Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.
Y. G. Pillay
Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.
Mubarak, A Rahamuthulla
This article aims to review the social policies on mental health and mental illness in Malaysia. Using critical theory, major policy issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness such as mental health legislation, prevalence rates and quality of services available to the people with mental health problems are discussed in detail. Implications of these issues on persons with mental health problems are critically evaluated. The paper highlights that the other countries in ASEAN region also require similar review by policy literature.
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
schizophrenia, alcohol use disorders and bi-polar disorder account for a third of years ... Objective: This paper identifies the key barriers to mental health policy implementation in Ghana and suggests ways of overcoming them. Method: The ... of health workers trained and supervised in mental health care, and mental health ...
White, Ross; Sashidharan, S.P.
In an attempt to address inequalities and inequities in mental health provision in low\\ud and middle-income countries the WHO commenced the Mental Health Gap Action\\ud Programme (mhGAP) in 2008. Four years on from the commencement of this\\ud programme of work, the WHO has recently adopted the Comprehensive Mental\\ud Health Action Plan 2013-2020. This article will critically appraise the strategic\\ud direction that the WHO has adopted to address mental health difficulties across the\\ud globe. ...
Luciana Assis Costa
Full Text Available The understanding of territory, made evident by a decentralized, local based, and non-institutionalized mental health model, is a fundamental element in building a renewed network. The objective of this essay is to understand how mental health policies gradually favor local actions, organized in terms of territories, to develop strategies of care that support the new model of mental health. From this perspective, the aim of this research is to reflect on the possibilities of establishing new social relations that can, in fact, widen the sense of community belonging in the daily living of those presenting mental health conditions. This study draws from theoretical concepts and frameworks of the social sciences, describing the diverse positions held by the main schools of urban sociology with regards to the understanding of territories. The multiple conceptions of territories and their relations to mental health are analyzed. Historical data about mental health in Brazil show a heterogeneous development of mental health policies in different areas of the country. Finally, social inclusion in the cities depends on an effective expansion of territory-based mental health services, as well as an amplification of the access to consumer goods and services not necessarily connected to health care, but to basic social and civil rights. Hopefully, new rules of social interaction will not be restricted to the mental health universe, but will promote new encounters in the urban space, with respect for differences and appreciation of diversity.
Positive school climate has been linked to higher test scores, graduation rates, and fewer disciplinary referrals. Yet state policy discussions on student supports often fail to address a key lever for improving school climate: robust school-based mental health services. This National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) policy update…
Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.
Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of collaborative care, particularly in relation to a range of new models of organisation and service that are emerging in response to one of the most problematic areas of public policy – mental health. These emerging models of coordinated mental health care are testing the limits of the evidence supporting coordinated care, and require critical evaluation. Myriad concepts of collaborative or coordinated care in health, including mental health, have created multiple definitions. Once definitional issues have been surmounted, however, the evidence for coordination of health care is reasonably strong. There is considerable research about which treatments and programs are best for people with a mental illness. There are few areas seemingly as complex as mental health, given that responsibility for policy and service lies across all three tiers of Australian government and across multiple jurisdictions. It also engages public, private and non-government sectors. Co-morbidities are commonplace, particularly drug and alcohol problems among younger people. Governments in Australia have traditionally taken responsibility for policy, programs and services, either as direct service providers or through contracting outputs from others. Yet the evidence indicates that for people with a mental illness, the best solutions are often not found in government but in the community and in organisations outside of government. New organisations and new structures are attempting more holistic management approaches, combining clinical care, community support, housing, employment and other services. This paper considers some of these new models in the light of existing evidence. The key challenge facing continued reform in mental health is not uncertainty regarding programs or services, but rather how to drive coordinated care for consumers across departments, governments and providers. This review will highlight the key changes that
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health policy is needed to set the strategy and direction for the provision of mental health services in a country. Policy formulation does not occur in a vacuum, however, but is influenced by local and international factors in the health sector and other sectors. Methods This study was carried out in 1997 to examine the evolution of mental health policy in Kenya between 1965 and 1997 in the context of changing international concepts of health and development. Qualitative content analysis of policy documents was combined with interviews of key policy makers. Results The study showed that during the period 1965-1997 the generic health policy in Kenya changed from one based on the Medical Model in the 1960s and 1970s to one based on the Primary Health Care Model in the late 1970s and the 1980s and finally to one based on the Market Model of health care in the 1990s. The mental health policy, on the other hand, evolved from one based on the Medical Model in the 1960s to one based on the Primary Health Care Model in the 1990s, but did not embrace the Market Model of health care. This resulted in a situation in the 1990s where the mental health policy was rooted in a different conceptual model from that of the generic health policy under which it was supposed to be implemented. This "Model Muddlement" may have impeded the implementation of the mental health policy in Kenya. Conclusions Integration of the national mental health policy with the general health policy and other sector policies would be appropriate and is now underway.
long-stay patients. However, services are unequally distributed across the regions of the country, and the growth of the elderly population, combined with an existing treatment gap is increasing the burden on mental health care. This gap may get even wider if funding does not increase and mental health services are not expanded in the country. There is not yet a good degree of integration between primary care and the mental health teams working at CAPS level, and it is necessary to train professionals to act as mental health planners and as managers. Research on service organization, policy and mental health systems evaluation are strongly recommended in the country. There are no firm data to show the impact of such policies in terms of community service cost-effectiveness and no tangible indicators to assess the results of these policies.
Osypuk, Theresa L
The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.
Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.
Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc
To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso
Zhou, Wei; Yu, Yu; Yang, Mei; Chen, Lizhang; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Mental health policy can be an essential and powerful tool to improve a population's mental health. However, around one third of countries do not possess a mental health policy, and there are large disparities in population coverage rates between high- and low-income countries. The goal of this study is to identify the transition and implementation challenges of mental health policies in both high-income countries (HICs) as well as middle- and low-income countries (MLICs). PubMed, Cochrane Library and Campbell Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2017, for studies on implemented mental health policies at the national level. Abstracts and the main texts of papers were double screened, and extracted data were analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of 93 papers were included in this study, covering 24 HICs, 28 MLICs and 5 regions. Studies on mental health policies, especially those of MLICs, kept increasing, but MLICs were still underrepresented in terms of publication quantity and study frequency. Based on the included studies, nine policy domains were summarized: service organizing, service provision, service quality, human resources, legislation and human rights, advocacy, administration, surveillance and research, and financing and budgeting. HICs incrementally enriched their policy content in all domains over centuries of development; following HICs' experience, mental health policies in MLICs have boomed since the 1990s and quickly extended to all domains. Implementation problems in HICs were mainly related to service organizing and service provision; for MLICs, more severe implementation problems converged on financing and budgeting, administration and human resources. Mental health policy developments in both HICs and MLICs present a process of diversification and enrichment. In terms of implementation, MLICs are faced with more and greater challenges than HICs, especially in funding, human resources and administration. Therefore, future
Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; Yee, Alicia
Although Asian Americans are proportionally the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, federal mental health policies have neglected their special needs. U.S. federal mental health policy has shifted in the past 50 years from an emphasis on increasing accessibility to treatment to improving the quality of care and focusing on the brain as the basis of mental illness. However, the mental health needs of Asian Americans have been a relatively low priority. Myths about Asian American...
The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013?2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disa...
Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".
In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were completed and reviewed by a specially constituted national committee as well as an independent WHO team. Results of each country evaluation were discussed until consensus was reached. Results All four policies received a high level mandate. Each policy addressed community-based services, the integration of mental health into general health care, promotion of mental health and rehabilitation. Prevention was addressed in the South African and Ugandan policies only. Use of evidence for policy development varied considerably. Consultations were mainly held with the mental health sector. Only the Zambian policy presented a clear vision, while three of four countries spelt out values and principles, the need to establish a coordinating body for mental health, and to protect the human rights of people with mental health problems. None included all the basic elements of a policy, nor specified sources and levels of funding for implementation. Deinstitutionalisation and the provision of essential psychotropic medicines were insufficiently addressed. Advocacy, empowerment of users and families and intersectoral collaboration were inadequately addressed. Only Uganda sufficiently outlined a mental health information system, research and evaluation, while only Ghana comprehensively addressed human resources and training requirements. No country had an accompanying strategic mental health plan to allow the development and implementation of concrete strategies and activities. Conclusions Six gaps which could
Cratsley, Kelso; Mackey, Tim K
Increased awareness of the importance of mental health for global health has led to a number of new initiatives, including influential policy instruments issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN). This policy brief describes two WHO instruments, the Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 (World Health Organization, 2013) and the Mental Health Atlas (World Health Organization, 2015), and presents a comparative analysis with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). The WHO's Action Plan calls for several specific objectives and targets, with a focus on improving global mental health governance and service coverage. In contrast, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals include only one goal specific to mental health, with a single indicator tracking suicide mortality rates. The discrepancy between the WHO and UN frameworks suggests a need for increased policy coherence. Improved global health governance can provide the basis for ensuring and accelerating progress in global mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Costa-Font, Joan; Cabases, Juan; McDaid, David; Alonso, Jordi
The reform and expansion of mental health care (MHC) systems is a key health policy target worldwide. Evidence informed policy aims to make use of a wide range of relevant data, taking into account past experience and local culture and context. To discuss the organisation, provision and financing of MHC in Spain visa vis the goals of recent psychiatric reforms. We draw upon existing literature, reports and empirical data from regional and national health plans, as well as European reports pertinent to Spain. In addition we have made use of iterative discussion by an expert panel on the features of Spanish MHC services, namely its history, characteristics and determinants in comparison to reforms in other European health systems. In contrast to most other European health systems, the Spanish case reveals that political regional devolution leads to a greater heterogeneity in MHC systems, with some of the 17 autonomous communities (ACs) or region states that make up the country moving more rapidly to full de-institutionalisation alongside coverage expansion and policy innovation. There remains a lack of specific earmarked budgets for MHC at a time of under-funding. There has been an imbalance in MHC reforms, with more focus on the principles underpinning the process of de-institutionalisation and less on the actual development of alternative community based mental health services. Moreover there has been a lack of monitoring of the reform process. Common to other countries, attempts to develop a more informed evidence policy have been hampered by a dislocation between the production of research evidence and the timing of actual policy reform implementation. Much of the focus of policy attention is on how to improve coordination within and across sectors, tackle socioeconomic inequalities and thus reduce the gap between perceived and observed need while monitoring any trends suggesting trans-institutionalisation. Other issues include developing and strengthening
Phillips, Peter; Sandford, Tom; Johnston, Claire, MSc RGN
.... A more influential service user movement, a range of new community-based mental healthcare programmes delivered by an increasing plurality of providers and new mental health policy and legislation...
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Webster, Stephanie; McKenna, Brian; Millar, Freyja; Stanton, Robert; Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Furness, Trentham; Liu, Dennis; Scott, David
The aim of the present study was to document Australian policies on the physical health of people with mental illness and evaluate the capacity of policy to support health needs. A search of state and federal policies on mental and physical illness was conducted, as well as detailed analysis of policy content and the relationships between policies, by applying the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 as an evaluative framework. National policy attention to the physical health of people with mental illness has grown, but there is little interconnection at the national and state levels. State policies across the country are inconsistent, and there is little evidence of consistent policy implementation. A coherent national health policy framework on addressing co-occurring physical and mental illnesses that includes healthcare system reforms and ensuring the interconnectedness of other relevant services should be prioritised.
Semansky, Rafael M
In 2005, Maryland received a mental health transformation grant from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Maryland's transformation efforts have differed from those in other grantee states and have evolved into a shared leadership approach that harnesses the power of leaders from all sectors of the community. This column describes Maryland's reform efforts, focusing in particular on the development of the position of a peer employment specialist to improve placement of consumers in employment. This shared leadership approach has the potential to enhance long-term sustainability of reform initiatives and uses fewer state resources.
Palpant, Rebecca G; Steimnitz, Rachael; Bornemann, Thomas H; Hawkins, Katie
Some of the most pervasive and debilitating illnesses are mental illnesses, according to World Health Organization's The World Health Report 2001--Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Neuropsychiatric conditions account for four of the top five leading causes of years of life lived with disability in people aged 15 to 44 in the Western world. Many barriers prevent people with mental illnesses from seeking care, such as prohibitive costs, lack of insurance, and the stigma and discrimination associated with mental illnesses. The Carter Center Mental Health Program, established in 1991, focuses on mental health policy issues within the United States and internationally. This article examines the public health crisis in the field of mental health and focuses on The Carter Center Mental Health Program's initiatives, which work to increase public knowledge of and decrease the stigma associated with mental illnesses through their four strategic goals: reducing stigma and discrimination against people with mental illnesses; achieving equity of mental health care comparable with other health services; advancing early promotion, prevention, and early intervention services for children and their families; and increasing public awareness about mental illnesses and mental health issues.
The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...
Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.
For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…
Phillips, Peter; Sandford, Tom; Johnston, Claire, MSc RGN
... are all changing the landscape. Written by a team of experienced authors, and drawing on their expertise in policy, clinical leadership as well as user perspectives, this textbook explains how mental health services and their staff...
Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine
Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed.
Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc
To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Knol, Linda L.; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri
Background People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. Context This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern U...
Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Yee, Alicia
Although Asian Americans are proportionally the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, federal mental health policies have neglected their special needs. U.S. federal mental health policy has shifted in the past 50 years from an emphasis on increasing accessibility to treatment to improving the quality of care and focusing on the brain as the basis of mental illness. However, the mental health needs of Asian Americans have been a relatively low priority. Myths about Asian Americans that have led to the general neglect of their mental health needs are that they: (a) are a small group; (b) are a successful group and do not experience problems; and (c) do not experience mental health disparities. Nevertheless, Asian Americans are a significant proportion of the population which experiences acculturative stress and discrimination that are often associated with psychopathology. However, Asian Americans who experience psychopathology are less likely than other groups to use mental health services. Political efforts must be made to get Asian Americans into positions of leadership and power in which they can make decisions about mental health policy priorities.
Tiago Pires Marques
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the hegemonic paradigm of global mental health (GMH on Portugal. We specifically argue that GMH in Portugal has effected a change of priorities in health policies, favoring the prevention and treatment of common mental disorders to the detriment of the deinstitutionalizing process. Diffused through the media, this model has negative effects, such as the medicalization of social suffering, the reorganization of mental health policy areas according to utilitarian criteria, and the risk of greater invisibility of users with serious psychiatric diagnoses. However, the GMH approach, bringing to the frontline the impact of all social policies on mental health, represents a new opportunity to politically address social suffering. Characterized as a semi-peripheral country, Portugal may be representative of observable trends in similar countries.
Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Carstensen, Georgia; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A
Over the past two decades, mental health reform in Australia has received unprecedented government attention. This study explored how five policy levers (organisation, regulation, community education, finance and payment) were used by the Australian Federal Government to implement mental health reforms. Australian Government publications, including the four mental health plans (published in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008) were analysed according to policy levers used to drive reform across five priority areas:  human rights and community attitudes;  responding to community need;  service structures;  service quality and effectiveness; and  resources and service access. Policy levers were applied in varying ways; with two or three levers often concurrently used to implement a single initiative or strategy. For example, changes to service structures were achieved using various combinations of all five levers. Attempts to improve service quality and effectiveness were instead made through a single lever-regulation. The use of some levers changed over time, including a move away from prescriptive, legislative use of regulation, towards a greater focus on monitoring service standards and consumer outcomes. Patterns in the application of policy levers across the National Mental Health Strategy, as identified in this analysis, represent a novel way of conceptualising the history of mental health reform in Australia. An improved understanding of the strategic targeting and appropriate utilisation of policy levers may assist in the delivery and evaluation of evidence-based mental health reform in the future.
Osypuk, Theresa L.
The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children’s mental health, as addressed by Flouri and colleagues , is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it’s a necessary shift for improving population health. PMID:25527210
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007
Although mental health in schools is discussed at many levels, fundamental differences in varying perspectives, attitudes, and vested interests result in divergent agendas for policy, practice, research, and training. This may confuse stakeholders and provide a source of conflict between policy and practice. This brief highlights a starter list of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines
Kiima, David; Jenkins, Rachel
Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, tobacco
Harvey A. Whiteford
Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget included a large investment in youth mental health and early intervention services. In this article, we focus on the critical role of agenda setting in the preceding 4 years to examine how and why these services were given such a high priority at this time. We undertook a systematic review of relevant literature, including parliamentary Hansard transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, the final reports of all available parliamentary committees, government policy documents, other pertinent documents held by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging, and media reports from five widely circulated Australian publications/news outlets. We used Kingdon’s multiple streams framework to structure analysis. We highlight three factors that were influential in getting youth mental health issues onto the policy agenda: (a the strategic use of quantitative evidence to create a publicly visible “problem,” (b the marshalling of the “public” to create pressure on government, and (c the role of serendipity. Overall, we found the decision to prioritize youth mental health resulted from a combination of advocacy for a well-articulated policy solution by high-profile, influential policy entrepreneurs, and political pressure caused by an up swell of national support for mental health reform. Our findings highlight the socio-political factors that influence agenda setting and health policy formulation. They raise important ethical and strategic issues in utilizing research evidence to change policy.
This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand.
Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer
This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.
The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which sets out human rights in an accessible and inclusive fashion to ensure the equal participation of persons with disabilities. The inconclusive description of disability in the treaty overtly refers to 'mental impairment' as part of an explicitly evolving understanding of disability. This text sketches some of the underlying concepts as they apply to the realm of mental health: non-discrimination of persons with disabilities and measures that should be taken to ensure accessibility in a holistic understanding; removal of social and attitudinal barriers as much as communication and intellectual barriers but also institutional hurdles. The CRPD's paradigm shift away from framing disability mainly through deficits towards a social understanding of disability as the result of interaction and focusing on capacity is the core on which the provision of mental health services at community level to enable participation in society shall be ensured. Questions of capacity, also to make decisions and the possible need for support in so doing, are sketched out.
Mari Jair de Jesus
Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to...
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Maia, Regina Claudia Furtado; de Oliveira, Lucia Conde; Morais, Ana Patrícia Pereira; Lima, Marcos Paulo de Oliveira; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo; dos Santos, Adriano Maia
The article approaches the comprehension of professionals that act in the mental health area about the movement of construction of social participation in the health system of Fortaleza, Ceará State. The methodology adopted is based upon qualitative approach. The study was developed with semi-structured interviews with 17 mental health professionals of the city above mentioned. The empirical data was analyzed through the technique of thematic content analysis, where it was identified three cores of analysis: social participation as space of citizenship and policy formulation; oriented to attention of collective needs; and decision taking. The study reveals that social participation represents a possibility of amplifying X the relations between the Civil Society and the State, which makes possible the social intervention in proposals of the health policies. It is highlighted the right to health linked to the consolidation of democracy in the attention to the needs and collective edification.
Knol, Linda L; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri
People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern United States. Clients live in small group homes, where they are served breakfast, dinner, and a snack, and attend outpatient day treatment programs, where they are served lunch and can purchase snacks from vending machines. This intervention included institutional policy changes that altered menus and vending machine options and implemented group walking programs. Primary outcome measures were changes in clients' weight at 3 and 6 months after policy implementation. At the 3-month follow-up, the median weight loss for overweight/obese clients (n = 45) was 1.4 kg. The 33 overweight/obese clients who were still in the group homes at the 6-month follow-up either maintained or continued to lose weight. Institutional policy changes aimed at improving dietary intake and physical activity levels among clients receiving mental health services can promote weight loss in overweight clients.
Khenti, Akwatu; Fréel, Stéfanie; Trainor, Ruth; Mohamoud, Sirad; Diaz, Pablo; Suh, Erica; Bobbili, Sireesha J; Sapag, Jaime C
There are significant gaps in the accessibility and quality of mental health services around the globe. A wide range of institutions are addressing the challenges, but there is limited reflection and evaluation on the various approaches, how they compare with each other, and conclusions regarding the most effective approach for particular settings. This article presents a framework for global mental health capacity building that could potentially serve as a promising or best practice in the field. The framework is the outcome of a decade of collaborative global health work at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) (Ontario, Canada). The framework is grounded in scientific evidence, relevant learning and behavioural theories and the underlying principles of health equity and human rights. Grounded in CAMH's research, programme evaluation and practical experience in developing and implementing mental health capacity building interventions, this article presents the iterative learning process and impetus that formed the basis of the framework. A developmental evaluation (Patton M.2010. Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use. New York: Guilford Press.) approach was used to build the framework, as global mental health collaboration occurs in complex or uncertain environments and evolving learning systems. A multilevel framework consists of five central components: (1) holistic health, (2) cultural and socioeconomic relevance, (3) partnerships, (4) collaborative action-based education and learning and (5) sustainability. The framework's practical application is illustrated through the presentation of three international case studies and four policy implications. Lessons learned, limitations and future opportunities are also discussed. The holistic policy and intervention framework for global mental health reflects an iterative learning process that can be applied and scaled up across different settings through
SAXENA, SHEKHAR; SHARAN, PRATAP; GARRIDO, MARCO; SARACENO, BENEDETTO
In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the second edition of the Mental Health Atlas, consisting of revised and updated information on mental health from countries. The sources of information included the mental health focal points in the Ministries of Health, published literature and unpublished reports available to WHO. The results show that global mental health resources remain low and grossly inadequate to respond to the high level of need. In addition, the revised Atlas shows that the improvements over the period 2001 to 2004 are very small. Imbalances across income groups of countries remain largely the same. Enhancement in resources devoted to mental health is urgently needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:17139355
Carroll, Christopher D; Manderscheid, Ronald W; Daniels, Allen S; Compagni, Amelia
A common theme is emerging in sentinel reports on the United States health care system. Consumer relevance and demands on service systems and practices are influencing how mental health care is delivered and how systems will be shaped in the future. The present report seeks to assemble a confluence of consumer-driven themes from noteworthy reports on the state of the mental health system in the U.S. It also explores innovative efforts, promising practices, collaborative efforts, as well as identification of barriers to consumer-directed care, with possible solutions. The report reviews the relevant public mental health policy and data used in published work. The findings indicate an increasing public and private interest in promoting consumer-driven care, even though historical systems of care predominate, and often create, barriers to wide-spread redesign of a consumer-centered mental health care system. Innovative consumer-driven practices are increasing as quality, choice, and self-determination become integral parts of a redesigned U.S. mental health care system. The use of consumer-driven approaches in mental health is limited at best. These programs challenge industry norms and traditional practices. Limitations include the need for additional and thorough evaluations of effectiveness (cost and clinical) and replicability of consumer-directed programs. Consumer-driven services indicate that mental health consumers are expecting to be more participative in their mental health care. This expectation will influence how traditional mental health services and providers become more consumer-centric and meet the demand. Public and private interest in consumer-driven health care range from creating cost-conscious consumers to individualized control of recovery. The health care sector should seek to invest more resources in the provision of consumer-driven health care programs. The results of this study have implications and are informative for other countries where
Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy
Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…
Mossé, Philippe; Maury, Caroline; Daumerie, Nicolas; Roelandt, Jean-Luc
The new mental health care policy, which has been set up in France, involves a change of paradigm, which has been going on since the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift mainly concerns the knowledge about mental health is produced and circulates among an increasingly large number of bodies. Mainly grounded on actor interview analysis, official reports and blueprints, this study shows that the results of this process are numerous. They include the development of ambulatory care and strong moves towards decentralization. More data and knowledge are therefore to be shared in this more complex system. However, the French State, in the form of the central administration, is taking advantage of this move and is still contributing significantly to the definition and implementation of the new policy. On the other hand, the new governance dynamic is not leading to standardization of medical practices, as the mental health field remains highly heterogeneous. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yehia, Farah; El Jardali, Fadi
Many reform efforts in health systems fall short because the use of research evidence to inform policy remains scarce. In Lebanon, one in four adults suffers from a mental illness, yet access to mental healthcare services in primary healthcare (PHC) settings is limited. Using an "integrated" knowledge framework to link research to action, this study examines the process of influencing the mental health agenda in Lebanon through the application of Knowledge Translation (KT) tools and the use of a KT Platform (KTP) as an intermediary between researchers and policymakers. This study employed the following KT tools: 1) development of a policy brief to address the lack of access to mental health services in PHC centres, 2) semi-structured interviews with 10 policymakers and key informants, 3) convening of a national policy dialogue, 4) evaluation of the policy brief and dialogue, and 5) a post-dialogue survey. Findings from the key informant interviews and a comprehensive synthesis of evidence were used to develop a policy brief which defined the problem and presented three elements of a policy approach to address it. This policy brief was circulated to 24 participants prior to the dialogue to inform the discussion. The policy dialogue validated the evidence synthesized in the brief, whereby integrating mental health into PHC services was the element most supported by evidence as well as participants. The post-dialogue survey showed that, in the following 6 months, several implementation steps were taken by stakeholders, including establishing national taskforce, training PHC staff, and updating the national essential drug list to include psychiatric medications. Relationships among policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders were strengthened as they conducted their own workshops and meetings after the dialogue to further discuss implementation, and their awareness about and demand for KT tools increased. This case study showed that the use of KT tools in Lebanon to
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zanzibar Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, concerned about mental health in the country, requested technical assistance from WHO in 1997. Aims This article describes the facilitation over many years by a WHO Collaborating Centre, of sustainable mental health developments in Zanzibar, one of the poorest countries in the world, using systematic approaches to policy design and implementation. Methods Based on intensive prior situation appraisal and consultation, a multi-faceted set of interventions combining situation appraisal to inform planning; sustained policy dialogue at Union and state levels; development of policy and legislation, development of strategic action plans, establishment of intersectoral national mental health implementation committee, establishment of national mental health coordination system, integration of mental health into primary care, strengthening of primary-secondary care liaison, rationalisation and strengthening of secondary care system, ensuring adequate supply of medicines, use of good practice guidelines and health information systems, development of services for people with intellectual disability, establishment of formal mechanism for close liaison between the mental health services and other governmental, non-governmental and traditional sectors, mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and research and development. Results The policy and legislation introduced in 1999 have resulted in enhanced mental health activities over the ensuing decade, within a setting of extreme low resource. However, advances ebb and flow and continued efforts are required to maintain progress and continue mental health developments. Lessons learnt have informed the development of mental health policies in neighbouring countries. Conclusions A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme can be effective in achieving considerable strengthening of mental health programmes and services even in extremely low
Jenkins, Rachel; Mussa, Mahmoud; Haji, Suleiman A; Haji, Mohammed S; Salim, Ahmed; Suleiman, Said; Riyami, Alya S; Wakil, Abdul; Mbatia, Joseph
The Zanzibar Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, concerned about mental health in the country, requested technical assistance from WHO in 1997. This article describes the facilitation over many years by a WHO Collaborating Centre, of sustainable mental health developments in Zanzibar, one of the poorest countries in the world, using systematic approaches to policy design and implementation. Based on intensive prior situation appraisal and consultation, a multi-faceted set of interventions combining situation appraisal to inform planning; sustained policy dialogue at Union and state levels; development of policy and legislation, development of strategic action plans, establishment of intersectoral national mental health implementation committee, establishment of national mental health coordination system, integration of mental health into primary care, strengthening of primary-secondary care liaison, rationalisation and strengthening of secondary care system, ensuring adequate supply of medicines, use of good practice guidelines and health information systems, development of services for people with intellectual disability, establishment of formal mechanism for close liaison between the mental health services and other governmental, non-governmental and traditional sectors, mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and research and development. The policy and legislation introduced in 1999 have resulted in enhanced mental health activities over the ensuing decade, within a setting of extreme low resource. However, advances ebb and flow and continued efforts are required to maintain progress and continue mental health developments. Lessons learnt have informed the development of mental health policies in neighbouring countries. A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme can be effective in achieving considerable strengthening of mental health programmes and services even in extremely low resource settings, but requires sustained input and advocacy if gains are
Stirling, Yolande; Higgins, Kate; Petrakis, Melissa
Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available. Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context. Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation. Further, IPS principles are not consistently evident in guiding operational documentation that government-funded Disability Employment Services (DES) programs are mandated to adhere to. Conclusions For IPS to be readily implemented, it is necessary for government to offer support to agencies to partner and formal endorsement of the model as a preferred approach in tendering processes. Obligations and processes must be reviewed to ensure that model fidelity is achievable within the Australian Commonwealth policy and service context for programs to achieve competitive employment rates comparable to the most successful international programs. What is known about the topic? The IPS model has been established as the most efficacious approach to support people with severe and persistent mental ill health to gain and sustain employment internationally, yet little is known as to why this model has had very limited uptake in the Australian adult mental health service and policy context. What does this paper add? This paper provides an investigation into the achievability of IPS within DES philosophical and contractual arrangements. What are the implications for practitioners? Mental
... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...
Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I
Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited
Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa
This article critically examines federal, state and facility-level policies, as well as clinical practice guidelines regarding postnatal depression in Mexico. Thirteen documents including national health plans, national action plans, federal and state laws and regulations, clinical practice guidelines, and public-sector healthcare facility policies were collected and evaluated according to whether they included a statement of intent and/or actions related to the care of women at risk for or experiencing postnatal depression. While postnatal depression is included in several policies in Mexico, it is not addressed in ways that guide actions to manage postnatal depression. Specific direction on postnatal depression in policies would bridge a gap in maternal mental healthcare given that medication, treatment, and timing of interventions is unique in the postpartum context.
Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R
Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Adelman, Howard; Taylor, Linda
Participants at a conference on mental health in schools highlighted the following policy initiatives as a sampling of current activity that could benefit efforts to enhance mental health in schools: (1) new interagency programs for safe schools and healthy students that link the resources of several federal agencies; (2) an enhanced focus on…
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them. Results revealed, however, that, when available, schedule flexibility was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less anxiety for new mothers. Greater child care supports predicted fewer depressive symptoms for fathers. In terms of crossover effects, longer maternal leave predicted declines in fathers' anxiety across the first year. Results are discussed with attention to how certain workplace policies may serve to alleviate new parents' lack of time and resources (minimize scarcity of resources) and, in turn, predict better mental health during the sensitive period of new parenthood.
Achir Yani S. Hamid
Full Text Available Introduction: Limited of government’s budget for psychiatric patients has contributed to the expenses should be paid from out of pocket of the poor patients. The purpose of this research was to describe the Government policy on health social security insurance for the poor people experiencing psychiatric problems in DKI Jakarta. Method: Qualitative research method was used with phenomenology approach to identify and describe the themes relevant to government public policy in providing health insurance for poor people with mental health problems. An in-depth interview and focus group discussion were used to collect data from different informants: service user, healthcare provider, local government policy maker. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Result: The study revealed the following themes: from user perspective (understanding of psychiatric disorder, social security network/JPKM, right and obligation, the advantage and barrier for receiving services, expectation from care provider, social support and expected future direction; from the perspective of healthcare provider (understanding of social security network/JPKM, types of provided health services, recording and reporting, referral system, cost, and the criteria of poor people, from local government and health office perspective (understanding of JPKM for poor family, scope of work, working procedure, recording and reporting, cost, accountability, poor people criteria, the relationship between central Government policy with local government policy. Discussion: The finding of this study recommend the need for leveling socialization of JPKM, the budget transparences, improving the healthcare providers’ knowledge on the mental health psychiatric problems and its needs.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C
Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Annahita; Iachini, Aidyn; Togno, Nicole; Rodriguez, Ana Maria
Teachers are critical partners in expanded school mental health (ESMH) collaborations that aim to bring educators, community mental health professionals and families together to leverage expertise and resources for addressing non-academic barriers to learning. Although teachers are in a unique position to observe the day-to-day mental health needs…
van Rensburg, André Janse; Fourie, Pieter
Mental illness is a well-known challenge to global development, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. A key health systems response to mental illness is different models of integrated health care, especially popular in the South African Development Community (SADC) region. This complex construct is often not well-defined in health policy, hampering implementation efforts. A key development in this vein has been the Rainbow Model of integrated care, a comprehensive framework and taxonomy of integrated care based on the integrative functions of primary care. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and strategic forms of integrated mental health care in selected SADC countries, specifically how integrated care is outlined in state-driven policies. Health policies from five SADC countries were analysed using the Rainbow Model as framework. Electronic copies of policy documents were transferred into NVivo 10, which aided in the framework analysis on the different types of integrated mental health care promoted in the countries assessed. Several Rainbow Model components were emphasised. Clinical integration strategies (coordination of person-focused care) such as centrality of client needs, case management and continuity were central considerations, while others such as patient education and client satisfaction were largely lacking. Professional integration (inter-professional partnerships) was mentioned in terms of agreements on interdisciplinary collaboration and performance management, while organisational integration (inter-organisational relationships) emerged under the guise of inter-organisational governance, population needs and interest management. Among others, available resources, population management and stakeholder management fed into system integration strategies (horizontally and vertically integrated systems), while functional integration strategies (financial, management and information system functions) included human resource
Buck, Jeffrey A
As Medicaid has emerged as the primary funder of public mental health services, its character has affected the organization and delivery of such services. Recent changes to the program, however, promise to further affect the direction of changes in states' mental health service systems. One group of changes will further limit the flexibility of Medicaid mental health funding, while increasing provider accountability and the authority of state Medicaid agencies. Others will increase incentives for deinstitutionalization and community-based care and promote person-centered treatment principles. These changes will likely affect state mental health systems, mental health providers, and the nature of service delivery.
Amy M. Cohn
Menthol is disproportionately used among young adults tobacco users with mental health problems, above and beyond the impact of a variety of other mental health and tobacco use risk factors. Findings suggest a strong link between menthol tobacco use and poor health outcomes. Policies should be developed to deter menthol tobacco use in vulnerable groups.
... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
A Vision for Change details a comprehensive model of mental health service provision for Ireland. It describes a framework for building and fostering positive mental health across the entire community and for providing accessible, community-based, specialist services for people with mental illness.\\r\
Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A
Heightened fiscal constraints, increases in the chronic disease burden and in consumer expectations are among several factors contributing to the global interest in evidence-informed health policy. The present article builds on previous work that explored how the Australian Federal Government applied five instruments of policy, or policy levers, to implement a series of reforms under the Australian National Mental Health Strategy (NMHS). The present article draws on theoretical insights from political science to analyse the relative successes and failures of these levers, as portrayed in formal government evaluations of the NMHS. Documentary analysis of six evaluation documents corresponding to three National Mental Health Plans was undertaken. Both the content and approach of these government-funded, independently conducted evaluations were appraised. An overall improvement was apparent in the development and application of policy levers over time. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to variations in evaluation approach according to Plan and policy lever. Tabulated summaries of the success and failure of each policy initiative, ordered by lever type, are provided to establish a resource that could be consulted for future policy-making. This analysis highlights the complexities of health service reform and underscores the limitations of narrowly focused empirical approaches. A theoretical framework is provided that could inform the evaluation and targeted selection of appropriate policy levers in mental health.
Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn
To explore the relationship between government policy and service development in a New Zealand statutory mental health provider, Living Well. An organisational case study utilising multiple research techniques including qualitative interviews, analysis of business and strategic documents and observation of meetings. Staff understood and acknowledged the importance of government policy, but there were challenges in its implementation. Within New Zealand's statutory mental health services staff struggled to know how to implement government policy as part of service development; rather, operational concerns, patient need, local context and service demands drove the service development process. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Rebecca G. Palpant, MS; Rachael Steimnitz; Thomas H. Bornemann, EdD; Katie Hawkins
Some of the most pervasive and debilitating illnesses are mental illnesses, according to World Health Organization’s The World Health Report 2001 — Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Neuropsychiatric conditions account for four of the top five leading causes of years of life lived with disability in people aged 15 to 44 in the Western world. Many barriers prevent people with mental illnesses from seeking care, such as prohibitive costs, lack of insurance, and the stigma and discrimin...
Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.
The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW
Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.
Cook, Judith A; Morrow, Marina; Battersby, Lupin
Recovery from mental illness is influenced by one's social location along multiple dimensions of identity, such as race, class, gender, age, and ability, and by how these social locations are expressed through structural and institutional barriers. This project was developed using an intersectional policy analysis framework designed to promote equity across identity locations-called the multistrand method-to examine the potential use of self-directed care financing approaches in the Canadian mental health system. A panel of 16 diverse stakeholders came together 4 times at structured 6-hr meetings to examine the evidence for self-directed care and explore its application in the Canadian context. Telephone interviews with evidence panel members were conducted to assess their perceptions of the group process and outcomes. Our analysis revealed ways that intersecting strand locations might differentially influence the degree of choice and recovery experienced by self-directed care participants. Individualized resource allocation, draining financial resources from ethnically specific services, unevenness in acceptance of the recovery orientation, and paucity of service options in different geographical regions were identified as contexts in which self-directed care policies could promote inequity. However, greater peer involvement in the model's implementation, use of indigenous community supports, purchase of material goods by economically disenfranchised persons, and access to services from ethnically diverse clinicians in the private sector were identified as equity-promoting model features. By couching their analysis at the level of unique socially-situated perspectives, the group developed detailed policy recommendations and insights into both the potential and limitations of self-directed care. The knowledge gained from our project can be used to develop uniquely Canadian self-directed care models tailored to promote recovery through empowerment and self
Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan
Mental disorders represent a major contributor to disease burden worldwide. We sought to quantify the national economic burden of mental disorders in China. We used a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach to estimate the economic costs of mental disorders in 2005-2013 in China. Prevalence data were derived from a national survey. Cost data were derived from the electronic health records of two psychiatric hospitals that consisted of 25,289 outpatients (10%) and inpatients (90%) who were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Cost items included direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs. The total annual costs of mental disorders in China increased from $1,094.8 in 2005 to $3,665.4 in 2013 for individual patients, and from $21.0 billion to $88.8 billion for the whole society. The total costs of mental disorders in 2013 accounted for more than 15% of the total health expenditure in China, and 1.1% of China's gross domestic product. If the needs of the professional care for all patients with mental illnesses were fully met, the potential economic costs would have been almost five times higher than the actual estimated costs. Mental disorders imposed a huge economic burden on individuals and the society in China. A nation-wide strategic action plan for preventing mental disorders and promoting mental health and well-being is in urgent need to reduce the individual and societal costs of mental illnesses.
This dissertation examines conversations and attitudes about mental health in Twitter discourse. The research uses big data collection, machine learning classification, and social network analysis to answer the following questions (1) what mental health topics do people discuss on Twitter? (2) Have patterns of conversation changed over time? Have…
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the nation faces a current shortage in the mental health and addiction services workforce, and that...order. Call for additional information. Connect with GAO on Facebook , Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates
Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey
Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440
Menezes Paulo R.
Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.
Paulo R. Menezes
Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.
Myhr, Gail; Payne, Krista
Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. We identified 22 health economic studies involving CBT for mood, anxiety, psychotic, and somatoform disorders. Across health care settings and patient populations, CBT alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy represented acceptable value for health dollars spent, with CBT costs offset by reduced health care use. International evidence suggests CBT is cost-effective. Greater access to CBT would likely improve outcomes and result in cost savings. Future research is warranted to evaluate the economic impact of CBT in Canada.
Aline Gabriela Simon
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting
Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.
Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Januário, Sonilde Saraiva; das Neves Peixoto, Florido Sampaio; Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Sousa, Danilo Ferreira; Pereira Luz, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; da Silva, Claúdio Gleidiston Lima; Rolim Neto, Modesto Leite
Studies about mental disorders are very rare in the Northeast of Brazil, especially when psychopathologies in children and adolescents are considered. The consequence is a small availability of data and an absence of a real epidemiological profile. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol, in the period from 2003 to 2015, using the databases LILACS, SciELO and BVS. The analysis comprised the keywords 'models of primary and secondary healthcare in mental health', 'psychiatric reform' and 'policies and services in mental health', using the Boolean operator '# AND'. Original texts based on secondary data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System were also included via the Citizen Electronic Record System, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and Ministry of Health. Grey literature was used by means of hand searching. A combined analysis of the strategies mentioned in the analyzed articles shows a combined odds ratio of 1.291 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.054-1.582), thus it demonstrates the efficacy of using such strategies in the elaboration of institutional apparatus in mental health. The p-value of the chi-square distribution resulted in .9753, which does not reject the hypothesis of association between strategies in mental health and possible development of institutional apparatus in mental health. A combined analysis of all strategies mentioned in the analyzed studies shows efficacy of using strategies to elaborate institutional apparatus in mental health.
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ramsdal, Helge; Hansen, Gunnar Vold
This article addresses questions about health authorities' recommendations on the local organisation of services for people with mental health disorders in Norway. Analysis is made of the dynamic relationship between different evaluations, national guidelines and other knowledge that influence the organisation of services. The analysis is based…
Spears, Amanda P
To assess the effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau's (MCHB) Six Core Outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) as indicators in measuring the degree to which mental health care needs are met. This study analyzes data from the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs for 9,748 CSHCN who needed mental health care. Bivariate and logistic analyses were employed to investigate the impact of the MCHB's Six Core Outcomes on the probability of having an unmet need for mental health services. Of the 2.3 million CSHCN in the U.S. who needed mental health care in 2001, almost one-fifth did not receive all of the mental health services that they needed. Ultimately, eight Outcomes and sub-categories of Outcomes were considered. Sixty-one percent of CSHCN with a need for mental health care had care that fulfills six of the eight considered Outcomes. Logistic analysis indicates that individual fulfillment of each of the Core Outcomes and fulfillment of additional Outcomes have a significant association with reducing the probability of having an unmet mental health care need for CSHCN. This study is the first attempt to apply the Six Core Outcomes to meeting the needs for mental health care among CSHCN. Estimates of unmet need for mental health care suggest that efforts can be made to improve access for CSHCN. The initial estimates generated by this study indicate that the MCHB Outcomes are important in meeting children's mental health needs and are important indicators for informing MCHB policy.
Berzins, Kathryn M; Atkinson, Jacqueline M
The Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced the role of the Named Person, who can be nominated by service users to protect their interests if they become subject to compulsory measures and replaces the Nearest Relative. If no nomination is made, the primary carer or nearest relative is appointed the Named Person. The views of professionals involved in the development and implementation of the provisions were unknown. To describe the perceptions of mental health officers and policy makers involved in the development and implementation of the new provisions. Sixteen professionals were interviewed to explore their perceptions of and experiences with the Named Person provisions. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Perceptions of the Named Person provisions were generally favourable but concerns were expressed over low uptake; service users' and carers' lack of understanding of the role; and potential conflict with human rights legislation over choice and information sharing. Legislation should be amended to allow the choice of no Named Person and the prevention of information being shared with the default appointed Named Person. Removal of the default appointment should be considered.
Smith, Shawna N.; Lai, Zongshan; Almirall, Daniel; Goodrich, David E.; Abraham, Kristen M.; Nord, Kristina M.; Kilbourne, Amy M.
Policy is a powerful motivator of clinical change, but implementation success can depend on organizational characteristics. This paper used validated measures of organizational resources, culture and climate to predict uptake of a nationwide VA policy aimed at implementing Re-Engage, a brief care management program that re-establishes contact with Veterans with serious mental illness lost to care. Patient care databases were used to identify 2,738 Veterans lost to care. Local Recovery Coordinators (LRCs) were to update disposition for 2,738 Veterans at 158 VA facilities and, as appropriate, facilitate a return to care. Multivariable regression assessed organizational culture and climate as predictors of early policy compliance (via LRC presence) and uptake at six months. Higher composite climate and culture scores were associated with higher odds of having a designated LRC, but were not predictive of higher uptake. Sites with LRCs had significantly higher rates of updated documentation than sites without LRCs. PMID:27668352
Satel, Sally; Forster, Greg
A disturbing new movement in the mental health field called "Culture Competence" or "multicultural therapy" threatens to discredit traditional therapy and replace it with identity politics. In its most radical form, multicultural therapy holds that human behavior is primarily culture dependent, that doctors and patients will…
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Despite socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological facts and realities that point to a potential risk for explosion in the prevalence of childhood mental health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, there is still a severe dearth of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy or strategy to respond to the situation in the region. Unfortunately, current attempts at suggesting courses of action in this regard appear to be focused on narrow reactionary approaches. There is a need for theoretical frameworks to capture the full ramification of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa, from which multi-level, context-appropriate and holistic CAMH policy directions can be understood. In this commentary, we propose an amended version of the Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of childhood as such framework that captures proximal, intermediate and distal factors that influence the care environment of children. We then used the insights provided by the model to identify and prioritize intervention points and appropriate intervention strategies in charting a tentative course for CAMH policy development in the region. Though the ecological model provides a distinct perspective to the structure and dynamics of the care environment of children, the proposed framework using the model is still largely theoretical and need to be further integrated into future studies on CAMH policy development in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...
Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E
This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.
Hurley, John; Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme
Public sector organizations have been shown to have high levels of workplace bullying, despite widespread adoption of zero-tolerance policy. Given the level of harm that stems from bullying, it has been suggested that it might be one of the most serious problems facing modern organizations. The qualitative findings from a large cross sectional study of public servants in Australia are reported in the present study. The results highlight palpable mental distress and illness stemming from exposure to workplace bullying. This distress was exacerbated by failures in prohibitive workplace procedures. Reporting bullying through formal organization processes did not lead to resolution of the problem; it instead highlighted feelings of powerlessness and mistrust. In light of the findings, we suggest that an alternative discourse is required, one that gives attention to enhancing employee resilience and self-healing behaviours to the emotional trauma of workplaces. Organizations might be better placed investing resources in fostering the resilience and emotional intelligence of their workforce, rather than continuing to invest resources in prohibitive policies that fail to address the problem. Employees should be supported to prioritize responsibility for their own mental health, rather than an overreliance on organizational responses. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McClellan, Sean R.
Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663
Snowden, Lonnie R; McClellan, Sean R
We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997-2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services.
De Jesus, Maria; Earl, Tara R
Mental health providers are increasingly coming into contact with large and growing multi-racial/ethnic and immigrant patient populations in the United States. Knowledge of patient perspectives on what constitutes quality mental health care is necessary for these providers. The aim of this study was to identify indicators of quality of mental health care that matter most to two underrepresented immigrant patient groups of Portuguese background: Brazilians and Cape Verdeans. A qualitative design was adopted using focus group discussions. Six focus groups of patients (n=24 Brazilians; n=24 Cape Verdeans) who received outpatient mental health treatment through public safety net clinics in the northeast region of the United States were conducted. The Consensual Qualitative Research analytic method allowed us to identify three quality of care domains: provider performance, aspects of mental health care environment, and effectiveness of mental health care treatment. Provider performance was associated with five categories: relational, communication, linguistic, cultural, and technical competencies. Aspects of mental health care environment were linked to two categories: psychosocial and physical environment. Effectiveness of mental health care treatment was related to two categories: therapeutic relationship and treatment outcomes. Study findings provide useful data for the development of more culturally appropriate and effective patient-centered models and policies in mental health care.
McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L
In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Cabral de Mello Meena
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for
Liebling, H; Davidson, L; Akello, G F; Ochola, G
Previous research in northern Uganda found high levels of trauma-related difficulties amongst the conflict-affected population. There is international evidence that psychological therapy can reduce depression, as one of the psychological effects of trauma, but very limited literature regarding the experiences of trauma counselling in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current British Academy and Leverhulme-funded research investigated the experiences of service users and providers of trauma services in Kitgum and Gulu, northern Uganda. It also examined their implications for mental health policy and legislation. A decision was made to utilise qualitative methodology to highlight the in-depth experiences of participants. The researcher's carried out interviews with 10 women and 10 men survivors attending trauma services in Kitgum and Gulu. The researchers also interviewed 15 key informants in Kitgum, Gulu and Kampala including trauma counselling service providers, ministers, cultural leaders and mental health professionals. The authors report the findings of the research based on thematic analysis of the interviews. Themes included the experiences of survivors, bearing witness and instilling hope, constraints to service provision, stigma and abuse, holistic approach, service providers doing their best, specialist populations, limited understanding, training and skills development, gaps in service provision and mental health policy and legislation. The interviews resulted in a clear indication that counselling and medication was valued by service users, and that service providers felt the treatments that were provided improved depression, and increased empowerment and engagement in social activities. However, the authors argue that there was a limit to the benefits that could be achieved without using the holistic approach that the survivors requested. Thus, in cases of trauma arising from conflict, there is a clear need for the state to ensure reparation and/or justice for the
Malchy Leslie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex
Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean
life and well-being. These determinants are interrelated, and the complex and cumulative interaction of these determinants involves the use of comprehensive strategies for mental health promotion.Conclusion We hope this article provides the reader with information to become familiar with the concepts and tools that aim at informing research, public health surveillance, public policy and programs for mental health promotion.
Steel, Zachary; Momartin, Shakeh; Silove, Derrick; Coello, Marianio; Aroche, Jorge; Tay, Kuo Wei
Australia has been at the forefront of implementing immigration policies that aim to limit the flow of asylum seekers over recent decades. Two controversial polices have been the use of immigration detention for unauthorized arrivals and the issuing of temporary protection visas (TPVs) for refugees who arrived without valid visas. We conducted a longitudinal survey over 2 years commencing in 2003 of 104 consecutive refugees from Iran and Afghanistan attending a state-wide early intervention program in New South Wales. The sample included those released from immigration detention on TPVs (n = 47) and others granted permanent protection visas prior to entering Australia (PPVs, n = 57). Psychological symptoms were assessed at baseline and follow-up by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Hopkins symptom checklist-25 (HSCL), the GHQ-30 and the Penn State Worry Questionnaires (PSWQ). English language competency, daily living difficulties and coping-related activities were also assessed. The results indicated that TPVs had higher baseline scores than PPVs on the HTQ PTSD scale, the HSCL scales, and the GHQ. ANCOVA models adjusting for baseline symptom scores indicated an increase in anxiety, depression and overall distress for TPVs whereas PPVs showed improvement over time. PTSD remained high at follow-up for TPVs and low amongst PPVs with no significant change over time. The TPVs showed a significant increase in worry at follow-up. TPVs showed no improvement in their English language skills and became increasingly socially withdrawn whereas PPVs exhibited substantial language improvements and became more socially engaged. TPV holders also reported persistently higher levels of distress in relation to a wide range of post-migration living difficulties whereas PPVs reported few problems in meeting these resettlement challenges. The data suggest a pattern of growing mental distress, ongoing resettlement difficulties, social isolation, and difficulty in the
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
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Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C
The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.
Peterson, Emma; Busch, Susan
The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 changed the landscape of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in the United States. The MHPAEA's comprehensiveness compared with past parity laws, including its extension of parity to plan management strategies, the so-called nonquantitative treatment limitations (NQTL), led to significant improvements in mental health care coverage. In this article, we review the history of this landmark legislation and its recent expansions to new populations, describe past research on the effects of this and other mental health/substance use disorder parity laws, and describe some directions for future research, including NQTL compliance issues, effects of parity on individuals with severe mental illness, and measurement of benefits other than mental health care use.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Gerdtz, Marie F; Weiland, Tracey J; Jelinek, George A; Mackinlay, Claire; Hill, Nicole
To explore ED staff perceptions of the factors that influence accuracy of triage for people with mental health problems. This qualitative learning needs analysis used a descriptive exploratory design. Participants were Australian emergency nurses and doctors. We used a criterion-based sampling approach. Recruitment was facilitated by the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia and the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed. Telephone interviews were conducted, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors perceived to affect triage outcomes and to explore strategies to optimise the accuracy of triage assessments. Thirty-six staff participated (16 nurses and 20 doctors). Four major factors were perceived to influence accuracy. These were: environmental factors (physical structure, time pressures, activity levels, and interruptions), policy and education (guidelines, training and resources), staff factors (knowledge, experience, attitudes) and patient factors (police presence, patient behaviour, clinical condition). Differences of opinion were expressed by emergency doctors about the validity of the time to treatment objectives included in the Australasian Triage Scale for mental health presentations, and the utility of the scale to differentiate urgency for psychiatric conditions. Clinical guidelines and training have been developed to support the use of the Australasian Triage Scale. Further evaluation of the application of this scale to assess mental health problems is indicated. Additional work is also required to reduce variance in urgency assignment based on staff knowledge and attitudes about the causes, assessment and early management of psychiatric disorders. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...
Mirzoev Tolib N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs and Research Partners (RPs in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and
Mirzoev, Tolib N; Omar, Maye A; Green, Andrew T; Bird, Philippa K; Lund, Crick; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Doku, Victor
Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships, based on clear roles, responsibilities
Whitley, Jessica; Gooderham, Suzanne
Mental health issues continue to present barriers for Canadian children, in terms of both psychological and academic outcomes. Growing numbers of students are placed "at risk" as a result. A mental health promotion approach suggests that students can develop a number of skills and competencies, namely those related to social-emotional…
Leung, Janni; Hall, Wayne; Head, Brian W; Whiteford, Harvey
Background Growing evidence attests to the efficacy of e-mental health services. There is less evidence on how to facilitate the safe, effective, and sustainable implementation of these services. Objective We conducted a systematic review on e-mental health service use for depressive and anxiety disorders to inform policy development and identify policy-relevant gaps in the evidence base. Methods Following the PRISMA protocol, we identified research (1) conducted in Australia, (2) on e-mental health services, (3) for depressive or anxiety disorders, and (4) on e-mental health usage, such as barriers and facilitators to use. Databases searched included Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, ProQuest Social Science, and Google Scholar. Sources were assessed according to area and level of policy relevance. Results The search yielded 1081 studies; 30 studies were included for analysis. Most reported on self-selected samples and samples of online help-seekers. Studies indicate that e-mental health services are predominantly used by females, and those who are more educated and socioeconomically advantaged. Ethnicity was infrequently reported on. Studies examining consumer preferences found a preference for face-to-face therapy over e-therapies, but not an aversion to e-therapy. Content relevant to governance was predominantly related to the organizational dimensions of e-mental health services, followed by implications for community education. Financing and payment for e-services and governance of the information communication technology were least commonly discussed. Conclusions Little research focuses explicitly on policy development and implementation planning; most research provides an e-services perspective. Research is needed to provide community and policy-maker perspectives. General population studies of prospective treatment seekers that include ethnicity and socioeconomic status and quantify relative preferences for all treatment modalities are necessary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed
Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.
Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034
Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K
India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this
... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...
Berger, Maximus; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán
Mental health, well-being, and social life are intimately related as is evident from the higher incidence of psychiatric illness in individuals exposed to social stress and adversity. Several biological pathways linking social adversity to health outcomes are heavily investigated in the aims of facilitating early identification and prevention of adverse health outcomes. We provide a practice-orientated overview of the allostatic load model and how it relates to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. Allostatic load brings together a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular biomarkers that are elevated in individuals with adverse early life experiences and are predictive of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in psychiatric illness of critical importance for Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Di Tecco, Cristina
Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655
Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina
Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.
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Compagni, Amelia; Gerzeli, Simone; Bergamaschi, Mara
In the mental health field, the creation of networks that can guarantee the smooth coordination of services and organizations across sectors is a priority in the policy agenda of several countries. In Italy, Departments of Mental Health (DMHs) have been designated responsible for the system of specialist mental health services, and also mandated as the conveners and leaders of interorganizational and cross-sectoral networks, by a system-wide reform. This study aims to understand how mental health networks have been assembled in this context and the factors and motivations that have shaped their scope. By combining an analysis of policies with a survey of DMH directors, we have determined that DMHs have preferentially formed collaborative relationships with social service providers (local governments) and the voluntary sector. In contrast, relationships with substance abuse and addiction services and primary care providers were weak and stifled by a lack of trust and by conflict about respective contributions to mental care. We explore the reasons for this selectivity in interorganizational relationships and propose that a lack of targeted incentives in policy guidelines, on the one hand, and the existence of a mandated network leadership, on the other, have led to a rather narrow range of collaborations.
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Most developing countries and indeed many African countries have been undertaking reforms of the mental health policies and strategies to improve access and equity for the community to mental health and psychiatric services. This has been in conformity with a health policy philosophy which emphasize decentralization ...
Sulaberidze, Lela; Green, Stuart; Chikovani, Ivdity; Uchaneishvili, Maia; Gotsadze, George
Whilst there is recognition that the global burden of disease associated with mental health disorders is significant, the economic resources available, especially in Low and Middle Income Countries, are particularly scarce. Identifying the economic (system) and financial (individual) barriers to delivering mental health services and assessing the opportunities for reform can support the development of strategies for change. A mixed methods study was developed, which engaged with a range of stakeholders from mental health services, including key informants, service managers, healthcare professional and patients and their care-takers. Data generated from interviews and focus groups were analysed using an existing framework that outlines a range of economic and financial barriers to improving mental health practice. In addition, the study utilised health financing and programmatic data. The analysis identified a variety of local economic barriers, including: the inhibition of the diversification of the mental health workforce and services due to inflexible resources; the variable and limited provision of services across the country; and the absence of mechanisms to assess the delivery and quality of existing services. The main financial barriers identified were related to out-of pocket payments for purchasing high quality medications and transportation to access mental health services. Whilst scarcity of financial resources exists in Georgia, as in many other countries, there are clear opportunities to improve the effectiveness of the current mental health programme. Addressing system-wide barriers could enable the delivery of services that aim to meet the needs of patients. The use of existing data to assess the implementation of the mental health programme offers opportunities to benchmark and improve services and to support the appropriate commissioning and reconfiguration of services.
Juliana Reale Caçapava
Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar as estratégias de produção de cuidado em saúde mental de um Centro de Convivência e Cooperativa (CECCO - serviço da rede de atenção à saúde mental do município de São Paulo - na perspectiva de seu alinhamento às políticas de saúde mental e promoção da saúde, verificando as potencialidades da interação entre elas, no cotidiano das práticas de saúde. A análise baseou-se no material empírico obtido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada junto ao gerente do serviço estudado, assim como nos achados da literatura e nos documentos oficiais do Ministério da Saúde. Verificou-se que, por meio de ações intersetoriais, que visam ao fortalecimento da participação social, do empoderamento de indivíduos e comunidade e da equidade, o CECCO articula pressupostos da saúde mental e da promoção da saúde, produzindo autonomia e cidadania e tornando-se um lugar que constrói sentido de vida às pessoas.This study aimed at analyzing the mental health care production strategies of a 'Centro de Convivência e Cooperativa' (CECCO - a service of the mental health care network of the city of São Paulo - in the perspective of their alignment with the mental health and health promotion public policies, verifying the potentialities of the interaction between them in the health practices' daily routine. The analysis was based on the empirical material obtained by a qualitative research, through a semi-structured interview with the health service's manager, as well as on the literature's findings and on the official documents of the Ministry of Health. It was observed that, through intersectorial actions aiming at the strengthening of social participation, of the empowerment of individuals and community and of equity, CECCO articulates the presuppositions of mental health and of health promotion, producing autonomy and citizenship and becoming a place that constructs life's meaning to people.
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...
Knight, Kelly R; Lopez, Andrea M; Comfort, Megan; Shumway, Martha; Cohen, Jennifer; Riley, Elise D
Due to the significantly high levels of comorbid substance use and mental health diagnosis among urban poor populations, examining the intersection of drug policy and place requires a consideration of the role of housing in drug user mental health. In San Francisco, geographic boundedness and progressive health and housing polices have coalesced to make single room occupancy hotels (SROs) a key urban built environment used to house poor populations with co-occurring drug use and mental health issues. Unstably housed women who use illicit drugs have high rates of lifetime and current trauma, which manifests in disproportionately high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression when compared to stably housed women. We report data from a qualitative interview study (n=30) and four years of ethnography conducted with housing policy makers and unstably housed women who use drugs and live in SROs. Women in the study lived in a range of SRO built environments, from publicly funded, newly built SROs to privately owned, dilapidated buildings, which presented a rich opportunity for ethnographic comparison. Applying Rhodes et al.'s framework of socio-structural vulnerability, we explore how SROs can operate as "mental health risk environments" in which macro-structural factors (housing policies shaping the built environment) interact with meso-level factors (social relations within SROs) and micro-level, behavioral coping strategies to impact women's mental health. The degree to which SRO built environments were "trauma-sensitive" at the macro level significantly influenced women's mental health at meso- and micro-levels. Women who were living in SROs which exacerbated fear and anxiety attempted, with limited success, to deploy strategies on the meso- and micro-level to manage their mental health symptoms. Study findings underscore the importance of housing polices which consider substance use in the context of current and cumulative trauma
Full Text Available The community mental health model implies a bio‐psycho‐social perspective of mental health/illness issues, as well as a set of values that advocate equity in service access, community treatment, respect for human rights, a recovery vision, promotion of independent living, social integration and user and family participation. In accordance with the priorities set by the European Union, mental health services must guarantee that these principles are applied in the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and promotion of mental health. Inter‐sector cooperation is an essential part of developing transversal policies that ensure society’s involvement in mental health promotion. Advances in community mental health in‐ dicate the relevance of considering human rights both in policy development and in practice, of the recovery perspective and of the need to promote the participation of user and carer organizations.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Dean, Tania D; Cross, Wendy; Munro, Ian
In Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units, it is not unexpected that leadership of Associate Nurse Unit Managers contributes to successful implementation of smoke-free policies. In light of challenges facing mental health nursing, and limited research describing their leadership and the role it plays in addressing smoke-free policy implementation, the aim of this study is to explore Associate Nurse Unit Managers perspectives' regarding the implementation of smoke-free policies, which were introduced on 1 July, 2015. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken six months post the implementation of smoke-free policies. In this qualitative descriptive study, six Associate Nurse Unit Managers working in a Victorian public Adult Mental Health Inpatient Unit, were asked eight questions which targeted leadership and the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free policies. Associate Nurse Unit Managers provide leadership and role modeling for staff and they are responsible for setting the standards that govern the behavior of nurses within their team. All participants interviewed believed that they were leaders in the workplace. Education and consistency were identified as crucial for smoke-free policies to be successful. Participants acknowledged that the availability of therapeutic interventions, staff resources and the accessibility of nicotine replacement therapy were crucial to assist consumers to remain smoke-free while on the unit. The findings from this research may help to improve the understanding of the practical challenges that Associate Nurse Unit Manager's face in the implementation of smoke-free policies with implications for policies, nursing practice, education and research.
... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...
Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental ...
... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...
Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.
Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B.
Background Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. Aims of the Study This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. Methods The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. Results The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. Discussion and Limitations This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expand MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when
Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A; Goetzel, Ron Z; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B
Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expanded MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when long-term MH/SA patient-level data becomes available to researchers. A
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sustained interest in public health circles in assessing the effects of policies on health and health inequalities. We report on the theory, methods and findings of a project which involved an appraisal of current Scottish policy with respect to its potential impacts on mental health and wellbeing. Methods We developed a method of assessing the degree of alignment between Government policies and the 'evidence base', involving: reviewing theoretical frameworks; analysis of policy documents, and nineteen in-depth interviews with policymakers which explored influences on, and barriers to cross-cutting policymaking and the use of research evidence in decisionmaking. Results Most policy documents did not refer to mental health; however most referred indirectly to the determinants of mental health and well-being. Unsurprisingly research evidence was rarely cited; this was more common in health policy documents. The interviews highlighted the barriers to intersectoral policy making, and pointed to the relative value of qualitative and quantitative research, as well as to the imbalance of evidence between "what is known" and "what is to be done". Conclusion Healthy public policy depends on effective intersectoral working between government departments, along with better use of research evidence to identify policy impacts. This study identified barriers to both these. We also demonstrated an approach to rapidly appraising the mental health effects of mainly non-health sector policies, drawing on theoretical understandings of mental health and its determinants, research evidence and policy documents. In the case of the social determinants of health, we conclude that an evidence-based approach to policymaking and to policy appraisal requires drawing strongly upon existing theoretical frameworks, as well as upon research evidence, but that there are significant practical barriers and disincentives.
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Atkinson, M; Hornby, G
This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.
Sznitman, Sharon R; Reisel, Liza; Romer, Daniel
Although child poverty is recognized as a critical determinant of poor educational achievement in the United States, policy discussions on raising academic achievement rarely include the importance of the effects of poverty on the mental health of adolescents. This article examines the role of adolescent emotional well-being (indicators of depression) as a mediator of the effects of poverty on differences in educational achievement at the national and U.S. state levels. Differences in standardized adolescent academic achievement across 23 developed countries and 39 U.S. states were analyzed using path analytic techniques to test the hypothesis that indicators of adolescent emotional well-being mediate relations between child poverty rates and academic achievement. Child poverty rates were related to both adolescent emotional well-being and educational achievement across both U.S. states and developed countries. Path analyses showed that the status of a country's or state's adolescent emotional well-being is a strong predictor of its educational achievement and that emotional well-being mediates the relationship between poverty and educational achievement. Policies designed to ameliorate the adverse effects of poverty on mental health are critical as they are likely to improve both average educational achievement and student emotional well-being. Attention to improving mental health care not only has the potential to reduce societal and individual costs directly related to health but also to reduce the indirect costs of poor educational achievement. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Westphal, Richard J
.... Semi-structured interviews and military policies were used as data sources to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health...
Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock. ... This provides an opportunity to take stock of our mental health services. At primary care level key challenges include- training and ... on evaluating interventions. With current policy commitment, the time to act and invest in evidence-based mental health services is now.
Background: Community mental health services (CMHS) are a central objective of the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan. Three core components are described: residential facilities, day care and outpatient services. Primary mental health care with specialist support is required according to an ...
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S
While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.
Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...
In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban
In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee
In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.
Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse
Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime
Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a
Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru
VanderVoort, Debra J
The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.
Edwards, R B
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.
Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Bakare Muideen O
Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate
Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this
Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A
change in the pattern of mental health service delivery from a reliance on costly inpatient care to more efficient outpatient services. Health reform in Colombia improved access to health services for the general medical services, but not for specialized mental health services. Although the primary goal of the health reform was to provide universal medical coverage, by not including mental health services in the standardized benefits package, inequities in the delivery of mental health services appear to have been perpetuated or even exacerbated. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND POLICY FORMULATION: If health reform in Colombia and elsewhere is to provide universal coverage and adequate access to comprehensive health care, mental health services must be added to the standardized package of health benefits and efforts to develop accessible and effective mental health treatment at the primary care level should continue. Mental health services research in Colombia should focus future studies on the differential impact of health reform on access to mental health services across regions, and between urban and rural areas.
Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...
Teh, Lisa B; Hayashi, Kentaro; Latner, Janet; Mueller, Charles W
The Consumer Attitudes towards Evidence Based Services (CAEBS) scale is a 29-item questionnaire designed to assess public views on the role of science in helping to guide mental health treatment. The aim of the current study was to assess the Factor structure the CAEBS in an online sample of adults seeking information about mental health services. The CAEBS was administered to a nationwide sample of participants from websites offering classified advertisements for mental health related study participation (n = 312). An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested four factors based on 26 of the items: Beliefs Regarding Therapists' Practices, Attitudes about Mental Health Policy, Negative Personal-Level Attitudes toward EBPs, and Negative Societal-Level Attitudes towards EBPs. In order to increase consumer empowerment within the mental health-care system and develop policies supporting EBP usage, mental health professionals need to increase communication with the public to address these concerns and leverage positive attitudes. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.
Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...
Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt
There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL). We find significant direct and indirect effects for both forms of health, with indirect effects explaining 10% of the effect of past mental health on physical health and 8% of the effect of past physical health on mental health. Physical activity is the largest contributor to the indirect effects. There are stronger indirect effects for males in mental health (9.9%) and for older age groups in mental health (13.6%) and in physical health (12.6%). Health policies aiming at changing physical and mental health need to consider not only the direct cross-effects but also the indirect cross-effects between mental health and physical health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W
Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
Background: Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by mental ...
Cristina M Del-Ben
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as mudanças ocorridas em um serviço de emergências psiquiátricas de um hospital universitário de Ribeirão Preto-SP (EP-RP, em função de mudanças nas políticas de saúde mental da região. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre os atendimentos foram colhidos em arquivos do EP-RP, período de 1988 a 1997. Foram estudadas as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, procedência e diagnóstico principal. Os dados sobre as mudanças nas políticas de saúde mental, na região, foram obtidos de documentos das secretarias de saúde do estado e do município. RESULTADOS: O aumento a cada ano do número de atendimentos realizados acompanhou o progressivo envolvimento do EP-RP na rede de serviços de saúde mental. Em 1995 a procura pelo serviço foi 2,3 vezes maior do que em 1988. Nesse período o atendimento no EP-RP deu apoio às mudanças nas políticas de saúde mental na região, que resultaram na redução de 654 leitos psiquiátricos. Em 1996 e 1997 houve uma diminuição do total de atendimentos em cerca de 20% com relação a 1995, acompanhando o aumento do número e da capacidade de atendimento dos serviços extra-hospitalares. A partir de 1990 o serviço passou a atender uma maior proporção de pacientes mais velhos, do sexo masculino, com diagnóstico de dependência de substâncias e transtornos psicóticos e uma proporção menor de quadros não psicóticos. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças observadas no EP-RP correlacionam-se com as das políticas de saúde mental na região de Ribeirão Preto, como a instalação da Central de Vagas Psiquiátricas, em 1990, a redução de leitos psiquiátricos a partir de 1993 e a criação e/ou ampliação de serviços extra-hospitalares a partir de 1995.OBJECTIVE: To verify the modifications observed in a school hospital psychiatric emergency unit in Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil (EP-RP, due to alterations in the mental health policies implemented in this region. METHODS: Data about attendances was
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Full Text Available Since the inception of the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric mental health care services into the general health care delivery system in Botswana, there has never been a study to investigate what community mental health nurses are experiencing due to the policy. Many of these nurses have been leaving the scantily staffed mental health care services in increasing numbers to join other sectors of health or elsewhere since the beginning of the implementation of the policy. During the research study, phenomenological in-depth interviews were conducted with three groups of 12 community mental health nurses altogether. An open central question was posed to each group followed by probing questions to explore and describe these nurses’ experience of the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric-mental health care services. After the data was analysed, related literature was incorporated and guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurses were formulated and described to assist these nurses to cope with the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric-mental health care services. The guidelines were set up for the management of the community mental health nurses who are experiencing obstacles in the quest for mental health which also interfere with their capabilities as mental health care providers.
Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H
Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of specialist mental health workers (psychiatrists and psychologists) from only service delivery to also designing and managing mental health services; building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers, and providing supervision and quality assurance of mental health services may help in scaling up mental health services in LMICs. Little is known however, about the mental health policy and services context for these strategies in fragile-state settings, such as Nepal. A standard situation analysis tool was developed by the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME) consortium to systematically analyze and describe the current gaps in mental health care in Nepal, in order to inform the development of a district level mental health care plan (MHCP). It comprised six sections; general information (e.g. population, socio-economic conditions); mental health policies and plans; mental health treatment coverage; district health services; and community services. Data was obtained from secondary sources, including scientific publications, reports, project documents and hospital records. Mental health policy exists in Nepal, having been adopted in 1997, but implementation of the policy framework has yet to begin. In common with other LMICs, the budget allocated for mental health is minimal. Mental health services are concentrated in the big cities, with 0.22 psychiatrists and 0.06 psychologists per 100,000 population. The key challenges experienced in developing a district level MHCP included, overburdened health workers, lack of psychotropic medicines in the PHC, lack of mental health supervision in the existing system, and lack of a coordinating body in the Ministry
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Benbow, Susan Mary
The proportion of older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing steadily as the population ages. The numbers with dementia, depression, and other mental health problems are predicted to increase. Government policy documents have highlighted gaps in services for BME elders and/or the need to develop culturally appropriate services, in order to prevent people from BME communities from becoming socially excluded and finding services hard to access. This paper reviews published examples of innovative services and key learning points from them. A search was carried out on Pubmed, Medline, and Google Scholar for service developments aimed at BME elders in the UK. Sixteen relevant papers and reports were identified and were analysed to identify learning points and implications for clinical practice and policy. Commissioning issues included were forward planning for continuing funding and mainstreaming versus specialist services. Provider management issues included were employing staff from the communities of interest, partnership, and removing language barriers. Provider service issues included were education for service provider staff on the needs of BME elders, making available information in relevant languages, building on carers' and users' experiences, and addressing the needs of both groups. A model for structuring understanding of the underutilisation of services by BME elders is suggested. The main emphasis in future should be to ensure that learning is shared, disseminated, and applied to the benefit of all communities across the whole of the UK and elsewhere. Person-centred care is beneficial to all service users.
... Gauld brings together in one volume a comprehensive picture of the health policy challenges facing contemporary developed world health systems, as well as the strategies for tackling these. Individual chapters analyze: Challenges in health care funding and organization Quality and patient safety The application of information te...
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common...
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.
Nathan, Richard P
This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.
acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.
findings of a situational analysis of CA mental health policy and services in ... are part of a 5 year study, the Mental Health and Poverty Project, which aims to provide new knowledge regarding ..... children, they think its bad omen” (SSI, key.
... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...
PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.
Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental health in all public policy areas. Stigmatization of mental disorders is a widespread phenomenon that constitutes a barrier for help-seeking and for the development of health care services, and is thus a core issue in public mental health actions. Lately, there has been heightened interest in the promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. Effective programmes have been developed for promoting mental health in everyday settings such as families, schools and workplaces. New evidence indicates that many mental disorders and suicides are preventable by public mental health interventions. Available evidence favours the population approach over high-risk approaches. Public mental health emphasizes the role of primary care in the provision of mental health services to the population. The convincing evidence base for population-based mental health interventions asks for actions for putting evidence into practice. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.
Rondón, Marta B.
The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Al-Azzam, Manar; Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Yahya; Tawalbeh, Loai; Poedel, Robin J
The purpose was to assess the mental health nurses' perspectives of workplace violence in mental health departments in Jordan. A cross-sectional correlation study was utilized to address the study's purposes. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from nurses working in governmental mental health departments in Jordan. The findings indicated that 80% of the respondents were victims of at least one violent act in the last 2 years. Verbal abuse was the most indicated type of violence. Patients were considered the main source of violence. Policies and legislations addressing workplace violence should be implemented, and nurses should be trained on using such policies. Hospital managers should create a safe work environment by enforcing effective security measures and maintaining adequate staffing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ugandan government recognizes mental health as a serious public health and development concern, and has of recent implemented a number of reforms aimed at strengthening the country's mental health system. The aim of this study was to provide a profile of the current mental health policy, legislation and services in Uganda. Methods A survey was conducted of public sector mental health policy and legislation, and service resources and utilisation in Uganda, in the year 2005, using the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS Version 2.2. Results Uganda's draft mental health policy encompasses many positive reforms, including decentralization and integration of mental health services into Primary Health Care (PHC. The mental health legislation is however outdated and offensive. Services are still significantly underfunded (with only 1% of the health expenditure going to mental health, and skewed towards urban areas. Per 100,000 population, there were 1.83 beds in mental hospitals, 1.4 beds in community based psychiatric inpatient units, and 0.42 beds in forensic facilities. The total personnel working in mental health facilities were 310 (1.13 per 100,000 population. Only 0.8% of the medical doctors and 4% of the nurses had specialized in psychiatry. Conclusion Although there have been important developments in Uganda's mental health policy and services, there remains a number of shortcomings, especially in terms of resources and service delivery. There is an urgent need for more research on the current burden of mental disorders and the functioning of mental health programs and services in Uganda.
Mantoura, Pascale; Roberge, Marie-Claude; Fournier, Louise
In Quebec, like elsewhere in the world, we are witnessing a growing concern for the population's mental health and for the importance of concentrating efforts on prevention and promotion. In this context, public health actors are invited to adopt a leadership role in advancing mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention goals, and establish the required partnerships with actors from the health and social services and from other sectors who are indispensable to the population mental health agenda. In Canada, public heath actors are not yet sufficiently supported in this role. They express the need to access structuring frameworks which can clarify their action in mental health. This article first presents the momentum for change at the policy level within the field of mental health. A framework to support population mental health action is then presented. The framework identifies the various dimensions underlying the promotion of population mental health as well as the reduction of mental health inequalities. The article finally illustrates how the application of a populational (the application of a populational responsibility perspective) responsibility perspective, as it is defined in the context of Quebec, facilitates the implementation of the various elements of this framework. In the end, public health actors are better equipped to situate their practice in favour of the population's mental health.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Trafton, Jodie A; Greenberg, Greg; Harris, Alex H S; Tavakoli, Sara; Kearney, Lisa; McCarthy, John; Blow, Fredric; Hoff, Rani; Schohn, Mary
To describe the design and deployment of health information technology to support implementation of mental health services policy requirements in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using administrative and self-report survey data, we developed and fielded metrics regarding implementation of the requirements delineated in the VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Finalized metrics were incorporated into 2 external facilitation-based quality improvement programs led by the VHA Mental Health Operations. To support these programs, tailored site-specific reports were generated. Metric development required close collaboration between program evaluators, policy makers and clinical leadership, and consideration of policy language and intent. Electronic reports supporting different purposes required distinct formatting and presentation features, despite their having similar general goals and using the same metrics. Health information technology can facilitate mental health policy implementation but must be integrated into a process of consensus building and close collaboration with policy makers, evaluators, and practitioners.
This paper will describe the impact of the Act on mental health care service delivery in ... basic principles of community psychiatry as well as .... allocation, mental health policy, quality assurance and ... Community psychiatry: An audit of the.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The definition of a detailed description of the mental health system of the north-eastern region ... for regional mental health Gap action Plan (mhGAP) policy formulation and implementation.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course.
Mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) do not attract global health policy attention. This article is based on a selective review of research on mental disorders in adults in LAMIC since 2001 and recent analyses of disease burden in developing countries. Mental disorders account for 11.1% of the total burden of disease in LAMIC. Unipolar depressive disorder is the single leading neuropsychiatric cause of disease burden. Alcohol use disorders account for nearly 4% of the attributable disease burden in LAMIC. Mental disorders are closely associated with other public health concerns such as maternal and child health and HIV/AIDS. Poverty, low education, social exclusion, gender disadvantage, conflict and disasters are the major social determinants of mental disorders. Clinical trials demonstrate that locally available, affordable interventions in community and primary care settings are effective for the management of mental disorders. Mental health resources are very scarce and investment in mental health is < 1% of the health budget in many countries. The majority of people with mental disorders do not receive evidence-based care, leading to chronicity, suffering and increased costs of care. Strengthening care and services for people with mental disorders is a priority; this will need additional investment in human resources and piggy backing on existing public health programmes. Campaigns to increase mental health literacy are needed at all levels of the health system.
Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L
The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...
Goetzel, Ron Z.; Roemer, Enid Chung; Holingue, Calliope; Fallin, M. Daniele; McCleary, Katherine; Eaton, William; Agnew, Jacqueline; Azocar, Francisca; Ballard, David; Bartlett, John; Braga, Michael; Conway, Heidi; Crighton, K. Andrew; Frank, Richard; Jinnett, Kim; Keller-Greene, Debra; Rauch, Sara Martin; Safeer, Richard; Saporito, Dick; Schill, Anita; Shern, David; Strecher, Victor; Wald, Peter; Wang, Philip; Mattingly, C. Richard
Objective To declare a call to action to improve mental health in the workplace. Methods We convened a public health summit and assembled an Advisory Council consisting of experts in the field of occupational health and safety, workplace wellness, and public policy to offer recommendations for action steps to improve health and well-being of workers. Results The Advisory Council narrowed the list of ideas to four priority projects. Conclusions The recommendations for action include developing a Mental Health in the Workplace 1) “How to” Guide, 2) Scorecard, 3) Recognition Program, and 4) Executive Training. PMID:29280775
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Lund, C; Petersen, I; Kleintjes, S; Bhana, A
There is new policy commitment to mental health in South Africa, demonstrated in the national mental health summit of April 2012. This provides an opportunity to take stock of our mental health services. At primary care level key challenges include- training and supervision of staff in the detection and management of common mental disorders, and the development of community-based psychosocial rehabilitation programmes for people with severe mental illness (in collaboration with existing non-governmental organizations). At secondary level, resources need to be invested in 72-hour observation facilities at designated district and regional hospitals, in keeping with the Mental Health Care Act. At tertiary level, greater continuity of care with primary and secondary levels is required to prevent "revolving door" patterns of care. There are major challenges and also opportunities related to the high level of comorbidity between mental illness and a range of other public health priorities, notably HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The agenda for mental health services research needs to shift to a focus on evaluating interventions. With current policy commitment, the time to act and invest in evidence-based mental health services is now.
SAXENA, SHEKHAR; JANÉ-LLOPIS, EVA; HOSMAN, CLEMENS
There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice. PMID:16757984
Saxena, Shekhar; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hosman, Clemens
There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice.
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...
This article sets out to outline the tenets of neoliberalism and globalization, prior to the identification of the implications of neoliberalism for the British health system since 1979. The article then focuses on the applications and implications of neoliberalism for the British mental health system in terms of service organization and management, and the impact these changes in direction had on the three existing service sectors: users, carers and professionals. The discussion and the conclusion highlight the significance of these developments in the mental health system in the rather hybrid context of health, mental health, and social care policy and practice in the United Kingdom.
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
McGinty, Emma; Pescosolido, Bernice; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L
Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research. One of the key conclusions of the forum was that communication strategies using personal narratives to engage audiences have the potential to increase public support for policies benefiting persons with mental illness or substance use disorders. Specifically, narratives combining personal stories with depictions of structural barriers to mental illness and substance use disorder treatment can increase the public's willingness to invest in the treatment system. Depictions of mental illness and violence significantly increase public stigma toward people with mental illness and are no more effective in increasing willingness to invest in mental health services than nonstigmatizing messages about structural barriers to treatment. Future research should prioritize development and evaluation of communication strategies to increase public support for evidence-based substance use disorder policies, including harm reduction policies-such as needle exchange programs-and policies expanding treatment.
Immunization Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits coalitions statewide. Visit the AOPTF Website to learn more. Childhood Trauma Costs All Alaskans What we
Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted. In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed. Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali
Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further
Camila Furlanetti Borges
Full Text Available O artigo analisa as condições da construção da política nacional de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2004 com o objetivo de identificar as linhas de atuação priorizadas em cada momento da política. Realiza revisão e análise dos documentos normativos (Portarias e outros documentos oficiais expedidos pelo Ministério da Saúde relativos à política de saúde mental, formulados a partir de 1990. O estudo pressupõe que esses documentos oferecem subsídios para a compreensão do modelo assistencial implementado. São discutidos quatro momentos da política de saúde mental - germinativo, de latência, de retomada e de expansão - nos quais busca-se identificar os principais elementos norteadores da ação política e suas correlações com o contexto mais geral do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Por fim, o artigo oferece um panorama do modelo assistencial em saúde mental construído, contrapondo-o, numa breve reflexão, ao referencial teórico-ideológico basagliano - referencial este adotado pelo movimento brasileiro pela reforma psiquiátrica - e apontando rumos para uma reflexão acerca da atuação da Coordenação Nacional de Saúde Mental.This article analyzes the underlying conditions in the development of Brazil's national policy for mental health care from 1990 to 2004, with the aim of identifying the priorities in each historical stage of the policy, based on a review and analysis of rulings and other official documents issued by the Ministry of Health during this period. Four stages in the mental health care policy are discussed, the seminal period, latency, resumption, and expansion, seeking to identify the principal policy guidelines and their correlations with the overall context of the Unified National Health System (SUS. Finally, the article provides an overview of the mental health care model developed under this policy, comparing it to the Basaglian theoretical and ideological framework, the reference
Jeovane Gomes de Faria
Full Text Available O momento é emblemático para as políticas públicas em saúde no Brasil, pois os novos modelos de atenção, que rompem com a lógica da psiquiatria tradicional, já estão implementados, mas sua legitimação e consistência teórico-metodológica precisam ainda ser consolidadas na práxis coletiva. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo é estabelecer reflexões sobre as práticas nos novos dispositivos de atenção à saúde, como os CAPS - Álcool e Drogas e sua relação com as políticas realizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Sustentado em estudo do tipo exploratório descritivo, baseado na análise de 1122 prontuários do CAPSad da cidade de Blumenau-SC, nos anos de 2005 e 2007, o presente trabalho traçou o perfil dos usuários desse serviço. Utilizaram-se análises estatísticas univariadas e bivariadas. Estabeleceram-se discussões entre os dados obtidos e as proposições da Reforma Psiquiátrica.We are living an emblematic moment for the public policies for Mental Health in Brazil. This is due to the fact that the legal apparatus and the new models for medical care, which do not follow the hospital centered logic and traditional psychiatry, have already been implemented, although their legitimation and theoretical-methodological consistency still need to be consolidated by the collective praxis. In this context, this article aims at reflecting about the practices adopted in the new health care devices, particularly in the Psychosocial Care Center - Alcohol and Drugs, as well as its relation with the prerogatives of the policies held by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. In this article we present a descriptive exploratory study based on the analysis of data from 1122 medical records from CAPSad in Blumenau-SC between 2005 and 2007, which contributed to define a profile of the users of this service. Univariate statistical analyses as well as bivariate analyses have been used. Based on the description of this data, we have included
The severely constrained resources for mental health service in less-developed regions like sub-Saharan Africa underscore the need for good public mental health literacy as a potential additional mental health resource. Several studies examining the level of public knowledge about the nature and dynamics of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade had concluded that such knowledge was poor and had called for further public enlightenment. What was thought to be mental health 'ignorance' has also been blamed for poor mainstream service utilization. These views however assume that non-alignment of the views of community dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa with the biomedical understanding of mental illness connotes 'ignorance', and that correcting such 'ignorance' will translate to improvements in service utilization. Within the framework of contemporary thinking in mental health literacy, this paper argues that such assumptions are not culturally nuanced and may have overrated the usefulness of de-contextualized public engagement in enhancing mental health service utilization in the region. The paper concludes with a discourse on how to contextualize public mental health enlightenment in the region and the wider policy initiatives that can improve mental health service utilization. © The Author(s) 2015.
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...
Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Happell, Brenda
Contemporary mental health policies call for greater involvement of mental health service consumers in all aspects and at all levels of service planning, delivery, and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the decision-making function of mental health organizations varies. This systematic review synthesizes empirical and review studies published in peer-reviewed academic journals relating to consumers in leadership roles within mental health organizations. The Cochrane Library, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for articles specifically analysing and discussing consumers' mental health service leadership. Each article was critically appraised against the inclusion criteria, with 36 articles included in the final review. The findings of the review highlight current understandings of organizational resources and structures in consumer-led organizations, determinants of leadership involvement, and how consumer leadership interacts with traditional mental health service provision. It appears that organizations might still be negotiating the balance between consumer leadership and traditional structures and systems. The majority of included studies represent research about consumer-run organizations, with consumer leadership in mainstream mental health organizations being less represented in the literature. Advocates of consumer leadership should focus more on emphasizing how such leadership itself can be a valuable resource for organizations and how this can be better articulated. This review highlights the current gaps in understandings of consumer leadership in mental health, including a need for more research exploring the benefits of consumer leadership for other consumers of services. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
M.P.M. Bekker (Marleen)
textabstractPublic health issues, such as obesity, lung disease from air pollution or mental health complaints from living in an unsafe neighbourhood, are complex, intractable policy problems. The causes are dispersed at the individual and the collective level among different societal
Tonso, Michael A; Prematunga, Roshani Kanchana; Norris, Stephen J; Williams, Lloyd; Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen J
The international literature suggests workplace violence in mental health settings is a significant issue, yet little is known about the frequency, nature, severity and health consequences of staff exposure to violence in Australian mental health services. To address this gap, we examined these aspects of workplace violence as reported by mental health services employees in Victoria, Australia. The project used a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive design. A random sample of 1600 Health and Community Services Union members were invited to complete a survey investigating exposure to violence in the workplace, and related psychological health outcomes. Participants comprised employees from multiple disciplines including nursing, social work, occupational therapy, psychology and administration staff. A total of 411 members responded to the survey (26% response rate). Of the total sample, 83% reported exposure to at least one form of violence in the previous 12 months. The most frequently reported form of violence was verbal abuse (80%) followed by physical violence (34%) and then bullying/mobbing (30%). Almost one in three victims of violence (33%) rated themselves as being in psychological distress, 54% of whom reported being in severe psychological distress. The more forms of violence to which victims were exposed, the greater the frequency of reports of psychological distress. Workplace violence is prevalent in mental health facilities in Victoria. The nature, severity and health impact of this violence represents a serious safety concern for mental health employees. Strategies must be considered and implemented by healthcare management and policy makers to reduce and prevent violence. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can pro...
Luís Henrique da Costa Leão
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.
Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Gomez, Carlos Minayo
This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST). Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.
Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.
Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M
British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed topic of access and equity in higher education for people with mental health difficulties. Recent legislative and policy developments in mental health, disability, anti-discrimination and education mean that all students who disclose a mental health condition can expect fair and equitable treatment. However the findings of an exploratory study at an Australian university reveal that just under two thirds of the 54 students who reported mental health difficulties did not disclose this to staff due to fears of discrimination at university and in future employment. Students who did disclose felt supported when staff displayed a respectful attitude and provided appropriate advice and useful strategies for them to remain engaged in university studies when experiencing mental health difficulties.
McPherson, Charmaine M; McGibbon, Elizabeth A
Primary health care (PHC) renewal was designed explicitly to attend to the multidimensional factors impacting on health, including the social determinants of health. These determinants are central considerations in the development of integrated, cross-sectoral, and multi-jurisdictional policies such as those that inform models of shared mental health care for children. However, there are complex theoretical challenges in translating these multidimensional issues into policy. One of these is the rarely discussed interrelationships among the social determinants of health and identities such as race, gender, age, sexuality, and social class within the added confluence of geographic contexts. An intersectionality lens is used to examine the complex interrelationships among the factors affecting child mental health and the associated policy challenges surrounding PHC renewal. The authors argue that an understanding of the intersections of social determinants of health, identity, and geography is pivotal in guiding policy-makers as they address child mental health inequities using a PHC renewal agenda.
Charlotte Beatriz Spode
Full Text Available O artigo traz relato de pesquisa na qual foram abordadas as relações entre o trabalho dos Capitães da Polícia Militar e sua saúde mental, a partir dos aspectos deste ofício que geram prazer e sofrimento. Como estratégias metodológicas foram adotados três procedimentos: pesquisa documental, acompanhamento do cotidiano de trabalho e realização de entrevistas. Os resultados apontam que apesar da excessiva carga de trabalho administrativo e dos perigos inerentes à profissão, o prazer no trabalho está relacionado ao exercício de atividades de gestão, as quais proporcionam espaços de criação no trabalho. Porém, as pressões impostas pelos mecanismos disciplinares de vigilância e de controle, característicos da organização do trabalho policial militar, não deixam de constituir-se como fonte de sofrimento, pois engendram a divisão dos trabalhadores e colocam barreiras para a criação dos vínculos de confiança e cooperação, aspectos de suma importância se considerarmos a própria natureza do trabalho, permeada por riscos.This article conveys a research report in which the relations between the work of Military Police Captains and their mental health were approached, arising from the aspects of this profession that generate pleasure and suffering. Three procedures were adopted as methodological strategies: Documental research, observation of daily work and interviews. The results show that in spite of the excessive administrative working load and perils inherent to the profession, the pleasure in work is related to management activities, which provide spaces for creating in the workplace. However, the pressures imposed by the disciplinary mechanism of vigilance and control, characteristics of the organization of military police work, constitute in itself a source of suffering. Since they engender the division of workers and impose barriers where bonds of cooperation and confidence are needed, aspects that are of great
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
Nash, Michael; McDonagh, Caitriona; Culhane, Aisling; Noone, Imelda; Higgins, Agnes
Rapid tranquillization is a pharmacological intervention sometimes employed in mental health care for the management of acute behavioural disturbance. It is a form of restrictive practice, which, along with seclusion and restraint, is a conventional and controversial intervention in the therapeutic management of risk in mental health settings. This study surveyed mental health nurses practice in rapid tranquillization. A self-report questionnaire was utilized which addressed aspects such as definitions of rapid tranquillization, presence of rapid tranquillization policy, types of incidents where it is used and postintervention monitoring. The results demonstrate that rapid tranquillization is an intervention used in the management of acute behavioural disturbance in various mental health settings in Ireland. Respondents showed a basic understanding of rapid tranquillization as an intervention; however, some areas reported not having a specific rapid tranquillization policy. There was some evidence of a variation in postrapid tranquillization monitoring of psychiatric/mental health and physical health. Service user debriefing following rapid tranquillization was reported to be common; however, the content of this was not elaborated on. In the light of variations in practice, specific training and the development of rapid tranquillization policies are recommended. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Heleen den Besten; Lee Klifton; Dr. Rob Gründemann; Verona Watson; Anja Dijkman; Kristin ten Have
Mental health is important for business. In the 21st century the mental health and well-being of your employees is crucial to the success of your organisation. But, how should you as an employer start to address mental health issues in your workplace? And what activities and policies do you need to
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W
Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.
Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael
To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.
Ivbijaro, G; Patel, V; Chisholm, D; Goldberg, D; Khoja, T A M; Edwards, T M; Enum, Y; Kolkiewic, L A
For EMR countries to deliver the expectations of the Global Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 & the ongoing move towards universal health coverage, all health & social care providers need to innovate and transform their services to provide evidence-based health care that is accessible, cost-effective & with the best patient outcomes. For the primary and community workforce, this includes general medical practitioners, practice & community nurses, community social workers, housing officers, lay health workers, nongovernmental organizations & civil society, including community spiritual leaders/healers. This paper brings together the current best evidence to support transformation & discusses key approaches to achieve this, including skill mix and/or task shifting and integrated care. The important factors that need to be in place to support skill mix/task shifting and good integrated care are outlined with reference to EMR countries.
Full Text Available Abstract There exists a disconnection between evolving policies in the policy arenas of mental health, housing, and income support in Canada. One of the complexities associated with analysing the intersection of these policies is that federal, provincial, and municipal level policies are involved. Canada is one of the few developed countries without a national mental health policy and because of the federal policy reforms of the 1970s, the provincial governments now oversee the process of deinstitutionalization from the hospital to the community level. During this same period the availability of affordable housing has decreased as responsibility for social housing has been transfered from the federal government to the provincial and/or municipal levels of government. Canada also stands alone in terms of being a developed nation without national housing policy instead what is considered "affordable" housing is partially dependant upon individuals' personal economic resources. As well, over the past decade rates of income supports have also been reduced. Psychiatric survivors have long been identified as being at risk for homelessness, with the disconnection existing between housing, income and mental health policies and the lack of a national policy in any of these policies areas further contributing to this risk.
The rising of a new technological era has brought within it opportunities and threats the health systems worldwide have to deal with. In such a changed scenario the role of decision-makers is crucial to identify the real and perceived needs of the population and those areas on intervention in which eHealth can help to improve the quality and efficacy of care. Therefore, in-depth analysis of the state of the art both in industrialized and in developing countries is paramount. Many in fact are constraints that mine the designing and implementation of electronic systems for health. Only if policymakers understand the real implication of eHealth and the complexities of the human being, working model could be introduced. Otherwise the systems proposed will follow the same schemes that have produced failures so far. It implies also that the mutated role of the patient had to be known, together with his expectations and needs. Nevertheless, in a globalize world, a policy for eHealth have to consider also those facto...
... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...
It is U.S. policy that medical and personnel information systems be designed, integrated, and utilized with military medical surveillance to protect the physical and mental health of Service members throughout...
Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie
This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián
This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finlands experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.
Full Text Available Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work. Others receive little or no service at all. In today’s complex landscape of increasingly specialised services for people with mental health problems, the number of possible interfaces between services is increasing. Together with existing uneven financing systems and a context of constant change, these interfaces are challenging us to develop effective care pathways adjusted to the needs of service users and their carers. This discussion paper reviews the developments in community mental health care over the recent years and puts forward the concept of “Meta-Community Mental Health Care”. “Meta-Community Mental Health Care” embraces pluralism in understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, acknowledges the complexities of community provision, and reflects the realities and needs of the current era of care.
O'Reilly, Michelle; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Adams, Sarah; Dogra, Nisha
The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and education literature. Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with variable degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations.
Bowen, Robert A; Rogers, Anne; Shaw, Jennifer
Abstract Background Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore ...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
... Trichotillomania (Nemours Foundation) Health Check Tools How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) (Nemours Foundation) Statistics and Research Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) ...
Vaillant, George E
SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.
Butterworth, Peter; Gill, Sarah C; Rodgers, Bryan; Anstey, Kaarin J; Villamil, Elena; Melzer, David
Nation-wide research on mental health problems amongst men and women during the transition from employment to retirement is limited. This study sought to explore the relationship between retirement and mental health across older adulthood, whilst considering age and known risk factors for mental disorders. Data were from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being, a cross-sectional survey of 10,641 Australian adults. The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders was analysed in the sub-sample of men (n = 1928) and women (n = 2261) aged 45-74 years. Mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument. Additional measures were used to assess respondents' physical health, demographic and personal characteristics. The prevalence of common mental disorders diminished across increasing age groups of men and women. Women aged 55-59, 65-69, and 70-74 had significantly lower rates of mental disorders than those aged 45-49. In contrast, only men aged 65-69 and 70-74 demonstrated significantly lower prevalence compared with men aged 45-49. Amongst younger men, retirees were significantly more likely to have a common mental disorder relative to men still in the labour force; however, this was not the case for retired men of, or nearing, the traditional retirement age of 65. Men and women with poor physical health were also more likely to have a diagnosable mental disorder. The findings of this study indicate that, for men, the relationship between retirement and mental health varies with age. The poorer mental health of men who retire early is not explained by usual risk factors. Given current policy changes in many countries to curtail early retirement, these findings highlight the need to consider mental health, and its influencing factors, when encouraging continued employment amongst older adults.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
A Agência Nacional de Saúde e a política de saúde mental no contexto do sistema suplementar de assistência à saúde: avanços e desafios The Brazilian National Health Agency and the mental health policy in the context of the private health system: developments and challenges
Rachel Torres Salvatori
Full Text Available O presente estudo trata das políticas de saúde mental conduzidas pela Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar - ANS, no cenário da assistência dispensada pelos planos privados de assistência à saúde. Dessa forma, analisa o modelo de regulação econômica e assistencial do setor suplementar, a forma de atuação da ANS como organismo regulador e o tratamento dispensado à assistência à saúde mental nos normativos emanados pela Agência. Concluiu-se que, apesar de avanços como a obrigatoriedade de cobertura para todas as doenças listadas na CID-10, a inclusão do tratamento das tentativas de suicídio e das lesões autoinfligidas, o atendimento por uma equipe multiprofissional, a ampliação do número de sessões com psicólogo, com terapeuta ocupacional e de psicoterapia, e a inclusão do hospital-dia na rede credenciada da operadora, a assistência à saúde mental ainda é pouco normatizada pelos regramentos vigentes no sistema de atenção à saúde suplementar, existindo muitas lacunas a serem preenchidas. A regulamentação dos mecanismos de coparticipação e franquia, a coparticipação crescente como limitador da internação psiquiátrica sem o repensar em uma rede substitutiva e a limitação do número de sessões de psicoterapia de crise são alguns dos desafios colocados para a ANS, no sentido de que esta cumpra realmente o seu papel institucional de promoção da defesa do interesse público na assistência suplementar à saúde.This work analyses the mental health policy-making activity of the Brazilian National Health Agency (ANS, responsible for controlling health insurance companies. Three points are discussed: a the framework of an economic and private health assistance regulatory activity, b the ANS and its regulation activity and c the rules produced by ANS in the mental health care field. It was concluded that, despite advances like the legal obligation to ensure medical treatment to all the diseases listed in
Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua
Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936
Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua
Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
The anticipated number of persons with dementia continues to grow, and the US has insufficiently planned to provide and pay for care for this large population. A number of significant clinical trials aiming to prevent or cure dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have not demonstrated success. Because of the lack of efficacious treatments, and the fact that brain changes associated with dementia may begin decades before symptoms, we can predict that efforts to cure or prevent dementia will not succeed in time for millions of people in the baby boomer generation. Because of the anticipated increase in people suffering with dementia in the coming years, US health policy must address major gaps in how to provide and pay for dementia care. Reliance on Medicaid and Medicare as currently structured will not sustain the necessary care, nor can families alone provide all necessary dementia care. Innovative forms of providing long-term care and paying for it are crucially needed.
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C
Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity.
psychological trauma though there is little published information on this 13. In general, war .... guiding policy in 1993 to direct all health interventions including mental health .... 19) Migration of Health Workers; Fact Sheet: No. 301, April. 2006,.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Phillip T. Slee
Full Text Available Although there is increasing recognition internationally of the significance of social and emotional health and wellbeing for the healthy development of young people, the levels of support that governments provide for mental health policy and programme initiatives vary widely. In this paper, consideration is given to Australia's approach to mental health promotion from early years to secondary school, including specific reference to the KidsMatter Primary mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative. Although it is now well established that schools provide important settings for the promotion of mental health initiatives, there are significant challenges faced in effectively implementing and maintaining the delivery of evidence-based practice in school settings, including concerns about quality assurance in processes of implementation, translation, dissemination and evaluation.
Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.
Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.
Newman, D; O'Reilly, P; Lee, S H; Kennedy, C
A number of studies have highlighted issues around the relationship between service users and providers. The recovery model is predominant in mental health as is the recognition of the importance of person-centred practice. The authors completed an in-depth search of the literature to answer the question: What are service users' experiences of the mental health service? Three key themes emerged: acknowledging a mental health problem and seeking help; building relationships through participation in care; and working towards continuity of care. The review adds to the current body of knowledge by providing greater detail into the importance of relationships between service users and providers and how these may impact on the delivery of care in the mental health service. The overarching theme that emerged was the importance of the relationship between the service user and provider as a basis for interaction and support. This review has specific implications for mental health nursing. Despite the recognition made in policy documents for change, issues with stigma, poor attitudes and communication persist. There is a need for a fundamental shift in the provider-service user relationship to facilitate true service-user engagement in their care. The aim of this integrative literature review was to identify mental health service users' experiences of services. The rationale for this review was based on the growing emphasis and requirements for health services to deliver care and support, which recognizes the preferences of individuals. Contemporary models of mental health care strive to promote inclusion and empowerment. This review seeks to add to our current understanding of how service users experience care and support in order to determine to what extent the principles of contemporary models of mental health care are embedded in practice. A robust search of Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, Science Direct, EBSCO host (Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus
This thesis represents a sociological exploration of Her Majesty’s Prison Service, male prisoners’ mental health, and the provision of National Health Service mental healthcare in a prison setting. This qualitative social science study is conducted in one prison establishment. The work is characterised as a policy and practice orientated exploratory case study. The study implements an inductive approach to the datum–theory relationship, a constructionist ontological position, and an interpret...
Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen
Background Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.
Martin, Robyn M; Ridley, Sophie C; Gillieatt, Sue J
Contemporary mental health policies require family inclusion in the design, implementation and evaluation of services. This scoping review considers the factors in mental health practice which either mediate or promote family inclusion. A wide range of factors are reported to obstruct family inclusion, while a smaller number of studies report that meaningful family inclusion rests on a partnership approach which values the input of families and services users. When it comes to family inclusion, there is a gap between policy and service delivery practice. Changes in service delivery attitudes, values and culture are necessary to meaningfully and systematically include families and service users.
THERE COULD be no better time for a review of mental health nursing. It is 11 years since the last one, which in itself suggests change must be overdue if professional practice is to keep pace with health service reforms. As the largest professional group in mental health care, nurses will be relied on to deliver the reforms outlined in the Mental Health Bill, as well as the measures to improve race equality in the service. Nurses will also be promoting good mental health as outlined in last autumn's public health white paper. All these initiatives can only benefit from the chance to take stock.
Charlotte Beatriz Spode; Álvaro Roberto Crespo Merlo
This article conveys a research report in which the relations between the work of Military Police Captains and their mental health were approached, arising from the aspects of this profession that generate pleasure and suffering. Three procedures were adopted as methodological strategies: Documental research, observation of daily work and interviews. The results show that in spite of the excessive administrative working load and perils inherent to the profession, the pleasure in work is relat...
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa's colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the ...
Yin, Huifang; Phillips, Michael R; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Xu, Guangming; Ormel, Johan; Tian, Hongjun; Schoevers, Robert A
Mental health in China is of growing concern to both policy-makers and researchers. The Tianjin Mental Health Survey (TJMHS) was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 to assess the prevalence and risk factors of mental disorders in the context of recent economic growth and other
Eklund, Katie; Meyer, Lauren; Way, Samara; Mclean, Deija
As one out of five children in the United States demonstrate some type of mental or behavioral health concern warranting additional intervention, federal policies have emphasized the need for school-based mental health (SBMH) services and an expansion of Medicaid reimbursement for eligible children and families. Most youth access mental health…
Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren
More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as a…
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
White, J H
Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.
Patalay, P.; Giese, L.; Stanković, M.; Curtin, C.; Moltrecht, B.; Gondek, D.
Background: Although schools are a key setting for the provision of mental health support for young people, little is known about the facilitators and barriers for providing such support. This study aimed to collect information from schools in 10 European countries regarding the priority given to mental health support for students, existence of a mental health-related school policy, links with relevant external agencies, schools’ perceptions on whether they are providing sufficient mental hea...
The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil O ajustamento social de pacientes com esquizofrenia: implicações para a política de saúde mental no Brasil
Paulo R. Menezes
Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.A esquizofrenia é um importante problema de saúde pública em países desenvolvidos, afetando em média 0,5/1000 pessoas adultas e causando altos custos econômicos para a sociedade. Em países menos desenvolvidos não há muitas informações disponíveis, mas projeções baseadas nas taxas de incidência e tendências demográfica sugerem que o número de casos nesses países deve aumentar em 87% de 1975 ao ano 2000. No Brasil o diagnóstico de esquizofrenia representa cerca de um terço de todas as internações psiquiátricas, e até o presente existe uma falta de informações sobre as condições reais desses pacientes. Com esse objetivo, uma amostra (n=124 de pacientes esquizofrênicos residentes em uma região geográfica de captação definida na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, e que haviam sido internados consecutivamente em hospitais
To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A
Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide. © 2013.
Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau
Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.
Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.
Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206
Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N
Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.
sunmi cho; yunmi shin
Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...
Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel
Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...
Since the introduction of public mental health services in Israel, the main principle of our work has been to provide equal and free of charge health services to all patients. We were proud of our ability to provide optimal treatment to all patients in all our facilities, regardless of cost or status of insurance. During the last decade, the cost of providing good quality public health services, including mental health services, has constantly increased, and the system has reached a state of financial distress resulting in insufficiency and inability to perform properly. In order to maintain the level of mental health services, the health authorities started planning a system of payment for various mental health services which, until now, were supplied free of charge. This change of policy and attitude towards the population in need poses severe ethical and practical questions and problems. It is questionable that the amount of income ensuing from the sale of mental health services and whether a relatively small financial profit justify possible injury of the population in need of these services, especially the sicker and weaker members of it. This article raises some ethical doubts involved in charging money for psychiatric services that are given to this special group of the mentally ill, and claims that the feasibility of selling services in this area of public health should be reinvestigated.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Dokecki, Paul R.
Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…
Rosenberg, Sebastian; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Australia was one of the first countries to develop a national policy for mental health. A persistent characteristic of all these policies has been their reference to the importance of accountability. What does this mean exactly and have we achieved it? Can Australia tell if anybody is getting better? To review accountability for mental health in Australia and question whether two decades of Australian rhetoric around accountability for mental health has been fulfilled. This paper first considers the concept of accountability and its application to mental health. We then draw on existing literature, reports, and empirical data from national and state governments to illustrate historical and current approaches to accountability for mental health. We provide a content analysis of the most current set of national indicators. The paper also briefly considers some relevant international processes to compare Australia's progress in establishing accountability for mental health. Australia's federated system of government permits competing approaches to accountability, with multiple and overlapping data sets. A clear national approach to accountability for mental health has failed to emerge. Existing data focuses on administrative and health service indicators, failing to reflect broader social factors which reveal quality of life. In spite of twenty years of investment and effort Australia has been described as outcome blind, unable to demonstrate the merit of USD 8bn spent on mental health annually. While it may be prolific, existing administrative data provide little outcomes information against which Australia can genuinely assess the health and welfare of people with a mental illness. International efforts are evolving slowly. Even in high income countries such as Australia, resources for mental health services are constrained. Countries cannot afford to continue to invest in services or programs that fail to demonstrate good outcomes for people with a mental illness
Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.
Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof
Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kearney, Lisa K; Schaefer, Jeanne A; Dollar, Katherine M; Iwamasa, Gayle Y; Katz, Ira; Schmitz, Theresa; Schohn, Mary; Resnick, Sandra G
This column reviews the unique contributions of multiple partners in establishing a standardized site visit process to promote quality improvement in mental health care at the Veterans Health Administration. Working as a team, leaders in policy and operations, staff of research centers, and regional- and facility-level mental health leaders developed a standardized protocol for evaluating mental health services at each site and using the data to help implement policy goals. The authors discuss the challenges experienced and lessons learned in this systemwide process and how this information can be part of a framework for improving mental health services on a national level.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
Stigmatizing views towards consumers may be held even by those working within mental health organizations. Contemporary mental health policies require organizations to work collaboratively with consumers in producing and delivering services. Using social exchange theory, which emphasises mutual exchange to maximise benefits in partnership, the current study explores the perspectives of those working within organizations that have some level of consumer leadership. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from a range of mental health organizations. Data were transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non-consumers. Several discourses challenged such a view - showing how consumers bring value to mental health organizations through their expertise in the mental health system, and their ability to provide safety and support to other consumers. Through a social exchange theory lens, the authors call for organizations to challenge stigma and promote the value that consumers can bring to maximize mutual benefits. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Four of the six leading causes of years lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, alcohol- use disorders ... In addition to the health and social costs, those suffering from mental illnesses are also victims of ... int/mental_health/media/investing_mnh.pdf (accessed 25 Feb 2017). 2. Ministry of Health ...
The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.
Kong, Camillia; Dunn, Michael; Parker, Michael
Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making. First, the genetic essentialism that is commonly associated with the genomics revolution in health care might inadvertently exacerbate stigma towards people with mental disorders. Secondly, the promises of genomic medicine advance a narrative of individual empowerment. This narrative could promote a fatalism towards patients' biology in ways that function in practice to undermine patients' agency and autonomy, or, alternatively, a heightened sense of subjective genetic responsibility could become embedded within mental health services that leads to psychosocial therapeutic approaches and the clinician-patient therapeutic alliance being undermined. Finally, adopting a genomics-focused approach to public mental health risks shifting attention away from the complex causal relationships between inequitable socio-economic, political, and cultural structures and negative mental health outcomes. The article concludes by outlining a number of potential pathways for future ethics research that emphasizes the importance of examining appropriate translation mechanisms, the complementarity between genetic and psychosocial models of mental disorder, the implications of genomic information for the clinician-patient relationship, and funding priorities and resource allocation decision making in mental health.
Wainberg, Milton L; Scorza, Pamela; Shultz, James M; Helpman, Liat; Mootz, Jennifer J; Johnson, Karen A; Neria, Yuval; Bradford, Jean-Marie E; Oquendo, Maria A; Arbuckle, Melissa R
Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research. Common mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease; yet, there is sound evidence that these disorders, as well as severe mental disorders, can be successfully treated using evidence-based interventions delivered by trained lay health workers in low-resource community or primary care settings. Stigma is a barrier to service uptake. Prevention, though necessary to address the mental health gap, has not solidified as a research or programmatic focus. Research-to-practice implementation studies are required to inform policies and scale-up services. Four priority areas are identified for focused attention to diminish the mental health treatment gap and to improve access to high-quality mental health services globally: diminishing pervasive stigma, building mental health system treatment and research capacity, implementing prevention programs to decrease the incidence of mental disorders, and establishing sustainable scale up of public health systems to improve access to mental health treatment using evidence-based interventions.
Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H
Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.
.... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...
Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H
The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowle......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...
... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...
Shen, Gordon C; Snowden, Lonnie R
Policies generate accountability in that they offer a standard against which government performance can be assessed. A central question of this study is whether ideological imprint left by policy is realized in the time following its adoption. National mental health policy expressly promotes the notion of deinstitutionalization, which mandates that individuals be cared for in the community rather than in institutional environments. We investigate whether mental health policy adoption induced a transformation in the structure of mental health systems, namely psychiatric beds, using panel data on 193 countries between 2001 and 2011. Our striking regression results demonstrate that late-adopters of mental health policy are more likely to reduce psychiatric beds in mental hospitals and other biomedical settings than innovators, whereas they are less likely than non-adopters to reduce psychiatric beds in general hospitals. It can be inferred late adopters are motivated to implement deinstitutionalization for technical efficiency rather than social legitimacy reasons.
Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee
To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Donna Sabella, Theresa Fay-Hillier College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current mental health care system in the US continues to struggle with providing adequate care and services to all that require it due to limited resources, biases from both other professions and the public, and the complexities of treatment of many of those individuals or populations that suffer from mental illness. Mental health nurses, also referred to as psychiatric nurses, are impacted by those same biases, limited resources, and complexities in their role. This paper provides a brief history of mental health nursing and a discussion of the current challenges faced within the profession. It will also include how the public's perception of both those who have mental illness and those who treat it is based on the sensationalism of those who are violent, and misunderstanding of current treatments. It is imperative that mental health nurses continue to define and educate other health care professionals as well as the general public of the role of the mental health nurse and those who suffer from mental illness. Unfortunately, some of the same bias that was present in the 1930s remains today, but perhaps with perseverance and education it will not continue into the future. Keywords: mental health, psychiatric nursing, pre- licensure, post-licensure challenges, professional obstacles, public perception
Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian
The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of
The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H.
Objective School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce mental health access-to-care barriers and improve educational outcomes for youth. This qualitative study evaluates the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district, as they attempt to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. Methods The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semi-structured interviews with each participant were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded using Atlas.ti 5.1, and collapsed into three domains: Operations, Partnership, and Engagement. Results Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both health and mental health services to co-located services. Sites with the Health Agency providing at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites utilized SBHC coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and Health Agency and Community Mental Health Clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement, through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and “drop-in” lunches. Conclusions Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of health-mental health-education integration. Among the provider models observed, the combined health and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions for operational problems and family engagement in mental health services. Implications for future SBHCs as an integrated model are described. PMID:27417895
Since the 1960s, Kawasaki City has been leading the nation in its efforts regarding community mental health practices. Public institutions such as the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Center in the central area of the city and the Mental Health and Welfare Center in the southern area have mainly developed the psychiatric rehabilitation system. However, since 2000, new mental health needs have emerged, as the target of mental health and welfare services has been diversified to include people with developmental disorders, higher brain dysfunction, or social withdrawal, in addition to those with schizophrenia. Therefore, Kawasaki City's plan for community-based rehabilitation was drawn up, which makes professional support available for individuals with physical, intellectual, and mental disabilities. As the plan was being implemented, in 2008, the Northern Community Rehabilitation Center was established by both the public and private sectors in partnership. After the community mental health teams were assigned to both southern and northern areas of the city, the community partnership has been developed not only for individual support but also for other objectives that required the partnership. Takeshima pointed out that the local community should be inclusive of the psychiatric care in the final stage of community mental health care in Japan. Because of the major policies regarding people with disabilities, the final stage has been reached in the northern area of Kawasaki City. This also leads to improvement in measures for major issues in psychiatry, such as suicide prevention and intervention in psychiatric disease at an early stage.
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth
Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.
Adams, M S
One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.
Vicki A Nejtek
Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect
Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy
Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.
Kimberly K. McClanahan
Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study
In Greenland, the rapid sociocultural change of the last 50 years has been paralleled by an epidemiological transition characterized by a reduction in infectious diseases, an increase in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and an increased prevalence of mental health problems. During 1993......-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according...... of poor mental health: as a result of successful integration into the modern Greenlandic society, some population groups have better mental health compared to other groups....
El Centro Sainsbury de Salud Mental: Los Servicios Forenses de Salud Mental en Inglaterra y el País de Gales The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health: Forensic Mental Health Services in England and Wales
Full Text Available El Centro Sainsbury de Salud Mental (Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health es una organización benéfica fundada en 1985 por la Fundación Caritativa Gatsby (Gatsby Charitable Foundation. El SCMH trabaja para mejorar la calidad de vida de personas con problemas de salud mental influyendo sobre las políticas y prácticas en salud mental y servicios relacionados. El trabajo para mejorar la calidad de atención de salud mental en los centros penitenciarios es un eje central en la labor de SCMH. Este artículo describe algunos aspectos epidemiológicos con respeto a la salud mental de reclusos en Inglaterra y el País de Gales y los servicios y prestaciones forenses disponibles para el manejo de este tipo de paciente en el entorno penitenciario.The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (SCMH is a charity founded in 1985 by Gatsby Charitable Foundation. The SCMH works to improve the quality of life for people with mental health problems by influencing policy and practice in mental health and related services. Working to improve the quality of mental health care for people in prison is one of SCMH main work theme. This paper describes some epidemiological aspects of mental health situation of prisoners in England and Wales and the available forensic facilities to manage this kind of patients in prison.
Baker, Constance M.
Despite data suggesting a relationship between investment in children's health and improved academic performance, school health financing is inadequate, inequitable, and fragmented. Strategies for improving school health programs include leadership from the nursing profession; collaboration among health professionals; consolidation of funding…
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Buffum, William E.; Konick, Andrew
Job satisfaction in mental health organizations has been a neglected research topic, in spite of the fact that mental health organizations themselves are concerned with quality of life issues. To study job satisfaction at three long-term public psychiatric hospitals, the Job Satisfaction Index was administered to 44 direct service employees. In…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
Morrow, Lou, Ed.; Verins, Irene, Ed.; Willis, Eileen, Ed.
In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mental health and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferniany, Isaac W.; Garove, William E.
Suggests that a marketing approach can be applied to community mental health centers. Marketing is a management orientation of providing services for, not to, patients in a systematic manner, which can help mental health centers improve services, strengthen community image, achieve financial independence and aid in staff recruitment. (Author)
We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.
Provide a high quality journal in which health and policy and other ... and publication in the region including alternative means of health care financing, the ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US National ...
Goodwin, John; Cummins, John; Behan, Laura; O'Brien, Sinead M
Current mental health policy emphasises the importance of service user involvement in the delivery of care. Information Technology can have an effect on quality and efficiency of care. The aim of this study is to gain the viewpoint of service users from a local mental health service in developing a mental health app. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Eight volunteers aged 18-49 years were interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviewees defined a good app by its ease of use. Common themes included availability of contact information, identifying triggers, the ability to rate mood/anxiety levels on a scale, guided relaxation techniques, and the option to personalise the app. The researchers will aim to produce an app that is easily accessible, highly personalisable and will include functions highlighted as important (i.e. contact information, etc.). This research will assist in the development of an easy-to-use app that could increase access to services, and allow service users to take an active role in their care. In previous studies, apps were developed without the involvement of service users. This study recognises the important role of service users in this area.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T
Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). 1314 parents of children 6-16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20 %, similar to rates in high-income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550 % associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC.
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.
Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942
Abdulmalik, J; Kola, L; Gureje, O
A health systems approach to understanding efforts for improving health care services is gaining traction globally. A component of this approach focuses on health system governance (HSG), which can make or mar the successful implementation of health care interventions. Very few studies have explored HSG in low- and middle-income countries, including Nigeria. Studies focusing on mental health system governance, are even more of a rarity. This study evaluates the mental HSG of Nigeria with a view to understanding the challenges, opportunities and strategies for strengthening it. This study was conducted as part of the project, Emerging Mental Health Systems in Low and Middle Income Countries (Emerald). A multi-method study design was utilized to evaluate the mental HSG status of Nigeria. A situational analysis of the health policy and legal environment in the country was performed. Subsequently, 30 key informant interviews were conducted at national, state and district levels to explore the country's mental HSG. The existing policy, legislative and institutional framework for HSG in Nigeria reveals a complete exclusion of mental health in key health sector documents. The revised mental health policy is however promising. Using the Siddiqi framework categories, we identified pragmatic strategies for mental health system strengthening that include a consideration of existing challenges and opportunities within the system. The identified strategies provide a template for the subsequent activities of the Emerald Programme (and other interventions), towards strengthening the mental health system of Nigeria.
Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt
Mental and physical aspects are both integral to health but little is known about the dynamic relationship between them. We consider the dynamic relationship between mental and physical health using a sample of 11,203 individuals in six waves (2002-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We estimate conditional linear and non-linear random-effects regression models to identify the effects of past physical health, measured by Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and past mental health, measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, on both present physical and mental health. We find that both mental and physical health are moderately state-dependent. Better past mental health increases present physical health significantly. Better past physical health has a larger effect on present mental health. Past mental health has stronger effects on present physical health than physical activity or education. It explains 2.0% of the unobserved heterogeneity in physical health. Past physical health has stronger effects on present mental health than health investments, income or education. It explains 0.4% of the unobserved heterogeneity in mental health. These cross-effects suggest that health policies aimed at specific aspects of health should consider potential spill-over effects.
Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M
The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.
Buse, Kent; Mays, Nicholas; Walt, Gill
... understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability and qua...
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.
Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Weist, Mark; Kataoka, Sheryl; Adelsheim, Steven; Mills, Carrie
The New Freedom Commission has called for a transformation in the delivery of mental health services in this country. The commission's report and recommendations have highlighted the role of school mental health services in transforming mental health care for children and adolescents. This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system. Schools are uniquely positioned to play a central role in improving access to child mental health services and in supporting mental health and wellness as well as academic functioning of youths. The New Freedom Commission report articulated several goals related to school mental health: reducing stigma, preventing suicide, improving screening and treating co-occurring disorders, and expanding school mental health programs. The authors suggest strategies for change, including demonstrating relevance to schools, developing consensus among stakeholders, enhancing community mental health-school connections, building quality assessment and improvement, and considering the organizational context of schools.
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....
Aguiar,Maria Isis Freire de; Lima,Hélder de Pádua; Braga,Violante Augusta Batista; Aquino,Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro,Ana Karina Bezerra; Ximenes,Lorena Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: To identify the competencies of nurses to health promotion in psychiatric and mental health context. METHODS: Integrative review of literature performed through search using the keywords: "mental health" and "professional competence", in the databases SciELO, LILACS, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane, in the period of 2003 to 2011. 215 studies were identified, of these, six followed the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Based on the National Panel for Psychiatric Mental Health NP Comp...
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott
The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal-child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient's mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother's actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.
Namer, Yudit; Razum, Oliver
Refugees and asylum seekers arriving in Europe during the 2015/2016 wave of migration have been exposed to war conditions in their country of origin, survived a dangerous journey, and often struggled with negative reception in transit and host countries. The mental health consequence of such forced migration experiences is named the Ulysses syndrome. Policies regarding the right to residency can play an important role in reducing mental health symptoms. We propose that facilitating a sense of belonging should be seen as one important preventive mental healthcare intervention. A refugee mental health agenda needs to take into account the interplay between refugees' and asylum seekers' mental health, feeling of belonging, and access to healthcare. We urge for policies to restore individuals' dignity, and recognize the right for homecoming to parallel the mythology of Ulysses. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Charlotte Beatriz Spode
Full Text Available This article conveys a research report in which the relations between the work of Military Police Captains and their mental health were approached, arising from the aspects of this profession that generate pleasure and suffering. Three procedures were adopted as methodological strategies: Documental research, observation of daily work and interviews. The results show that in spite of the excessive administrative working load and perils inherent to the profession, the pleasure in work is related to management activities, which provide spaces for creating in the workplace. However, the pressures imposed by the disciplinary mechanism of vigilance and control, characteristics of the organization of military police work, constitute in itself a source of suffering. Since they engender the division of workers and impose barriers where bonds of cooperation and confidence are needed, aspects that are of great importance considering the nature of this type of work, permeated by risks.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
People with serious mental illness have increased rates of physical ill-health and reduced contact with primary care services. In Australia, the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) was developed to facilitate access to mental health services. However, as a primary care service, the contribution to physical health care is worthy of consideration. Thirty-eight nurses who were part of the MHNIP participated in a national survey of nurses working in mental health about physical health care. The survey invited nurses to report their views on the physical health of consumers and the regularity of physical health care they provide. Physical health-care provision in collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) and other health-care professionals was reported as common. The findings suggest that the MHNIP provides integrated care, where nurses and GPs work in collaboration, allowing enough time to discuss physical health or share physical health activities. Consumers of this service appeared to have good access to physical and mental health services, and nurses had access to primary care professionals to discuss consumers' physical health and develop their clinical skills in the physical domain. The MHNIP has an important role in addressing physical health concerns, in addition to the mental health issues of people accessing this service. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Umberson, Debra; Montez, Jennifer Karas
Social relationships—both quantity and quality—affect mental health, health behavior, physical health, and mortality risk. Sociologists have played a central role in establishing the link between social relationships and health outcomes, identifying explanations for this link, and discovering social variation (e.g., by gender and race) at the population level. Studies show that social relationships have short- and long-term effects on health, for better and for worse, and that these effects emerge in childhood and cascade throughout life to foster cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health. This article describes key research themes in the study of social relationships and health, and it highlights policy implications suggested by this research. PMID:20943583
Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the Workplace: ... of optimal employee mental health to sustainable human capital development in the ... can be mobilized to promote the entrenchment of workplace mental health.
To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).
Bonfiglio, Robert A.
The provision of college mental health services is undergoing a dynamic evolution. The ability of mental health practitioners and administrators to balance multiple and sometimes opposing trends may determine the future course of mental health services in higher education.
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Arblaster, Karen; Mackenzie, Lynette; Willis, Karen
Consumer participation in design, delivery and evaluation of occupational therapy educational programs is a recently introduced requirement for accreditation. It aligns with the principle of recovery, which underpins Australian mental health policy. Graduates' capabilities for recovery-oriented practice are thought to be enhanced through learning from consumers' lived experience. This structured literature review evaluates the current evidence for mental health consumer participation in health professional education to inform occupational therapy educators. Searches were completed in five online databases, one journal and published reading lists on the topic. Studies were included if they addressed mental health consumer participation in health professional education programs, were published in peer reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014 and were in English. Articles were critically reviewed, and analysed for key findings related to stages of the educational process and recovery-oriented practice capabilities. An emerging body of evidence for consumer participation in mental health education was identified. Studies are characterised by a lack of quality and a low to medium level of evidence. Findings relate to design, planning, delivery and evaluation of education as well as to most aspects of recovery-oriented practice. Emphases on exploratory research and proximal outcomes, and a reliance on published outcome measurement instruments designed for other purposes are key limitations in this body of evidence. This study identifies a weak evidence base for the requirement for consumer participation in occupational therapy programs, specifically related to mental health curricula. A research agenda is proposed in response. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Trani, Jean-François; Bakhshi, Parul
This study examined the prevalence of mental distress among groups in Afghanistan considered to be at risk. Data were drawn from a representative cross-sectional disability survey carried out in Afghanistan including 5,130 households in 171 clusters throughout the 34 provinces of the country. The sample included 838 nondisabled control participants aged above 14, and 675 disabled participants. Results showed that various vulnerable groups (disabled people, the unemployed, the elderly, minority ethnic groups, as well as widowed, divorced or separated women) were at higher risk of experiencing mild to severe mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for war-related disability compared to nondisabled was 4.09 (95% confidence interval 2.09 to 7.99) for mild mental distress disorders, and 7.10 (3.45-14.5) and 14.14 (3.38-59.00) for moderate or severe mental distress disorders, respectively. Women with disabilities (whatever the cause of impairment) when compared with nondisabled men, as well as poorer segments of society compared to the richest, had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. Women with non-war-related disabilities compared with nondisabled men were respectively 3.35 (1.27-8.81) and 8.57 (3.03-24.1) times more likely to experience mild or moderate mental distress disorders. People who experience multiple vulnerabilities are more at risk of deteriorating mental health in conflict zones. The study shows that mental health, in times of war, is influenced by a combination of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics linked to social exclusion mechanisms that were in place before the conflict began and that are redefined in relation to the changing social, cultural, and economic contexts. Mental health policies and programmes must prioritise the most vulnerable segments of Afghan society.
Jennifer Anne Simmelink
Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.
Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique
In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.
Salvador-Carulla, L; Hernández-Peña, P
This paper discusses an integrated approach to mental health studies on Financing of Illness (FoI) and health accounting, Cost of Illness (CoI) and Burden of Disease (BoD). In order to expand the mental health policies, the following are suggested: (a) an international consensus on the standard scope, methods to collect and to analyse mental health data, as well as to report comparative information; (b) mathematical models are also to be validated and tested in an integrated approach, (c) a better knowledge transfer between clinicians and knowledge engineers, and between researchers and policy makers to translate economic analysis into practice and health planning.
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James
Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherap...
Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon
Abstract Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting...
Stotland, Nada L
Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and intrusive legislation in several states and in proposed federal legislation. It is essential for gynecologists to have accurate information, as clinicians, for their patients, and, as key experts, for policy makers. New articles concluding that there are adverse psychological outcomes from induced abortion continue to be published. The methodological flaws in these articles are so serious as to invalidate those conclusions. Several recent scholarly analyses detail these flaws. Methodologically sound studies and reviews continue to demonstrate that psychosocial problems play a role in unwanted conception and the decision to abort unwanted pregnancies but are not the result of abortion. Clinicians may have to reassure patients making decisions about their pregnancies that abortion does not cause psychiatric illness. They can do so on the basis of recent analyses substantiating that finding. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Full Text Available The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.
Ponce, Allison N; Rowe, Michael
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members. We then discuss our citizenship research at both individual and social-environmental levels, including previous, current, and planned efforts. We also discuss the role of community psychology and psychologists in advancing citizenship and other themes relevant to a citizenship perspective on mental health care and persons with mental illness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a
Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Chu, Carol; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Joiner, Thomas E
Following deployment, soldiers may struggle to cope with the after-effects of combat service and experience increased suicidality. Therefore, connection to mental health services is vital. Research regarding the relationship between deployment, suicidality, and mental health connections has been equivocal, with some studies finding a link between deployment history and mental health outcomes, and others not. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of military deployment on mental health and service utilization outcomes using a longitudinal design. Deployment history, mental health visits, symptoms of suicidality, and various mental health outcomes were assessed in a sample of 1,566 Army recruiters at study entry and 18-months follow-up. Deployment history was positively associated with mental health visits, number of major depressive episodes, and acquired capability for suicide at baseline; however, no significant relationship between deployment, mental health visits, and any other suicide or mental health-related outcomes emerged at baseline or follow-up. Findings suggest a disconnection from mental health services among military personnel. Implications for treatment and suicide prevention efforts among military personnel are discussed.
Happell, Brenda; Scott, David; Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris
To explore nurses' views on the role of nurses in screening and monitoring for physical care of consumers with serious mental illness, at a regional mental health care service. People with serious mental illness experience heightened incidence of preventable and treatable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Screening and monitoring are considered universal clinical safeguards. Nurses can potentially facilitate systematic screening, but their views on physical health care practices are rarely investigated. Qualitative exploratory study. Focus group interviews with 38 nurses of a regional mental health care service district of Australia. To facilitate discussion, participants were presented with a screening system, called the Health Improvement Profile (HIP), as an exemplar of screening of physical health risks by nurses. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analysis framework. Nurses argued that treatable and preventable physical health problems were common. Four main themes were identified: screening - essential for good practice; the policy-practice gap; 'screening then what?' and, is HIP the answer? Screening and monitoring were considered crucial to proper diagnosis and treatment, however, were not performed systematically or consistently. Nurse readiness for an enhanced role in screening was shaped by: role and responsibility issues, legal liability concerns, funding and staff shortages. Participants were concerned that lack of follow up would limit effectiveness of these interventions. Screening was considered an important clinical step in effective diagnosis and treatment; however, identified barriers need to be addressed to ensure screening is part of a systemic approach to improve physical health of consumers with serious mental illness. Nurses have potential to influence improvement in physical health outcomes for consumers of mental health services. Such potential can only be realised if a
De Silva, M J
There have been repeated calls to include mental health in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), arguing that progress in development will not be made without improvements in mental health. Although these calls are starting to gain political traction, currently only a tiny fraction of international development work includes mental health. A social determinants framework may be useful in incorporating mental health into sustainable development because it promotes a multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach which is the corner stone of good development practice. Two approaches are suggested to make mental health a part of sustainable development: (1) integrate mental health into existing development programmes to promote social and economic environments that prevent mental health problems developing; (2) ensure that mental health programmes are better at promoting sustainable development by preventing the negative social and economic consequences of mental illness. Real-world examples of these approaches are provided. To achieve this, the mental health impact of wider development programmes, and the social and economic consequences of mental health interventions, must be evaluated. Development agencies should ensure that they have equity for mental health in all their policies, and investment must be increased for those mental health prevention, promotion and treatment programmes which have the greatest impact on sustainable development. The SDGs bring the promise of a more holistic approach to development. It is now the task of global mental health to demonstrate not just that mental health is an integral part of sustainable development, but that affordable and effective solutions exist which can improve mental health and development more broadly.
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.
Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel
Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ward, L J
SMILE is a Simple, Mental health, Initiative in Learning and Education. SMILE was a pilot project introduced into an undergraduate clinical nursing program, Southern Cross University, Australia 2010. The program aimed to improve the knowledge and skills of third-year nursing students participating in their first clinical placement in mental healthcare. Complementary to the clinical nursing program and the university curriculum, SMILE provided further training and support for student learning in mental healthcare. The SMILE project was a structured 15-day education program that covered the following topics: suicide prevention; psychosis; drugs and alcohol education; mental state exam; families and carers in mental health; and the Mental Health Act. The education sessions were one hour in duration. The educational material and resources were created from current research, literature and health service policy. A problem-based learning approach was used to support this education project. The dynamic factor related to SMILE was that it was based in the field. SMILE enabled the students to bridge a theory-practice gap and expand upon their current knowledge base as well as participate in ward activity. Twenty students attending their first clinical placement in mental healthcare participated in SMILE and were asked to complete a pre- and post- evaluation questionnaire before starting and upon completion of the 15-day project. The students participating in SMILE reported a greater understanding of mental healthcare issues and expressed a developing knowledge base and improved practical skill level. SMILE was a positive initiative that provided valuable feedback and opportunity to improve on clinical education in mental healthcare.
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H
School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce access barriers to mental health care and improve educational outcomes for youths. This qualitative study evaluated the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district as the centers attempted to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semistructured interviews with each participant were audio recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded by using Atlas.ti 5.1 and collapsed into three domains: operations, partnership, and engagement. Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both primary care and mental health services to colocated services. Sites where the health agency provided at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites used SBHC wellness coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and health agency and community mental health clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and "drop-in" lunches. Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of integrating primary care, mental health care, and education. Among the provider models observed, the combined primary care and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions to operational problems and family engagement in mental health services.
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
Anthony John O’Brien
Full Text Available Community treatment orders are considered a new development in mental health care and are consistent with current New Zealand mental health policy of care in the community. However, since its first adoption in 1846, New Zealand mental health legislation has always made provision for compulsory mental health care out of hospital. Analysis of the text of each of the five iterations of mental health legislation shows that an initial (1846 provision for a friend or relative to take a committed patient into his or her care, as an alternative to committal to hospital, continued though various revisions until its current expression as a community treatment order. Using Rochefort’s model of change in mental health policy, we argue that a long static period until 1911 was followed by progressive change throughout the 20th century, although provision for compulsory out-of-hospital care has been continuous over the life of New Zealand’s legislation. In the late-20th century, compulsory mental health care is tied to medical treatment and mental health service surveillance of the patient’s social circumstances. We conclude with recommendations for how reformed legislation may contribute to future mental health policy by giving effect to agendas of positive rights and social inclusion.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150
Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye
Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in
Kong, Kyoung Ae; Choi, Hee Yeon; Kim, Soo In
parents. These results were more remarkable for single fathers than for single mothers except for alcohol dependence. However, physical illness, family structure, and support made only minor contributions to single parents' mental health. This study demonstrates that single parents have poorer mental health than partnered parents. Although lower SES is an important factor explaining poorer mental health in single parents, there are other factors we cannot explain about their poor mental health. Therefore, we should pay proper regard to identifying other factors affecting mental health and to establishing policies to support single parents.
Kyoung Ae Kong
single parents. These results were more remarkable for single fathers than for single mothers except for alcohol dependence. However, physical illness, family structure, and support made only minor contributions to single parents' mental health.This study demonstrates that single parents have poorer mental health than partnered parents. Although lower SES is an important factor explaining poorer mental health in single parents, there are other factors we cannot explain about their poor mental health. Therefore, we should pay proper regard to identifying other factors affecting mental health and to establishing policies to support single parents.
Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services. PMID:23072687
Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility
Blank, Robert H; Burau, Viola; Kuhlmann, Ellen
A broad-ranging introduction to the provision, funding and governance of health care across a variety of systems. This revised fifth edition incorporates additional material on low/middle income countries, as well as broadened coverage relating to healthcare outside of hospitals and the ever...
Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas
E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acceptability of e-mental health and m-mental health in the general population. An advisory group of service users identified dimensions that potentially influence an individual's decision to engage with a particular treatment for mental health problems. A large sample (N = 490) recruited through email, flyers and social media was asked to rate the acceptability of different treatment options for mental health problems on these domains. Results were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Participants rated the perceived helpfulness of an intervention, the ability to motivate users, intervention credibility, and immediate access without waiting time as most important dimensions with regard to engaging with a treatment for mental health problems. Participants expected face-to-face therapy to meet their needs on most of these dimensions. Computerised treatments and smartphone applications for mental health were reported to not meet participants' expectations on most domains. However, these interventions scored higher than face-to-face treatments on domains associated with the convenience of access. Overall, participants reported a very low likelihood of using computerised treatments for mental health in the future. Individuals in this study expressed negative views about computerised self-help intervention and low likelihood of use in the future. To improve the implementation and uptake, policy makers need to improve the public perception of such
Walter, Heather J.; Gouze, Karen; Cicchetti, Colleen; Arend, Richard; Mehta, Tara; Schmidt, Janet; Skvarla, Madelynn
Background: National policy statements increasingly espouse the delivery of comprehensive mental health services in schools. In response to the limited evidence supporting this recommendation, the purpose of this study was to assess the need for, and feasibility, desirability, and outcomes of a full model of comprehensive mental health services in…
Levecque, K.; Anseel, F.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Van Der Heyden, J.; Gisle, L.
Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of
van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Wilrycx, G.K.M.L.; Moradi, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.
Background: During the past decade, the mental health consumer movement has drawn the attention of mental health providers, researchers and policy makers to the concept of recovery. Traditionally, recovery primarily refers to the remission of symptoms. Nowadays, recovery is also regarded in a sense
The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability (Northern Ireland) was established in October 2002 to examine all aspects of the law, policy and provisions that affect people with mental health needs or a learning disability in Northern Ireland. Its report "A Comprehensive Legislative Framework," which deals with the reform…
Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for health promotion interventions in all health care today. In spite of this, health promotion interventions among patients with mental illnesses have been scarce in research, practice, and policies. There is also an ambiguous interpretation of the definition of health promotion in the literature. The emphasis in this paper is thus to (1 discuss why we should pay attention to the interpretations of the concept of health promotion and (2 present a possible model for what nurses do when they intend to promote health in mental health care. This paper was presented at the Nordic Conference of Mental Health Nursing in Helsinki, Finland in 2010.
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
problematic. To comment on mental health systems in Africa, .... be an option for assisting with both de-stigmatization and ... deinstitutionalization with a reduction in both chronic and ... such as the family, societal change, bullying in schools,.
... Locators Find treatment facilities and programs in the United States or U.S. Territories for mental and substance use ... Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and ... and Local Government Partnerships Suicide Prevention Trauma and ...
Larsen, Christine; Lange, Mads; Jørgensen, Kim; Kistrup, Kristen; Petersen, Lone
In 2010, the Regional Council of the Capital Region of Denmark endorsed a vision of mental health services based on personal recovery, rehabilitation, and the involvement of caregivers. Programs to achieve this vision include hiring peer support workers, a Recovery College, and service user participation at the organizational level. This column describes a cornerstone of these initiatives-an education program in the recovery model for mental health professionals. In 2013-2014, the Capital Region implemented 148 workshops on recovery-oriented services for all practitioner staff in mental health services in the region. The workshops featured a coteaching model, with both a mental health professional and an individual with lived experience serving as trainers. This model showed promise and should be expanded, including more targeted training for specific services. Such an expansion could be included in a national strategy for user involvement and recovery-oriented practice set to launch in 2018.
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.
Work on DSM-5 and ICD-11, and the simultaneous development of ... that we can ask about life. In this brief ... mental health literacy of colleagues, patients, decision- makers and the ... requires a judicious balance of the MEDICAL and MORAL.
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.
Indonesia, Pakistan, Brazil and Chile) found the median prevalence rate of ..... aspects of well-being of their patients.39 Programs aimed at integrating mental health ... tural beliefs and formulate their inclusion in an appropriate referral system.
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees.
Saxena, Shekhar; Sharan, Pratap; Saraceno, Benedetto
Very little information is available on budget and financing of mental health services in the world. During year 2001, WHO collected information from all countries on resources available for mental health care as a part of Project Atlas. The present report seeks to describe the situation regarding federal budgets and financing of mental health care at the country level. It also examines the association between relative allocation of health budget to mental health and mental health policy, programme and resource indicators in 89 countries. The information was collected through a questionnaire (with an accompanying glossary) that was sent to the mental health focal point in the Ministry of Health of each country. Eighty nine countries provided information on their mental health budget as a proportion of health budget. In addition, information was obtained on policy, programme and mental health resource indicators (beds, personnel, services to special population and availability of drugs). The results showed that 32% of 191 countries did not have a specified budget for mental health. Of the 89 countries that supplied the requisite information 36% spent less than 1% of their total health budget on mental health. Many countries from Africa (79%) and the South East Asia (63%) were in this subgroup. Comparison with the Global Burden of Disease data showed a marked disparity between burden and resources. Lower income countries allocated a lesser proportion of their health budget on mental health in comparison to higher income countries. The primary method of financing mental health care in most countries was tax-based (60.2%), but many low-income countries depended on out-of-pocket expenditure (16.4%). The presence of mental health policies and programmes in general was not associated with the proportion of health budget allocated to mental health. Counties categorized based on the proportion of mental health budget to health budget, differed significantly in terms of
... health and public welfare resources; including— (i) Community mental health centers; (ii) Nursing homes... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for mental...
Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.
Weine, Stevan Merrill
In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. 2011 © FPI, Inc.
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A
We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.
Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio
The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y
The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies fo