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18.

  9. The impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence and mental health symptoms on parenting behaviour among mothers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Okuyama, M; Izumi, M

    2012-07-01

    To assess the impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence experiences and mental health symptoms on the parenting behaviour of mothers in Japan who have separated from violent husbands or partners. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of mothers (n = 304) and their children (n = 498) residing in 83 mother-child homes in Japan. The survey assessed the mothers' childhood abuse history (physical, psychological and sexual abuse and neglect history), domestic violence experiences, current mental health symptoms (dissociative, depressive and traumatic symptoms) and parenting behaviours after moving into the homes to separate from a violent husband or partner. The mothers' childhood abuse history and experience of domestic violence were not associated with their not playing with their children. In contrast, the mothers' dissociative and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with not playing with their children. Although there was no association between the mothers' total childhood abuse history and not praising their children, their childhood physical abuse history was significantly associated with their not praising their children. The dissociative and depressive symptoms were also associated with no praise. Interestingly, the experience of domestic violence showed an inverse association with no praise. Mental health symptoms, more specifically dissociative and depressive symptoms, are associated with a decrease in parenting quality. Mothers who were physically abused as children are less likely to praise their own children, independent of maternal mental health symptoms. In contrast, mothers who experienced domestic violence but subsequently separated from their violent husbands or partners are more likely to praise their children. The treatment of mental health symptoms, particularly dissociative and depressive symptoms, therapy for childhood abuse history and separation from violent husbands or partners might be

  10. The relationship between mothers' child abuse potential and current mental health symptoms: implications for screening and referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Deborah J; Becker, Marion A; Buckley, Pamela R; Dailey, Kathy; Reichardt, Charles S; Graeber, Carla; VanDeMark, Nancy R; Brown, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examined data from mothers at 2 of the 9 sites participating in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA's) national Women Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study (WCDVS). According to previous literature, it was hypothesized that women in the WCDVS would be at high risk of perpetrating child abuse. This research examined mothers' potential for physical child abuse and assessed the association between child abuse potential, current mental health symptoms, alcohol and drug use severity, and trauma. Results revealed that participants had significant potential for child abuse. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that current mental health symptoms were the strongest predictor of mothers' scores on the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory. This study highlights the important relationships between commonly used instruments across the mental health, substance, and child welfare fields and the potential dual use of these instruments. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  11. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  12. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Hodgins, David C; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony; Talevski, Marina; Mackenzie, Corey S; Hendershot, Christian S

    2016-07-22

    Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention) in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention) in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280) to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers - an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only) versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH). It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  13. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Walking could be recommended for post-menopausal women to manage menopausal symptoms and promote psychological well-being. Life satisfaction may be enhanced through the improvement of mental and physical parameters (e.g., menopausal symptoms, BMI and depression.

  14. Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms of Youth and Adolescents That Experience Mental Health Problems and/or Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Tierra M.

    2017-01-01

    Health First Aid at the Philadelphia Red Cross completed a survey with information pertaining to knowledge and confidence in recognizing the signs and symptoms of youth/adolescents that may be experiencing a mental health problem and or crisis. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were conducted to investigate the…

  15. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  16. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bussing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207 and low risk (n = 167 for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.

  17. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T; Mason, Dana M; Gary, Faye A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-09-22

    This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents' psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.

  18. The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Quraishy, Abdul Samad; Quraishy, Naseema; Nasiry, Mohammed Nader; Nasiry, Seema; Karyar, Nazar Mohammed; Yaqubi, Abdul Aziz

    2006-10-01

    This article describes a methodology for developing culturally grounded assessment measures in conflict and postconflict situations. A mixed-method design was used in Kabul, Afghanistan, to identify local indicators of distress and develop the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL). The ASCL contains several indigenous items and items familiar to Western mental health professionals. The ASCL was pilot tested and subsequently administered to 324 adults in 8 districts of Kabul. It demonstrated excellent reliability (alpha=.93) and good construct validity, correlating strongly with a measure of exposure to war-related violence and loss (r=.70). Results of the survey indicate moderate levels of distress among Afghan men and markedly higher levels of distress and impaired functioning among women (and widows in particular). (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Subthreshold psychotic symptom distress, self-stigma, and peer social support among college students with mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenny, Danielle; Thompson, Elizabeth; Pitts, Steven C; Dixon, Lisa B; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the potential moderating effect of social support on the relation between distress caused by psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma among college students with mental health diagnoses. Participants were young adult college students who endorsed having a past or present mental health diagnosis (n = 63). Self-report data were examined from the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, a measure of subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms; the Self-Concurrence/Application subscale of the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, a measure of self-stigma; and the Friendships subscale of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised, a measure of social support from peers. There was a modest direct relation between distress associated with psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma. There was a larger relation between distress from risk symptoms and self-stigma for those with low social support compared to those with mean and high social support. Although causality cannot be determined based on this study, a strong relation between symptom distress and stigma was found among those reporting low peer social support. Interventions that target both self-stigma and social support might be relevant for young adults with a history of mental health concerns who currently endorse subthreshold psychotic symptoms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of Sleep Quality on the Association between Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health Symptoms in Chinese College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuman Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU is a risk factor for both adolescents’ sleep quality and mental health. It is important to examine the potential negative health effects of PMPU exposure. This study aims to evaluate PMPU and its association with mental health in Chinese college students. Furthermore, we investigated how sleep quality influences this association. In 2013, we collected data regarding participants’ PMPU, sleep quality, and mental health (psychopathological symptoms, anxiety, and depressive symptoms by standardized questionnaires in 4747 college students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess independent effects and interactions of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health. PMPU and poor sleep quality were observed in 28.2% and 9.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression models suggested independent associations of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health (p < 0.001. Further regression analyses suggested a significant interaction between these measures (p < 0.001. The study highlights that poor sleep quality may play a more significant role in increasing the risk of mental health problems in students with PMPU than in those without PMPU.

  1. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  2. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walters, Heather M.; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent Service Members/Veterans (SM/Vs). Participants SM/Vs (N=1439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%); half were over age 30 (48%) and 24% were students. Methods SM/Vs completed surveys six months post-deployment (October 2011–July 2013). Results Students and nonstudent SM/Vs did not differ in positive screens for depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Students (n=81) and nonstudents (n=265) with mental health symptoms had low levels of mental health service use (e.g., VA, civilian, or military facilities), at 47% and 57% respectively. Fewer students used VA mental health services. Common barriers to treatment-seeking included not wanting treatment on military records and embarrassment. Conclusions Like other returning SM/Vs, student SM/Vs have unmet mental health needs. The discrepancy between potential need and treatment-seeking suggests that colleges might be helpful in further facilitating mental health service use for student SM/Vs. PMID:25337770

  3. Associations of social support and stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato

    2017-07-01

    Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.

  4. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  5. Body affects mind? Preoperative behavioral and biological predictors for postoperative symptoms in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Kathy, Lee L

    2014-04-01

    The study examined differential effects of preoperative biomarkers (cotisol, C-reactive protein/CRP, and interleukin-6/IL-6) on postoperative symptoms in mental health (depressed mood, anxiety and hostility) 1 month following open-heart surgery, controlling for known predictors. Preoperative and postoperative interviews were conducted on 162 patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. prior to surgery. Cardiac indices were obtained from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' national database. Preoperative anxiety contributed to all outcomes about 1 month postoperatively. Patients with high preoperative plasma IL-6 used more avoidant coping and experienced greater depressed mood. Patients with increased plasma CRP and with hope were less depressed. Elevated plasma cortisol predicted hostility. Finally, medical comorbidities predicted anxiety and hostility. The combination of anxiety and stress-sensitive biomarkers may be one way to predict postoperative symptoms following open-heart surgery. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the mind-body interplay to come up with better interventions.

  6. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  7. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  8. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, M.; Zhang, J.H.; Lamers, F.; Taylor, A.D.; Hickie, I.B.; Merikangas, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based

  9. Clinical features of functional somatic symptoms in children and referral patterns to child and adolescent mental health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøt Strate, Simone; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Lassen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are common in paediatric patients who are referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), but little is known about current referral practices. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate clinical features of paediatric inpatients...

  10. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...

  11. Disability and Psychiatric Symptoms in Men Referred for Treatment with Work-Related Problems to Primary Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M

    2017-03-24

    The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.

  12. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  13. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  14. Relationship of screen-based symptoms for mild traumatic brain injury and mental health problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: Distinct or overlapping symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Lau, Karen M; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study used factor analytic techniques to differentiate distinct from overlapping screen-based symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. These symptoms were derived from screen results of 1,549 veterans undergoing Department of Veterans Affairs postdeployment screening between April 2007 and January 2010. Veterans with positive TBI screens were approximately twice as likely to also screen positive for depression and PTSD (adjusted relative risks = 1.9 and 2.1, respectively). Irritability was a shared symptom between TBI and PTSD, and emotional numbing was a shared symptom between PTSD and depression. Symptoms unique to TBI included dizziness, headaches, memory problems, and light sensitivity. Four separate constructs emerged: TBI, PTSD, depression, and a fourth construct consisting of hypervigilance and sleep problems. These findings illuminate areas of overlap between TBI and common postdeployment mental health problems. Discriminating symptoms of TBI from mental health problems may facilitate diagnosis, triage to specialty care, and targeted symptom management. The emergence of a fourth factor consisting of sleep problems and hypervigilance highlights the need to attend to specific symptoms in the postdeployment screening process.

  15. Disentangling the Sleep-Pain Relationship in Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric chronic pain often emerges in adolescence and cooccurs with internalizing mental health issues and sleep impairments. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep problems may precede the onset of chronic pain as well as anxiety and depression. Studies conducted in pediatric populations with pain-related chronic illnesses suggest that internalizing mental health symptoms may mediate the sleep-pain relationship; however, this has not been examined in youth with primary pain disorders. Objective. To examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated relationships between sleep quality and pain outcomes among youth with chronic pain. Methods. Participants included 147 youth (66.7% female aged 8–18 years who were referred to a tertiary-level chronic pain program. At intake, the youth completed psychometrically sound measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results. As hypothesized, poor sleep quality was associated with increased pain intensity and pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated these sleep-pain relationships. Discussion. For youth with chronic pain, poor sleep quality may worsen pain through alterations in mood and anxiety; however, prospective research using objective measures is needed. Future research should examine whether targeting sleep and internalizing mental health symptoms in treatments improve pain outcomes in these youth.

  16. Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.

  17. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...

  18. Physical and mental health symptoms among NYC transit workers seven and one-half months after the WTC attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Loren C; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Driscoll, Richard; Mueller, Charles; Wallingford, Ken

    2005-06-01

    On September 11, 2001, 600-800 New York City transit (NYCT) workers were working near the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers. After the disaster, employees reported physical and mental health symptoms related to the event. Two hundred sixty-nine NYC transit employees were surveyed for mental and physical health symptoms 7(1/2) months after the WTC disaster. Workers in the dust cloud at the time of the WTC collapse had significantly higher risk of persistent lower respiratory (OR = 9.85; 95% CI: 2.24, 58.93) and mucous membrane (OR = 4.91; 95% CI: 1.53, 16.22) symptoms, depressive symptoms (OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.51), and PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.003, 8.16) compared to those not exposed to the dust cloud. Additional WTC exposures and potential confounders were also analyzed. Clinical follow up for physical and psychological health conditions should be provided for public transportation workers in the event of a catastrophic event.

  19. Concurrent and Subsequent Associations Between Daily Digital Technology Use and High-Risk Adolescents' Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Madeleine J; Russell, Michael A; Piontak, Joy R; Odgers, Candice L

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents' constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (M age  = 13.1) who completed a baseline assessment, 30-day ecological momentary assessment, and 18 month follow-up assessment. Results from multilevel regression models showed that daily reports of both time spent using digital technologies and the number of text messages sent were associated with increased same-day attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Adolescents' reported digital technology usage and text messaging across the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) period was also associated with poorer self-regulation and increases in conduct problem symptoms between the baseline and follow-up assessments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Help-seeking intentions and subsequent 12-month mental health service use in Chinese primary care patients with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Weng Yee; Chan, Kit T Y; Lam, Cindy L K; Lam, T P; Wan, Eric Y F

    2015-01-28

    To identify the factors associated with 12-month mental health service use in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional followed by 12-month cohort study. 10 179 adult patients were recruited from the waiting rooms of 59 primary care clinics across Hong Kong to complete a questionnaire which screened for depression. 518 screened-positive participants formed the cohort and were telephoned at 3, 6 and 12 months to monitor mental health service use. ▸ Help-seeking preferences; ▸ Intention to seek help from a healthcare professional; ▸ 12-month mental health service use. At baseline, when asked who they would seek help from if they thought they were depressed, respondents preferred using friends and family (46.5%) over a psychiatrist (24.9%), psychologist (22.8%) or general practitioner (GP; 19.9%). The presence of depressive symptoms was associated with a lower intention to seek help from family and friends but had no effect on intention to seek help from a healthcare professional. Over 12 months, 24.3% of the screened-positive cohort reported receiving services from a mental health professional. Factors associated with service use included identification of depression by the GP at baseline, having a past history of depression or other mental illness, and being a public sector patient. Having a positive intention to seek professional help or more severe depressive symptoms at baseline was not associated with a greater likelihood of receiving treatment. Mental health service use appears to be very low in this setting with only one in four primary care patients with depressive symptoms receiving treatment from a psychiatrist, GP or psychologist over a year. To help reduce the burden of illness, better detection of depressive disorders is needed especially for patients who may be undertreated such as those with no prior diagnosis of depression and those with more severe symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  1. Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Moore, Jessica A; Cagney, Kathleen A; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2016-03-01

    Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one's relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult's relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. These findings suggest that an older adult's relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mental symptoms among Finnish farm entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental symptoms among Finnish farm entrepreneurs in 2004 and 1994 was examined in two cross-sectional studies. The aim was also to examine associations between symptoms and background factors. Two random samples for computer-assisted telephone interviews comprised 1,182 full-time farmers in 2004 and 928 farmers in 1992. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations in the 2004 sample. Symptoms of weakness or fatigue and insomnia or difficulties in falling asleep were the most common symptoms in the 2004 survey, and both of these symptoms increased statistically significantly when comparing with the 1992 and 2004 surveys. Strenuousness of life and agricultural work had an association with mental symptoms. Forestry as a production sector and over two weeks of pesticide usage during the previous growing season also elevated the risk of mental symptoms. Moreover, illness or injury as well a lack of support from social relationships was associated with mental symptoms. One in four farm entrepreneurs had symptoms of weakness or fatigue in 2004. This result and the possible association between mental symptoms and pesticide usage needs special attention and further actions by health care services and other agricultural networks.

  3. Associations between Childhood Parental Mental Health Difficulties and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood : The Influence of Life-Course Socioeconomic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Klijs, Bart; Smidt, Nynke; Mierau, Jochen O

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression among older adults (i.e., the 50+) is a major health concern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether growing up with a parent suffering from mental health problems is associated with depressive symptoms in late-adulthood and how this association is influenced by

  4. Mental health problems during puberty : Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/-

  5. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking among African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to…

  6. Associations between Childhood Parental Mental Health Difficulties and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: The Influence of Life-Course Socioeconomic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Viola; Klijs, Bart; Smidt, Nynke; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression among older adults (i.e., the 50+) is a major health concern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether growing up with a parent suffering from mental health problems is associated with depressive symptoms in late-adulthood and how this association is influenced by life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood. Methods We used life-history data from the SHARE survey, consisting of 21,127 participants living in 13 European countries. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the EURO-D scale. Parental mental health was assessed by asking respondents to report whether any of their parents had mental health problems during the respondents’ childhood. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between parental mental health status and depression. Variables on childhood and late-life socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors were sequentially added to the model to assess the extent to which this association is influenced by life-course circumstances. Results Individuals who were exposed during childhood to a parent with mental health problems suffered from depressive symptoms more often in late adulthood than those who were not (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.43–2.17). Adjustment for life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood diminished this association to an OR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.24–1.90) and OR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.16–1.82), respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate a substantial association between parental mental health problems in childhood and depression in late adulthood and that this association is partly explained by childhood as well as late adulthood socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors. PMID:27936078

  7. Associations between Childhood Parental Mental Health Difficulties and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: The Influence of Life-Course Socioeconomic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Viola; Klijs, Bart; Smidt, Nynke; Mierau, Jochen O

    2016-01-01

    Depression among older adults (i.e., the 50+) is a major health concern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether growing up with a parent suffering from mental health problems is associated with depressive symptoms in late-adulthood and how this association is influenced by life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood. We used life-history data from the SHARE survey, consisting of 21,127 participants living in 13 European countries. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the EURO-D scale. Parental mental health was assessed by asking respondents to report whether any of their parents had mental health problems during the respondents' childhood. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between parental mental health status and depression. Variables on childhood and late-life socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors were sequentially added to the model to assess the extent to which this association is influenced by life-course circumstances. Individuals who were exposed during childhood to a parent with mental health problems suffered from depressive symptoms more often in late adulthood than those who were not (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.43-2.17). Adjustment for life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood diminished this association to an OR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.24-1.90) and OR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.16-1.82), respectively. Our results indicate a substantial association between parental mental health problems in childhood and depression in late adulthood and that this association is partly explained by childhood as well as late adulthood socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors.

  8. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescent...

  9. An interprofessional nurse-led mental health promotion intervention for older home care clients with depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion

  10. The Relationships between Mental Health Symptoms and Gambling Behavior in the Transition from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Pallesen, Ståle; Hanss, Daniel; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Mentzoni, Rune A.; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of longitudinal investigations of gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of the associations and patterns of change between mental health symptoms and gambling behavior. A representative sample of Norwegians completed questionnaires containing demographic, mental health, and gambling measures at age 17 (N = 2055), and at ages 18 (N = 1334) and 19 (N = 1277). Using latent class analysis, three classes of gambling behavior were identified: consistent non-gambling (71.1%), consistent non-risk gambling (23.8%), and risky-and-problem gambling (5.1%). Being male, showing higher physical and verbal aggression and having more symptoms of depression were associated with greater odds of belonging to the risky-and-problem gambling class at age 17. Overall, the risky-and-problem gambling class had the highest physical and verbal aggression, anxiety, and depression at 19 years. Our findings elucidate the reciprocal relationship between mental health and gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood, and the importance of recognizing these factors in designing targeted interventions. PMID:28408894

  11. Misidentification of mental health symptoms in presence of organic diseases and delirium during psychiatric liaison consulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Victor Henrique Oyamada; Otani, Thaís Zélia Dos Santos; Freirias, Andrea; Calfat, Elie Leal de Barros; Aoki, Patricia Satiko; Cordeiro, Quirino; Kanaan, Richard A A; Cross, Sean; Liersch-Sumskis, Susan; Uchida, Ricardo Riyoiti

    2017-09-01

    To identify predictors of misidentification of organic mental disorders and delirium in patients undergoing psychiatric liaison consultation. Data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo between July of 2009 and March of 2013. We included in our analysis all inpatients for whom the requesting service judged that a psychiatric consultation was required for a possible mental health condition. Outcomes of interest were the instances of misidentification where a condition was initially deemed to be of a psychiatric nature, whereas the final diagnosis by the liaison psychiatric team was of an organic disease or delirium. Our predictors were the clinical specialty of the requesting service, requester and patient characteristics. A series of generalised linear models were used to evaluate misidentification risks. A total of 947 subjects met our inclusion criteria, 14.6% having a final liaison diagnosis of organic mental disorder and 8.1% of delirium. Older patients were significantly associated with increased risk of misidentification for both organic conditions (OR 3.01 - 95% CI 2.01, 4.5) and delirium (OR 3.92 - 2.4, 6.39). Educational interventions in general hospitals focused on preventing psychiatric misdiagnosis should target in-hospital services where patients tend to be older.

  12. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...

  13. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental

  14. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  15. A Systematic Review of Land-Based Self-Exclusion Programs: Demographics, Gambling Behavior, Gambling Problems, Mental Symptoms, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-05-02

    Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.

  16. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  17. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  18. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; Ruotsalainen, J.H.; Woo, J.; Choi, K.S.; Eguchi, H.; Moriguchi, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  19. Trained lay health workers reduce common mental disorder symptoms of adults with suicidal ideation in Zimbabwe: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munetsi, Epiphany; Simms, Victoria; Dzapasi, Lloyd; Chapoterera, Georgina; Goba, Nyaradzo; Gumunyu, Tichaona; Weiss, Helen A; Verhey, Ruth; Abas, Melanie; Araya, Ricardo; Chibanda, Dixon

    2018-02-08

    Suicidal ideation may lead to deliberate self-harm which increases the risk of death by suicide. Globally, the main cause of deliberate self-harm is depression. The aim of this study was to explore prevalence of, and risk factors for, suicidal ideation among men and women with common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms attending public clinics in Zimbabwe, and to determine whether problem solving therapy delivered by lay health workers can reduce common mental disorder symptoms among people with suicidal ideation, using secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. At trial enrolment, the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to screen for CMD symptoms. In the intervention arm, participants received six problem-solving therapy sessions conducted by trained and supervised lay health workers, while those in the control arm received enhanced usual care. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation at enrolment, and cluster-level logistic regression to compare SSQ scores at endline (6 months follow-up) between trial arms, stratified by suicidal ideation at enrolment. There were 573 participants who screened positive for CMD symptoms and 75 (13.1%) reported suicidal ideation at baseline. At baseline, after adjusting for confounders, suicidal ideation was independently associated with being aged over 24, lack of household income (household income yes/no; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29, 0.95); p = 0.03) and with having recently skipped a meal due to lack of food (adjusted odds ratio 3.06 (95% CI 1.81, 5.18); p suicidal ideation at enrolment experienced similar benefit to CMD symptoms from the Friendship Bench intervention (adjusted mean difference - 5.38, 95% CI -7.85, - 2.90; p suicidal ideation (adjusted mean difference - 4.86, 95% CI -5.68, - 4.04; p suicidal thoughts who attended primary care facilities in Zimbabwe. pactr.org ldentifier: PACTR201410000876178.

  20. From mental-physical comorbidity to somatic symptoms - insights gained from research on symptoms of mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rodic, Donja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract in English Background: Mental health and physical health are substantially associated with each other. The early recognition of co-occurring mental-physical conditions, as well as the early recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms, might be of special relevance for a better understanding of early phases of disorder development and hence prevention. Aim: To examine associations between symptoms of mental disorders (depressive symptoms and gambli...

  1. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  2. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  3. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  4. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  5. A short screening instrument for mental health problems: the symptom checklist-27 (SCL-27) in Poland and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen; Dragan, Malgorzata; Kappis, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    The symptom checklist SCL-27 is a short, multidimensional screening instrument for mental health problems. It contains six scales: depressive, dysthymic, vegetative, agoraphobic and sociophobic symptoms; symptoms of mistrust; and a global severity index (GSI-27). A survey of two student samples from Poland and Germany (n ∼ 400) is presented. Most scales of the SCL-27 showed good to satisfactory reliability (i.e. Cronbach's α > 0.70). Some items displayed different characteristics in students than in non-student samples. These discrepancies can be explained partly by the particular situation students face and partly by some country-specific or language-specific aspects of the measuring instrument. Differences between Polish and German students were marginal at best; in general, the Polish students tended to assent more easily to the items of the SCL-27 than did the German students. The SCL-27 is suitable for international comparisons. In both, Germany and Poland, students display a characteristic response pattern that differs from those of other samples. It can be applied as a separate instrument or for reanalysis of data collected with the SCL-90_R.

  6. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  7. The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-10-01

    The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi-sector investment along with wide-scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta-analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.33). Effects from smartphone-only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self-management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  8. The efficacy of smartphone‐based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi‐sector investment along with wide‐scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta‐analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24‐0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38‐0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10‐0.33). Effects from smartphone‐only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self‐management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. PMID:28941113

  9. Change in depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life in northeast Germany between 1997-2001 and 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schomerus, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten-Oliver; Möckel, Franz; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Völzke, Henry; Grabe, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about changes in depression and quality of life in East Germany. We examined changes in the prevalence of lifetime and current depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life among adults in northeast Germany between 1997-2001 and 2008-2012. Population-based data were drawn from two repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted 11 years apart within the Study of Health of Pomerania project (Ns of 4,228 and 4,251). Assessments included screening items for lifetime depressive symptoms from the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI), the Depression and Exhaustion Scale (DEEX), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Lifetime depressive symptoms rose from 13.2 to 27.8%. The increase was stronger in men than in women and in individuals aged 35-64 years. No substantial changes occurred in the overall prevalence of current depressive symptoms (DEEX) and mental health-related quality of life (SF-12). A small decrease in current depressive symptoms was observed in middle-aged men and older women and small improvements in mental health-related quality of life in young adults. Higher reporting of lifetime depressive symptoms might reflect methodological influences as well as lower stigmatization and higher awareness, while the current burden seems similar.

  10. Concurrent and Subsequent Associations between Daily Digital Technology Use and High-Risk Adolescents' Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Madeleine J.; Russell, Michael A.; Piontak, Joy R.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents' constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (M[subscript…

  11. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu; Li Zhu; Jiaying Lyu; Wenjun Zhu; Yaping Xu; Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Menopausal transition is often associated with impaired satisfaction with life (SL). Exercise is promising in both managing menopausal symptoms and improving subjective well-being of women after menopause. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a 4-month randomized controlled walking trial on menopausal symptoms and SL in 80 community-dwelling postmenopausal Chinese women (M age = 53.38, SD = 3.41), and identified predictors of changes in SL across the intervention. Met...

  12. Fear of dental treatment--an underrecognized symptom in people with impaired mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Maria; Berth, Hendrik; Joraschky, Peter; Petrowski, Katja; Weidner, Kerstin; Hannig, Christian

    2013-08-01

    In industrialized countries, about 5% to 15% of all adults have a pathologically severe fear of dental treatment, and some 3% avoid going to the dentist altogether. The affected persons may, in turn, suffer from severe dental diseases and their psychosocial effects. Many people with dental phobia have other mental disorders as well. These facts motivated us to study the prevalence of fear of dental treatment in a group of patients being treated by our psychosomatic service. 212 patients of our psychosomatic service and 95 healthy controls were studied with the Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) to determine the intensity of their fear of dental treatment. Mental disorders were diagnosed with structured clinical interviews according to DSM-IV. Nearly one patient in three (30.5%, n = 64) suffered from pathologically severe fear of dental treatment; 24 of them (38.5%) had avoided visiting a dentist for longer than one year. Only 4 (4.2%) of the healthy controls were greatly afraid of dental treatment. Certain types of mental disorder were especially highly associated with fear of dental treatment: in particular, anxiety disorders (relative risk [RR] 7.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.68-20.70) and depressive disorders (RR 4.92, 95% CI 1.73-14.05). Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder were affected most commonly: 34 (42%) of these patients were greatly afraid of dental treatment (RR 9.97, 95% CI 3.69-26.90). 75 of the 134 study participants who were afraid of dental treatment (56%) had cancelled a dental appointment, or failed to appear for a scheduled appointment, because of their fears. Fear of dental treatment commonly accompanies certain types of mental disorder. Patients at high risk should be asked about such fears so that the problem can be recognized early and appropriately treated.

  13. Sociodemographic, psychosocial and physical health correlates of common mental disorder symptoms among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Logie, Carol

    2016-08-22

    Historical and cultural experiences have shaped the life experiences of cultural communities in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a cultural focus, the goal of this investigation was to examine ethnic variations both in the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms as well as in the associations between sociodemographic, psychosocial, physical health correlates and CMDs among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago. Participants included 1002 mothers (359 African-, 353 Indo- and 290 Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian). Mean comparisons indicated similarities in the levels of depression, somatisation and anxiety across ethnic groups. The associations between physical ill health, experiences of pain and depression and between physical ill health and somatisation were stronger for Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian than Indo-Trinidadian mothers. The relationship between early experiences of domestic violence and depression was stronger for Indo-Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. The associations between early experiences of domestic violence and depression and between experiences of pain and somatisation were stronger for African Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. Thus beyond the direct effects, mothers belonging to specific ethnic groups indicated greater or lesser vulnerabilities to CMDs depending on their exposure to specific correlates. Results have applicability for the development of culturally sensitive interventions for mothers experiencing CMDs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Protocol for a systematic review of psychological treatment for methamphetamine use: an analysis of methamphetamine use and mental health symptom outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexandra; Baker, Amanda L; Bowman, Jenny; McCarter, Kristen; Denham, Alexandra Mary Janice; Lee, Nicole; Colyvas, Kim; Dunlop, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People who use methamphetamine (MA) regularly, often experience symptoms of mental ill health associated with the use of the drug. These include symptoms of psychosis, depression, anxiety and also cognitive deficits. Accordingly, psychological treatments aim to reduce MA use and related problems, including symptoms of mental ill health. Although there has been a substantial body of research reporting on the evidence of effectiveness of psychological treatments for MA use, there is a paucity of research addressing the effectiveness of these treatments for coexisting symptoms of mental ill health. We aim to address this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of the evidence for psychological treatments for MA use and associated symptoms of mental ill health in experimental/controlled clinical studies. In addition, a critical evaluation of study methods and the outcomes of psychological interventions on MA use and symptoms of mental ill health will be conducted. Methods and analysis The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement will be used to inform the methods of this review. Eight electronic peer-reviewed databases will be searched. Pilot searches have been conducted for MA literature considering controlled clinical trials only. Eligible articles will be independently assessed against inclusion criteria. Before final analyses are completed, searches will be rerun and if eligible, additional studies will be retrieved for inclusion. A quantitative synthesis of the findings will be reported where possible, and ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. Risk ratios and 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) will be calculated and/or effect size according to Cohen’s formula (continuous outcomes) for the primary outcome of each trial. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. Findings will be disseminated widely to

  15. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  16. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS.Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software.Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage.Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  17. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  19. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.

  20. Mobile Phone and Web-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Comorbidities in People Living With Diabetes: Results of a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judith; Ma, Howard

    2016-05-31

    Depression is often comorbid with diabetes; however, undertreatment of depressive symptoms in people affected is common. We studied preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a fully automated, mobile phone, and web-based public health intervention, myCompass, for reducing depressive symptoms and improving mental health comorbidities in people with diabetes. In this single-group feasibility study, 89 volunteers with type 1 (n=34) or type 2 (n=55) diabetes and at least mild depressive symptoms used myCompass for 7 weeks. Web-based measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, functional impairment, diabetes-specific variables, and user satisfaction were completed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Retention rates were 54% (n=48) at postintervention and 36% (n=32) at follow-up. Depressive symptoms were significantly improved at postintervention (Pdepression and comorbid mental health problems in people with diabetes. The program is broadly available, free to use, and may benefit patients with diabetes who do not access services and/or wish to manage their mental health themselves. Replication of these findings in a controlled study is warranted.

  1. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The impact of posttraumatic symptoms and comorbid mental disorders on the health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking PTSD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Luiz Felipe; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Luz, Mariana Pires; Araujo, Alexandre Xavier; Berger, William

    2015-04-01

    There is a dearth of literature dealing with the impact of the severity of posttraumatic symptoms and of comorbid mental disorders on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of victims of civilian violence with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. To investigate the influence of the severity of posttraumatic symptoms and of presence of comorbid mental disorders on the HRQOL of treatment-seeking outpatients with PTSD. A sample of 65 PTSD patients was recruited in a specialized outpatient clinic. The volunteers had the diagnoses of PTSD and of comorbid mental disorders established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). The severity of posttraumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms was measured with the PCL-C, BDI and BAI, respectively. HRQOL was assessed by means of the SF-36, a 36-item self-administered scale that measures eight domains of quality of life: vitality, physical functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, physical role functioning, emotional role functioning, social role functioning, and mental health. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship between the severity of posttraumatic, mood, and anxiety symptoms; the presence of specific current comorbid disorders and of psychotic symptoms, and the number of current comorbid conditions for each of the eight domains of HRQOL, after adjusting for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics. The severity of PTSD symptoms predicted worse HRQOL in all eight domains of SF-36, even after controlling for the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the presence of panic disorder, OCD, specific and social phobia, psychotic symptoms, and the number of comorbid disorders. The strongest negative association between PTSD symptoms severity and HRQOL was found in the Social Functioning domain. Although the inclusion of the depressive symptoms in the models led to a reduction of the magnitude of the negative association between the

  3. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Weze, Clare; Leathard, Helen L.; Grange, John; Tiplady, Peter; Stevens, Gretchen

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified them...

  4. Insomnia brings soldiers into mental health treatment, predicts treatment engagement, and outperforms other suicide-related symptoms as a predictor of major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Stanley, Ian H; Chiurliza, Bruno; Podlogar, Matthew C; Michaels, Matthew S; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Given the high rates of suicide among military personnel and the need to characterize suicide risk factors associated with mental health service use, this study aimed to identify suicide-relevant factors that predict: (1) treatment engagement and treatment adherence, and (2) suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and major depressive episodes in a military sample. Army recruiters (N = 2596) completed a battery of self-report measures upon study enrollment. Eighteen months later, information regarding suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, major depressive episodes, and mental health visits were obtained from participants' military medical records. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation were very rare in this sample; negative binomial regression analyses with robust estimation were used to assess correlates and predictors of mental health treatment visits and major depressive episodes. More severe insomnia and agitation were significantly associated with mental health visits at baseline and over the 18-month study period. In contrast, suicide-specific hopelessness was significantly associated with fewer mental health visits. Insomnia severity was the only significant predictor of major depressive episodes. Findings suggest that assessment of sleep problems might be useful in identifying at-risk military service members who may engage in mental health treatment. Additional research is warranted to examine the predictive validity of these suicide-related symptom measures in a more representative, higher suicide risk military sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [A description of children and adolescents with somatic unexplained physical symptoms in a Dutch mental health care institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, M E J; Loman, F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) occur frequently in children and adolescents. Treatment of MUS in children and adolescents takes place mainly in mental health care (MHC) institutions, as does the treatment of adults with MUS. However, there is hardly any literature about the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in MHC. To study the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in Dutch MHC. Comparisons were drawn between children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS who had been referred to a Dutch MHC institution. Children and adolescents with MUS had more anxiety and depression and more introvert personality characteristics than children and adolescents without MUS. However, the quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS was similar to that of children and adolescents without MUS. One in five children and adolescents in Dutch MHC had MUS. These children and adolescents had introverted personality characteristics and showed anxious and depressed behavior, withdrawn-depressed behavior, and thought problems. The quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS was below average.

  6. Mental Health Treatment and Criminal Justice Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire

    2010-01-01

    Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...

  7. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...

  8. Learn About Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...

  9. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okello

    Full Text Available The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented.We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA. Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma.Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms.Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  11. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented. We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A) respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma. Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms. Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  12. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...

  13. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  14. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  15. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  16. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  17. The impact of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence on women's mental health: depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, state anxiety, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico-Alfonso, Maria A; Garcia-Linares, M Isabel; Celda-Navarro, Nuria; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Echeburúa, Enrique; Martinez, Manuela

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of lifetime physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women, after controlling for the contribution of lifetime victimization. The comorbidity of depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their relation to state anxiety and suicide were also assessed. Physically/psychologically (n = 75) and psychologically abused women (n = 55) were compared with nonabused control women (n = 52). Information about sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime victimization, and mental health status (depressive and state anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and suicide) was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Women exposed to physical/psychological and psychological IPV had a higher incidence and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and thoughts of suicide than control women, with no differences between the two abused groups. The concomitance of sexual violence was associated with a higher severity of depressive symptoms in both abused groups and a higher incidence of suicide attempts in the physically/psychologically abused group. The incidence of PTSD alone was very rare, and depressive symptoms were either alone or comorbid with PTSD. The severity of state anxiety was higher in abused women with depressive symptoms or comorbidity, as was the incidence of suicidal thoughts in the physically/psychologically abused group. Lifetime victimization was not a predictor of the deterioration of mental health in this study. These findings indicate that psychological IPV is as detrimental as physical IPV, with the exception of effects on suicidality, which emphasizes that psychological IPV should be considered a major type of violence by all professionals involved.

  18. Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children's mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2018-03-01

    Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health

  19. Prevalence of early warning signs and symptoms of mental illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental illness is a psychological, emotional and mental health problems that affects the physical, behavioral and occupational functioning of an individual. The understand of the signs and symptoms of the disorder in a typical setting and by ordinary people or even among the literate is often difficulty; talk more ...

  20. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  1. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  2. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  3. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili Ahmadabady Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  4. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  5. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  6. Mental Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Švab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2008-01-01

    Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...

  7. Contextual amplification or attenuation of the impact of pubertal timing on Mexican-origin boys' mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2013-12-01

    To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-origin boys. In a sample of seventh-grade Mexican-origin boys (N = 353; x¯age=12.8years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys' residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-origin boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Furthermore, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-origin boys' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-origin boys. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  8. Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale – PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB): Psychometric Properties and Relationship with Mental Health Symptom Severity Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, M. Michele; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Dew-Reeves, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Youth life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being, an important part of a strengths-based approach to treatment. This study establishes the psychometric properties of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale – PTPB version (BMSLSS-PTPB). The BMSLSS-PTPB shows evidence of construct validity with significant correlations as expected to measures of youth hope and youth symptom severity, and no relationship as expected to youth treatment outcome expectations. A longitudinal analysis was conducted examining the relationship between youth-reported life satisfaction and mental health symptom severity (youth, caregiver-, and clinician-report) for 334 youth (aged 11–18 years) receiving in-home treatment. Results indicate that life satisfaction consistently increases over the course of treatment but increases faster in youth whose symptom severity, as rated by all reporters, decreases. Implications, future directions, and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:22407553

  9. Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB): psychometric properties and relationship with mental health symptom severity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, M Michele; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Dew-Reeves, Sarah E

    2012-03-01

    Youth life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being, an important part of a strengths-based approach to treatment. This study establishes the psychometric properties of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB). The BMSLSS-PTPB showed evidence of construct validity with significant correlations as expected to measures of youth hope and youth symptom severity, and no relationship as expected to youth treatment outcome expectations. A longitudinal analysis was conducted examining the relationship between youth-reported life satisfaction and mental health symptom severity (youth-, caregiver-, and clinician-report) for 334 youth (aged 11-18 years) receiving in-home treatment. Results indicated that life satisfaction consistently increased over the course of treatment but increased faster in youth whose symptom severity, as rated by all reporters, decreased over the course of treatment. Implications, future directions, and limitations of the study are discussed.

  10. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...

  12. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  13. Physiotherapy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...

  14. Urban mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2018-01-01

    areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...

  15. Infant mental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen

    2011-03-01

    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...

  17. Women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2000-01-01

    ... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...

  18. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  19. The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F

    2014-04-01

    Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014

  20. What do Spanish adolescents think about obsessive-compulsive disorder? Mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Roncero, María

    2017-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and disabling disorder with a long delay in seeking help that could partly be due to poor mental health literacy and stigmatizing attitudes. This study analyzes the mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD in a Spanish adolescent sample. This age group was chosen because adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of OCD, and adolescents are often reluctant to seek professional help. One hundred and two non-clinical adolescents read two vignettes describing symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD. Then, referring to these two vignettes, they answered questions related to problem recognition, causality perception, need for treatment, treatment recommendations, and stigma. Results show that a high percentage of adolescents recognize the interference of order- and aggression-related OCD, consider that a peer with order- or aggression-related OCD needs treatment, and would recommend a formal source of help. Although order symptoms are highly recognized as OCD by adolescents, aggression-related OCD is frequently misidentified as schizophrenia or depression. Results also show higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes in adolescents, associated with aggression-OCD (versus order-OCD), especially in male adolescents and adolescents with no previous experience with mental health services/providers. Results suggest the need to develop school-based programs emphasizing OCD content heterogeneity, especially the aggression, sexual, and religious contents, and work toward eliminating stigma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...

  2. Development of salutogenetic factors in mental health - Antonovsky's sense of coherence and Bandura's self-efficacy related to Derogatis' symptom check list (SCL-90-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröninger-Jungaberle, Henrik; Grevenstein, Dennis

    2013-05-08

    The paper analyses how resilience factors and mental health problems interrelate in a 3-year-longitudinal study with 16-19 year olds. Resilience was measured with a 13-item short version of the Life-Orientation-Scale by Antonovsky (sense-of-coherence, SOC) and a 10-item self-efficacy-scale (SWE) by Jerusalem and Schwarzer. Mental health problems were measured with Derogatis Symptom Check list (SCL-90-R). The data set included 155 participants and was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) designed to examine mutual influence in longitudinal data with Mplus software. The descriptive data analysis indicates (1) negative correlations between SOC and SCL-90-R at both age 16 and 19 in all subscales but somatization and likewise (2) between self-efficacy and SCL-90-R. (3) SOC correlates positively with SWE at age 16 and 19. Results of SEM analysis were based on the assumption of two latent variables at two points in time: resilience as measured with mean SOC and mean self-efficacy scores and health problems measured with sub scale scores of SCL-90-R - both at ages 16 and 19. The first SEM model included all possible paths between the two latent variables across time. We found (4) that resilience influences mental health problems cross-sectionally at age 16 and at age 19 but not across time. (5) Both resilience and mental health problems influenced their own development over time. A respecified SEM model included only significant paths. (6) Resilience at age 16 significantly influences health problems at age 16 as well as resilience at age 19. Health problems at age 16 influence those at age 19 and resilience at age 19 influences health problems at age 19. (a) SOC and self-efficacy instruments measure similar phenomena. (b) Since an influence of resilience on mental health problems and vice versa over time could not be shown there must be additional factors important to development. (c) SOC and self-efficacy are both very stable at 16 and 19 years. This refutes

  3. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  4. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  5. Agreement between clients with schizophrenia and mental health workers on clients' social quality of life: The role of social cognition and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir-Eyal, Shani; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Kravetz, Shlomo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-06-01

    Studies have showed that therapists and mental health workers of persons with schizophrenia tend to estimate their patients' social quality of life (SQoL) as poorer than the clients' own estimation. This study explores the hypothesis that this discrepancy is related to clients' social cognition and symptomatology. Cross-sectional assessment of both clients and their mental health workers. Ninety persons with schizophrenia and 12 persons who were formal care providers participated in the study. All responded to a parallel version (client and clinician) of social quality-of-life scales. Clients' emotion identification, theory of mind and symptoms were also assessed. Low social cognitive abilities of persons with schizophrenia, as well as negative symptomatology and having children, may be related to the negative bias of mental health workers, with regard to their client's SQoL. While more severe levels of negative symptoms and more deficits of social cognition were related to reduced levels of agreement, paradoxically, a relatively normative family life that includes parenting was also related to lower levels of agreement. Attention should be given to low agreement between clients with schizophrenia and clinicians with regard to the client's quality of life, as it is central to alliance and outcome. Clinicians tend to estimate clients' social quality of life as poorer than the clients' own estimation when those clients have low social cognition, high negative symptomatology and children. There is a need to identify additional factors that contribute to agreement and alliance in therapy. Longitudinal assessment during therapy can trace the process of construction of agreement. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Reproductive coercion, sexual risk behaviours and mental health symptoms among young low-income behaviourally bisexual women: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Volpe, Ellen M; Abboud, Sarah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2016-12-01

    To describe prevalence of reproductive coercion, sexual risk behaviours and mental health symptoms among women reporting lifetime sexual experiences with men and women compared to peers reporting sex exclusively with men. Reproductive coercion, a global public health problem, is understudied among sexual minority women. Violence against women remains high among women who have sex with women and men. Rates of sexual and physical violence among this population are higher than women reporting exclusive sexual partnerships with either men or women. Nurses and other healthcare providers often do not conduct comprehensive sexual histories; assumptions related to a sex partner's gender may provide indications of broader health implications. Cross-sectional survey of low-income Black women ages 18-25 recruited from six community-based sites for a parent study focused on intimate partner violence and health. We analysed survey data from participants who reported lifetime sexual experiences with men and women (N = 42) and compared their outcomes to those of women reporting sexual experiences with men only (N = 107). A greater proportion of women who have sex with women and men reported experiencing reproductive coercion. Women who have sex with women and men also reported a greater number of lifetime intimate partner physical and sexual violence experiences, traded sex for resources, and had post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Findings provide vital information that can inform nursing clinical practice, specifically related to history-taking, screening protocols and counselling strategies for intimate partner violence and mental health among women who have sex with women and men. Strategies for addressing reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence as well as the health consequences among women who have sex with women and men in clinical and community-based settings should include a longitudinal understanding of sexual behaviour and gender of sex partners.

  7. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective . To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods . A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results . In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers.

  8. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods. A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results. In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers. PMID:27867309

  9. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Looking after your mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.

  11. The association between symptoms of mental disorders and health risk behaviours in Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc T. Thai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders (SOMD has been found among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV. Additionally, SOMD may impact on the prevalence of high-risk health behaviours (HRB. This study investigates the relationship between SOMD and HRB in a large sample of Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 400 outpatients at two HIV/AIDS clinics in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, selected using a systematic sampling technique. Validated scales were used to measure SOMD, specifically symptoms of depression, anxiety, alcohol use disorder (AUD, substance use disorder (SUD and HIV associated dementia (HAD. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing HRB during the preceding 12 months including unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between SOMD and HRB. Results The majority of participants (63.5% were male and the median age was 34.0 years. Unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use were reported by 13.8 and 5.5% of participants. The prevalences of HAD, depression, AUD, anxiety and SUD symptoms were 39.8, 36.5, 13.3 10.5, 3.3% respectively. There was no association between SOMD and HRB either with or without adjusting for correlates of HRB, except between symptoms of SUD and illicit drug use. PLHIV who had symptoms of SUD were more likely to use illicit drugs (adjusted Odds Ratio 81.14, 95% CI 12.55–524.47. Conclusions While the prevalence of SOMD among HIV positive outpatients was high, most SOMD were not associated with increased HRB. Only illicit drug use was predicted by symptoms of SUD. Screening PLHIV for symptoms of SUD may be useful for detecting people likely to be engaging in illicit drug use to reduce the risk of secondary disease transmission.

  12. Sexual orientation and symptoms of common mental disorder or low wellbeing: combined meta-analysis of 12 UK population health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlyen, Joanna; King, Michael; Varney, Justin; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2016-03-24

    Previous studies have indicated increased risk of mental disorder symptoms, suicide and substance misuse in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults, compared to heterosexual adults. Our aims were to determine an estimate of the association between sexual orientation identity and poor mental health and wellbeing among adults from 12 population surveys in the UK, and to consider whether effects differed for specific subgroups of the population. Individual data were pooled from the British Cohort Study 2012, Health Survey for England 2011, 2012 and 2013, Scottish Health Survey 2008 to 2013, Longitudinal Study of Young People in England 2009/10 and Understanding Society 2011/12. Individual participant meta-analysis was used to pool estimates from each study, allowing for between-study variation. Of 94,818 participants, 1.1 % identified as lesbian/gay, 0.9 % as bisexual, 0.8 % as 'other' and 97.2 % as heterosexual. Adjusting for a range of covariates, adults who identified as lesbian/gay had higher prevalence of common mental disorder when compared to heterosexuals, but the association was different in different age groups: apparent for those under 35 (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.40, 2.26), weaker at age 35-54.9 (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.84), but strongest at age 55+ (OR = 2.06, 95 % CI 1.29, 3.31). These effects were stronger for bisexual adults, similar for those identifying as 'other', and similar for 'low wellbeing'. In the UK, LGB adults have higher prevalence of poor mental health and low wellbeing when compared to heterosexuals, particularly younger and older LGB adults. Sexual orientation identity should be measured routinely in all health studies and in administrative data in the UK in order to influence national and local policy development and service delivery. These results reiterate the need for local government, NHS providers and public health policy makers to consider how to address inequalities in mental health among these minority groups.

  13. Lay Judgments of Mental Health Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessecae K. Marsh PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college undergraduate participants (N = 331 read descriptions displaying sets of three mental health symptoms and rated how helpful pharmaceuticals, counseling, or alternative medicine would be on a 0 (not at all helpful to 100 (completely helpful scale. We measured judgments for perceived mental and medical symptoms (Experiment 1 and how judgments were influenced by symptom severity (Experiment 2, duration (Experiment 3, and if alternative medicine and conventional treatments were used in conjunction (Experiment 4. Results: Perceived mental symptoms were rated as helped by counseling, while perceived medical symptoms were rated as helped by medication. Alternative medicine was never rated as extremely helpful. For example, in Experiment 1, counseling (mean [M] = 80.1 was rated more helpful than pharmaceuticals (M = 50.5; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 45.1; P < 0.001 for mental symptoms, and pharmaceuticals (M = 62.6 was rated more helpful than counseling (M = 36.1; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 47.5; P < 0.001 for medical symptoms. This pattern held regardless of severity, duration, or the adjunct use of alternative medicine. Limitations: We employed a general population sample and measured hypothetical treatment judgments. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms viewed as problems of the mind are thought to need different treatment than mental health symptoms seen as problems of the body.

  14. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  15. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders.

  16. [Religiosity and Mental Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raphael Maria

    2016-12-01

    Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An experimental study exploring the impact of vignette gender on the quality of university students’ mental health first aid for peers with symptoms of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bethan Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background University students have high rates of depression, and friends are often the most commonly-used source of support for emotional distress in this population. This study aimed to explore students’ ability to provide effective support for their peers with depressive symptoms and the factors influencing the quality of their mental health first aid (MHFA skills, including students’ gender, course of study, and gender of student experiencing depression. Methods Via an online survey, students at two British universities (N = 483 were quasi-randomly allocated to view a video vignette of either a male or female student depicting symptoms of depression. An open-ended question probed MHFA actions they would take to help the vignette character, which were rated using a standardised scoring scheme based on MHFA guidelines. Results Students reported low MHFA scores (mean 2.89, out of possible 12. The most commonly reported action was provision of support and information, but only eight (1.6 % students stated an intention to assess risk of harm. Those studying clinically non-relevant degrees with limited mental health content reported poorer MHFA (p = <0.001 and were less confident about their ability to support a friend with depression (p = 0.04. There was no main effect of vignette gender, but within the group of students on non-relevant courses the male vignette received significantly poorer MHFA than the female vignette (p = 0.02. A significant three-way interaction found that male participants studying non-relevant degrees who viewed a male vignette had poorer MHFA compared to females studying non-relevant degrees who viewed the female vignette (p = 0.005. Conclusions Most students lack the necessary MHFA skills to support friends suffering from symptoms of depression, or to help them get appropriate support and prevent risk of harm. Students on courses which do not include mental health related content are

  19. An experimental study exploring the impact of vignette gender on the quality of university students' mental health first aid for peers with symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E Bethan; Wardlaw, John; Morriss, Richard; Glazebrook, Cris

    2016-02-25

    University students have high rates of depression, and friends are often the most commonly-used source of support for emotional distress in this population. This study aimed to explore students' ability to provide effective support for their peers with depressive symptoms and the factors influencing the quality of their mental health first aid (MHFA) skills, including students' gender, course of study, and gender of student experiencing depression. Via an online survey, students at two British universities (N = 483) were quasi-randomly allocated to view a video vignette of either a male or female student depicting symptoms of depression. An open-ended question probed MHFA actions they would take to help the vignette character, which were rated using a standardised scoring scheme based on MHFA guidelines. Students reported low MHFA scores (mean 2.89, out of possible 12). The most commonly reported action was provision of support and information, but only eight (1.6%) students stated an intention to assess risk of harm. Those studying clinically non-relevant degrees with limited mental health content reported poorer MHFA (p = students on non-relevant courses the male vignette received significantly poorer MHFA than the female vignette (p = 0.02). A significant three-way interaction found that male participants studying non-relevant degrees who viewed a male vignette had poorer MHFA compared to females studying non-relevant degrees who viewed the female vignette (p = 0.005). Most students lack the necessary MHFA skills to support friends suffering from symptoms of depression, or to help them get appropriate support and prevent risk of harm. Students on courses which do not include mental health related content are particularly ill-equipped to support male students, with male students receiving the poorest quality MHFA from fellow male students on these courses. MHFA training has the potential to improve outcomes for students with depression, and could have a

  20. Yoga for improving health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Lange, Silke; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J

    2017-01-03

    Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long-term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer-related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types. To assess effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who are receiving active treatment or have completed treatment. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), Indexing of Indian Medical Journals (IndMED), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov on 29 January 2016. We also searched reference lists of identified relevant trials or reviews, as well as conference proceedings of the International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research (ICCMR), the European Congress for Integrative Medicine (ECIM) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials were eligible when they (1) compared yoga interventions versus no therapy or versus any other active therapy in women with a diagnosis of non-metastatic or metastatic breast cancer, and (2) assessed at least one of the primary outcomes on patient-reported instruments, including health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, fatigue or sleep disturbances. Two review authors independently collected data on methods and results. We expressed outcomes as standardised mean differences (SMDs

  1. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progovac, Ana M.; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible. PMID:27752278

  2. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  3. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  4. Utilization of professional mental health services according to recognition rate of mental health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-04-01

    Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Impact of a behavioural sleep intervention on symptoms and sleep in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and parental mental health: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Efron, Daryl; Khano, Sonia; Oberklaid, Frank

    2015-01-20

    To examine whether behavioural strategies designed to improve children's sleep problems could also improve the symptoms, behaviour, daily functioning, and working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mental health of their parents. Randomised controlled trial. 21 general paediatric practices in Victoria, Australia. 244 children aged 5-12 years with ADHD attending the practices between 2010 and 2012. Sleep hygiene practices and standardised behavioural strategies delivered by trained psychologists or trainee paediatricians during two fortnightly consultations and a follow-up telephone call. Children in the control group received usual clinical care. At three and six months after randomisation: severity of ADHD symptoms (parent and teacher ADHD rating scale IV-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent reported severity, children's sleep habits questionnaire, actigraphy), behaviour (strengths and difficulties questionnaire), quality of life (pediatric quality of life inventory 4.0), daily functioning (daily parent rating of evening and morning behavior), working memory (working memory test battery for children, six months only), and parent mental health (depression anxiety stress scales). Intervention compared with control families reported a greater decrease in ADHD symptoms at three and six months (adjusted mean difference for change in symptom severity -2.9, 95% confidence interval -5.5 to -0.3, P=0.03, effect size -0.3, and -3.7, -6.1 to -1.2, P=0.004, effect size -0.4, respectively). Compared with control children, intervention children had fewer moderate-severe sleep problems at three months (56% v 30%; adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.59; PADHD symptoms was mediated through improved sleep, at three and six months, respectively. Intervention families reported greater improvements in all other child and family outcomes except parental mental health. Teachers reported improved behaviour of the

  6. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression in myocardial infarction patients and depressed patients in primary and mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, N.A.; Doornbos, B.; Zuidersma, M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Aleman, A.; de Jonge, P.

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  8. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  9. [Occupational stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.

  10. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  11. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Symptoms & Treatment Help with Relationships Support for Helpers Balanced Mind Parent Network Family Center I'm ... not a substitute for consultation with a health professional. Regardless of the results of a screen, if ...

  12. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Apurv; Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-07-07

    Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18-45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public health burden of CMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of patients with severe depression. A snapshot from a military mental health care facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Ayaz, S.B.; Ullah, A.; Matee, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the frequency and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of severely depressed patients and evaluate the impact of demographic factors. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the out-patient as well as the in-patient setting of Armed Forces institute of Mental Health, Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to May 2012. Through non-probability purposive sampling, primary caregivers of patients diagnosed with severe depression by consultant psychiatrists were included and scored by resident psychiatrists on Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: Of 316 caregivers (mean age: 37.75 ± 12.26 years), majority (52.8%) were females, married (70.6%), employed (58.5%), earned < Rs. 5,000 per month (40.5%) and literate from grade 1-5 (21.8%). Most of them were mothers (25.3%) of the patients and were the caregivers for less than one year (43.4%). The mean total BDI-II score was 17.29 ± 13.94.It was significantly high in subjects belonging to age group of < 44 years. The mean total BAI score was 14.44 ± 11.56 and it was not significantly related to any demographic factor. Conclusion: Caregivers of severely depressed patients suffered considerable levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Younger caregivers were at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms but the age did not significantly affect development of anxiety. Gender, marital status, employment status, monthly income, relationship with the patient, ethnicity based on provinces, educational level and duration of care giving did not appear to be significantly related to the development of anxiety or depressive symptoms in our sample. (author)

  14. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  15. Lay Judgments of Mental Health Treatment Options

    OpenAIRE

    Jessecae K. Marsh PhD; Amanda L. Romano BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college ...

  16. Mental health informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).

  17. Mental Health Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...

  18. SHARPSports mental Health Awareness Research Project: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms and life stress in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and

  20. Promoting mental health in men

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...

  1. Latino adolescents' mental health: exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2007-08-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group comparison approach, path analyses indicated that higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and resolution significantly predicted higher levels of self-esteem for both boys and girls. Furthermore, self-esteem partially mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Additional analyses revealed that boys' cultural orientations moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Taken together, findings indicated that various aspects of the self (i.e. self-esteem, ethnic identity, cultural orientations) can protect and/or enhance the risks associated with discrimination.

  2. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  3. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  5. The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms--a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Nordenmark, Mikael; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-07-02

    The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007) participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal): childhood (mother's paid work position), adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare), and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare). Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms ("frequent nervousness") and depressive symptoms ("frequent sadness") at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors. Generally, parents' gendered life was not decisive for a person's own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood. Adulthood gender equality is generally good for self-reported mental health regardless of whether one

  6. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  7. The Meaning and Predictive Value of Self-rated Mental Health among Persons with a Mental Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry

    2018-02-01

    Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.

  8. Cities and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-02-24

    More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.

  9. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  10. Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-08-15

    Various psychological interventions are effective for reducing symptoms of anxiety when used alone, or as an adjunct to anti-anxiety medications. Recent studies have further indicated that smartphone-supported psychological interventions may also reduce anxiety, although the role of mobile devices in the treatment and management of anxiety disorders has yet to be established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of psychological interventions delivered via smartphone on symptoms of anxiety (sub-clinical or diagnosed anxiety disorders). A systematic search of major electronic databases conducted in November 2016 identified 9 eligible RCTs, with 1837 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (as Hedges' g) between smartphone interventions and control conditions. Significantly greater reductions in total anxiety scores were observed from smartphone interventions than control conditions (g=0.325, 95% C.I.=0.17-0.48, psmartphone interventions were significantly greater when compared to waitlist/inactive controls (g=0.45, 95% C.I.=0.30-0.61, psmartphone interventions can match (or exceed) the efficacy of recognised treatments for anxiety has yet to established. This meta-analysis shows that psychological interventions delivered via smartphone devices can reduce anxiety. Future research should aim to develop pragmatic methods for implementing smartphone-based support for people with anxiety, while also comparing the efficacy of these interventions to standard face-to-face psychological care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  12. Contemporary mental health rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, H

    2014-09-01

    In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.

  13. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Crameri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45 and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N=5711 and one outpatient sample (N=239 were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  14. Patterns of resource utilization and mental health symptoms among women exposed to multiple types of victimization: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Hellmuth, Julianne; Jaquier, Veronique; Swan, Suzanne C; Connell, Christian; Sullivan, Tami P

    2013-10-01

    Although the value of resources aimed to support women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) is clear, few studies have investigated how exposure to multiple types of victimization influences women's resource utilization. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to a sample of 412 women who used IPV in their current relationships to test whether women's resource utilization is associated with different patterns of victimization, including current IPV victimization, past IPV victimization, and childhood victimization. Three classes of women were identified: the Low Cumulative IPV class (n = 121) included women with a low prevalence of past IPV victimization and low severity of current IPV victimization; The High Past/ Low Current IPV class (n = 258) included women with a high prevalence of past IPV victimization but low severity of current IPV victimization; and the High Cumulative IPV class (n = 33) included women with a high prevalence of past IPV victimization and severe current IPV victimization. Multiple types of childhood victimization were highly prevalent among women in all three classes. Women in the High Cumulative IPV class used a greater variety of resources, experienced a greater number of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, drug problems, and used more severe IPV aggression compared to women in other classes. These findings highlight the heterogeneity of resource utilization among women in relationships characterized by bidirectional IPV and underscore the potential clinical utility of adapting services to meet the specific needs of women with unique profiles of victimization.

  15. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  16. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were asked questions on how often they encountered children with mental health problems, facilities for the care of mentally ill children in their schools, the symptoms that could signify mental health problems in a school child and their first line of action in a situation where a child is found to have such problems.

  17. Symptoms of common mental disorders and their correlates Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...

  18. Thailand mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2004-01-01

    Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.

  19. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  20. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  1. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  2. Promoting mental health versus reducing mental illness in art therapy with patients with personality disorders: A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Veld, W.M. van der; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The distinction between mental health and mental illness has long been the subject of debate, especially in the last decade where there has been a shift in focus in mental health care from symptom reduction to the improvement of positive mental health. Art therapists have been influenced by this

  3. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental Health in Schools and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  5. The role of mental health professionals in political asylum processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2010-01-01

    Applying for asylum in the United States can be a strenuous process for both applicants and immigration attorneys. Mental health professionals with expertise in asylum law and refugee trauma can make important contributions to such cases. Not only can mental health professionals provide diagnostic information that may support applicants' claims, but they can evaluate how culture and mental health symptoms relate to perceived deficits in credibility or delays in asylum application. They can define mental health treatment needs and estimate the possible effects of repatriation on mental health. Mental health professionals can also provide supportive functions for clients as they prepare for testimony. Finally, in a consultative role, mental health experts can help immigration attorneys to improve their ability to elicit trauma narratives from asylum applicants safely and efficiently and to enhance their resilience in response to vicarious trauma and burnout symptoms arising from work with asylum seekers.

  6. Breakfast and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.

  7. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.

  8. Mental health literacy among residents in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments

  9. Chile mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  10. Mental Health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...

  11. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  13. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  14. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  15. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...

  16. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  17. Mental disorder and victimisation in prison: Examining the role of mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E

    2018-04-01

    There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of exercise and horticultural intervention on the brain and mental health in older adults with depressive symptoms and memory problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial [UMIN000018547].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-04

    Depressive symptoms and memory problems are significant risk factors for dementia. Exercise can reduce depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function in older people. In addition, the benefits of horticultural activity on physical and mental well-being have been demonstrated in people with dementia. Although evidence of such non-pharmacological interventions is mounting, no studies have examined whether physical exercise and horticultural activity exert a positive impact on brain and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms) in non-demented older adults at high risk of cognitive impairment and depression. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and efficiency of physical exercise and horticultural activity in improving brain and mental health in community-dwelling older adults with memory problems and depressive symptoms. The 20-week randomized controlled trial will include 90 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older with memory problems and depressive symptoms. Participants will be randomized to one of three experiments: exercise, horticultural activity, or educational control group, using a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. The combined exercise program and horticultural activity program will consist of 20 weekly 90-minute sessions. Participants in the exercise group will practice aerobic exercise, muscle strength training, postural balance retraining, and dual-task training. The horticultural activity program will include crop-related activities, such as field cultivation, growing, and harvesting. Participants in the educational control group will attend two 90-minute educational classes during the 6-month trial period. Depressive symptoms and memory performance will be measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and the Logical Memory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised will be used to measure depressive symptoms and memory performance as primary outcomes, at baseline (prior to randomization), immediately

  19. Sufism and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.

  20. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. HIV and Elevated Mental Health Problems: Diagnostic, Treatment, and Risk Patterns for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a National Community-Based Cohort of Gay Men Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.

  2. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  3. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  4. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  5. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  6. School Mental Health Consultation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John A.

    The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…

  7. Psychological predictors of mental health and health-related quality of life after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    that preoperative psychological factors including psychiatric symptoms, body image and self-esteem may be important for mental health postoperatively. Predictors of postoperative HRQOL seem to include personality, severe psychiatric disorder at baseline and improvement of depressive symptoms. In addition...

  8. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  9. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  10. Factors that shape mental health treatment-seeking behaviors of HIV-positive African-American women with depressive symptoms: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; Brawner, Bridgette; Gipson-Jones, Trina L

    2008-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a leading cause of death for African-American women from 25 to 34 years of age. Depressive symptoms are commonly associated with the diagnosis of AIDS. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is needed for optimal treatment; however, African-American women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who experience depressive symptoms have low and/or inconsistent use of HAART. Additionally, behaviors associated with untreated depressive symptoms increase the chances for HIV transmission. Clinicians, therefore, need to recognize both the individual and the contextual factors that influence those seeking treatment for depressive symptoms. The purpose of this article is to gain a better understanding of the factors that shape treatment seeking for depressive symptoms among HIV-positive African-American women, an important variable in secondary HIV prevention. Multi-contextual underpinnings shape this phenomenon; therefore, Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework was used to organize this literature review. Knowledge gained from this paper can support the promotion of health and can prevent or manage depressive symptoms among this vulnerable group.

  11. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.

  12. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  13. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  14. Maternal depression and anxiety among children with mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The investigation sought to examine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with mental health problems. Method: A case control design was employed and self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured in a group of women whose children were receiving mental health care, ...

  15. The mental health experiences and needs of methamphetamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eligible participants (N=360) completed a computer-assisted assessment and clinical interview, where they provided data on mental health symptoms and treatmentseeking behaviour. ... Mental health and drug treatment services targeting methamphetamine users should include a concerted focus on suicide prevention.

  16. Perceived Social Support and Mental Health: Cultural Orientations as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Andrew J.; Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated unique and shared effects of social support and cultural orientation on mental health indicators (depressive and anxiety symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction) of 896 college students. Results indicated that perceived social support predicted mental health variables and that cultural orientation variables (independent and…

  17. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg-Nielsen Turid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1. Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self

  18. The Mental Health Condition of Manufacturing Front-line Workers: The Interrelationship of Personal Resources, Professional Tasks and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.

  19. Information for global mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, A.; Sharan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...

  20. Malawi's Mental Health Service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...

  1. Why mental health matters to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram

    2014-12-01

    Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  3. [The effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status on the use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector: Results from the ESA research program on mental health and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia-Djemaâ; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was, first, to document the psychometric characteristics of a measure of the older adults' socioeconomic status and, secondly, to test the effect of the socioeconomic status on the association between the older adults perceived need to improve their mental health and their use of services in the general medical sector for psychological distress symptoms taking into account the effect of age and gender. Data used in this study come from the ESA study (Enquête sur la santé des ainés) on mental health and aging, conducted in 2005-2008 using a probabilistic sample (n=2811) of the older adult population aged 65 years and over living at home in Quebec. Our results showed that a measurement model of the older adults' socioeconomic status including an individual-level (SES_I) and an area/contextual-level dimension of socioeconomic deprivation (SES_C) was plausible. The reliability of the SES index used in the ESA research program was .92. Our results showed that women (b=-.43) and older people (b=-.16) were more at risk to have a disadvantaged socioeconomic status. However, our results did not show evidence of a significant association between the older adults' socioeconomic status, their perception of a need to improve their mental health and the use of medical services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector in the older adult population in Quebec. Our results do not support the idea suggested in other studies that socioeconomic status has an effect on the older adults use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector and suggest that in a context where medical health services are provided under a public insurance programme context, the socioeconomic status does not influence access to services in the general medical sector in the older adult population.

  4. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  5. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. The mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Findings from community and inpatient mental health settings in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Although bullying victimization has been linked to a number of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents, few studies have investigate the mechanism through which bullying victimization affect non-suicidal self-injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury and the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Data for this study came from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 1650 adolescents aged 12-18 years (M =14.56; SD =1.79; 54.2% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Of the 1650 adolescents studied, 611 representing 37% engaged in non-suicidal self-injury and 26.7% were victims of bullying. The effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury was partially mediated by depressive symptoms after adjusting for the effect of demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, social support, and mental health diagnoses. The contribution of bullying victimization and depression to non-suicidal self-injury adds to the case for the development of trauma-focused interventions in reducing the risk of non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Women's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...

  8. Racial Differences in Mental Health Recovery among Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2018-04-01

    Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p mental health recovery (p mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate the effects of psychotic symptomatology.

  9. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  10. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  11. Time Preferences, Mental Health and Treatment Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Druss, Benjamin G

    2015-09-01

    In all countries of the world, fewer than half of people with mental disorders receive treatment. This treatment gap is commonly attributed to factors such as consumers' limited knowledge, negative attitudes, and financial constraints. In the context of other health behaviors, such as diet and exercise, behavioral economists have emphasized time preferences and procrastination as additional barriers. These factors might also be relevant to mental health. We examine conceptually and empirically how lack of help-seeking for mental health conditions might be related to time preferences and procrastination. Our conceptual discussion explores how the interrelationships between time preferences and mental health treatment utilization could fit into basic microeconomic theory. The empirical analysis uses survey data of student populations from 12 colleges and universities in 2011 (the Healthy Minds Study, N=8,806). Using standard brief measures of discounting, procrastination, and mental health (depression and anxiety symptoms), we examine the conditional correlations between indicators of present-orientation (discount rate and procrastination) and mental health symptoms. The conceptual discussion reveals a number of potential relationships that would be useful to examine empirically. In the empirical analysis depression is significantly associated with procrastination and discounting. Treatment utilization is significantly associated with procrastination but not discounting. The empirical results are generally consistent with the idea that depression increases present orientation (reduces future orientation), as measured by discounting and procrastination. These analyses have notable limitations that will require further examination in future research: the measures are simple and brief, and the estimates may be biased from true causal effects because of omitted variables and reverse causality. There are several possibilities for future research, including: (i

  12. Mental distress in patients with cerebral visual injury assessed with the German Brief Symptom Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin eGall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there are reports on vision-related quality of life in patients with vision impairment caused by both ophthalmic and brain diseases, little is known about mental distress. In fact, mental distress after cerebral visual injury has been widely ignored. Methods: Mental health symptoms were assessed in 122 participants with visual field defects after brain damage (72 male, mean age 58.1±15.6 years who completed the German Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI at their homes after they had been asked by phone for their participation. Results: Clinically relevant mental distress was present in 25.4% of participants with cerebral visual injury. In case of multisensory impairment an increased amount and intensity of mental distress symptoms was observed compared to the subsample with only visual impairment. Conclusions: Assessment of comorbid mental health symptoms appears to be clinically meaningful in brain-damaged patients with visual sensory impairment. In case of clinically relevant mental distress, psychological supportive therapies are advisable especially in subjects with cerebral visual injury and comorbidities affecting other sensory modalities as well.

  13. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  14. The Nevada mental health courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.

  16. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  17. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  18. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  19. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  1. Internet and mental health of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development

  2. Poverty dynamics and parental mental health: Determinants of childhood mental health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Goodman, Alissa; Kelly, Elaine; Smith, James P

    2017-02-01

    Using data from the British Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 18,827 children born in the UK in 2000-2001, we investigate important correlates of mental health issues during childhood. MCS respondents were sampled at birth, at age 9 months, and then when they were 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old. Each sweep contains detailed information on the family's SES, parenting activities, developmental indicators, parental relationship status, and indicators of parental mental health. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the related Rutter scale were used to identify behavioral and emotional problems in children. In this paper, childhood problems are separated into four domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. We focus on two aspects of this relationship at ages 5 and 11-the role of temporary and persistent poverty and the role of temporary and persistent mental health problems of mothers and fathers. At ages 11 and 5, without other controls in the model, persistent and transitory poverty have strong estimated associations with all four domains, with somewhat stronger estimated effects for persistent poverty. After a set of controls are added, we document that both persistent levels of poverty and transitions into poverty are strongly associated with levels of and transitions into childhood mental health problems. Similarly, sustained levels and transitions into mothers' mental health problems are strongly associated with levels and transitions into children's mental health problems. This is much less so for fathers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8255) . Health Topics and Resources Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide Prevention Attention Deficit ...

  4. Online social networking and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.

  5. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  6. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley; Wong, Hatty; Lam, Emily; Jing, Rowan; Russell, Kelly; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada. A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall) as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed. The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1%) completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%), 35-54 years of age (61.7%), with post-secondary education (58.2%), or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%). There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2%) or British Columbia (19.1%). While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms) and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms), they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed. While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  7. Mental Health Issues in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, W David; Jones, V Faye

    2016-10-01

    Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children. By taking a trauma-informed approach to understanding the unique needs and gaps in their health care, pediatricians can improve the mental health and maximize outcome for children in foster care. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e342-e348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  9. Relations between mental health diagnoses, mental health treatment, and substance use in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Cross, Matthew B; Santa Maria, Diane; Swank, Paul R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-01

    Youth experiencing homelessness have elevated rates of mental illness and substance use compared to the general population. However, the extent to which underlying mental health issues may contribute to substance use as a way to manage symptoms and whether mental health treatment may reduce risk for substance use is unclear. This paper investigated these relations in a community sample of homeless youth. Youth ages 13-24 (N=416) were interviewed as part of a community count and survey of homeless youth in Houston, Texas. A path analysis examined relations among lifetime diagnoses of ADHD, bipolar disorder, and depression; past-month marijuana, alcohol, and synthetic marijuana use, and hypothesized mediators of past-year mental health treatment and perceived unmet need for treatment. Rates of prior mental disorder diagnoses were high, with extensive comorbidity across the three diagnoses (n=114, 27.3% had all three diagnoses). Relations varied by diagnoses and substances. ADHD was positively related to current marijuana use (β=0.55 (0.16), p<0.001), a relation that mental health treatment did not mediate. Depression was positively related to synthetic marijuana use through unmet need (β=0.25 (0.09), p=0.004) and to alcohol use through unmet need (β=0.20 (0.10), p=0.04) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information about relations between prior mental health diagnoses and substance use in homeless youth. Findings support the need to consider prior mental disorder diagnoses in relation to current substance use and to assess for whether youth perceive they have unmet needs for mental health treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental Health and Academic Performance among Associate Degree Nursing Students at a Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliminski, Kerri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the relationship between mental health and academic performance among associate degree nursing (ADN) students at a Midwest technical college by identifying incidence of positive mental health, mental illness symptoms/distress, and mental illness; the…

  11. Mental health in mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V S; Timothy, A; Kalpana, S; Khanam, Shagufta

    2016-01-01

    Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.

  12. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.

  13. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  14. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Stigmatization and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251

  16. Child Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article: Readmission After Pediatric Mental Health Admissions. Article: Care Coordination for Youth With Mental Health Disorders in Primary... Article: Increased prescription rates of anxiolytics and hypnotics ...

  17. Association of lower urinary tract symptoms and OAB severity with quality of life and mental health in China, Taiwan and South Korea: results from a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Yoo, Tag Keun; Liao, Limin; Wang, Jianye; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-11-21

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms have a substantial effect on quality of life (QoL). We report QoL and mental health results from a LUTS prevalence study in three Asian countries. A cross-sectional, population-representative, internet-based study among individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan and South Korea. Instruments included: Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS); International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS); other International Continence Society (ICS) symptom questions; health-related QoL 12-item short-form (HRQoL-SF12v2); Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Presence of LUTS was determined according to ICS criteria, with three symptom groups (storage, voiding and post-micturition). Post-stratification weighting matched the age and sex population distribution per country. Initial data analyses were based on descriptive statistics. Significance testing undertaken post hoc included: independent-samples t-test (differences in HRQoL between sexes and between individuals with/without LUTS; relationship between HRQoL score and OABSS; differences in HADS anxiety and depression scores between individuals with/without LUTS; association between HADS anxiety/depression scores and OABSS), chi-square test (association between LUTS prevalence and workplace productivity) and analysis of variance (differences in HRQoL score and in HADS anxiety/depression scores between individuals with different symptom groups, association between HADS anxiety/depression scores and IPSS). In total, 8284 participants were included. HRQoL scores were significantly worse (p standard deviation [SD], 20.1) and 76.7 (17.0), respectively; corresponding mental health domain scores were 34.8 (12.7) and 43.7 (10.7). Workplace productivity was best among individuals without LUTS (difficulties reported by 2-3% of individuals), and worst in those with all three ICS symptom groups (difficulties reported by 29

  18. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  19. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...

  20. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  1. Mental Health. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…

  2. Better mental health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cachia, John M.;

    2014-01-01

    Mental ill-health imposes a huge burden on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy. Mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. This statement by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2014) confirms the overall bleak assessment of the reaction to mental ill-health that prevails worldwide even in well-developed economies. Mental ill-health has accompanying costs in terms o...

  3. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  4. Mental health consequences of exercise withdrawal: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Koehmstedt, Christine; Kop, Willem J

    2017-11-01

    A sedentary lifestyle has been associated with mental health disorders. Many medical conditions result in the cessation of exercise, which may increase the risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the literature examining the effects of exercise withdrawal on mental health. Literature was searched using PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTdiscus for studies that experimentally manipulated the withdrawal of exercise and included mental health as outcome measure. A total of 19 studies met inclusion criteria (total N=689 with 385 individuals participating in an exercise withdrawal condition). Exercise withdrawal consistently resulted in increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety. Other mental health outcomes were investigated infrequently. Severe mental health issues requiring clinical intervention after experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal was rare. Heterogeneity in methods and outcomes was observed, especially in terms of the duration of exercise withdrawal (range 1 to 42days, median=7days), with stronger effects if exercise withdrawal exceeded 2weeks. Experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal has adverse consequences for mental health. These observations in healthy individuals may help to understand the onset of mental health problems in response to acute and chronic medical conditions associated with reduced physical activity. Future research is needed to investigate potential mechanisms explaining the adverse mental health consequences of cessation of exercise that will provide new targets for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HealthPersistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)Managing Daily StressDepressionGrieving: Facing Illness, Death, and Other LossesTherapy and CounselingUnderstanding Your Teen’s Emotional HealthGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental ...

  6. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and privacy in small towns with closely-tied social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when ... our site? Suggest a resource SHARE THIS PAGE Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email © 2002–2018 Rural Health Information ...

  7. Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ISBN 978-92-837-2022-5 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only by those organisations or individuals...Health Status on Military Fitness, HFM-164/RTG on Psychological Aspects of Health Behaviours on Deployed Military Operations, HFM-175/RTG Medically...dstl.gov.uk Dr. R. (Roos) DELAHAIJ Research Scientist, Behavioural Societal Sciences TNO P.O. Box 23, Kampweg 5 3769 ZE, Soesterberg

  8. Surveys of medical seeking preference, mental health literacy, and attitudes toward mental illness in Taiwan, 1990–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness.

  9. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.

  10. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  11. Indices of Community Mental Health. A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Martin K.

    One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…

  12. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  13. Returning to Work after a Common Mental Health Disorder: a New Preoccupation for Mental Health Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Since 2010, the Belgian mental healthcare system has been involved in a structural reform: the main objective of this reorganisation is to foster the reintegration in the community of patients suffering from a mental health disorder. In parallel, the role of mental health professionals has evolved these last years: from a strictly clinical role, to the preoccupation with the rehabilitation of social competencies such as enhancing patients' abilities to return to work. The aim of this paper is to explore, specifically for patients hospitalized for a common mental health disorder, the predictive variables of returning to work within 6 months after hospitalization (RTW6). Our sample was extracted from routinely collected data during the patients' hospital stay (10 days) at the Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Day Centre of CHU Godinne. A sample of 134 patients participated in our study. Those patients were contacted 6 months after their hospitalization to assess resumption of work. We found that a patient's sociodemographicand socioeconomic variables, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of hospitalization were not predictive of return to work within 6 months (RTW6). On the other hand, duration of absence from work before hospitalization and the diagnosis of a major depression in particular were negatively associated with RTW6, whereas improvement of depressive symptoms during hospitalization stay was positively associated to RTW6. Our study identified the diagnosis of major depression and the duration of absence from work before hospitalization as two important risk factors impeding a fast return to work for patients hospitalised for a common mental health disorder. As the preoccupation with patients' abilities to return to work is now on the agenda of mental health professionals, special support and supervision should be dedicated to the more vulnerable patients.

  14. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  15. Social networks, mental health problems, and mental health service utilization in OEF/OIF National Guard veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Bohnert, Amy S B; Teo, Alan R; Levine, Debra S; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Bowersox, Nicholas W; Mizruchi, Mark S; Chermack, Stephen T; Ganoczy, Dara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    Low social support and small social network size have been associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, while their impact on mental health services use is less clear. To date, few studies have examined these associations in National Guard service members, where frequency of mental health problems is high, social support may come from military as well as other sources, and services use may be suboptimal. Surveys were administered to 1448 recently returned National Guard members. Multivariable regression models assessed the associations between social support characteristics, probable mental health conditions, and service utilization. In bivariate analyses, large social network size, high social network diversity, high perceived social support, and high military unit support were each associated with lower likelihood of having a probable mental health condition (p social support (OR .90, CI .88-.92) and high unit support (OR .96, CI .94-.97) continued to be significantly associated with lower likelihood of mental health conditions. Two social support measures were associated with lower likelihood of receiving mental health services in bivariate analyses, but were not significant in adjusted models. General social support and military-specific support were robustly associated with reduced mental health symptoms in National Guard members. Policy makers, military leaders, and clinicians should attend to service members' level of support from both the community and their units and continue efforts to bolster these supports. Other strategies, such as focused outreach, may be needed to bring National Guard members with need into mental health care.

  16. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-09-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  17. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...... also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Conclusion: Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach....

  18. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chin (Laiholh) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic) Modern Standard Arabic (al-ʻArabīyat ul- ... Russian (Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) Spanish (español) Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) Swahili (Kiswahili) Tigrinya (tigriññā / ትግርኛ) HealthReach ...

  19. Disclosure during prenatal mental health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn E; Biringer, Anne; Toosi, Amy; Heaman, Maureen I; Lasiuk, Gerri C; McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Joshua; Sword, Wendy; Jarema, Karly; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-11-01

    While women and healthcare providers have generally viewed perinatal mental health screening favorably, some qualitative studies suggest that some women intentionally decide not to reveal their symptoms during screening. The purpose of this study was to describe women's reported willingness to disclose mental health concerns during screening and factors associated with this. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women who were >16 years of age and could speak/read English. Women were recruited from five maternity clinics and two community hospitals in Alberta, Canada (May-December, 2013). Eligible women completed the online Barriers and Facilitators of Mental Health Screening Questionnaire on recruitment. The primary outcome for this analysis was women's level of honesty about mental health concerns (completely vs somewhat/not at all honest) during screening. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions to identify factors associated with honesty. Participation rate was 92% (460/500). Seventy-nine percent of women indicated that they could be 'completely honest' during screening. Women who feared their provider would view them as bad mothers were less likely to be honest. We found a significant association between 'less anonymous' modes of screening and honesty. Over eighty percent of women in this study were well-educated, partnered, Caucasian women. As such, generalizability of the study findings may be limited. Most women indicated they could be honest during screening. Stigma-related factors and screening mode influenced women's willingness to disclose. Strategies to reduce stigma during screening are warranted to enhance early detection of prenatal mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social) may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the...

  1. Mental health in adolescents of Delicias (trujillo - Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Cabrera, Alberto; Unidad de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Sogi, Cecilia; Unidad de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Morales, Ricardo; Unidad de Postgrado, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the mental health of 12 to 18 year-old adolescent population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mental health household survey was carried out in a sample randomly selected from two areas of Las Delicias, District of Moche, Trujillo City, Peru: 32 subjects from Taquila (a rural area) and 43 from the North Zone (an area in process of urbanization). RESULTS: Problems related to substance abuse, mainly alcohol, were more predominant in Taquila while symptoms of distress and depressio...

  2. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  3. Mentalization and Self-Efficacy as Mediators between Psychological Symptom Severity and Disabilities in Activities and Participation in Psychotherapy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dehoust, Maria; Brütt, Anna Levke; Schulz, Holger; Pieh, Christoph; Andreas, Sylke

    2018-01-01

    Psychotherapy patients can be more or less disabled by their psychological symptoms. The present study investigated whether mentalization and self-efficacy contribute to the association between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. The data of 216 psychotherapy inpatients were examined in a cross-sectional design. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were performed to investigate whether self-efficacy and mentalization are mediators between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. The Hamburg Modules for the Assessment of Psychosocial Health-49 were used to measure psychological symptom severity and self-efficacy, mentalization was assessed with the Mentalization Questionnaire, and disabilities in activities and participation were operationalized with the ICF-Mental-A & P questionnaire. Mentalization as well as self-efficacy functioned as mediators between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation (p < 0.05). They were equally strong mediators, and both remained significant mediators when statistically controlling for the other mediator (p < 0.05). Mentalization as well as self-efficacy explain a significant proportion of the relationship between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. Working on mentalizing and self-efficacy might be important mechanisms to reduce disability due to symptoms. The cross-sectional design is a limitation of the study. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the

  5. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  6. Associations between Cultural Stressors, Cultural Values, and Latina/o College Students' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian M; McDonald, Shelby E; Velazquez, Efren; Rodríguez, Adriana; Fuentes, Vanessa E

    2017-01-01

    Latina/o college students experience cultural stressors that negatively impact their mental health, which places them at risk for academic problems. We explored whether cultural values buffer the negative effect of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms in a sample of 198 Latina/o college students (70 % female; 43 % first generation college students). Bivariate results revealed significant positive associations between cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stress, discrimination) and mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depressive, psychological stress), and negative associations between cultural values of familismo, respeto, and religiosity and mental health symptoms. Several cultural values moderated the influence of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of helping Latina/o college students remain connected to their families and cultural values as a way of promoting their mental health.

  7. Racial Differences in Mental Health Recovery among Veterans with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mana K.; Hack, Samantha M.; Brown, Clayton H.; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth; Park, Stephanie G.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p < .05), had higher baseline psychosis (p < .05), higher mental health recovery (p < .05), and perceived less non-supportive clinician input (p < .01) than white participants. Regression analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among race, psychosis, and positive collaboration (p < .01). Greater positive collaboration attenuated the negative effect of higher levels of psychosis on mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients’ perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate

  8. The Role of Bilingual Workers without Professional Mental Health Training in Mental Health Services for Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Eric

    This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…

  9. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödje Kjetil

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154 is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists, the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.

  10. Global mental health and neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James

    2015-03-04

    Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.

  11. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and

  12. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  13. Global mental health and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review\\ud The aim was to synthesise recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).\\ud \\ud Recent findings\\ud There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMIC are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare. Family supp...

  14. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van, Bortel Tine

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and ?stigma?. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public a...

  15. [For a mental health policy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollon, W

    1986-01-01

    At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.

  16. The opinions of Turkish mental health nurses on physical health care for individuals with mental illness: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ince, S; Partlak Günüşen, N; Serçe, Ö

    2018-02-25

    . A thematic analysis was used to evaluate the interviews. Four main themes were determined. (1) The barriers to physical healthcare theme included barriers related to patients, illness and treatment, barriers related to patients' caregivers, barriers related to health professionals and barriers related to the healthcare system. (2) The physical healthcare practices theme included common physical health problems and current nursing practices. (3) Motivators theme included the desire to see positive changes in a patient, receiving positive feedback, feeling useful and happy, having a sense of conscience and feeling satisfied with their profession. (4) The needs for better physical healthcare theme included the nurses' recommendations for better physical health care. Mental health nurses believe that the physical health care provided to individuals with mental illness is not adequate. Many barriers to providing care for physical health, such as having psychiatric symptoms that are not seen as a priority by patients and health personnel, were determined. Mental health nurses should integrate physical healthcare practices into their routine care. In addition, mental health nurses' knowledge and skills about physical health care should be improved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-07-01

    That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Issues in consumer mental health information.

    OpenAIRE

    Angier, J J

    1984-01-01

    Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...

  19. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, A.; Grootheest, G.; Smit, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can

  20. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.

  1. Mental health among students of pedagogical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.

  2. Social inclusion and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  3. University students' mental health: Aksaray University example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Gündoğdu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether mental health scores of the university students differ based on gender, whether they study in their ideal majors, whether they are contended with their majors, economic condition perceived and perceptions on employment opportunity after graduation. The sample group of the study constituted 3492 students comprising 2037 female students and 1455 male students attending Faculty of Education (634, Engineering Faculty (1582, Economic and Administrative Sciences Faculty (1097, Faculty of Science and Letters (762, Medical Vocational College (540, Physical Training and Sports College (443 and Aksaray Vocational College (1452 of Aksaray University in 2010-2011 Academic Year. Symptom Checklist (SCL 90-R developed by Deragotis, (1983; eg Öner, 1997 has been used to collect data on mental health level of the students involved in the study. Statistical analysis of the data collected has been carried out using t Test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Significant differences have been found in students in terms of independent variants according to the general symptom average score and numerous sub-scale scores.

  4. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Climate Change and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura

    2017-04-01

    : Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.

  6. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk and Depressive Symptoms Among People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Pratt, Sarah I; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Depressive symptoms have debilitating effects on the physical health and functioning of people with serious mental illness. We examined change in depressive symptoms among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness (n = 343) using data combined from two randomized trials comparing the 12-month In SHAPE program to a gym membership control condition. In SHAPE consists of a gym membership, weekly individual meetings with a fitness trainer, and instruction on healthy eating and nutrition. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Change in depressive symptoms did not differ between groups, but depressive symptoms decreased over time across the entire sample (p = 0.045). At 12 months, reduced depressive symptoms were associated with clinically significant improved cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.030), 10% or more weight loss (p = 0.044), and cardiovascular risk reduction (p = 0.028) across both groups. Our findings suggest that participation in health promotion programs resulting in cardiovascular risk reduction may be associated with reduced depressive symptoms.

  7. Experiences of ageism and the mental health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Alba, Beatrice; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Dow, Briony

    2017-08-10

    This article examines relationships between experiences of ageism and four specific mental health outcomes among older Australian adults, including whether these relationships vary depending on age, gender, and sexual orientation. A survey was conducted nationwide involving 2137 participants aged 60 years and older. Mental health variables included depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms, general stress, and positive mental health or flourishing. Recent experiences of ageism were found to be strongly related to poorer mental health on all four mental health variables. However, experiences of ageism appeared to have a greater effect on the mental health of those who were younger in age (specifically depression), of men more so than women (specifically depression), and of those who identified as heterosexual as opposed to other sexual orientations (specifically general stress). These findings suggest that experiences of ageism may be an important factor in the health and well-being of older adults, especially for those who are younger, male, and heterosexual, and may need to be taken into account when devising strategies for supporting healthier and happier ageing.

  8. Mental health triage in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.

  9. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  10. Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R. Yoder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.

  11. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  12. Mental health promotion: paradigms and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudor, Keith

    1996-01-01

    ... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...

  13. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  14. Mental Health and Illness in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...

  15. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mota Borges Bottino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  16. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  17. Vitamin D levels and perinatal depressive symptoms in women at risk: a secondary analysis of the mothers, omega-3, and mental health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer Anne; Romero, Vivian C; Clinton, Chelsea M; Vazquez, Delia M; Marcus, Sheila M; Chilimigras, Julie L; Hamilton, Susan E; Allbaugh, Lucy J; Vahratian, Anjel M; Schrader, Ronald M; Mozurkewich, Ellen L

    2016-08-03

    Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with depressive symptoms in non-pregnant adults. We performed this study to evaluate whether low maternal vitamin D levels are associated with depressive symptoms in pregnancy. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial designed to assess whether prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation would prevent depressive symptoms. Pregnant women from Michigan who were at risk for depression based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Score or history of depression were enrolled. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at 12-20 weeks, 26-28 weeks, 34-36 weeks, and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Vitamin D levels were measured at 12-20 weeks (N = 117) and 34-36 weeks (N = 112). Complete datasets were available on 105 subjects. Using regression analyses, we evaluated the relationship between vitamin D levels with BDI scores as well as with MINI diagnoses of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Our primary outcome measure was the association of maternal vitamin D levels with BDI scores during early and late pregnancy and postpartum. We found that vitamin D levels at 12-20 weeks were inversely associated with BDI scores both at 12-20 and at 34-36 weeks' gestation (P depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. In women at risk for depression, early pregnancy low vitamin D levels are associated with higher depressive symptom scores in early and late pregnancy. Future investigations should study whether vitamin D supplementation in early pregnancy may prevent perinatal depressive symptoms. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00711971.

  18. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  19. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  20. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…

  1. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  2. The "long arm" of childhood health: linking childhood disability to late midlife mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kenzie

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research underscores the early origins of health in later life; however, relatively little is known about the relationship between childhood physical health and adult mental health. This research explores the relationship between childhood disability and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of late midlife adults (N = 3,572). Using data from Waves 8-10 (2006-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study, a series of ordinary least squares regression models were created to assess the number of depressive symptoms. Childhood disability was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms; however, late midlife social and health factors accounted for differences between those with and without childhood disability. Late midlife physical health appeared to be a particularly salient mediator. Individuals who experience childhood disability may accumulate more physical impairment over the life course, thus experiencing worse mental health such as greater depressive symptoms in late midlife. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...

  4. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  5. Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Funk, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...

  6. [Mental Health, Emotional Suffering, Mental Problems and Disorders in Indigenous Colombians. Data From the National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma

    2016-12-01

    Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  7. [Epidemiological study in mental health: health services use and perception of social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariela; Basco, María E

    2016-04-01

    Objective The general aim of this non-probabilistic epidemiologic study is to detect the levels of mental health symptoms and social support for the residents of two neighborhoods in the General Belgrano district in Guaymallén, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Methods A random sample of 62 adults was selected, in which the proportionality of age and sex were conserved in each quota. Each person was interviewed in his/her house using the Cuestionario Epidemiológico de Sintomatología Mental [Epidemiological Questionnaire on Mental Health Symptoms] (CESIM) and the Cuestionario de Apoyo Social Comunitario Percibido [Questionnaire on Perceived Community Social Support]. In addition, participants were asked about sociodemographic factors, self-rated mental health symptoms andv visits to services specializing in this area. Results The results show that unemployment, a low educational level and a marital status of separation or divorce were related to high symptoms in the mental health area. In groups with high symptoms, few visits to health services were identified. Conclusions No relationship was found between the social support indicators and the level of symptoms.

  8. Late mental health changes in tortured refugees in multidisciplinary treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Jessica Mariana; Olsen, Dorte Reff; Kastrup, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine long-term changes in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and in health-related quality of life in traumatized refugees 23 months after admission to multidisciplinary treatment. The study group comprised 45 persons admitted......-Bref) were collected before treatment and after 9 and 23 months. No substantial changes in mental health were observed at the 9-month follow-up, and the minor decrease in some symptoms observed between the 9 and 23 months may reflect regression toward the mean or the natural course of symptoms in this cohort...

  9. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  10. Perceived emotional intelligence and clinical symptoms in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizeretti, Nathalie P; Extremera, Natalio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2012-12-01

    Research in emotional regulation has revealed that difficulties in the use and processing of affective information constitute a key factor in most mental disorders. To evaluate perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) deficits in patients with diverse psychopathological disorders and their relationship with clinical symptoms. Differences in PEI have been identified between a clinical group (n = 163) and a group of non-clinical individuals (n = 163). In the clinical group, the patients met DSM diagnostic criteria for one of the following: anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, psychotic disorder or borderline personality disorder. The PEI and clinical symptoms were assessed using the Spanish version of the TMMS-24 and the SCL-90-R, respectively. Patients from clinical group show higher levels of attention to feelings, but lower scores in abilities to manage effectively their negative emotional states compared to participants from non-clinical control group. Similarly, significant differences in PEI levels between different diagnostic groups were found. Our study provides preliminary evidence that deficits in PEI are related to the presence and severity of clinical symptoms in patients with different mental disorders.

  11. Some indicators of mental health in secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Pušnik

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the status of the secondary school students regarding different indicators of mental health. We were interested in the perception of successfulness, stress caused by the school, relationships towards friends and family members, intensive physical response to the stress, depression symptoms, eating disorders symptoms and substance abuse. The participants also estimated feeling of content and meaning in life. The questionnaire was designed especially for...

  12. Exploring opportunities to support mental health care using social media: A survey of social media users with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-10-20

    Social media holds promise for expanding the reach of mental health services, especially for young people who frequently use these popular platforms. We surveyed social media users who self-identified as having a mental illness to learn about their use of social media for mental health and to identify opportunities to augment existing mental health services. We asked 240 Twitter users who self-identified in their profile as having a mental illness to participate in an online survey. The survey was in English and inquired about participants' mental health condition, use of social media for mental health and interest in accessing mental health programs delivered through social media. Respondents from 10 countries completed 135 surveys. Most respondents were from the United States (54%), Canada (22%) and the United Kingdom (17%) and reported a psychiatric diagnosis of either schizophrenia spectrum disorder (27%), bipolar disorder (25%), major depressive disorder (16%) or depression (20%). Young adults age ≤35 (46%) were more likely to use Instagram (P = .002), Snapchat (P social media (P social media, especially to promote overall health and wellbeing (72%) and for coping with mental health symptoms (90%). This exploratory study demonstrates the feasibility of reaching social media users with mental illness and can inform efforts to leverage social media to make evidence-based mental health services more widely available to those in need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Symptoms and treatment of mental illness among prisoners: a study of Michigan state prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Brant E; Schmorrow, Angela; Lang, Sylvia W; Margolis, Philip M; Heany, Julia; Brown, Greg P; Barbaree, Howard E; Hirdes, John P

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a representative sample of prisoners in Michigan correctional facilities to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness and the delivery of mental health (MH) services. Mental health assessments were conducted with 618 incarcerated subjects using the interRAI Correctional Facilities (interRAI CF). Subjects were randomly sampled based on four strata: males in the general population, males in administrative segregation, males in special units, and females. The interRAI CF assessments were merged with secondary data provided by the Michigan Department of Corrections (MDOC) containing information on MH diagnoses or services that the subjects were receiving within the facilities, demographics, and sentencing. Study results show that 20.1% of men and 24.8% of women in Michigan prisons have a substantial level of MH symptoms and that 16.5% and 28.9%, respectively, are receiving MH services. However, when compared with Michigan Department of Corrections MH care records, 65.0% of prisoners who are experiencing symptoms of mental illness are not currently receiving any psychiatric services. The mis-match between symptoms and service delivery suggests the need for improved procedures for identifying and measuring psychiatric symptoms within Michigan correctional facilities to ensure that appropriate individuals receive needed care. It is recommended that a standardized assessment process be implemented and conducted at regular intervals for targeting and improving psychiatric care in the prison system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Committed Dating Relationships and Mental Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Weitbrecht, Eliza M.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Bruner, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether involvement in committed dating relationships is associated with university students’ mental health (depressive symptoms and problem alcohol use, including binge drinking), and whether these associations differ by gender. Participants: A sample of 889 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Methods: Self-report measures…

  15. Conceptions of mental health among Ugandan youth orphaned by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor mental health was perceived as a form of madness or insanity and it was associated with a loss of basic life necessities, such as access to food, education or shelter. The youths also identified factors that promote more successful orphans. The findings of this study suggest that Western terminologies and symptom ...

  16. Factors for success in mental health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.

  17. Exploring Perceptions about and Behaviors Related to Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Utilization among College Students Using the Health Belief Model (HBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Maykrantz, Sherry Azadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health service is underutilized in the United States. Adolescent and young adults, including college students, are especially unlikely to seek professional help for mental illness. This issue presents a concern, because signs and symptoms commonly appear during this part of growth and development. Purpose: The Health Belief…

  18. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  19. Improving Perinatal Mental Health Care for Women Veterans: Description of a Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie G; Lewis, Lacey; Hercinovic, Selma; McNab, Amanda; Fortney, John; Rose, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe results from a quality improvement project undertaken to address perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans. Description This quality improvement project was conducted in a single VA healthcare system between 2012 and 2015 and included screening for depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three times during the perinatal period, a dedicated maternity care coordinator (MCC), an on-site clinical social worker, and an on-site obstetrician/gynecologist (Ob/gyn). Information on prior mental health diagnosis was collected by the MCC or Ob/gyn. The prevalence of perinatal depressive symptoms and receipt of mental healthcare among those with such symptoms are reported by presence of a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Assessment Of the 199 women who used VA maternity benefits between 2012 and 2015, 56% (n = 111) had at least one pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Compared to those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis, those with such a diagnosis were more likely to be screened for perinatal depressive symptoms at least once (61.5% vs. 46.8%, p = 0.04). Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.7% among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and 19.2% among those without. Among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 35), 88% received outpatient mental healthcare and 77% met with the clinical social worker. Among those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 8), none received outpatient mental healthcare, but 77.8% met with the clinical social worker. Conclusion Improving perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans requires a multidisciplinary approach, including on-site integrated mental healthcare.

  20. SPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouloud Kenioua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of mental health level of university student, athletes and non-athletes. Material: The tested group consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates from Ouargla University, Algeria; 80 students-athletes from Institute of Physical Education and Sports and 80 students-non-athletes from Department of Psychology, English and Mathematics. In the study we used health mental scale, adapted by Diab (2006 to Arab version scale, formed from five dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self rating and aspects of natural deficiencies. Results: the findings indicated that university students have high level of mental health. And the mean of the responses of students-athletes group by mental health scale reached (M = 32.40, with standard deviation (STD =5.83, while the mean of the responses of students-non athletes group by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47, with standard deviation (STD=7.88. T-value, required to know significance of differences between means of students-athletes and students-non athletes has reached (T=4.51, (DF=185, p -0.01. So there are significant statistical differences between student athletes and non-athletes in their responses by mental health scale in favor of the student athletes. Conclusion:sports are beneficial in respect to mental health among university students and emphasizing the importance of the mental health of university students through its integration in the various recreational and competitive activities. Future qualitative research, covering multi-variables’ tests on mental health and others psychological characteristics could be performed in sports area.

  1. Implications of DSM-5 for Health Care Organizations and Mental Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.

  2. Recent developments in community mental health: Relevance and relationship with the mental health care bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community mental health refers to the treatment of persons with mental disorders in the community. In the earlier periods, treatment of patients with mental illness was limited to the mental hospitals or asylums. This paper traces the beginnings of community psychiatry in India from the time Dr. Vidya Sagar initiated his famous experiment of treating patients with mental illnesses along with family members in tents outside the mental hospital, Amritsar. It then discusses the role of the National Mental Health Program and the District Mental Health Program. The role of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in leading onto the development of the current Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 is discussed. Authors critically evaluate some of the merits and drawbacks of the Bill as related to recent developments in community mental health in India.

  3. Mental health: the current situation and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...

  4. Robotics Technology in Mental Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the existing and future use of robotics and intelligent sensing technology in mental health care. While the use of this technology is nascent in mental health care, it represents a potentially useful tool in the practitioner's toolbox. The goal of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the field, discuss the recent use of robotics technology in mental health care practice, explore some of the design issues and ethical issues of using robots in this space, and fi...

  5. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  6. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...

  7. Focus on climate change and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.

  8. Characteristics of adolescents with poor mental health after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Kajsa; Karlsson, Jan; Olbers, Torsten; Peltonen, Markku; Marcus, Claude; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Gronowitz, Eva; Johnsson, Per; Flodmark, Carl-Erik

    2016-05-01

    About 20% of adolescents experience substantial mental health problems after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to explore differences between adolescents with poor mental health (PMH) 2 years after surgery and those with average/good mental health. Three university hospitals in Sweden. Mental health and health-related quality of life were assessed in 82 of 88 adolescents (mean age: 16.8 yr, 67% female) at baseline and 1 and 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Possible associations among mental health, weight, and biochemical outcomes were explored. Two years after surgery 16 (20%) adolescents were identified as having PMH. More symptoms of anxiety and depression and worse mental health at baseline significantly predicted PMH 2 years later. The decline in mental health for the PMH group happened mainly during the second year after surgery. Suicidal ideation was reported in 14% of the total sample 2 years postsurgery and was more frequent in the PMH group. Weight outcomes between groups were comparable at all time points, and physical health was equally improved 2 years after surgery. Although adolescents with PMH after surgery lose as much weight and have similar improvements in physical health compared with other adolescents, special attention should be given to adolescents who report mental health problems at baseline and follow-up, especially during the second year after gastric bypass. The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in adolescents 2 years after bariatric surgery is another indication that longer follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxford textbook of women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2010-01-01

    ... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...

  10. Urbanization and mental health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, I; Harpham, T

    1996-08-01

    It is expected that the urban population in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. While urbanization is accompanied by health problems, population density can lower public health costs. Common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, and poor memory, account for 90% of all mental disorders, cause behavioral problems in offspring, and impede recovery from physical ailments. Those who suffer most from common mental disorders include women, those between 15 and 49 years old, and low-income populations. Strong links have been established between socioenvironmental factors and common mental disorders, and an urban environment has been associated with many possible risk factors for such disorders. Only a small percentage of people with mental disorders seek primary health care and even less receive secondary- or tertiary-level care. Common mental disorders place a large burden on primary health care services, however, but most of the patients suffering from mental disorders seek care for physical disorders that mask proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the World Health Organization advocates the introduction of mental health components in primary health care services in developing countries. In order to reach those who remain outside of the health care system, community-based interventions such as self-help groups or efforts to promote wider social changes or address poverty should be undertaken. Mental health in developing countries is gaining attention as the attendant loss in economic productivity of human capital has become apparent.

  11. Oxford textbook of women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2010-01-01

    .... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...

  12. Report of a mental health survey among Chinese international students at Yale University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Han, Xuemei; Luo, Qianlai; Jacobs, Selby; Jean-Baptiste, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese international students, to identify factors that might be associated with these 2 symptom complexes, and to investigate their perception of mental health issues and counseling services. Chinese students (N = 130) at Yale University. Participants completed an anonymous online survey in fall 2009. Forty-five percent reported symptoms of depression, and 29% reported symptoms of anxiety. A self-evaluation of poor current health, a poor relationship with one's advisor, and a low exercise regimen were associated with a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms. Twenty-seven percent of responders were not aware of the availability of mental health and counseling services on campus. This study suggests that efforts should be made to improve the relationship between students and their advisors and to enhance the awareness of and the accessibility to mental health and counseling services to improve the mental health of Chinese international students.

  13. Behavioral lifestyle and mental health status of Japanese factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.

  14. Influence of Child Factors on Health-Care Professionals' Recognition of Common Childhood Mental-Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This

  15. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  16. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  17. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  18. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  19. Current models of positive mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .

  20. Art and mental health in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee

    2015-12-01

    To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Improving Malawian teachers' mental health knowledge and attitudes: an integrated school mental health literacy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...

  2. Reiki Reduces Burnout Among Community Mental Health Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, Renee M; Rubik, Beverly; Mainguy, Barbara; Plummer, Julie; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2015-08-01

    Clinicians working in community mental health clinics are at high risk for burnout. Burnout is a problem involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki is a holistic biofield energy therapy beneficial for reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if 30 minutes of healing touch could reduce burnout in community mental health clinicians. We utilized a crossover design to explore the efficacy of Reiki versus sham Reiki, a pseudo treatment designed to mimic true Reiki, as a means to reduce symptoms of burnout. Subjects were randomized to whether they started with Reiki or sham. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile Version 2 (MYMOP-2) were used as outcome measures. Multilevel modeling was used to represent the relations among variables. Reiki was statistically significantly better than sham Reiki in reducing burnout among community mental health clinicians (p=0.011). Reiki was significant in reducing depersonalization (pReiki reduced the primary symptom on the MYMOP also only among single people (p=0.03). The effects of Reiki were differentiated from sham Reiki. Reiki could be helpful in community mental health settings for the mental health of the practitioners.

  3. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...

  4. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  5. Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David

    2012-05-01

    There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  6. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.

  7. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.

  8. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global mental health: from science to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.

  10. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  11. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Mental Health Screening of Older Adults in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary J.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to document mental health outreach in our primary care clinic, 316 veterans (mean age 72) not currently in psychiatric treatment were screened for multiple mental health symptoms. Depressed mood was reported by 18% of the sample, insomnia by 26%, and morbid/suicidal ideation by 6.9% for at least several days during the past 2 weeks. Of those who experienced a loss over the past year (43%), 36% remained affected by the loss. Also reported were anxiety symptoms (29%) and PTSD symptoms (14%). Two-fifths (39%) of patients reported drinking alcohol in the past week, 18% more than 5 days, and 13% more than 3 drinks per sitting. Twenty-six percent of the patients reported symptoms warranting intervention; of these, only 39% accepted a treatment referral. While screening for depressed mood and alcohol use is now common in primary care, we found it useful to screen for specific symptoms of depression (including insomnia and suicidal ideation), persisting grief reactions, anxiety, and PTSD in this setting. Further research is necessary to determine factors that underlie some patients’ refusal to accept mental health treatment. PMID:27231434

  13. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    Full Text Available This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it.We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area, family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult. Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated.Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.56-2.63 for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25 for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20 for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93 and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17 among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08 and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25. Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders of the poorer mental health in

  14. Mental health training program for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China: effects on knowledge of mental illness and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.

  15. Mental health among currently enrolled medical students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wege, N; Muth, T; Li, J; Angerer, P

    2016-03-01

    The study identifies the prevalence of common mental disorders according to the patient health questionnaire (PHQ) and the use of psychotropic substances in a sample of currently enrolled medical students. A cross-sectional survey with a self-administrated questionnaire. All newly enrolled medical students at the University of Dusseldorf, with study beginning either in 2012 or 2013, respectively, were invited to participate. The evaluation was based on 590 completed questionnaires. Mental health outcomes were measured by the PHQ, including major depression, other depressive symptoms (subthreshold depression), anxiety, panic disorders and psychosomatic complaints. Moreover, information about psychotropic substances use (including medication) was obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and socio-economic factors and mental health outcomes. The prevalence rates, measured by the PHQ, were 4.7% for major depression, 5.8% for other depressive symptoms, 4.4% for anxiety, 1.9% for panic disorders, and 15.7% for psychosomatic complaints. These prevalence rates were higher than those reported in the general population, but lower than in medical students in the course of medical training. In all, 10.7% of the students reported regular psychotropic substance use: 5.1% of students used medication 'to calm down,' 4.6% 'to improve their sleep,' 4.4% 'to elevate mood,' and 3.1% 'to improve cognitive performance.' In the fully adjusted model, expected financial difficulties were significantly associated with poor mental health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.48), psychosomatic symptoms (OR:1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.09) and psychotropic substances use (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.51-4.75). The high rates of mental disorders among currently enrolled medical students call for the promotion of mental health, with a special emphasis on vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public

  16. Are mental toughness and mental health contradictory concepts in elite sport? A narrative review of theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Hanton, Sheldon; Fleming, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Athlete development and management encompass a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. Within elite sport, multidisciplinary sport science and medicine teams play an important role in achieving an optimal balance between preventing athlete ill-health and optimizing health and performance. The psychological aspects of athlete health and performance have gained increased attention over the past two decades, with much of this research concerned with the mental health of athletes and the concept of mental toughness. Recently, it was proposed that mental health and mental toughness are contradictory concepts in the world of elite sport. Although an interesting proposition, this claim was not substantiated. Thus, the purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate theory and evidence regarding the thesis that mental health and mental toughness are contradictory concepts in the world of elite sport, with the view to advance scholarly knowledge and inform professional practice. Narrative review. A critical evaluation of this literature suggests that mental toughness may represent a positive indicator of mental health, or facilitate its attainment, rather than be at odds with it. When implemented alongside multilayered approaches to organizational change (e.g., group structures, policies), mental toughness could be used as a 'hook' to attract athletes into settings that can open dialogue on the importance of mental health and improve knowledge of key issues (e.g., stigma, symptoms). Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indicators of Mental Health in Various Iranian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research wo...

  18. [Migration and mental health: new challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an important risk factor for the development of common and severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, in Europe, immigrants are less likely to access community mental health care and to adhere to treatments, with consequent emergency referrals, involuntary admissions, and traumatic coercive measures. At a clinical level, changes in practices and cross-cultural skills of mental health professionals might be crucial in addressing this challenge.

  19. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About Cancer Treatments Among Women Attending a Gynecologic Oncology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa; Kueck, Angela; Maksut, Jessica; Gordon, Lori; Metersky, Karen; Miga, Ashley; Brewer, Molly; Siembida, Elizabeth; Bradley, Alison

    2017-09-01

    Sexual health is an important, yet overlooked, aspect of quality of life for gynecologic oncologic patients. Although patients with gynecologic cancer frequently report sexual health concerns, there are limited efforts to address these problems. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between mental health and sexual health needs to be prioritized. To examine multiple components of sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer. For the present study, sexual health concerns (ie, sexual frequency, desire, response, and satisfaction; orgasm; and pain during sex; independent variables), beliefs about cancer treatments affecting sexual health (dependent variable), and mental health (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms; dependent variables) of patients at a US gynecologic oncology clinic were assessed. Demographics; cancer diagnosis; positive screening results for cancer; sexual health histories including sexual frequency, desire, pain, orgasm, responsiveness, and satisfaction; and mental health including depression and anxiety symptoms. Most women reported experiencing at least one sexual health concern, and half the women screened positive for experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Forty-nine percent of participants reported having no or very little sexual desire or interest in the past 6 months. Further, in mediation analyses, pain during sex was significantly and positively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.42, P gynecologic oncology clinics. Screening women for whether and to what extent they perceive cancer treatments affecting their sexual health could provide a brief, easily administrable, screener for sexual health concerns and the need for further intervention. Intervention development for patients with gynecologic cancer must include mental health components and addressing perceptions of how cancer treatments affect sexual health functioning. Eaton L, Kueck A, Maksut J, et al. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About

  20. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887

  1. Using health psychology to help patients: common mental health disorders and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-22

    This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.

  2. Urban mental health: challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Sartorius, Norman

    2018-03-09

    To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services, and to develop new forms of mental health services adjusted to urban settings. Regrettably there are no universally accepted guidelines that would help governments in structuring health services for people with mental illness in towns and help to prevent mental health problems related to rapid urbanization.

  3. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EDITORIAL Mental Health and Society's Perceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deaths of mentally ill patients transferred from Life. Esidimeni health facilities in Gauteng province, South. Africa to 27 unlicensed non- governmental organizations. (NGOs) is a sober reflection of how we as a society perceive and care for mentally ill people. As of 15 February 2017, the. Health ombudsman Professor.

  5. Positive Mental Health; measurement, relevance and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal

  6. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  7. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  8. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  9. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  10. Wisdom and mental health across the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, J.D.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The relationships between wisdom and age and between wisdom and mental health are complex with empirical results often inconsistent. We used a lifespan sample and broad, psychometrically sound measures of wisdom and mental health to test for possible age trends in wisdom and its

  11. Maternal problem drinking and child mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:

  12. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  13. Mental health status in patients with Thalassemia major in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nasiri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.

  14. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  15. Do workplace physical activity interventions improve mental health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2014-06-01

    Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Community Mental Health Clinic Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...

  17. Mental health in the Middle East: an Egyptian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, A

    1999-12-01

    This article introduces the reader to mental health in the Middle East with an Egyptian perspective, from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance, up until the current state. During Pharaonic times, mental illness was not known as such, as there was no separator between Soma and Psyche. Actually, mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterine diseases, as stated in Eber's and Kahoun's papyri. In spite of the mystical culture, mental disorders were attributed and treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were never subjected to any torture or maltreatment because of the inherited belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. The first mental hospital in Europe was located in Spain, following the Arab invasion, and from then on it propagated to other European countries. The 14th century Kalawoon Hospital in Cairo had four departments, including medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, and mental disorders. Six centuries earlier, psychiatry in general hospitals was recognized in Europe. The influence of Avicenna and Elrazi and their contributions to European medicine is well-known. This article discusses further the current state of the mental health services in Egypt and the transcultural studies of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion, and obsessive compulsive disorders. An outline of psychiatric disorders in children is discussed. The problem of drug abuse is also addressed, especially that in Egypt after 1983, where drugs like heroine replaced the common habit of hashish.

  18. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean Bamberger, Simon; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia

    2012-01-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...... of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...

  19. Mental health research trends in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S S; Hewage, S N; Karandawala, I R

    2011-06-01

    To review the number of research publications in the field of mental health in Sri Lanka from 1900 to 2009. A search of all publications in psychiatry and mental health from Sri Lanka was conducted using Pubmed, all medical journals published in Sri Lanka and researchers. The identified papers were reviewed for their content and categorised as research in psychiatry and mental health, based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 207 papers were identified. The first mental health research publication from Sri Lanka is in 1964. The last decade (2000-2009) accounted for 62% of the publications with the majority of the papers being published in indexed journals. The Ceylon Medical Journal carried the most number of papers and the topic on which most of the research was conducted was suicide and deliberate self harm. There is an increasing trend towards research in to psychiatry and mental health in Sri Lanka.

  20. A Samoan perspective on infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.

  1. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor...... decision latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.......OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...

  2. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  3. Social support and disclosure as predictors of mental health in HIV-positive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phebe K; Naar-King, Sylvie; Wright, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe mental health symptoms in a sample of 66 HIV-positive youth (ages 16-25) and to evaluate social support, disclosure, and physical status as predictors of symptoms. Data were collected from January 2002 to May 2003. As measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), 50% of the youth scored above the cutoff for clinically significant mental health symptoms, thus highlighting the need for mental health services. Lower social support, higher viral load, HIV-status disclosure to acquaintances, and being gay/lesbian/bisexual (GLB) were all significantly correlated with more mental health symptoms, but disclosure to family and close friends and contact with service providers were not. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that social support, viral load, and disclosure to acquaintances predicted 32% of the variance in mental health symptoms. Being GLB was no longer significant, most likely because of shared variance with low social support. Results suggest the importance of mental health interventions, and the potential of social support interventions to improve mental health. Further research addressing the role of HIV-related stigma and homophobia is warranted.

  4. Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Gibbons

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness.Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years. Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy.Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis.Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females.

  5. Mental health among younger and older caregivers of dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Asuka; Matsushita, Masateru; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Fujise, Noboru; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Hibiki; Hatada, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Yusuke; Hotta, Maki; Ikeda, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    Caregiver burden in dementia is an important issue, but few studies have examined the mental health of younger and older family caregivers by comparing them with age- and gender-matched community residents. We aimed to compare the mental health of dementia caregivers with that of community residents and to clarify factors related to mental health problems in younger and older caregivers. We studied 104 dementia caregivers; 46 were younger (caregivers and community residents by age. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental ADL were assessed among patients with dementia using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, and Lawton Instrumental ADL Scale, respectively. According to SF-8 results, both younger and older caregivers had significantly worse mental QOL than community residents (younger caregivers: 46.3 vs community residents: 49.7, P = 0.017; older caregivers: 48.2 vs community residents: 51.1, P = 0.024) but were not more depressive. Sleep problems were significantly more frequent in younger caregivers (39.1%) than in community residents (17.0%) (P = 0.017). Multiple regression analysis revealed that caregivers' deteriorated mental QOL was associated with patients' behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in younger caregivers and with dementia patients' instrumental ADL and female gender in older caregivers. Dementia caregivers had a lower mental QOL than community residents. To maintain caregivers' mental QOL, it is necessary to provide younger caregivers with skills or professional interventions for dealing with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and older caregivers must be offered adequate care support. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. Long-term effects of Hurricane Andrew: revisiting mental health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, S; Troiano, R P; Barker, N; Noji, E; Hlady, W G; Hopkins, R

    1995-09-01

    Two population-based surveys of South Dade County, Florida, were conducted after Hurricane Andrew to compare hurricane-related symptoms of mental distress and describe the impact of mental health outreach teams. Households were selected by three-stage cluster sampling and findings from the two surveys, 13 months apart, were compared. Response rates were 75 per cent and 84 per cent. The prevalence of symptoms of mental distress decreased over time. However, in the households contacted by the teams (25 per cent of sample), the prevalence of symptoms (50 per cent) did not differ from households not contacted (43 per cent). Households contacted by teams that reported symptoms were just as likely to have been referred for help by the teams (72 per cent) as those without symptoms (68 per cent). Households reporting symptoms were equally likely to get counselling regardless of whether the teams visited. Mental health teams had no significant impact on mental health symptoms or the use of mental health services. Alternative approaches to mental health outreach teams need to be explored.

  7. Perceived barriers on mental health services by the family of patients with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr Dian Tristiana

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.

  8. Mental Health and Illness in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....

  9. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  10. Emergency mental health management in bioterrorism events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, David M; Holloway, Harry C; Becker, Steven M

    2002-05-01

    The United States has not suffered significant psychosocial or medical consequences from the use of biological weapons within its territories. This has contributed to a "natural" state of denial at the community level. This denial could amplify the sense of crisis, anxiety, fear, chaos, and disorder that would accompany such a bioterrorist event. A key part of primary prevention involves counteracting this possibility before an incident occurs. Doing so will require realistic information regarding the bioterrorism threat followed by the development of a planned response and regular practice of that response. Unlike in natural disasters or other situations resulting in mass casualties, emergency department physicians or nurses and primary care physicians (working in concert with epidemiologic agencies), rather than police, firemen, or ambulance personnel, will be most likely to first identify the unfolding disaster associated with a biological attack. Like community leaders, this group of medical responders must be aware of its own susceptibility to mental health sequelae and performance decrement as the increasing demands of disaster response outpace the availability of necessary resources. A bioterrorist attack will necessitate treatment of casualties who experience neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Although symptoms may result from exposure to infection with specific biological agents, similar symptoms may result from the mere perception of exposure or arousal precipitated by fear of infection, disease, suffering, and death. Conservative use of psychotropic medications may reduce symptoms in exposed and uninfected individuals, as may cognitive-behavioral interventions. Clear, consistent, accessible, reliable, and redundant information (received from trusted sources) will diminish public uncertainty about the cause of symptoms that might otherwise prompt persons to seek unnecessary treatment. Training and preparation for contingencies experienced in an

  11. Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  13. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  14. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two......It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim...... municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust...

  15. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  16. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K Mama

    Full Text Available Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467 completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination, and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001 and U.S. (p < .001 and low social support (p < .001 were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  17. Emotion-regulation ability, role stress and teachers' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-López, S; Extremera, N; Rey, L

    2017-10-01

    Work-related stressors, including role ambiguity and role conflict, are related to psychological maladjustment and mental ill-health. However, to date, the role of personal resources such as emotion-regulation ability (ERA) in the prediction of mental health indicators has not been addressed. To examine whether ERA would contribute to explaining teachers' depression, anxiety and stress symptoms beyond role ambiguity and role conflict. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We used a correlation matrix and hierarchical regression models to analyse the data. Three hundred and thirty-six Spanish teachers (185 female) from several grade levels completed the surveys (40% response rate). Role ambiguity and role conflict were positively related to depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. ERA was negatively related to teachers' scores on depressive, anxious and stress symptoms, with predictive power above the main effects of role ambiguity and role conflict. An interaction between role ambiguity and ERA was also significant in predicting depression. Our study provides preliminary evidence suggesting the development of integrative models considering work-related stressors along with personal resources such as ERA aiming to prevent teachers' mental ill-health. Future studies should examine the influence of ERA on psychological symptoms using longitudinal designs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Mental health in L'Aquila after the earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stratta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the present work we describe the mental health condition of L'Aquila population in the aftermath of the earthquake in terms of structural, process and outcome perspectives. METHOD: Literature revision of the published reports on the L'Aquila earthquake has been performed. RESULTS: Although important psychological distress has been reported by the population, capacity of resilience can be observed. However if resilient mechanisms intervened in immediate aftermath of the earthquake, important dangers are conceivable in the current medium-long-term perspective due to the long-lasting alterations of day-to-day life and the disruption of social networks that can be well associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: In a condition such as an earthquake, the immediate physical, medical, and emergency rescue needs must be addressed initially. However training first responders to identify psychological distress symptoms would be important for mental health triage in the field.

  19. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services.

  20. Psychometric properties of a Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roncalli, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).

  1. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…

  2. Youth Psychotherapy Change Trajectories and Outcomes in Usual Care: Community Mental Health versus Managed Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Mondragon, Sasha A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared symptom change trajectories and treatment outcome categories in children and adolescents receiving routine outpatient mental health services in a public community mental health system and a private managed care organization. Method: Archival longitudinal outcome data from parents completing the Youth Outcome…

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Wilrycx, G.K.M.L.; Moradi, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, the mental health consumer movement has drawn the attention of mental health providers, researchers and policy makers to the concept of recovery. Traditionally, recovery primarily refers to the remission of symptoms. Nowadays, recovery is also regarded in a sense

  4. Mental health literacy in an educational elite -- an online survey among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Fritschi, Nadja; Stulz, Niklaus; Rössler, Wulf

    2005-05-09

    Mental health literacy is a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders. The aims of this paper are to determine whether a sample of university students recognise different symptoms of depression and schizophrenia and to reveal factors influencing correct recognition. Bivariate and correspondence analyses of the results from an online survey among university students (n = 225). Most participants recognised the specific symptoms of depression. Th