WorldWideScience

Sample records for mental health consequences

  1. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  2. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  3. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Consequences of Psychotherapy Clients' Mental Health Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Len; Kirsch, Irving

    Current theoretical approaches to understanding emotional difficulties are dominated by the medical model of mental illness, which assumes that emotional dysfunction can be viewed the same way as physical dysfunction. To examine the relationship between psychotherapy clients' beliefs about the medical model of psychotherapy and their behavior…

  5. Mental health consequences of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on mental health consequences of violence against women and girls were reviewed in a range of situations. Although several studies continued to show cross-sectional associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and mental health outcomes, a few prospective studies showed a robust association between CSA and depression. Studies on the impact of dating violence are still at a nascent stage and focus on antecedents of violence rather than its consequences. Women at higher risk, such as adolescents, migrants, the homeless, and women in the perinatal period have been studied and specific vulnerabilities identified. Women reporting bidirectional violence had higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cumulative violence, severity of violence, and recent violence are associated with higher morbidity. Studies among women in conflict zones have emphasized the role of different forms of sexual and physical violence on mental health. Newer emerging areas that need more research include mental health consequences of women in conflict zones and among same sex relationships. There are also few studies on the violence experience of both older women and adolescents. The need to better delineate the psychopathology of complex manifestations of PTSD is underscored.

  6. Diagnostic Error in Correctional Mental Health: Prevalence, Causes, and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Hynes, Katie; Hatcher, Simon; Colman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    While they have important implications for inmates and resourcing of correctional institutions, diagnostic errors are rarely discussed in correctional mental health research. This review seeks to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic errors in prisons and jails and explores potential causes and consequences. Diagnostic errors are defined as discrepancies in an inmate's diagnostic status depending on who is responsible for conducting the assessment and/or the methods used. It is estimated that at least 10% to 15% of all inmates may be incorrectly classified in terms of the presence or absence of a mental illness. Inmate characteristics, relationships with staff, and cognitive errors stemming from the use of heuristics when faced with time constraints are discussed as possible sources of error. A policy example of screening for mental illness at intake to prison is used to illustrate when the risk of diagnostic error might be increased and to explore strategies to mitigate this risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The mental health consequences of student "Holocaust memorial journeys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Walter, Garry; Ross, Sharon; Bloch, Yuval

    2013-08-01

    Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.

  8. Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden: characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2013-03-01

    Internet-based mental health services increase rapidly. However, national surveys are incomplete and the consequences for such services are poorly discussed. This study describes characteristics of 60 Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden and discusses their social consequences. More than half of the services were offered by voluntary organisations and targeted towards young people. Professionals answered service users' questions in 60% of the services. Eight major themes were identified. These characteristics may indicate a shift in the delivery of mental health services in both countries, and imply changes in the understanding of mental health.

  9. Migration, mental health and costs consequences in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclutia, Ioana; Junjan, Veronica; Popescu, Codruta Alina; Tigan, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Legal and illegal circulatory migration from Romania reached huge proportions after 2000, following the lifting of the visa requirements for EU Shengen countries. So far, the impact of migration on health has received scarce attention from Romanian authorities. To describe the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the migrants who have developed mental illness, estimate their services use in terms of hospitalization and to analyze the cost impact on the Romanian health system and on the migrants' co-payments, to discuss the possible relationships between migration and mental health. A semi-structured interview, designed by the authors, has been administered to 50 migrants admitted to the Second Psychiatric Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Romania, to investigate the following areas: immigration status, working conditions, income, housing, insurance and social bonds. The clinical symptomatology of these patients was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The average cost of hospitalization per day per patient, the total costs of hospitalization and the migrants' co-payment through personal contribution to the insurance system were estimated. Most of the patients were young, single, with no previous experience abroad and with few social ties in the host country, with unqualified and insecure jobs. In this group, 45 out of 50 had schizophrenia spectrum disorders diagnoses. The hospitalization length of these patients was slightly shorter than the hospitalization of non-migrant patients with the same diagnosis. Individuals from rural areas had longer hospitalisation than those coming from urban areas. Those who left the country illegally and those who worked illegally had shorter hospitalisations. The average costs of hospitalization per day per patient were Euro 15.56; and the total costs were Euro 14,054.92. In order to cover the costs of hospitalization in the native country due to an illness with the onset abroad, a patient should work and contribute 4

  10. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  11. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  12. Using Social Media to Explore the Consequences of Domestic Violence on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Xue, Jia; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Xuefei; Jiao, Dongdong; Zhu, Tingshao

    2018-02-01

    A great deal of research has focused on the negative consequences of domestic violence (DV) on mental health. However, current studies cannot provide direct and reliable evidence on the impacts of DV on mental health in a short term as it is not feasible to measure mental health shortly before and after an unpredictable event like DV. This study aims to explore the short-term outcomes of DV on individuals' mental health. We collected a sample of 232 victims (77% female) and 232 nonvictims (gender and location matched with 232 victims) on Sina Weibo. In both the victim and nonvictim groups, we measured their mental health status during the 4 weeks before the first DV incident and during the 4 weeks after the DV incident. We used our proposed Online Ecological Recognition (OER) system, which is based on several predictive models to identify individuals' mental health statuses. Mental health statuses were measured based on individuals' Weibo profiles and messages, which included "Depression," "Suicide Probability," and "Satisfaction With Life." The results showed that mental health in the victim group was impacted by DV while individuals in the nonvictim group were not. Furthermore, the victim group demonstrated an increase in depression symptoms, higher suicide risks, and decreased life satisfaction after their DV experience. In addition, the effect of DV on individuals' mental health could appear in the conditions of child abuse, intimate partner violence, and exposure to DV. These findings inform that DV significantly impacts individuals' mental health over the short term, as in 4 weeks. Our proposed new data collection and analyses approach, OER, has implications for employing "big data" from social networks to identify individuals' mental health.

  13. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  14. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01 and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01. Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  15. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Violent childhood experiences - Consequences on mental health and approaches to intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenau, Katharin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop in a healthy manner, a child requires a secure environment and a steady bond with a close caregiver (Johnson, Browne, & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2006). However, experiences of violence may interfere with this process of healthy development. The present thesis examined the consequences of exposure to family, institutional and organized violence on the mental health of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, living either in institutional care or being associated with armed forces. Sub...

  17. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.S.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in

  18. Out-of-pocket cost of drug abuse consequences: results from Iranian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hefazi, Mitra; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin

    2017-05-01

    Drug abuse has significant cost to the individual, the family and the society. This study aimed to assess out of-pocket costs of consequences of drug use disorder. Data were drawn from the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) through face-to-face interviews with 7841 respondents aged 15-64 years. We used a bottom-up cost-ofillness method for economic analysis. Out-of-pocket costs for treatment of mental and drug problems, treatment of medical illnesses, as well as costs of crimes were assessed. The average of total annual expense was US$ 2120.6 for those with drug use disorder, which was 23.5% of annual income of an average Iranian family in the year 2011. The average of total out-of-pocket cost was US$ 674.6 for those with other mental disorder and US$ 421.9 for those with no mental disorder. Catastrophic payment was reported in 47.6% of the patients with drug use disorder and 14.4% of those with other mental disorder. Thus, considerable amount of family resources are spent on the consequences of drug use.

  19. The mental health consequences of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Lipari, Rachel; Dowd, William N; Aldridge, Arnie P; Novak, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use is estimated to be the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana among adolescents. Prescription drugs can be highly addictive and prolonged use can produce neurological changes and physiological dependence and could result in adverse mental health outcomes. This topic is largely unexplored, as current knowledge of possible mechanisms of the linkage between adverse mental health consequences and prescription drug misuse is limited. This study explores the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and depression outcomes among adolescents. Given their complex and confounded relationship, our purpose is to better understand the extent to which nonmedical use of prescription drugs is an antecedent of depressive episodes. Using data from the 2008-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study employs a propensity score matching methodology to ascertain whether nonmedical use of prescription drugs is linked to major depressive episodes among adolescents. The results document a positive relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use and major depressive episodes among adolescents. Specifically, the results indicate that adolescents who used prescription drugs non-medically are 33% to 35% more likely to experience major depressive episodes compared to their non-abusing counterparts. This provides additional evidence about the potential public health consequences of misuse of prescription drugs on adverse mental health outcomes. Given the significant increased risk of major depressive episode among adolescents who use prescription drugs nonmedically, it seems that the prevention of nonmedical prescription drug use warrants the utilization of both educational and public health resources. An important area for future research is to understand how any policy initiatives in this area must strike a balance between the need to minimize the misuse of prescription drugs and the need to ensure access for

  20. Consequences and Possible Predictors of Health-damaging Behaviors and Mental Health Problems in Pregnancy - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, F; Petermann, F

    2016-11-01

    In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy. In addition, the characteristics of pregnant women which increase their risk of developing such behaviors or mental disorders are described. A better knowledge of these risks should make it easier for clinicians to identify cases at risk early on and put measures of support in place. A review of the literature has shown that certain characteristics of pregnant women (e.g. her relationship with her partner, a previous history of mental illness prior to pregnancy) are associated with various health-damaging behaviors as well as with impaired mental health. Affected women often show an accumulated psychosocial stress which was already present prior to the pregnancy and which may persist even after the birth of the child.

  1. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5-11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast, those who were both maltreated and

  2. Changes in experiences with discrimination across pregnancy and postpartum: age differences and consequences for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to contribute to growing research and theory suggesting the importance of examining patterns of change over time and critical life periods to fully understand the effects of discrimination on health, with a focus on the period of pregnancy and postpartum and mental health outcomes. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine changes across pregnancy and postpartum in everyday discrimination and the resulting consequences for mental health among predominantly Black and Latina, socioeconomically disadvantaged young women who were receiving prenatal care in New York City. Patterns of change in experiences with discrimination varied according to age. Among the youngest participants, discrimination increased from the second to third trimesters and then decreased to lower than the baseline level by 1 year postpartum; among the oldest participants, discrimination decreased from the second trimester to 6 months postpartum and then returned to the baseline level by 1 year postpartum. Within-subjects changes in discrimination over time predicted changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms at subsequent points. Discrimination more strongly predicted anxiety symptoms among participants reporting food insecurity. Our results support a life course approach to understanding the impact of experiences with discrimination on health and when to intervene.

  3. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Guy J; Kaplan, Ida; Sampson, Robyn C; Tucci, Maria Montagna

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the experience of extended periods of immigration detention from the perspective of previously detained asylum seekers and to identify the consequences of these experiences for life after release. The study sample comprised seventeen adult refugees (sixteen male and one female; average age 42 years), who had been held in immigration detention funded by the Australian government for on average three years and two months. They were interviewed on average three years and eight months following their release and had been granted permanent visa status or such status was imminent. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore detention and post-detention experiences, and mental health some years after release. The qualitative component consisted of semi-structured interviews exploring psychological well-being, daily life, significant events, relationships, and ways of coping throughout these periods. This was supplemented with standardised quantitative measures of current mental health and quality of life. All participants were struggling to rebuild their lives in the years following release from immigration detention, and for the majority the difficulties experienced were pervasive. Participants suffered an ongoing sense of insecurity and injustice, difficulties with relationships, profound changes to view of self and poor mental health. Depression and demoralisation, concentration and memory disturbances, and persistent anxiety were very commonly reported. Standardised measures found high rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and low quality of life scores. The results strongly suggest that the psychological and interpersonal difficulties participants were suffering at the time of interview were the legacy of their adverse experiences while detained. The current study assists in identifying the characteristics of prolonged immigration detention producing long-term psychological harm

  4. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  5. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  6. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health.

  7. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authenti...

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  10. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Trauma of Sexual Harassment and its Mental Health Consequences Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Sultana, Safia; Imtiaz, Iqra

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexual harassment in nurses and to observe its correlation with negative mental health (depression, anxiety and stress). Further to examine the role of sexual harassment as a predictor of negative mental health in nurses and to explore the differences in the experience of sexual harassment, depression, anxiety and stress between junior and senior nurses. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, from December 2011 to March 2012. Asample of 200 nurses with age range 23 to 46 years was obtained. Assessment tools used in the study were Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (SHEQ) by Kamal, and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) by Lovibond and Lovibond. Mean age of the nurses was 29.80 ±7.10 years. Among these 63% were married and 37% unmarried. The mean working experience of nurses was 13.7 ±3. 52 years and their mean monthly income was 27820 ±13687.32 rupees. Their working hours ranged from 8 to 16 hours (M = 8.32, SD = 2.12). The mean prevalence of sexual harassment was 71.66 ±19.01. A significant positive correlation of sexual harassment with depression, anxiety, stress and combined effect of them (DASS) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed sexual harassment as significant predictor of depression (β= 0.47, p Sexual harassment was found to be a predictor of negative mental health in the form of depression, anxiety and stress in nurses of public hospitals.

  12. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past year injuries serious enough to seek medical atten tion were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and re ported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2 1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1 1.7), or parent- and teacher-report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.1). Children who self reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.4). Low caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Conclusion Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externaliz ing problems may reduce the burden of injury. PMID:25073079

  13. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  14. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...

  15. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    H?kby, Sebastian; Hadlaczky, Gerg?; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Mach?n, N?ria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; V?rnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is as...

  16. Reflections on the mental health consequences of nuclear power plant disasters and implications for epidemiologic research in Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters involving radiation exposure are particularly pernicious and have long-lasting psychological consequences. This paper reviews evidence regarding the specific consequences after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant accidents and shows the important association of risk perceptions with poor subjective health and emotional distress. The two groups used to illustrate the findings about the mental health aftermath are mothers of young children and clean-up workers. The importance of unbiased epidemiologic data for designing appropriate and needed mental health services and of integrating these services within a general medical framework are also discussed. Specific recommendations for enhancing the quality and hence utility of epidemiologic research are provided, which include consensus building with the affected community and full partnership in all steps in the design and execution of the research; if a random sample is the intended target, allowing unselected residents to participate if they wish; providing incentives to participation, including giving results of blood tests, thyroid tests, and physical examinations in a timely manner and training interview staff in motivational interviewing techniques; communicating the professional, scientific nature of the research and the consenting process, as well as the partnership with the community; and directly sharing the findings together with local partners to the respondents and interviewers prior to publishing the results elsewhere and allowing a time and place for feedback from the community. Given that mental health may be the largest public health problem unleashed by Fukushima, as was the case after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, and knowing that poor mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, it is important that comprehensive health monitoring involve clinically sensitive measures of emotional well-being, particularly with regard to depression

  17. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  18. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans-Lacko

    Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  19. The Mental Health Consequences of the Recession: Economic Hardship and Employment of People with Mental Health Problems in 27 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Knapp, Martin; McCrone, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession. Methods Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems. Results Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34). This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems. Conclusion These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups. PMID:23922801

  20. Elections Have Consequences for Student Mental Health: An Accidental Daily Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2018-01-01

    Polling suggested that the 2016 United States presidential election affected citizens' mood and stress levels. Yet, polling often fails to employ repeated measurement designs that can capture pre- and post-levels of change within the same person. In this study, undergraduate students ( N = 85) completed a 14-day daily diary where mood, stress, and mental health outcomes were assessed before and after the election. Multilevel modeling revealed an immediate upsurge in anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality the day after the election, followed by a recovery period indicating these effects were short-lived. Other reactions (anger, fear, marginalization, and experiencing discrimination) evidenced a significant upsurge without a significant recovery. We consider how daily diary research designs like this one could be integrated into college settings to inform counseling center resource allocation, and we also comment on the promise of the daily diary methodology for political research.

  1. Intimate partner violence as seen in post-conflict eastern Uganda: prevalence, risk factors and mental health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Mungherera, Margaret; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Ngabirano, Emmanuel; Kajungu, Rehema; Kagugube, Johnson; Muhwezi, Wilson; Muron, Julius; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-29

    Conflict and post-conflict communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a high under recognised problem of intimate partner violence (IPV). Part of the reason for this has been the limited data on IPV from conflict affected sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on the prevalence, risk factors and mental health consequences of IPV victimisation in both gender as seen in post-conflict eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts of eastern Uganda. The primary outcome of IPV victimisation was assessed using a modified Intimate Partner Violence assessment questionnaire of the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The prevalence of any form of IPV victimisation (physical and/or sexual and/or psychological IPV) in this study was 43.7 % [95 % CI, 40.1-47.4 %], with no statistically significant difference between the two gender. The factors significantly associated with IPV victimisation were: sub-county (representing ecological factors), poverty, use of alcohol, and physical and sexual war torture experiences. The mental health problems associated with IPV victimisation were probable problem alcohol drinking, attempted suicide and probable major depressive disorder. In post-conflict eastern Uganda, in both gender, war torture was a risk factor for IPV victimisation and IPV victimisation was associated with mental health problems.

  2. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hökby, Sebastian; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-07-13

    Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (Pengaging in those activities were more important predictors, explaining 11.1% variance. Only Web-based gaming, gambling, and targeted searches had mental health effects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, Peffect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. The magnitude of Internet use is negatively associated with mental health in general, but specific Web-based activities differ in how consistently, how much, and in what direction they affect mental health. Consequences of

  3. Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.

  4. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  5. Mental health problems in Pakistani society as a consequence of violence and trauma: a case for better integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Khalily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper discusses the increasing incidence of mental health problems in Pakistan, and specifically in the Swat valley, in relation to the growing insurgency and current violence in Pakistani society. The paper argues that the health care system's response in Pakistan is not adequate to meet the current challenges and that changes in policy are needed to build mental health care services as an important component of the basic health package at primary care level in the public sector. Method: This paper reviews the existing mental health situation in Pakistan with reference to the findings of a case study in the Swat valley in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan. The figures presented in the case study are used to support the need for an integrated national mental health policy. Conclusion: Mental health care needs to be incorporated as a core service in primary care and supported by specialist services. There is a strong need to provide adequate training for general practitioners and postgraduate training for mental health professionals to meet the current demands. A collaborative network between stakeholders in the public and private sector, as well as non-governmental organisations are required that promotes mental health care and advocates for changes in mental health policy.

  6. Mental health problems in Pakistani society as a consequence of violence and trauma: a case for better integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Khalily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper discusses the increasing incidence of mental health problems in Pakistan, and specifically in the Swat valley, in relation to the growing insurgency and current violence in Pakistani society. The paper argues that the health care system's response in Pakistan is not adequate to meet the current challenges and that changes in policy are needed to build mental health care services as an important component of the basic health package at primary care level in the public sector.Method: This paper reviews the existing mental health situation in Pakistan with reference to the findings of a case study in the Swat valley in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan. The figures presented in the case study are used to support the need for an integrated national mental health policy.Conclusion: Mental health care needs to be incorporated as a core service in primary care and supported by specialist services. There is a strong need to provide adequate training for general practitioners and postgraduate training for mental health professionals to meet the current demands. A collaborative network between stakeholders in the public and private sector, as well as non-governmental organisations are required that promotes mental health care and advocates for changes in mental health policy.

  7. Mental health consequences of stress and trauma: allostatic load markers for practice and policy with a focus on Indigenous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Mental health, well-being, and social life are intimately related as is evident from the higher incidence of psychiatric illness in individuals exposed to social stress and adversity. Several biological pathways linking social adversity to health outcomes are heavily investigated in the aims of facilitating early identification and prevention of adverse health outcomes. We provide a practice-orientated overview of the allostatic load model and how it relates to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. Allostatic load brings together a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular biomarkers that are elevated in individuals with adverse early life experiences and are predictive of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in psychiatric illness of critical importance for Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW

  9. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-02-01

    of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.

  10. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  11. Consequences of Physical Health and Mental Illness Risks for Academic Achievement in Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Joe, Emanique; Rowley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    Educational research, practice, and institutions regularly highlight the significance of factors outside of schooling that affect children's engagement and participation in classroom learning. The health of children and families is one such issue with implications for the quality of children's school experiences, treatment in school, and academic…

  12. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  13. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental

  14. [Climate change - physical and mental consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Maxie; Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2017-06-01

    Climate change has already had a large influence on the human environmental system and directly or indirectly affects physical and mental health. Triggered by extreme meteorological conditions, for example, storms, floods, earth slides and heat periods, the direct consequences range from illnesses to serious accidents with injuries, or in extreme cases fatalities. Indirectly, a changed environment due to climate change affects, amongst other things, the cardiovascular system and respiratory tract, and can also cause allergies and infectious diseases. In addition, increasing confrontation with environmental impacts may cause negative psychological effects such as posttraumatic stress disorders and anxiety, but also aggression, distress and depressive symptoms. The extent and severity of the health consequences depend on individual pre-disposition, resilience, behaviour and adaptation.

  15. Prospective Study of the Mental Health Consequences of Sexual Violence Among Women Living With HIV in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Wolfe, William R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-05-01

    The association between sexual violence and depression is well known, but the temporal aspects of the association have not been well established. We analyzed data from a cohort of 173 HIV-positive women in rural Uganda who were interviewed every 3 months for a median of 1.8 years of follow-up. The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to model the marginal expectation of depression symptom severity (Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression), mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary), and heavy drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) as a function of self-reported forced-sex victimization in the 3 months prior to interview. Estimates were adjusted for variables known to confound the association between victimization and mental health status. To assess any potential reciprocal relationships, we reversed the temporal ordering of the exposures and outcomes and refitted similar GEE models. In multivariable analyses, victimization was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b = 0.17; 95% CI = [0.02, 0.33]) and lower mental health-related quality of life (b = -5.65; 95% CI = [-9.34, -1.96]), as well as increased risks for probable depression (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.58; 95% CI = [1.01, 2.49) and heavy drinking (ARR = 3.99; 95% CI = [1.84, 8.63]). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Our findings suggest that forced sex is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among HIV-positive women in rural Uganda. Given the substantial mental health-related impacts of victimization, effective health sector responses are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [The stigma of mental illness: concepts, forms, and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-07-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. We aim to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss important consequences for people with mental illness. A search of scientific literature on mental illness stigma was conducted with a focus on conceptually relevant empirical studies. After giving a conceptual overview of stigma, we elaborate on the consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment, coping behaviour, fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services, and on structural discrimination. Main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- are discussed. Stigma is of central importance to persons with mental illness, both to how they experience their illness and its consequences and whether they use available health services. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish the impact of mental illness stigma.

  18. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  19. The intergenerational consequences of war: anxiety, depression, suicidality, and mental health among the children of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Walter; Edwards, Ben; Daraganova, Galina

    2018-03-24

    The long-term effects of military deployment on the mental health of war veterans have been investigated extensively, but few studies have examined the long-term impact of parental deployment on children's mental health. Using a retrospective, multigenerational survey and propensity score analysis to adjust for selection effects and endogeneity bias, we investigated the impact of parental deployment on the mental health of the adult children of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War. We analysed data from 1966 adult men (35%) and women (65%) whose fathers (N = 1418) were selected at random from the population of surviving men who served in the Australian army during the Vietnam War (1962-75). Mean age of respondents was 37. The main outcome measures were self-reported diagnosis or treatment for anxiety and depression (i.e. lifetime and previous 12 months), suicidality based on Psychiatric Symptom Frequency Scale, and current mental health as measured by the Mental Health Inventory of the SF-36. The key independent variable was whether their fathers were deployed to the Vietnam War. Almost 40 years after the war, the adult children of deployed veterans were more likely to have been diagnosed with anxiety [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.04, 2.28] and depression (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.03, 3.05), to have had thoughts of suicide and self-harm (OR = 2.39, CI = 1.57, 3.65) and to have made suicidal plans (OR = 3.52, CI = 1.40, 8.85) than the offspring of comparable, non-deployed army veterans. They also reported poorer current mental health (Coefficient = -5.08, CI = -6.60 - -3.56). The results imply that there are significant and enduring adverse effects of parental deployment on the mental health of children in military families, and provide some insight into the potential long-term impacts of recent military engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq.

  20. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...

  1. Mental health consequences of overstretch in the UK Armed Forces, 2007-09: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Keeling, Mary; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-12-01

    Concerns have been raised about the effect of tour length on the mental health of the UK armed forces. In 2007, we reported that cumulative length of deployment was associated with mental illness in military personnel. Our findings provided empirical evidence to support the UK advisory policy for tour length, known as the Harmony Guidelines. If fully implemented, these guidelines could aid prevention of mental illnesses. We aimed to reassess the association between cumulative length of deployment and number of deployments with mental illness in the UK forces. Our analysis was based on data from a representative study of the military for UK regular personnel who had completed a questionnaire between Nov 2, 2007, and Sept 24, 2009, and were deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Study outcomes were presence of possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms, alcohol misuse, problems at home during and after deployment, and relationship or family problems. The key independent factors were deployment for 13 months or more, and months and number of deployments in the past 3 years. 8278 regulars responded to the questionnaire, of whom 3982 (48%) had been deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Deployment for 13 months or more decreased from 22% in March, 2005, (median March 8, 2005 [IQR Oct 10, 2004 to April 28, 2005]), to 12% in May, 2008, (May 17, 2008, [Feb 14, 2008, to Dec 5, 2008]). We noted an association between cumulative time deployed as a continuous variable and a score of 40 or more on the PTSD checklist (p=0·002), presence of psychological distress (p=0·018), and multiple physical symptoms (p=0·030; table 2). Furthermore, 13 months or more of deployment was associated with multiple physical symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·15, 95% CI 1·39-3·32), a PTSD checklist score of 40 or more (2·02, 1·31-3·12), and problems at home, but not a PTSD checklist score of 50 or

  2. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  3. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  4. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  5. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning DHEA also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health. PMID:22018084

  6. Prospective study of predictors and consequences of insomnia: personality, lifestyle, mental health, and work-related stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedaa, Øystein; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Grimsrud, Ingse Dagny; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Sivertsen, Børge; Magerøy, Nils; Einarsen, Ståle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the reciprocal relationships between personality traits, lifestyle factors, mental health, sleepiness, and work-related stressors against insomnia. A total of 799 Norwegian shift-working nurses (mean age 33.2 years, 90% female) participated in this prospective cohort study. They were assessed on self-report instruments (Bergen Insomnia Scale, Diurnal Type Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Work-Family Interface Scale, among others) in 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2011 (wave 3). Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between a wide range of individual and work-related variables and insomnia. Languidity (β = 0.18***), anxiety (β = 0.11**), depression (β = 0.14***), exposure to bullying behavior (β = 0.08*), and negative spillover between work and family life (work to family, β = 0.08*; family to work, β = 0.07*) predicted increased symptoms of insomnia over time. Morningness (β = -0.09*) and positive spillover from work to family (β = -0.11**) predicted less symptoms of insomnia over time. No support was found for night work as a predictor of increased insomnia. Insomnia was a precursor for anxiety (β = 0.11**), but not for depression (*p work-related factors than as a precursor to them. The scope of factors causing insomnia, and factors protecting against it, should be further investigated. Insomnia should be considered in prediction models for mental illnesses and as an outcome of adverse work-related experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects; Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya `Aktual`nye i prognoziruemye narusheniya psikhicheskogo zdorov`ya posle yadernoj katastrofy v Chernobyle`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation.

  8. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  9. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  10. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  11. Mental health and therapeutic abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Rondón, Marta B.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...

  12. Malaysian mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.

  13. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  14. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...

  15. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a

  16. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...

  17. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...

  18. Physiotherapy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...

  19. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  20. Child labour in low- and middle-income countries and its consequences for mental health: a systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Sarah; Hodes, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children's physical health, little is known about child labour's effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and identify possible risk factors for poorer mental health. A systematic literature review was conducted. Published papers in any language that compared the mental health of children (work with those who had not been exposed to work were included. Twelve published observational studies on the association between child labour and general psychopathology, internalising and externalising problems were identified. Child labour was found to be strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes in seven studies. More significant associations were found between child labour and internalising problems than externalising problems. The burden of poor mental health as a result of child labour is significant given the numbers of children in work. Risk factors for poorer mental health were involvement in domestic labour, younger age, and greater intensity of work, which could be due to the potential of child labour to cause isolation, low self-esteem, and perception of an external locus of control. The risk factors suggested by this review will have implications for policy makers. Additional research is needed in low-income countries, risk factors and also into the potential psychological benefits of low levels of work.

  1. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet

    2018-03-29

     Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness.  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted.  In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed.  Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  2. Women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2000-01-01

    ... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...

  3. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...

  4. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  5. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  6. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  7. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  9. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...

  10. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  11. Chernobyl the health consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waight, P J

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident.

  12. Mental Health Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...

  13. Mental health awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-22

    Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.

  14. The impact of the great recession on community-based mental health organizations: an analysis of top managers' perceptions of the economic downturn's effects and adaptive strategies used to manage the consequences in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Helen Anne; Knudsen, Kraig

    2014-04-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 adversely affected the financial stability of the community-based mental health infrastructure in Ohio. This paper presents survey results of the type of adaptive strategies used by Ohio community-based mental health organizations to manage the consequences of the economic downturn. Results were aggregated into geographical classifications of rural, mid-sized urban, and urban. Across all groups, respondents perceived, to varying degrees, that the Great Recession posed a threat to their organization's survival. Urban organizations were more likely to implement adaptive strategies to expand operations while rural and midsized urban organizations implemented strategies to enhance internal efficiencies.

  15. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group.

  16. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  17. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Atheism and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  19. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  20. Mental health informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).

  1. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Short and longer-term psychological consequences of Operation Cast Lead: documentation from a mental health program in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llosa Augusto E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition of the psychological impact of adversity associated with armed conflict on exposed civilian populations. Yet there is a paucity of evidence on the value of mental health programs in these contexts, and of the chronology of psychological sequelae, especially in prolonged conflicts with repeated cycles of extreme violence. Here, we describe changes in the psychological profile of new patients in a mental health program after the military offensive Cast Lead, in the context of the prolonged armed conflict involving the Gaza Strip. Methods This study analyses routinely collected program data from a Médecins Sans Frontières mental health program in the Gaza Strip spanning 2007–2011. Data consist of socio-demographic as well as clinical baseline and follow-up data on new patients entering the program. Comparisons were made through Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychopathologies, with 21% having multiple diagnoses. With a median of nine sessions, clinical improvement was recorded for 83% (1122/1357, and more common for those with separation anxiety, acute and posttraumatic disorders as principal diagnosis (855/1005, compared to depression (141/183, p Conclusion Evolving changes in patient volume, diagnoses and recall period to triggering events suggest a lengthy and durable effect of an intensified exposure to violence in a context of prolonged conflict. Our findings suggest that mental health related humanitarian relief in protracted conflicts might need to prepare for an increase in patients with changing profiles over an extended period following an acute flare-up in violence.

  3. A qualitative study examining the presence and consequences of moral framings in patients' and mental health workers' experiences of community treatment orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Smith, Ann; McMillan, John

    2015-11-06

    Mental health recovery involves acknowledging the importance of building the person's capacity for agency. This might be particularly important for patients on community treatment orders (CTOs - which involve enforced treatment for their mental illness), given limited international evidence for their effectiveness and underlying concerns about the use of coercion by workers and systems of care towards this population of people with mental illness. This study sought to understand how the meaning of CTOs is constructed and experienced, from the perspective of patients on CTOs and workers directly administering CTOs. Qualitative interviews were conducted with South Australian community mental health patients (n = 8) and mental health workers (n = 10) in 2013-14. During thematic analysis of data, assisted by NVIVO software, the researchers were struck by the language used by both groups of participants and so undertook an examination of the moral framings apparent within the data. Moral framing was apparent in participants' constructions and evaluations of the CTO experience as positive, negative or justifiable. Most patient participants appeared to use moral framing to: try to understand why they were placed on a CTO; make sense of the experience of being on a CTO; and convey the lessons they have learnt. Worker participants appeared to use moral framing to justify the imposition of care. Empathy was part of this, as was patients' positive right to services and treatment, which they believed would only occur for these patients via a CTO. Workers positioned themselves as trying to put themselves in the patients' shoes as a way of acting virtuously towards them, softening the coercive stick approach. Four themes were identified: explicit moral framing; best interests of the patient; lessons learned by the patient; and, empathy. Experiences of CTOs are multi-layered, and depend critically upon empathy and reflection on the relationship between what is done and

  4. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  5. Traumatic experiences and mental health consequences among child survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a community-based follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhaobao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was implemented to examine the relationship between traumatic experiences and longitudinal development of mental health for children and adolescents who survived the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Methods Using the method of multistage systematic sampling, 596 children aged between 8 and 16 years were randomly selected from severely affected areas of the earthquake. These children were interviewed with standardized instruments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression at the 15th month after the earthquake, and re-interviewed at the 36th month. Results From the initial to the follow-up assessments, there were no significant changes in both PTSD and depression scores. In addition, no significant change was found on the overall prevalence rates of the symptoms: from 12.4% to 10.7% for PTSD, from 13.9% to 13.5% for depression, and from 4.2% to 4.7% for their co-occurrence. The study also indicated that the earthquake might have a delayed impact on the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents who were not directly affected by the disaster. Conclusions For child and adolescent survivors of the earthquake, symptoms of PTSD and depression seemed to persist over time. The finding that children reduced their use of mental health services raised great concerns over how to fulfill the unmet psychological needs of these children. More mental health interventions should be allocated to children who had elevated risk for developing persistent course of the symptoms.

  6. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  7. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  8. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  9. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  10. Mental Health Handbook for Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, M; Hornby, G

    2002-01-01

    This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.

  11. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability......Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  12. Serious mental illness and negative substance use consequences among adults on probation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Livingston, Melvin D; Lerch, Jennifer A; Taxman, Faye S; Walters, Scott T

    2018-03-22

    Adults on probation are at greater risk of both using substances and having a mental disorder compared to the general population. Several theories explain the relationship between substance use and poor mental health. However, the interaction between substance use, mental health, and substance-related consequences is not well understood. A better understanding of this relationship may help treatment programs become more responsive to people with serious mental illness (SMI). The current study used interview data from 313 adults on probation who reported recent substance use. We examined associations between SMI risk, substance use, and substance use consequences. A substantial proportion of the sample (37.5%) screened at risk of having a SMI. Adjusting for type and amount of substance use, those who screened at risk of having a SMI reported more negative substance use consequences. Significant interaction effects were observed between use of alcohol or opiates and SMI risk. Alcohol use was associated with more negative substance use consequences among those at risk of SMI, while opiate use was associated with more consequences among those not at risk. Programs are sorely needed to identify and treat adults with comorbid substance use and mental health symptoms, particularly for adults in the justice system. Clinicians should carefully consider how mental health may interact with substance use to exacerbate consequences.

  13. IMMEDIATE MENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT ON MOTHERS EXPERIENCING MISCARRIAGE, ABORTION, AND STILLBIRTH: THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers' health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima NPP accident and discuss their support needs. Data regarding 61 miscarriages, 5 abortions, and 22 stillbirths were analyzed among the women who were pregnant at the time of the accident in the present study. We used a two-item case-finding instrument for depression screening, and compared the childbirth group with the fetal loss groups. We also analyzed mothers' opinions written as free-form text. Among the three fetal loss groups, the proportion of positive depression screens was significantly higher in the miscarriage and stillbirth group than in the childbirth group. Mothers' opinions were grouped into six categories, with pregnancy-related items being most common, especially in the miscarriage and stillbirth groups. A higher proportion of Fukushima mothers with fetal loss, especially those with miscarriage and stillbirth, had depressive symptoms compared to those who experienced childbirth. Health care providers need to pay close attention to this vulnerable group and respond to their concerns regarding the effects on their fertility.

  14. Stigmatization and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251

  15. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  16. Mental Health Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...

  17. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  18. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  19. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  20. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  1. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  2. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  3. FastStats: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...

  4. Mental health in schools and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  5. Policy for better mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Layard

    2014-01-01

    Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.

  6. Breakfast and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.

  7. [Mental Health: Concepts, Measures, Determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean

    Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of

  8. Mental Health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...

  9. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. ?A constant struggle to receive mental health care?: health care professionals? acquired experience of barriers to mental health care services in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Rugema, Lawrence; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Persson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Rwanda, many people are still mentally affected by the consequences of the genocide and yet mental health care facilities are scarce. While available literature explains the prevalence and consequences of mental disorders, there is lack of knowledge from low-income countries on health care seeking behavior due to common mental disorders. Therefore, this study sought to explore health care professionals' acquired experiences of barriers and facilitators that people with common m...

  11. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  12. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  13. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  14. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.

  15. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...

  16. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  17. Immigrant Youth Mental Health, Acculturation, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frabutt, James M.

    2006-01-01

    One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…

  18. Leadership and management in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2011-10-01

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  20. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Sufism and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  2. Physiotherapy students’ mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...

  3. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  4. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  5. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  6. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  7. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  8. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  9. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  10. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  11. Mental Health Consumer Experiences and Strategies When Seeking Physical Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie B. Ewart; Julia Bocking; Brenda Happell; Chris Platania-Phung; Robert Stanton

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness have higher rates of physical health problems and consequently live significantly shorter lives. This issue is not yet viewed as a national health priority and research about mental health consumer views on accessing physical health care is lacking. The aim of this study is to explore the experience of mental health consumers in utilizing health services for physical health needs. Qualitative exploratory design was utilized. Semistructured focus groups were held wit...

  12. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  13. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  14. "A constant struggle to receive mental health care": health care professionals' acquired experience of barriers to mental health care services in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugema, Lawrence; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Persson, Margareta

    2015-12-16

    In Rwanda, many people are still mentally affected by the consequences of the genocide and yet mental health care facilities are scarce. While available literature explains the prevalence and consequences of mental disorders, there is lack of knowledge from low-income countries on health care seeking behavior due to common mental disorders. Therefore, this study sought to explore health care professionals' acquired experiences of barriers and facilitators that people with common mental disorders face when seeking mental health care services in Rwanda. A qualitative approach was applied and data was collected from six focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in October 2012, including a total of 43 health care professionals, men and women in different health professions. The FGDs were performed at health facilities at different care levels. Data was analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The emerging theme "A constant struggle to receive mental health care for mental disorders" embraced a number of barriers and few facilitators at individual, family, community and structural levels that people faced when seeking mental health care services. Identified barriers people needed to overcome were: Poverty and lack of family support, Fear of stigmatization, Poor community awareness of mental disorders, Societal beliefs in traditional healers and prayers, Scarce resources in mental health care and Gender imbalance in care seeking behavior. The few facilitators to receive mental health care were: Collaboration between authorities and organizations in mental health and having a Family with awareness of mental disorders and health insurance. From a public health perspective, this study revealed important findings of the numerous barriers and the few facilitating factors available to people seeking health for mental disorders. Having a supportive family with awareness of mental disorders who also were equipped with a health insurance was perceived as vital for

  15. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  16. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.

  17. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  18. Flourishing: Exploring Predictors of Mental Health within the College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the predictive factors of student mental health within the college environment. Participants: Students enrolled at 7 unique universities during years 2008 (n = 1,161) and 2009 (n = 1,459). Methods: Participants completed survey measures of mental health, consequences of alcohol use, and engagement in the college environment.…

  19. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...

  20. [Improving Mental Health Literacy and Mental Illness Stigma in the Population of Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Arnold, Detlef; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Sänger, Sylvia; Karow, Anne; Brandes, Andreas; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Bock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Evidence shows that poor mental health literacy and stigmatization have negative consequences on mental health. However, studies on interventions to improve both are often heterogenic in methodology and results. The psychenet-campaign in Hamburg was developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and relatives and comprised multidimensional interventions focusing on education and contact to patients. The main goals were the improvement of mental health literacy and destigmatization and the long-term implementation within Hamburg's mental health care system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Caregiving consequences in mental disorders--definitions and instruments of assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciałkowska-Kuźmińska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses have far-reaching consequences for both patients and their relatives. This paper reviews literature on the measures of caregiving consequences. Authors provide a condensed knowledge and research results in the area of caregiving consequences, especially both subjective and objective caregivers' burden. The consequences of care apply to carers' social and leisure activities, financial status, health condition. The burden of care has three fundamental causes: the reorganisation of mental health services, a social isolation of patients and their families and the lack of systemic support for caregivers. The problem of caregiving consequences has been investigated in several studies. In order to identify factors, which have impact on caregiver distress, a variety instruments have been developed. This paper focuses on questionnaires useful for the systematic assessment of both objective and subjective burden: Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), Perceived Family Burden Scale (PFBS), Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS), Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI), Family Problems Questionnaire (FPQ). The mentioned instruments proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring caregiver consequences in mental healthcare.

  2. Mental health workers. Graduation daze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol

    2003-09-11

    PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.

  3. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  4. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sunmi cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10–20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes.

  5. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank JH; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective o...

  6. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  7. Poverty and mental health: What should we know as mental health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepiéce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Social inequality as a social and economic phenomenon has become an issue of common interest in Europe and other societies worldwide, mainly after the recent global financial and economic crisis that occurred in 2008. The increasing gap observed between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged people has caused intensive debates in politics, social sciences and in the field of public health. Today, poverty is considered as a major variable adversely influencing health. In this paper we will discuss the link between poverty and mental health. We conducted a literature search focusing on three main objectives: (I) to investigate the definition of "poverty"; (II) to determine the association between poverty and major mental health problems; and (III) to discuss the extent to which poverty could be both a cause and a consequence of mental health. We identified a total of 142 relevant papers, published between 1995 and 2014, only 32 were retained. Main findings are summarised in this paper. Poverty can be considered as a risk factor for mental illness. Yet the relation between poverty and mental health is complex, without direct causation, and bidirectional. As poverty has severe consequences not only on health but also on the whole society, combating poverty should be placed high on the political agenda.

  8. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  9. Naturaleza de los abusos sexuales a menores y consecuencias en la salud mental de las víctimas Characteristics of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences on victims' mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Rosario Cortés Arboleda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el grupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5% estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 años de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistió en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 años. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solían cometer los abusos en el hogar de la víctima o en el suyo, aprovechándose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculación. Alrededor del 50% se sirvió del engaño o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las víctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenían menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones más altas en actitud vital negativa, depresión y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparación. Las víctimas varones, sin embargo, sólo diferían de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos.Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comparison group without a history of abuse was selected

  10. [Effects of urban noise on mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belojević, G; Jakovljević, B; Kocijancić, R; Pjerotić, L; Dimitrijević, J

    1995-01-01

    The results of the latest studies on the effects of urban noise on mental health are presented in this paper. Numerous psychiatric symptoms have been frequently noticed in the population of the settlements with a high level of urban noise: fatigue, headaches, tension, anxiety, irritability, bad concentration, insomnia, whith a consequently high consumption of psychotropic medicines. Higher admission rates in psychiatric hospitals have been noticed from noisy areas in comparison with low noise regions. By use of diagnostic psychiatric interviews it has been shown as well, that in sensitive categories of population positive correlation can be expected between the number of persons with mental disorder and the level of environmental noise. Noise annoyance and sleep disturbance, namely shortening or absence of the sleep phase 4 and REM, are the basic negative psychological effects of noise, with an adverse effect on mental health in general.

  11. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  12. Mental Health Beliefs Amongst Emirati Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad

    2016-02-01

    Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region.

  13. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.

  14. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  15. Mental health, employment status and parenthood: the impact of the economic downturn on portuguese youth mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Frasquilho, Diana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...

  16. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  17. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  18. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  19. Child Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...

  20. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  1. Physical and Mental Health Consequences of War-related Stressors Among Older Adults: An Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Arthritis in Northern Vietnamese War Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Loebach, Peter; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2017-10-01

    We examine the impacts of trauma exposures and family stressors associated with the Vietnam War on musculoskeletal health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) outcomes in elderly Vietnamese who were widely impacted by the war as young adults. Noting that wars' impacts extend beyond male veterans in most survivor populations, we give attention to male and female war survivors placed in a variety of roles vis-a-vis the war. Utilizing data from the 2010 Vietnam Health and Aging Pilot Study (N = 405), we use logistic and Poisson regression models to estimate the effect of wartime trauma exposures and family stressors on disabling arthritis and PTSD symptoms in male and female northern Vietnamese adults aged 55 and older. The odds of experiencing recent PTSD symptoms are greater in respondents who report involvement in killing/causing severe injury and who observed war atrocities. In women, PTSD is positively correlated with war era child death and spousal separation. Arthritis also exhibits a significant, positive association with killing/causing severe injury. Our study provides insights into the burden of conflict upon health among populations of the global south that survived war and are now entering older adulthood. The pattern of results, indicating greatest suffering among those who inflicted or failed to prevent bodily harm or loss of life, is consistent with the concept of moral injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  3. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...

  4. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  5. Alaska Mental Health Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunization Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits coalitions statewide. Visit the AOPTF Website to learn more. Childhood Trauma Costs All Alaskans What we

  6. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua

    2018-02-01

    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  7. Mental Health and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  8. mental health.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...

  9. [Architecture and design of mental health institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dirk; Hoffmann, Holger

    2014-04-01

    The physical environment of mental health institutions is regarded as a therapeutic agent within the treatment. There is only little scientific evidence on the consequences of architecture and design on psychiatric patients available. A systematic review was conducted on studies from adult mental health institutions. 25 studies were included into the review. Pre-post-studies and control group conditions were predominant study designs. Randomized controlled trials were not available. Interventions reached from art installations up to entire ward renovations. Outcome indicators were rather heterogeneous, including psychopathology, behavioural observations and aggression incidents. Overwhelmingly, the studies revealed positive results of interventions into the physical environment. We found positive outcomes independent from the intervention in detail. This result should be interpreted in the light of the generally low study quality and further methodological problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Workplace Violence in Mental Health: A Victorian Mental Health Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, Michael A; Prematunga, Roshani Kanchana; Norris, Stephen J; Williams, Lloyd; Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    The international literature suggests workplace violence in mental health settings is a significant issue, yet little is known about the frequency, nature, severity and health consequences of staff exposure to violence in Australian mental health services. To address this gap, we examined these aspects of workplace violence as reported by mental health services employees in Victoria, Australia. The project used a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive design. A random sample of 1600 Health and Community Services Union members were invited to complete a survey investigating exposure to violence in the workplace, and related psychological health outcomes. Participants comprised employees from multiple disciplines including nursing, social work, occupational therapy, psychology and administration staff. A total of 411 members responded to the survey (26% response rate). Of the total sample, 83% reported exposure to at least one form of violence in the previous 12 months. The most frequently reported form of violence was verbal abuse (80%) followed by physical violence (34%) and then bullying/mobbing (30%). Almost one in three victims of violence (33%) rated themselves as being in psychological distress, 54% of whom reported being in severe psychological distress. The more forms of violence to which victims were exposed, the greater the frequency of reports of psychological distress. Workplace violence is prevalent in mental health facilities in Victoria. The nature, severity and health impact of this violence represents a serious safety concern for mental health employees. Strategies must be considered and implemented by healthcare management and policy makers to reduce and prevent violence. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. What does self rated mental health represent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Levinson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health

  12. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  13. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet Ayano

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  14. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique da Costa Leão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  15. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Gomez, Carlos Minayo

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST). Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  16. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13. Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. FINDINGS: Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%. Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. CONCLUSION: War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction.

  17. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    OpenAIRE

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can pro...

  18. Prevalence and consequences of the dual diagnosis of substance abuse and severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a severe mental illness and a substance use or abuse disorder is common in the United States as well as internationally and could be considered as more the expectation than the exception when assessing patients with serious mental illness. Substance use disorders can occur at any phase of the mental illness, perhaps even inducing psychosis. Causes of this comorbidity may include self-medication, genetic vulnerability, environment or lifestyle, underlying shared origins, and/or a common neural substrate. The consequences of dual diagnosis include poor medication compliance, physical comorbidities and poor health, poor self-care, increased suicide risk or aggression, increased sexual behavior, and possible incarceration. All of these factors contribute to a greater health burden, which reduces the health care system's capacity to adequately treat patients. Therefore, screening, assessment, and integrated treatment plans for dual diagnosis that can address both the addiction disorder and the mental illness are recommended in order to provide accurate treatment, after-care, and other health care to accommodate patients' social and vocational needs.

  19. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  20. Media and Mental Health in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.

  1. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.

  2. Naturaleza de los abusos sexuales a menores y consecuencias en la salud mental de las víctimas Characteristics of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences on victims' mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Rosario Cortés Arboleda; José Cantón Duarte; David Cantón-Cortés

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el grupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5%) estudiantes manif...

  3. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  4. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gärtner, F.R.; Ketelaar, S.M.; Smeets, O.; Bolier, L.; Fischer, E.; van Dijk, F.J.H.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions

  5. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  6. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the

  7. Generational attitudes of rural mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael

    2009-04-01

    To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.

  8. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  9. Social context and consequences of mental illness in changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness has very close and intimate relationship with societal factors and components. There have been many theoretical postulations that come from time to time to explain this relationship. Mental disorder has definite aetiological association with various socio-cultural and economic factors, and ideal interventions of mental disorders should include equal appraisal to biological, psychological, and social aspects.

  10. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.

  11. Mental health among students of pedagogical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.

  12. Social inclusion and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  13. Adult Education and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladi Škerbinek

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore under­standable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.

  14. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Teen Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trichotillomania (Nemours Foundation) Health Check Tools How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) (Nemours Foundation) Statistics and Research Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) ...

  16. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2012-06-01

    SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.

  17. Mental health triage in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.

  18. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  19. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  20. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  1. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  2. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  3. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.

  4. Developing Mental Health Peer Counselling Services for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.

  5. Information in mental health: qualitative study of mental health service users

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Background  Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.

  6. D-day for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-16

    THERE COULD be no better time for a review of mental health nursing. It is 11 years since the last one, which in itself suggests change must be overdue if professional practice is to keep pace with health service reforms. As the largest professional group in mental health care, nurses will be relied on to deliver the reforms outlined in the Mental Health Bill, as well as the measures to improve race equality in the service. Nurses will also be promoting good mental health as outlined in last autumn's public health white paper. All these initiatives can only benefit from the chance to take stock.

  7. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…

  8. Interwoven histories: Mental health nurses with experience of mental illness, qualitative findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jennifer; Drey, Nicholas; Jones, Julia

    2018-02-15

    The effects of mental health nurses' own experience of mental illness or being a carer have rarely been researched beyond the workplace setting. This study aimed to explore how the experience of mental illness affects mental health nurses' lives outside of and inside work. A sample of 26 mental health nurses with personal experience of mental illness took part in semistructured interviews. Data were analysed thematically using a six-phase approach. The analysis revealed the broad context of nurses' experiences of mental illness according to three interwoven themes: mental illness as part of family life; experience of accessing services; and life interwoven with mental illness. Participants typically described personal and familial experience of mental illness across their life course, with multiple causes and consequences. The findings suggest that nurses' lives outside of work should be taken into account when considering the impact of their personal experience of mental illness. Similarly being a nurse influences how mental illness is experienced. Treatment of nurses with mental illness should account for their nursing expertise whilst recognizing that the context for nurses' mental illness could be much broader than the effect of workplace stress. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Lessons learned from unintended consequences about erasing the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-02-01

    Advocates and scientists have partnered to develop and evaluate programs meant to erase the egregious effects of the different forms of stigma. Enough evidence has been collected to yield lessons about approaches to stigma change. Some of the most insightful of these lessons emerge from unintended consequences of good intentioned approaches, and are the focus of this paper. They include the limited benefits of education especially when compared to contact, beating stigma is more than changing words, beware pity as a message, understand the competing agendas of stigma change, replace ideas of normalcy with solidarity, and avoid framing self-stigma as the problem of people with mental illness and not of society. The paper ends with consideration of the back seat role that psychiatrists and other mental health providers should have in stigma change. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  10. Mental health, participation and social identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril

    2017-01-01

    pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....

  11. Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Funk, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...

  12. Feminism, eating, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J H

    1991-03-01

    Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.

  13. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  14. European military mental health research: benefits of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Willmund, G D; Wesemann, U; Jones, N; Fear, N T

    2017-06-01

    Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel. This could include the study of resilience factors, the prevention of mental disorder, mental health awareness, stigma reduction and the treatment of mental disorder. Military mental health research topics, interests and the studies that have been conducted to date in the UK and Germany have considerable overlap and commonality of purpose. To undertake the investigation of the long-term consequences of operational deployment, the specific burdens placed on military families and to further the understanding of the role of factors such as biomarkers for use in military mental health research, it seems advisable to forge international research alliances across European nations, which would allow for researchers to draw transcultural and generalisable conclusions from their work. Such an enterprise is probably worthwhile given the shared research interests of Germany and the UK and the common perspectives on military mental health in particular. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  16. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  17. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers...... was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were......, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients...

  18. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    sunmi cho; yunmi shin

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...

  19. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...

  20. Factors for success in mental health advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456

  1. Factors for success in mental health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and severe mental illness: evolution and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Winkelman, John W

    2012-10-01

    Sleep complaints are commonly encountered in psychiatric clinics. Underlying medical disorders or sleep disorders need to be identified and treated to optimize treatment of the mental illness. Excessive daytime sleepiness, which is the main symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), overlaps with those of many severe mental illnesses. Medication side effects or the disorder itself maybe account for daytime sleepiness but comorbid OSA is a possibility that should not be overlooked. The diagnosis of OSA is straightforward but treatment compliance is problematic in psychiatric patients. This article summarizes studies concerning comorbid OSA in patients with severe mental illness and includes suggestions for future investigations.

  3. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  4. New Developments in Mental Health and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fazenda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The community mental health model implies a bio‐psycho‐social perspective of mental health/illness issues, as well as a set of values that advocate equity in service access, community treatment, respect for human rights, a recovery vision, promotion of independent living, social integration and user and family participation. In accordance with the priorities set by the European Union, mental health services must guarantee that these principles are applied in the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and promotion of mental health. Inter‐sector cooperation is an essential part of developing transversal policies that ensure society’s involvement in mental health promotion. Advances in community mental health in‐ dicate the relevance of considering human rights both in policy development and in practice, of the recovery perspective and of the need to promote the participation of user and carer organizations.

  5. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  6. [Interventions for mental health sequelae of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenendt, J

    2014-06-01

    Emergency psychology and psychotraumatology deal with the psychological sequelae of traumatic experiences, i.e., the prevention and early intervention of posttraumatic mental health disorders. Accidents are the most prevalent traumatic events in the general population that may result in a range of severe trauma and adjustment disorders. Accidents happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and can gravely threaten health, personal integrity, and life. The prevalence of intermittent and chronic psychiatric disorders in the aftermath of severe accidents varies between 5 and 30 %. Victims suffer from unknown and frightening posttraumatic symptoms, often irreversible handicaps as a consequence of their injuries, impairments in everyday functioning, and negative impact on the quality of life. The direct and indirect burden for society is high. Comprehensive secondary prevention, starting with early detection and early intervention of post-accident disorders, is not well established in clinical care. In case of severe accidental injuries, emergency and medical treatment has absolute priority. But all too often, severe mental health problems remain undetected in later treatment phases and therefore cannot be addressed adequately. In primary care, knowledge of specific psychodiagnostic and treatment options is still insufficient. Prejudices, denial, and fear of stigmatization in traumatized victims as well as practical constraints (availability, waiting time) in the referral to special evidence-based interventions limit the access to adequate and effective support. This overview presents the objectives, concepts, and therapeutic tools of a stepped-care model for psychological symptoms after accidental trauma, with reference to clinical guidelines.

  7. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  8. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  9. EDITORIAL Mental Health and Society's Perceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the six leading causes of years lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, alcohol- use disorders ... In addition to the health and social costs, those suffering from mental illnesses are also victims of ... int/mental_health/media/investing_mnh.pdf (accessed 25 Feb 2017). 2. Ministry of Health ...

  10. Focus on climate change and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.

  11. The Health Consequences of Obesity in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Medlow, Sharon; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are gaining weight faster than any age group. This weight gain and the appearance of obesity-related comorbidities often commence in adolescence. Psychosocial distress and mental health issues are common and debilitating, and treatment approaches are likely to be similar to those for adolescents. At the same time, young adults may have physical morbidities which will continue and worsen throughout adulthood, such as hypertension, diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Health consequences of obesity are challenging to manage in young adults as their symptoms may be minimal, they are less likely to engage with healthcare due to other life priorities and their neurocognitive developmental stage makes therapy adherence difficult. Clinicians who manage young adults with obesity need to be aware of these age-specific challenges, as well as the sexual and reproductive health concerns that are present in this age group.

  12. Oxford textbook of women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2010-01-01

    .... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...

  13. Mental health promotion in comprehensive schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia

    2012-01-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowle......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...

  15. Reciprocity in global mental health policy

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ross; Sashidharan, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to address inequalities and inequities in mental health provision in low\\ud and middle-income countries the WHO commenced the Mental Health Gap Action\\ud Programme (mhGAP) in 2008. Four years on from the commencement of this\\ud programme of work, the WHO has recently adopted the Comprehensive Mental\\ud Health Action Plan 2013-2020. This article will critically appraise the strategic\\ud direction that the WHO has adopted to address mental health difficulties across the\\ud globe. ...

  16. Oxford textbook of women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2010-01-01

    ... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...

  17. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  18. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...

  19. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  20. Current models of positive mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .

  1. Art and mental health in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee

    2015-12-01

    To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Challenges in mental health nursing: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabella D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donna Sabella, Theresa Fay-Hillier College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current mental health care system in the US continues to struggle with providing adequate care and services to all that require it due to limited resources, biases from both other professions and the public, and the complexities of treatment of many of those individuals or populations that suffer from mental illness. Mental health nurses, also referred to as psychiatric nurses, are impacted by those same biases, limited resources, and complexities in their role. This paper provides a brief history of mental health nursing and a discussion of the current challenges faced within the profession. It will also include how the public's perception of both those who have mental illness and those who treat it is based on the sensationalism of those who are violent, and misunderstanding of current treatments. It is imperative that mental health nurses continue to define and educate other health care professionals as well as the general public of the role of the mental health nurse and those who suffer from mental illness. Unfortunately, some of the same bias that was present in the 1930s remains today, but perhaps with perseverance and education it will not continue into the future. Keywords: mental health, psychiatric nursing, pre- licensure, post-licensure challenges, professional obstacles, public perception

  3. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  4. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Pillay

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.

  5. Centralized vs. decentralized child mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M S

    1977-09-01

    One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.

  6. Australian Rotary Health: a major contributor to mental illness research and mental health awareness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy

    2012-08-01

    Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.

  7. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.

  8. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.

  9. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Holistic health: does it really include mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-03-14

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  11. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K. McClanahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  12. Making mental health an integral part of sustainable development: the contribution of a social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, M J

    2015-04-01

    There have been repeated calls to include mental health in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), arguing that progress in development will not be made without improvements in mental health. Although these calls are starting to gain political traction, currently only a tiny fraction of international development work includes mental health. A social determinants framework may be useful in incorporating mental health into sustainable development because it promotes a multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach which is the corner stone of good development practice. Two approaches are suggested to make mental health a part of sustainable development: (1) integrate mental health into existing development programmes to promote social and economic environments that prevent mental health problems developing; (2) ensure that mental health programmes are better at promoting sustainable development by preventing the negative social and economic consequences of mental illness. Real-world examples of these approaches are provided. To achieve this, the mental health impact of wider development programmes, and the social and economic consequences of mental health interventions, must be evaluated. Development agencies should ensure that they have equity for mental health in all their policies, and investment must be increased for those mental health prevention, promotion and treatment programmes which have the greatest impact on sustainable development. The SDGs bring the promise of a more holistic approach to development. It is now the task of global mental health to demonstrate not just that mental health is an integral part of sustainable development, but that affordable and effective solutions exist which can improve mental health and development more broadly.

  13. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study

    2002-01-01

    In Greenland, the rapid sociocultural change of the last 50 years has been paralleled by an epidemiological transition characterized by a reduction in infectious diseases, an increase in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and an increased prevalence of mental health problems. During 1993......-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according...... of poor mental health: as a result of successful integration into the modern Greenlandic society, some population groups have better mental health compared to other groups....

  14. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  15. Diagnosing Job Satisfaction in Mental Health Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, William E.; Konick, Andrew

    Job satisfaction in mental health organizations has been a neglected research topic, in spite of the fact that mental health organizations themselves are concerned with quality of life issues. To study job satisfaction at three long-term public psychiatric hospitals, the Job Satisfaction Index was administered to 44 direct service employees. In…

  16. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  17. Children's Mental Health and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis

    2004-01-01

    An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…

  18. Mental Health and Work: Issues and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lou, Ed.; Verins, Irene, Ed.; Willis, Eileen, Ed.

    In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mental health and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…

  19. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marketing and Community Mental Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferniany, Isaac W.; Garove, William E.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a marketing approach can be applied to community mental health centers. Marketing is a management orientation of providing services for, not to, patients in a systematic manner, which can help mental health centers improve services, strengthen community image, achieve financial independence and aid in staff recruitment. (Author)

  1. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  2. Maternal problem drinking and child mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:

  3. Positive Mental Health; measurement, relevance and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal

  4. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  5. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  6. Promoting mental health as an essential aspect of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Shona

    2006-12-01

    This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.

  7. An Examination of the Leadership Practices That Support and Sustain School Based Mental Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that children in the United States present with a myriad of mental health concerns, and that those concerns can develop into mental illness if not treated. The consequences of mental illness on students' life both in an out of school is well documented. The need to provide effective treatment to children is also…

  8. Community Mental Health Clinic Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...

  9. Some Consequences of Changing People's Views Regarding the Nature of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Amerigo; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The major focus of the three studies reported was the consequences of changing public conceptions of mental illness for the sufferer and his family. In two identically performed studies, two messages (one describing mental illness as a disease and the other as a product of social learning) were effective in changing beliefs. (Editor/RK)

  10. Malaysia's social policies on mental health: a critical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A Rahamuthulla

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the social policies on mental health and mental illness in Malaysia. Using critical theory, major policy issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness such as mental health legislation, prevalence rates and quality of services available to the people with mental health problems are discussed in detail. Implications of these issues on persons with mental health problems are critically evaluated. The paper highlights that the other countries in ASEAN region also require similar review by policy literature.

  11. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  12. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.

  13. A novel surveillance approach for disaster mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gruebner

    Full Text Available Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1 identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2 detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions.We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan and a geographic information system (QGIS to detect and map excess risk of these emotions.Sadness and disgust were among the most prominent emotions identified. Furthermore, we noted 24 spatial clusters of excess risk of basic emotions over time: Four for anger, one for confusion, three for disgust, five for fear, five for sadness, and six for surprise. Of these, anger, confusion, disgust and fear clusters appeared pre disaster, a cluster of surprise was found peri disaster, and a cluster of sadness emerged post disaster.We proposed a novel syndromic surveillance approach for mental health based on social media data that may support conventional approaches by providing useful additional information in the context of disaster. We showed that excess risk of multiple basic emotions could be mapped in space and time as a step towards anticipating acute stress in the population and identifying community mental health need rapidly and efficiently in the aftermath of disaster. More studies are needed to better control for bias, identify associations with reliable and valid instruments measuring mental health, and to explore computational methods for continued model-fitting, causal relationships, and ongoing evaluation. Our study may be a starting point also for more fully elaborated models that can

  14. Transformation of children's mental health services: the role of school mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Weist, Mark; Kataoka, Sheryl; Adelsheim, Steven; Mills, Carrie

    2007-10-01

    The New Freedom Commission has called for a transformation in the delivery of mental health services in this country. The commission's report and recommendations have highlighted the role of school mental health services in transforming mental health care for children and adolescents. This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system. Schools are uniquely positioned to play a central role in improving access to child mental health services and in supporting mental health and wellness as well as academic functioning of youths. The New Freedom Commission report articulated several goals related to school mental health: reducing stigma, preventing suicide, improving screening and treating co-occurring disorders, and expanding school mental health programs. The authors suggest strategies for change, including demonstrating relevance to schools, developing consensus among stakeholders, enhancing community mental health-school connections, building quality assessment and improvement, and considering the organizational context of schools.

  15. Perceived barriers on mental health services by the family of patients with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr Dian Tristiana

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.

  16. Mental Health and Illness in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....

  17. Nurse competencies for health promotion in the mental health context

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar,Maria Isis Freire de; Lima,Hélder de Pádua; Braga,Violante Augusta Batista; Aquino,Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro,Ana Karina Bezerra; Ximenes,Lorena Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the competencies of nurses to health promotion in psychiatric and mental health context. METHODS: Integrative review of literature performed through search using the keywords: "mental health" and "professional competence", in the databases SciELO, LILACS, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane, in the period of 2003 to 2011. 215 studies were identified, of these, six followed the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Based on the National Panel for Psychiatric Mental Health NP Comp...

  18. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  19. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  20. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  1. Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program: facilitating physical health care for people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David

    2013-10-01

    People with serious mental illness have increased rates of physical ill-health and reduced contact with primary care services. In Australia, the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) was developed to facilitate access to mental health services. However, as a primary care service, the contribution to physical health care is worthy of consideration. Thirty-eight nurses who were part of the MHNIP participated in a national survey of nurses working in mental health about physical health care. The survey invited nurses to report their views on the physical health of consumers and the regularity of physical health care they provide. Physical health-care provision in collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) and other health-care professionals was reported as common. The findings suggest that the MHNIP provides integrated care, where nurses and GPs work in collaboration, allowing enough time to discuss physical health or share physical health activities. Consumers of this service appeared to have good access to physical and mental health services, and nurses had access to primary care professionals to discuss consumers' physical health and develop their clinical skills in the physical domain. The MHNIP has an important role in addressing physical health concerns, in addition to the mental health issues of people accessing this service. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the Workplace: ... of optimal employee mental health to sustainable human capital development in the ... can be mobilized to promote the entrenchment of workplace mental health.

  3. Psychometric properties of a Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roncalli, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).

  4. Anticipating the Future of Mental Health Needs on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The provision of college mental health services is undergoing a dynamic evolution. The ability of mental health practitioners and administrators to balance multiple and sometimes opposing trends may determine the future course of mental health services in higher education.

  5. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…

  6. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  7. Gender differences in substance use, consequences, motivation to change, and treatment seeking in people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender.

  8. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  9. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  10. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Lehtinen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in

  11. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  12. Citizenship and Community Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Allison N; Rowe, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members. We then discuss our citizenship research at both individual and social-environmental levels, including previous, current, and planned efforts. We also discuss the role of community psychology and psychologists in advancing citizenship and other themes relevant to a citizenship perspective on mental health care and persons with mental illness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  13. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  14. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  15. Same-sex marriage and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  16. Deployment, Mental Health Problems, Suicidality, and Use of Mental Health Services Among Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Following deployment, soldiers may struggle to cope with the after-effects of combat service and experience increased suicidality. Therefore, connection to mental health services is vital. Research regarding the relationship between deployment, suicidality, and mental health connections has been equivocal, with some studies finding a link between deployment history and mental health outcomes, and others not. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of military deployment on mental health and service utilization outcomes using a longitudinal design. Deployment history, mental health visits, symptoms of suicidality, and various mental health outcomes were assessed in a sample of 1,566 Army recruiters at study entry and 18-months follow-up. Deployment history was positively associated with mental health visits, number of major depressive episodes, and acquired capability for suicide at baseline; however, no significant relationship between deployment, mental health visits, and any other suicide or mental health-related outcomes emerged at baseline or follow-up. Findings suggest a disconnection from mental health services among military personnel. Implications for treatment and suicide prevention efforts among military personnel are discussed.

  17. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  18. The association of PTSD with physical and mental health functioning and disability (VA Cooperative Study #569: the course and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam-era Veteran twins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Kathryn M.; Forsberg, Christopher W.; Kazis, Lewis E.; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Friedman, Matthew J.; Litz, Brett T.; Vaccarino, Viola; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Gleason, Theresa C.; Huang, Grant D.; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with health functioning and disability in Vietnamera Veterans. Methods A cross-sectional study of functioning and disability in male Vietnam-era Veteran twins. PTSD was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; health functioning and disability were assessed using the Veterans RAND 36-Item Health Survey (VR-36) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). All data collection took place between 2010 and 2012. Results Average age of the 5,574 participating Veterans (2,102 Vietnam theater and 3,472 non-theater) was 61.0 years. Veterans with PTSD had poorer health functioning across all domains of VR-36 and increased disability for all subscales of WHODAS 2.0 (all p < .001) compared with Veterans without PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were in poorer overall health on the VR-36 physical composite summary (PCS) (effect size = 0.31 in theater and 0.47 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and mental composite summary (MCS) (effect size = 0.99 in theater and 0.78 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and had increased disability on the WHODAS 2.0 summary score (effect size = 1.02 in theater and 0.96 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both). Combat exposure, independent of PTSD status, was associated with lower PCS and MCS scores and increased disability (all p < .05, for trend). Within-pair analyses in twins discordant for PTSD produced consistent findings. Conclusions Vietnam-era Veterans with PTSD have diminished functioning and increased disability. The poor functional status of aging combat-exposed Veterans is of particular concern. PMID:24318083

  19. Integrating mental health into primary health care – Uganda's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most developing countries and indeed many African countries have been undertaking reforms of the mental health policies and strategies to improve access and equity for the community to mental health and psychiatric services. This has been in conformity with a health policy philosophy which emphasize decentralization ...

  20. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  1. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  2. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a

  4. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services. PMID:23072687

  5. Closing the Gap: Principal Perspectives on an Innovative School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate F.; Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Lechner, Ethan; Swick, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health needs among children in the United States have significant consequences for children and their families, as well as the schools that serve them. This qualitative study evaluated the second year of an innovative school-based mental health project that created a multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental…

  6. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  7. Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Ridder, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. Information was obtained on: a) the history of pregnancy/abortion for female participants over the interval from 15-25 years; b) measures of DSM-IV mental disorders and suicidal behaviour over the intervals 15-18, 18-21 and 21-25 years; and c) childhood, family and related confounding factors. Forty-one percent of women had become pregnant on at least one occasion prior to age 25, with 14.6% having an abortion. Those having an abortion had elevated rates of subsequent mental health problems including depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviours and substance use disorders. This association persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that abortion in young women may be associated with increased risks of mental health problems.

  8. Improving mental health systems in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problematic. To comment on mental health systems in Africa, .... be an option for assisting with both de-stigmatization and ... deinstitutionalization with a reduction in both chronic and ... such as the family, societal change, bullying in schools,.

  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Locators Find treatment facilities and programs in the United States or U.S. Territories for mental and substance use ... Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and ... and Local Government Partnerships Suicide Prevention Trauma and ...

  10. Coteaching Recovery to Mental Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christine; Lange, Mads; Jørgensen, Kim; Kistrup, Kristen; Petersen, Lone

    2018-06-01

    In 2010, the Regional Council of the Capital Region of Denmark endorsed a vision of mental health services based on personal recovery, rehabilitation, and the involvement of caregivers. Programs to achieve this vision include hiring peer support workers, a Recovery College, and service user participation at the organizational level. This column describes a cornerstone of these initiatives-an education program in the recovery model for mental health professionals. In 2013-2014, the Capital Region implemented 148 workshops on recovery-oriented services for all practitioner staff in mental health services in the region. The workshops featured a coteaching model, with both a mental health professional and an individual with lived experience serving as trainers. This model showed promise and should be expanded, including more targeted training for specific services. Such an expansion could be included in a national strategy for user involvement and recovery-oriented practice set to launch in 2018.

  11. Mental health interventions in schools 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092

  12. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  13. Psychiatric classification, stigma, and mental health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work on DSM-5 and ICD-11, and the simultaneous development of ... that we can ask about life. In this brief ... mental health literacy of colleagues, patients, decision- makers and the ... requires a judicious balance of the MEDICAL and MORAL.

  14. Natural disaster and mental health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.

  15. Mental health literacy: focus on developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indonesia, Pakistan, Brazil and Chile) found the median prevalence rate of ..... aspects of well-being of their patients.39 Programs aimed at integrating mental health ... tural beliefs and formulate their inclusion in an appropriate referral system.

  16. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees.

  17. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health and public welfare resources; including— (i) Community mental health centers; (ii) Nursing homes... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for mental...

  18. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A; Labunska, I; Blokov, I; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Stringer, R; Sadownichik, T [eds.; Antipkin, Yu G [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L P [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D A [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  19. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T.; Arabskaya, L.P.; Bazyka, D.A.

    2006-04-01

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  20. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  1. Measurement-based management of mental health quality and access in VHA: SAIL mental health domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A

    2017-02-01

    We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Toward a new architecture for global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Pedersen, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    Current efforts in global mental health (GMH) aim to address the inequities in mental health between low-income and high-income countries, as well as vulnerable populations within wealthy nations (e.g., indigenous peoples, refugees, urban poor). The main strategies promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other allies have been focused on developing, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based practices that can be scaled up through task-shifting and other methods to improve access to services or interventions and reduce the global treatment gap for mental disorders. Recent debates on global mental health have raised questions about the goals and consequences of current approaches. Some of these critiques emphasize the difficulties and potential dangers of applying Western categories, concepts, and interventions given the ways that culture shapes illness experience. The concern is that in the urgency to address disparities in global health, interventions that are not locally relevant and culturally consonant will be exported with negative effects including inappropriate diagnoses and interventions, increased stigma, and poor health outcomes. More fundamentally, exclusive attention to mental disorders identified by psychiatric nosologies may shift attention from social structural determinants of health that are among the root causes of global health disparities. This paper addresses these critiques and suggests how the GMH movement can respond through appropriate modes of community-based practice and ongoing research, while continuing to work for greater equity and social justice in access to effective, socially relevant, culturally safe and appropriate mental health care on a global scale. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Gender, multiple roles, role meaning, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R W

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines gender differences in the consequences of combining spouse, parent, and worker roles for mental health. I suggest that work and family roles have different meanings for males and females, and that differences in the meaning of these roles may be partially responsible for why the mental health advantages of holding multiple roles are fewer for women than for men. Based on qualitative analyses of follow-up, in-depth interviews with 40 employed married parents who participated in a community panel study of mental health, I find that sex differences in the perceived relationship between work and family roles may help account for sex differences in distress by contributing to male-female differences in both the extent and nature of work-parent conflicts, attributions of responsibility for marital problems, feelings of guilt, and self-evaluations as parents and spouses. By identifying gender differences in the meaning of roles among individuals who have the same multiple role configuration, and suggesting how these differences can help explain sex differences in well-being; this research may expand existing theories about the mental health consequences of multiple role involvements.

  4. Ethnic differences in mental illness and mental health service use among Black fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Joe, Sean; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-05-01

    We have presented nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of mental illness and mental health service use among African American and Caribbean Black (US-born and foreign-born) fathers in the United States. We have reported national estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of mental illness, correlates, and service use among African American (n = 1254) and Caribbean Black (n = 633) fathers using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household survey of Black Americans. We used bivariate cross-tabulations and Cox proportional hazards regression approaches and adjusted for the National Survey of American Life's complex sample design. The prevalence of mental illness, sociodemographic correlates, and service use among Black fathers varied by ethnicity and nativity. US-born Caribbean Black fathers had alarmingly high rates of most disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance disorders. Mental health service use was particularly low for African American and foreign-born Caribbean Black fathers. These results demonstrate the need for more research on the causes and consequences of mental illness and the help-seeking behavior of ethnically diverse Black fathers.

  5. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-01-01

    stigma include patients being trapped in a vicious cycle of discrimination leading to detrimental consequences for the individual, their families, communities and society as a whole. There is a pressing need to address stigma of mental illness and its consequences, especially through raising awareness of mental health and wellbeing in Malaysia, as reported by the mental health professionals.

  6. [Professional stressors and common mental health disorders: Causal links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M

    2017-03-22

    protective factors. Regarding professional difficulties present in the last five years, data were collected on different kinds of adversities such as difficulties in finding a job, periods of unemployment, frequent job changes, difficult working conditions, discrimination, difficult working relationships with colleagues and with employers, moral harassment and family-work conflicts. Participants with common mental health disorders are more concerned about having general professional difficulties at work and about having difficult working relationships with employers. However, difficulties related to other spheres of life do not differentiate the two groups. It is possible that the work environment is linked to common mental health disorders. In particular, having general professional stressors at the work place and having difficult relationships with employers can impact the occurrence of common mental health disorders. Inversely, these stressors at work can be the consequence of a common mental health disorder. Complementary studies are of interest. Professional stressors can constitute an essential part in the occurrence of common mental health disorders. Thus, the workplace seems a priority environment for deploying effective mental health prevention strategies. Moreover, this can be a strategy for organizations to improve the work climate and to increase productivity. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Supporting Student Mental Health: The Role of the School Nurse in Coordinated School Mental Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole

    2015-01-01

    School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…

  8. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y

    2008-09-01

    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.

  9. Religiousness and mental health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira-Almeida Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  10. Religiousness and mental health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Koenig, Harold G

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness). Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  11. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and

  13. Mental health functioning (SF-36) and intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Silventoinen, Karri

    2006-01-01

    To examine the associations of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees. Cross-sectional survey data (n = 7,765) from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000, 2001, and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were sought with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" The dependent variable was divided into three categories: 1 = no intentions to retire early; 2 = weak intentions; 3 = strong intentions. Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Other variables included age, sex, physical health functioning (SF-36), limiting longstanding illness, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status. Multinomial regression analysis was used to examine the association of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early. Employees with the poorest mental health functioning were much more likely to report strong intentions to retire early (OR 6.09, 95% CI 4.97-7.47) than those with the best mental health functioning. Adjustments for physical health, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status did not substantially affect this association. The findings highlight the importance of mental health for intentions to retire early. Strategies aimed at keeping people at work for longer should emphasize the importance of mental well-being and the prevention of poor mental health. More evidence is needed on why mental problems among ageing baby-boomer employees are giving rise to increasing social consequences, although the overall prevalence of mental problems has not increased.

  14. Contradictions In Mental Health: Stigma, Mental Health Literacy And Disclosure (Or Not Of A Mental Disorder Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manuel torres cubeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs. Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.

  15. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.

  16. Community mental health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavati, R

    2005-04-01

    Recent times are witnessing methods in the various forms of community care for the mentally ill in India. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) play a pivotal role in filling the gap in the existing mental health services in India and the substantial need for these services. Various strategies that have been employed in community care have attempted to utilize existing community resources for implementation. Informal manpower resources incorporated with specialist psychiatric care and integrated with existing health care facilities have been general strategies. While the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the NGO operated community outreach programs for the mentally ill have been demonstrated, various factors are seen to influence the planning and execution of such programs. This paper elucidates some critical factors that would need to be considered in community mental health care in India.

  17. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. Loss, stress, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, G

    1990-02-01

    1. The loss of an attachment to a loved person or of some other significant attachment leads to a prolonged period of distress and disability. 2. The upset feelings are usually associated with reduction in cognitive effectiveness and problem-solving capacity, the magnitude of which is dependent on the intensity and duration of emotional arousal. There is a reduced capacity for collecting and processing information and for access to relevant memories that associate significant meaning to perceptions. There is also a deterioration in the clarity of the person's self-concept and in his capacity to assess his ability to persevere in the face of discomfort, which weakens his will to struggle. 3. The disability following loss of an attachment is the product of three interlocking factors: (a) the pain of the rupture in the bond and the agony of coming to terms with this reality, (b) the handicapping privation of the missing assets previously derived from the lost person or resource, and (c) the cognitive erosion and reduction in problem-solving capacities and of the will to persevere. 4. These factors may lead to poor mental health in the form of an acute adjustment disorder, or else of chronic psychopathology if the individual uses maladaptive ways of trying to escape his burdens through alienation from reality or through the irrational mechanisms of psychoneurotic symptoms, or if prolonged emotional tension leads to malfunctioning of a bodily system. On the other hand, if the individual masters his problems by working out ways of effective coping, he may emerge from the experience with increased competence and resilience. 5. Eventual mastery of the burdensome experience involves reorganization of the individual's "assumptive world," namely of his intrapsychic maps of external reality and his internal system for guiding and motivating his behavior, which have been disorganized by the loss of their anchorage in the ruptured attachment. 6. This reorganization is helped by

  19. Settling Ulysses: An Adapted Research Agenda for Refugee Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Yudit; Razum, Oliver

    2017-11-08

    Refugees and asylum seekers arriving in Europe during the 2015/2016 wave of migration have been exposed to war conditions in their country of origin, survived a dangerous journey, and often struggled with negative reception in transit and host countries. The mental health consequence of such forced migration experiences is named the Ulysses syndrome. Policies regarding the right to residency can play an important role in reducing mental health symptoms. We propose that facilitating a sense of belonging should be seen as one important preventive mental healthcare intervention. A refugee mental health agenda needs to take into account the interplay between refugees' and asylum seekers' mental health, feeling of belonging, and access to healthcare. We urge for policies to restore individuals' dignity, and recognize the right for homecoming to parallel the mythology of Ulysses. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Reducing mental health stigma: the relationship between knowledge and attitude change

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Laura; Jones, Tim; Bradley, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    The impact of how knowledge can effect attitude change is important in order to understand the consequences for stigma. The relationship between increasing subject knowledge of mental health and attitude change was explored. The sample comprised 39 students (18 male and 21 female) from a university in the West Midlands. Participants’ level of knowledge and stigma were recorded through pre- and post-tests using the Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), Community Attitudes toward the Mentall...

  1. Strategies to address mental health through schools with examples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Magner, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately one in five young people under the age of 18 experiences some form of developmental, emotional or behavioural problem, and one in eight experiences a mental disorder. Because research shows that half of adult mental disorders begin before the age of 14 and that early intervention can prevent and reduce more serious consequences later in life, it is critical to expand the role of mental health professionals with schools worldwide. Schools have the potential to affect the mental health of millions of young people, as well as those who work in schools. Research indicates that programmes promoting mental health are among the most effective of health promoting school efforts. This paper discusses the health promoting schools framework, reviews effective strategies for promoting mental health in schools, and provides examples from Zhejiang Province, China. This article also discusses the key roles that mental health professionals can play in promoting mental health through schools. As advocates, policy makers, researchers and teachers, mental health professionals can bridge the sectors of education, mental health and public health. Developing common frameworks and interdisciplinary training will create a foundation of shared understanding to achieve this goal.

  2. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  3. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.

  4. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703

  5. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  6. Mental illness stigma and disclosure: consequences of coming out of the closet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arjan E R; Kanner, Daphne; Muris, Peter; Janssen, Birgit; Mayer, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated disclosure patterns among mental health consumers (N = 500) and examined the relationships among disclosure, perceived stigmatization, perceived social support, and self-esteem. Results suggest that selective disclosure optimizes social support and limits stigmatization. Perceived stigmatization has a detrimental impact on self-esteem, especially for those who are relatively open about their mental disorder.

  7. Leaders' mental health at work: Empirical, methodological, and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika

    2017-07-01

    While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  9. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Mental Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzelman, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…

  10. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  11. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  12. Systematic review of women veterans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah S. Daar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps. There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

  14. Recovery orientation in mental health inpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Offering mental health treatment in line with a recovery-oriented practice has become an objective in the mental health services in many countries. However, applying recovery-oriented practice in inpatient settings seems challenged by unclear and diverging definitions of the concept......-structured interviews were conducted with 14 inpatients from two mental health inpatient wards using an interview guide based on factors from the Recovery Self-Assessment. Qualitative content analysis was applied in the analysis. Six themes covering the participants’ experiences were identified. The participants felt...... accepted and protected in the ward and found comfort in being around other people but missed talking and engaging with health professionals. They described limited choice and influence on the course of their treatment, and low information levels regarding their treatment, which they considered to consist...

  15. Mental health research and philanthropy: possible partnerships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Mental health research has received relatively little philanthropic support in Australia compared with other areas of health research. Philanthropic trusts do not generally provide recurrent funding or make grants for that perceived to be the responsibility of the state or the market. The emergence of 'strategic philanthropy' however, provides potential for mental health researchers to form partnerships with philanthropic foundations, particularly on initiatives that are focused on prevention and innovative and sustainable models with the capacity to 'go to scale' across the service system.

  16. Mental Health First Aid: A Useful Tool for School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Joy

    2017-11-01

    School nurses address mental health issues of youth on a daily basis. These mental health issues include substance abuse, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation. Mental health first aid is a process that seeks to help medical professionals and laypeople recognize and address someone that is having a mental health or substance abuse crisis. This article will describe an experience with a student having suicidal ideations and how the mental health action plan was used.

  17. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk

    2012-01-01

    Background: The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing

  18. Exploring causes and consequences of sex workers' psychological health: Implications for health care policy. A study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Andrés Palacios; González, Ruth Pinedo; de la Iglesia Gutiérrez, Myriam

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the researchers is to explore the causes and consequences of the psychological health of sex workers as well as provide an intervention model for the prevention of mental disorders in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) levels. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from Spain. Loneliness and maltreatment have a negative influence on psychological health, while self-esteem has a protector role over psychological health. Psychological health has a positive impact on perceived quality of life and other health domains. On the contrary, psychological health has a negative impact on drug use and symptoms of anxiety. Data are discussed.

  19. Women's Occupational Stress and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    篠塚, 英子

    2007-01-01

    Since the Law of Equal Opportunity and Treatment between Men and Women in Employment took effect 20 years ago, equality of the sexes has been established as a social ideal. Naturally, there are now more places for women to succeed in the labor market. Another social issue has emerged, however, from this situation, that of mental health. This paper analyzes from a gender perspective the serious problem of emotional disorders( mental health) in the workplace arising from the intensification of ...

  20. Firefighting and mental health: Experiences of repeated exposure to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Haddock, Christopher K; Murphy, Beth

    2016-02-15

    Firefighters must be ready to respond to a broad range of emergencies every duty day. In the course of many of these emergencies, firefighters witness events which have the potential to induce emotional trauma, such as badly injured people, deceased children, and individuals who are highly distraught. Previous research suggests that repeated exposure to these traumas (RET) may have negative impacts on the emotional and mental health of fire service personnel. Research on the mental health of firefighters has been limited to small surveys reporting the prevalence of specific mental health problems such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among firefighters. Despite the likelihood that RET leads to negative outcomes in firefighters, data is lacking on how exposure impacts fire service personnel. The current study examines the experiences of firefighters related to RET. Using formative research methods, we examined the beliefs and experiences of firefighters and administrators from across the United States regarding the impact of RET on firefighter health. Study findings highlight the cumulative psychological toll of repeated exposure to traumatic events including desensitization, flashbacks, and irritability. Results of the current study suggest that RET is a significant concern for emergency responders that warrants additional research and attention. It is likely that the long term consequences of RET are closely intertwined with other mental health outcomes and general well-being of this important occupational group.

  1. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  2. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  3. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion and mental health: Evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-12-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion (2008). Major methodological problems pervaded most of the research reviewed. The most rigorous studies indicated that within the United States, the relative risk of mental health problems among adult women who have a single, legal, first-trimester abortion of an unwanted pregnancy is no greater than the risk among women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. Evidence did not support the claim that observed associations between abortion and mental health problems are caused by abortion per se as opposed to other preexisting and co-occurring risk factors. Most adult women who terminate a pregnancy do not experience mental health problems. Some women do, however. It is important that women's varied experiences of abortion be recognized, validated, and understood. 2009 APA.

  5. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  6. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  7. Mental Health and the Transgender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Tamar C; Erickson-Schroth, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Although research into the physical and mental health disparities faced by transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) populations is becoming more popular, historically it has been limited. It is now recognized that TGNC people experience disproportionate rates of negative mental health outcomes relative to both their gender-normative, heterosexual peers, as well as their gender-normative lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. The theoretical basis of current transgender mental health research is rooted in the Minority Stress Model, which postulates that we live in a hetero-centric, gender-normative society that stigmatizes and discriminates against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, subjecting them to chronic stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012; Meyer, 1995). This chronic, potentially compounding stress, is responsible for the increased risk of negative mental health outcomes in LGBT populations. TGNC people, in particular, may experience more adverse outcomes than their LGB peers due to rejection and discrimination within society at large as well as within the LGB community. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(12), 44-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The Consequences of Official Labels: An Examination of the Rights Lost by the Mentally Ill and Mentally Incompetent Since 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea M; Klein, Michael S; Hemmens, Craig; Stohr, Mary K; Burton, Velmer S

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a survey of state statutes which restrict the civil rights of persons with a mental illness or who have been declared mentally incompetent. Five civil rights (voting, holding public office, jury service, parenting, and marriage) are examined. The results of this study are compared with the results of studies conducted in 1989 and 1999 to determine what changes have occurred over time in the restriction of civil rights of those suffering from mental health problems. This comparison reveals that states continue to restrict the rights of the mentally ill and incompetent, and that there is a trend towards increased restriction of political rights, including the right to vote and hold public office.

  9. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. The Meaning and Predictive Value of Self-rated Mental Health among Persons with a Mental Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry

    2018-06-01

    Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.

  11. Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng

    2015-04-01

    "Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Substance dependence and mental health in northern Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate of mental health in the substance dependents in Sari Township in 2011. Materials ... Keywords: Abuse and dependence, mental disorder, mental health, psychiatric research. Résumé ..... and education level among the drug addicts, as well. ... difference between mental health and being a single, .... employees of Arak.

  13. Mental Health Awareness Month & Speak Up for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…

  14. Evidence for Mental Health Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the evidence for mental health occupational therapy in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013. Descriptive and inductive methods were used to address this question, with evidence from CINAHL, OTDBase, PSYCInfo, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar® included. Many articles (n = 1,747 were found that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 47 different methods were used to develop evidence for mental health occupational therapy, and evidence appeared in 300 separate peer-reviewed journals. It takes on average 7 months for an article to progress from submission to acceptance, and a further 7 months to progress from acceptance to publication. More than 95% of articles published between 2000 and 2002 were cited at least once in the following decade, and around 70% of these citations were recorded in non-occupational therapy journals. The current evidence base for mental health occupational therapy is both substantial and diverse.

  15. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  16. Mental Health and Emotional Expression in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglee Duran Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the project “Mental health and emotional expression in Facebook”. The research was approached from the qualitative paradigm under virtual ethnographic approach, interpreting the findings through their own players and triangulated with the views of researchers and experts in the area of mental health, emotions and information technology and communication. We concluded that a good part of users vented their secrets on Facebook, where they are able to confide and express a range of emotions and intimacies that in the real context is unlikely to give. Along these findings show that the use of Facebook serves as a space for emotional expression impacting the mental and emotional health.

  17. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep

  18. Global mental health and the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan Merill; Langenecker, Scott; Arenliu, Aliriza

    2018-05-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project presents innovative ways of investigating mental illness based on behavioral and neurobiological measures of dimensional processes. Although cultural psychiatrists have critiqued RDoC's implications and limitations for its under-developed focus on context and experience, RDoC presents opportunities for synergies with global mental health. It can capture aspects of clinical or sub-clinical behavior which are less dependent upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) and perhaps better elucidate the role of culture in disease expression and resilience. Aim/Results: This article uses the example of migration to describe several starting points for new research: (1) providing components for building an investigable conceptual framework to understand individual's mental health, resilience and adjustment to migration challenges or social adversities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and (2) identifying measurable factors which determine resilience or vulnerability, to guide development and evaluation of targeted prevention, treatment and recovery strategies for mental health in LMICs. In such ways, RDoC frameworks could help put the new cutting edge neurobiological dimensional scientific advances in a position to contribute to addressing mental health problems amid social adversities in LMICs. However, this would require a much-expanded commitment by both RDoC and global mental health researchers to address contextual and experiential dimensions.

  19. [Family, Through Mental Health and Sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Internet and mental health of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development

  1. Popular Musician Responses to Mental Health Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Lloyd; King, Benjamin; Koenig, Jessica; McRoberts, Roger L

    2018-06-01

    Popular (i.e., nonclassical) musicians have higher rates of mental health disorders and mental health service utilization than the general population. Little is known, however, about how popular musicians perceive mental health interventions in terms of overall satisfaction and therapeutic benefit. An online client satisfaction survey was sent to all musicians and family members who received mental health services through a nonprofit mental health organization in Austin, Texas, between July 2014 and June 2015 (n=628). 260 individuals (41.4%) responded to the survey, of whom 94% (n=244) were musicians. A majority of musician respondents were male (60%) and white (82%). 87% received counseling, 32% received psychiatric medication treatment, and 8% received addiction recovery services. 97% of musicians (205/211) rated their counselor as 'very good' or 'excellent,' 88% (64/79) rated their psychiatric providers as 'very good' or 'excellent,' and 94% (17/19) rated their addiction recovery specialists as 'very good' or 'excellent' (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). 89% of musicians receiving counseling, 84% receiving psychiatric medication treatment, and 95% receiving addiction recovery services agreed or strongly agreed that their symptoms and overall functioning improved as a result of their treatment (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). Popular musicians express strong provider satisfaction and overall benefit when mental health interventions are accessible, affordable, and delivered by professionals familiar with their concerns. More research is needed to understand the unique psychosocial stresses popular musicians face to inform treatment planning for this high-risk, underserved population.

  2. Relationship between loneliness and mental health in students

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous cross-sectional research has examined effect of loneliness on mental health. This study aimed to examine longitudinal relationships in students. Design/Methodology: 454 British undergraduate students completed measures of loneliness and mental health at four time points.Findings: After controlling for demographics and baseline mental health, greater loneliness predicted greater anxiety, stress, depression and general mental health over time. There was no evidence that mental...

  3. Stress and mental health among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backović Dušan V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth­year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio­demographic data, self­reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ­12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one­half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ­12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078

  4. Can Completing a Mental Health Nursing Course Change Students' Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Todd; Kroposki, Margaret; Williams, Gail

    2017-05-01

    Nursing program graduates rarely choose mental health nursing as a career. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine attitudes of 310 nursing students towards persons with mental illness. Students completed surveys on the first and last days of their program's psychiatric mental health nursing course. The pre- and post-test survey analysis indicated that students improved their attitude, knowledge and preparedness to care for persons with mental illness. However, students maintained little interest in working as a mental health nurse. Modifications in mental health nursing courses could be made to improve students' interest in choosing a career in mental health nursing.

  5. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  6. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  7. Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Intervention Technology? Join a Study Learn More Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment Introduction ... What is NIMH’s Role in Mental Health Intervention Technology? Between FY2009 and FY2015, NIMH awarded 404 grants ...

  8. Use of interactive teaching techniques to introduce mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health sector face a high unmet mental health need due in part to the conflict itself, ... unemployment.9 In addition, high rates of female genital mutilation .... previously received formal mental health training, although AI ..... World Bank; 1st ed.

  9. Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fr James

    2017-11-01

    Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings and behavior may arise post-trafficking in individuals, although this does not appear to be mentioned thus far in the literature. Here, we are most likely dealing with a type of "pseudo-lesbianism" post-trauma. The trafficking survivor can be helped to understand some of the likely roots of her feelings such as anti-male sentiments following abuse. She needs to be patiently, and expertly, accompanied to process the trauma she has experienced, and learn how to meet her genuine needs for female affection and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways. Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing for such young women involves helping them to process their traumatic experiences, as well as patiently accompanying them as they seek to develop healthy, chaste friendships with other females and males.

  10. Urban mental health: Challenges and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. Recent findings: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban...... services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric...

  11. Gratitude: A Current Issue in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kardas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.

  12. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  13. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Toyama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru

  14. Educator Mental Health Literacy: A Programme Evaluation of the Teacher Training Education on the Mental Health & High School Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, S.; Wei, Y.; McLuckie, A.; Bullock, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders make up close to one-third of the global burden of disease experienced during adolescence. Schools can play an important role in the promotion of positive mental health as well as an integral role in the pathways into mental health care for adolescents. In order for schools to effectively address the mental health problems of…

  15. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  16. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health...

  17. Consumer attitudes towards evidence based mental health services among American mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lisa B; Hayashi, Kentaro; Latner, Janet; Mueller, Charles W

    2016-10-01

    The Consumer Attitudes towards Evidence Based Services (CAEBS) scale is a 29-item questionnaire designed to assess public views on the role of science in helping to guide mental health treatment. The aim of the current study was to assess the Factor structure the CAEBS in an online sample of adults seeking information about mental health services. The CAEBS was administered to a nationwide sample of participants from websites offering classified advertisements for mental health related study participation (n = 312). An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested four factors based on 26 of the items: Beliefs Regarding Therapists' Practices, Attitudes about Mental Health Policy, Negative Personal-Level Attitudes toward EBPs, and Negative Societal-Level Attitudes towards EBPs. In order to increase consumer empowerment within the mental health-care system and develop policies supporting EBP usage, mental health professionals need to increase communication with the public to address these concerns and leverage positive attitudes. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii, Mental Health and Shizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting of mental health is one of the major application areas of public health. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii, which is a protozoal zoonosis common in Turkey, it is closely related to veterinary public health. In recent years, T.gondii can induce behavioral changes, may play a role in schizophrenia as an etiologic factor. Results of the recently performed studies shows that T.gondii may be a potential factor for some neuropathological changes in brain and suicide attemption. The purpose of this review is to present the data on recent epidemiology of T.gondii, mental health effects (changes in behavior, suicide, etc., the relationship between T.gondii and schizophrenia and offer some recommendations for protecting of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 199-208

  19. Revenge Pornography: Mental Health Implications and Related Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mudasir; Newman, William J

    2016-09-01

    Revenge pornography, also known as nonconsensual pornography, is a subtype of cyberharassment/cyberstalking, and a serious problem facing society in the Internet age. Revenge pornography can result in lifelong mental health consequences for victims, damaged relationships, and social isolation. Recently, a growing number of states have recognized the importance of this phenomenon and have enacted legislation that criminalizes it. The technology industry has also taken steps to assist victims of revenge pornography by creating web forms to request removal of links leading to the explicit content. The Cyber Civil Rights Initiative (CCRI) has been instrumental in promoting public awareness of this often overlooked problem and in providing services for victims. Although important steps have been made, greater recognition of the gravity of this problem and the mental health implications of revenge pornography is needed to expand legislation criminalizing such acts. A federal criminal law, in particular, is much overdue. Mental health professionals must understand the dimensions of revenge pornography to be able to identify and address the consequences in both forensic and clinical settings. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Neuropharmacology and mental health nurse prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter

    2006-08-01

    To outline the development and content of a 'top-up' neuropharmacology module for mental health nurse prescribers and consider how much pharmacology training is required to ensure effective mental health prescribing practice. Debate about the content of prescribing training courses has persisted within the United Kingdom since the mid-1980s. In early 2003 supplementary prescribing was introduced and gave mental health nurses the opportunity to become prescribers. The challenge of the nurse prescribing curriculum for universities is that they have only a short time to provide nurses from a range of backgrounds with enough knowledge to ensure that they meet agreed levels of competency for safe prescribing. There is growing concern within mental health care that the prescribing of medication in mental health services falls short of what would be deemed good practice. Over the past two decades, nurse training has increasingly adopted a psychosocial approach to nursing care raising concerns that, although nurses attending prescribing training may be able to communicate effectively with service users, they may lack the basic knowledge of biology and pharmacology to make effective decisions about medication. Following the completion of a general nurse prescribing course, mental health nurses who attended were asked to identify their specific needs during the evaluation phase. Although they had covered basic pharmacological principles in their training, they stated that they needed more specific information about drugs used in mental health; particularly how to select appropriate drug treatments for mental health conditions. This paper describes how the nurses were involved in the design of a specific module which would enable them to transfer their theoretical leaning to practice and in so doing increase their confidence in their new roles. The findings of this study suggest that the understanding and confidence of mental health nurse prescribers about the drugs they

  1. Mental health in India: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of latest technologies and rapid industrialization human beings have made advancement to a great extent, in the materialistic world. He has mechanized his instruments in such a sophisticated way so as to carry out complicated and heavy tasks in comparatively lesser time and utilizing lesser manpower. In this pursuit of progress, he became more and more ambitious which further led him to stressful life and to make compromises with his other aspects of life intentionally and sometimes unintentionally. One has to consider all the aspects of individual’s physical, mental, social and psychological angles which play an important role in maintaining the individual’s overall personality development as well as wellbeing so that he may lead a productive life. These factors along with the environmental and surroundings influences the behavior of individual. In the present day life though human beings may have progressed socially, economically and also intellectually but somewhere he tended to neglect his emotions, feelings, tolerance and above all there is a growing concern of loneliness amongst all age groups. There is an imbalance between the amount of stress a person takes up with the amount he can cope up with, which has led to increase in behavioral and mental health problems. Burden of mental disorders had risen over last few decades in general mental health is often equated with the cognitive and emotional wellbeing - it is all about the way one thinks, feels and behaves. Mental health, can also mean an absence of a mental disorder. Various factors which has led to the rise in mental health problems are - growing population, continuous stress, over exertion, high ambition, socioeconomic conditions, loneliness, drug abuse, expectations, competitions and failures etc. The list is unending. It has been observed that there is a growing concern worldwide among developed as well as developing nations regarding the rise in behavioral

  2. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Scaletzky Knuth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  3. Privacy versus care--The shifting balance in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Mary Jean; Price, Steven; Best, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Mental health professionals are now debating client confidentiality and its relationship to care coordination. History tells us there is a need to protect the privacy of people who are diagnosed with mental health issues in a world filled with stigma and misperceptions. People with mental illness and substance use problems may be legitimately concerned that employers, insurance companies, financial institutions, medical practices, and educational institutions could use their health information to discriminate against them, often without their knowledge. The protection of jobs and health information is a real, justifiable benefit of privacy legislation. However, there are also a host of negative consequences, including fragmented health care, lack of prevention, uninformed families, and even early death, because of a lack of coordination with medical treatment. The legal situation can be very confusing, but the upshot is that we are shifting from an environment of strict confidentiality to one of better care coordination. In short, we are moving toward a system that allows for better coordination because it improves the quality of care for our clients. At the policy level, we must lead the change process and actively support the revision and reinterpretation of existing laws and regulations. These changes will require earning the trust of the people being served. Many are wary, and some even scared, of their perceived loss of privacy. Health-care professionals must commit to the concept of coordinating care, making communication about shared care plans a priority. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Revision of the ICIDH: mental health aspects. WHO/MNH Disability Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustün, T B; Cooper, J E; van Duuren-Kristen, S; Kennedy, C; Hendershot, G; Sartorius, N

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the key issues arising in the revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) from a mental health perspective, and describes the work of the Disability Working Group of the WHO's Division of Mental Health. The ICIDH, which describes the consequences of disorders at three levels as impairments, disabilities, and handicaps, is generally applicable and useful for mental health purposes. While some impairments are mainly a consequence of 'mental' disorders (e.g. cognitive impairment), there should be no differences between mental and physical disorders in the classification scheme, to avoid a dichotomy between mind and body. There is also a need to improve the ways in which interference with the performance of social roles is described, since this is often the most obvious consequence of mental disorders. This article presents the potentials of the ICIDH in the field of mental health, and gives recommendations for the development of the revision process of the ICIDH. To stimulate the process of producing a 'common language' in the ICIDH related to mental health issues, former and potential users of the ICIDH are invited to give comments and suggestions.

  5. Mental health needs and availability of mental health care for children and adolescents with intellectual disability in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltau, B; Biedermann, J; Hennicke, K; Fydrich, T

    2015-11-01

    The increased risk of mental health problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) has been reported in several studies. However, almost no research has been conducted on parents' experiences with the general mental health system. We have investigated the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in children with ID as well as the availability and quality of mental health care from the parents' point of view. Teachers of specialised schools for ID in Berlin were asked to complete the Teacher's Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist. Information was collected for 1226 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years with mild to profound ID (response 70.5%). The availability and quality of mental health care was assessed by a questionnaire given to parents who had already been seeking help for their children. A total of 330 parents completed the questionnaires (response 62.0%). In addition to univariate analysis, we conducted multiple logistic regressions regarding the psychopathology reported by teachers (TRF-syndrome scales) and difficulties concerning mental health care reported by parents for a paired sample of 308 children. Overall, 52.4% of the children and adolescents with ID had a total problem score on the TRF in the deviant range (47.1% when eliminating four items reflecting cognitive deficits). Compared with the general population normative sample of children, this is a three-time higher prevalence. The most striking problems were thought problems (schizoid and obsessive-compulsive), aggressive behaviour, attention problems and social problems. Parents whose children had more severe behavioural or emotional dysfunction reported more difficulties with the mental health system. From the parents' point of view, mental health professionals frequently did not feel responsible or were not sufficiently skilled for the treatment of children with ID. As a consequence, 96% of all parents were longing for specialised in- and

  6. Mental health issues in Australian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, David

    2003-07-01

    Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.

  7. Health consequences of the Russian weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otrachshenko, V.; Popova, Olga; Solomin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, February (2017), s. 290-306 ISSN 0921-8009 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : health * mortality * temperature Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  8. Developing a culturally appropriate mental health care service for Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, ...

  10. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to describe sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that happens while the victim is in the ... D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine; National Center for PTSD, Women’s Health ...

  11. Different conceptions of mental illness: consequences for the association with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2013-01-01

    Whenever partial knowledge is considered absolute and turned into ideological and dogmatic conceptions, the risk increases that the conditions for the people involved might become dangerous. This will be illustrated by casuistic examples of consequences of one-sided psychiatric conceptions such as social, biological, and psychological ideas about the treatment and care of the mentally ill. Present perspectives of an integrative model, i.e., an advanced bio-psycho-social conception about evidence-based characteristics on the social, psychological, and molecular-genetic level, require that all of these dimensions should be considered in order to personalize and thereby improve the care and treatment of the mentally ill.

  12. Portrayal of Mental Illness on the TV Series Monk: Presumed Influence and Consequences of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    This study of responses to the TV series Monk, about a detective with obsessive-compulsive disorder, examines perceptions and behaviors related to mental illness. A total of 172 respondents completed an online survey. A parasocial bond with Monk was associated with lower stereotypes of mental illness and less social distance. Predictors and outcomes of perceived influence of the series on self and others were also examined. Perceived (positive) influence of the series on others' attitudes was predicted by respondents' favorable evaluation of the series's depiction of mental illness, as well as greater perceived exposure to and favorable evaluations among family and friends. Perceived influence on others also was associated with greater willingness to disclose mental health treatment, but only among people without personal or family experience with mental illness. In contrast, perceived influence of the series on self was predicted only by respondents' own evaluations of the series, and was related to willingness to seek mental health treatment-but only among those who had personally dealt with mental illness.

  13. Mental Health Literacy: Empowering the Community to Take Action for Better Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…

  14. User violence towards nursing professionals in mental health services and emergency units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Llor-Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is present in many work sectors, but in the area of mental health, nurses have a higher risk due to the close relationship they have with users. This study analyzed hostile user statements against nursing professionals of Mental Health Services and Emergency Units in Health Service (MHS hospitals in Murcia, Spain, and determined the frequency of exposure to the different violent user behaviors. The study was carried out with a sample of 518 nursing professionals from four hospital services: Mental Health, Emergency Units, Medical Hospitalization, and Maternal-and-Child. The nursing staff of Mental Health and Emergency Units was the most exposed to violence. Non-physical violence was more frequent in Emergency Units, whereas physical violence was more frequent in Mental Health. Among the consequences of exposure to non-physical violence are workers’ emotional exhaustion and the presence of psychological distress.

  15. Emotional intelligence of mental health nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Derksen; prof Berno van Meijel; Loes van Dusseldorp

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. Background. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in

  16. Mental health professionals' acceptance of online counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Dokou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The development of online counseling services has followed the advent on information and communication technologies. The present study assessed mental health professionals' perspectives of online counseling by using an extended version of the technology acceptance model. Participants completed anonymous structured questionnaires assessing technology acceptance-related variables, including perceived usefulness and ease of use, usage intentions, job relevance, social norms, attitudes, computer ...

  17. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... robust and inclusive knowledge base for child and adolescent mental health across diverse contexts. To this end the Journal seeks to promote coverage, representation and dissemination of high quality work from around the world that traverses high-, middle- and low- income contexts. Read more about the journal here.

  18. The Mexican American Woman and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe

    For a long time Chicanas have been self-denying, self sacrificing. Well, it is time that Mexican American women began thinking of themselves. It follows that if women love and cherish others, they must begin by loving and cherishing themselves. From the mental health perspective it is essential that they do so, not only for their sake, but for…

  19. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  20. Curricular Content for Pupils' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…

  1. Some Ruminations about Prison Mental Health Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toch, Hans

    1995-01-01

    Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic,…

  2. Cognitive engineering in mental health computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Computer applications in support of mental health care and rehabilitation are becoming more widely used. They include technologies such as virtual reality, electronic diaries, multimedia, brain computing and computer games. Research in this area is emerging, and focussing on a variety of issues,

  3. Communication and Mental Health: Psychiatric Forerunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Deems M.

    The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…

  4. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  5. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  6. Local house prices and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nayan Krishna

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of local (county-level) house prices on individual self-reported mental health using individual level data from the United States Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2005 and 2011. Exploiting a fixed-effects model that relies on within-county variations, relative to the corresponding changes in other counties, I find that while individuals are likely to experience worse self-reported mental health when local house prices decline, this association is most pronounced for individuals who are least likely to be homeowners. This finding is not consistent with a prediction from a pure wealth mechanism but rather with the hypothesis that house prices act as an economic barometer. I also demonstrate that the association between self-reported mental health and local house prices is not driven by unemployment or foreclosure. The primary result-that lower local house prices have adverse impact on self-reported mental health of homeowners and renters-is consistent with studies using data from the United Kingdom.

  7. Mindful parenting in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting

  8. Overview: Forging Research Priorities for Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)

  9. A systemic approach to understanding mental health and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In the UK mental health and associated NHS services face considerable challenges. This paper aims to form an understanding both of the complexity of context in which services operate and the means by which services have sought to meet these challenges. Systemic principles as have been applied to public service organisations with reference to interpersonal relations, the wider social culture and its manifestation in service provision. The analysis suggests that the wider culture has shaped service demand and the approaches adopted by services resulting in a number of unintended consequences, reinforcing loops, increased workload demands and the limited value of services. The systemic modelling of this situation provides a necessary overview prior to future policy development. The paper concludes that mental health and attendant services requires a systemic understanding and a whole system approach to reform. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Child responsible personnel in adult mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child

  11. Perceptions of the mental health impact of intimate partner violence and health service responses in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lignet Chepuka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study explores the perceptions of a wide range of stakeholders in Malawi towards the mental health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV and the capacity of health services for addressing these. Design: In-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted in three areas of Blantyre district, and in two additional districts. A total of 10 FGDs, 1 small group, and 14 IDIs with health care providers; 18 FGDs and 1 small group with male and female, urban and rural community members; 7 IDIs with female survivors; and 26 key informant interviews and 1 small group with government ministry staff, donors, gender-based violence service providers, religious institutions, and police were conducted. A thematic framework analysis method was applied to emerging themes. Results: The significant mental health impact of IPV was mentioned by all participants and formal care seeking was thought to be impeded by social pressures to resolve conflict, and fear of judgemental attitudes. Providers felt inadequately prepared to handle the psychosocial and mental health consequences of IPV; this was complicated by staff shortages, a lack of clarity on the mandate of the health sector, as well as confusion over the definition and need for ‘counselling’. Referral options to other sectors for mental health support were perceived as limited but the restructuring of the Ministry of Health to cover violence prevention, mental health, and alcohol and drug misuse under a single unit provides an opportunity. Conclusion: Despite widespread recognition of the burden of IPV-associated mental health problems in Malawi, there is limited capacity to support affected individuals at community or health sector level. Participants highlighted potential entry points to health services as well as local and national opportunities for interventions that are culturally appropriate and are built on local structures and resilience.

  12. Media and Mental Health in Uganda | Kigozi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  13. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  14. Integration of Pediatric Mental Health in General Pediatrics in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of mental health needs of America's youth, with 1 ... health services to children and adolescents in the primary ... Conclusion: The establishment of the Pediatric residency with a dedicated curriculum to address mental health ... However, there are few young patients being evaluated ... mental health care without stigma.

  15. Asian American Mental Health: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…

  16. From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schizophrenia, alcohol use disorders and bi-polar disorder account for a third of years ... Objective: This paper identifies the key barriers to mental health policy implementation in Ghana and suggests ways of overcoming them. Method: The ... of health workers trained and supervised in mental health care, and mental health ...

  17. Mental health: the new frontier for labour economics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Layard

    2013-01-01

    This lecture argues that mental health is a major factor of production. It is the biggest single influence on life satisfaction, with mental health eight years earlier a more powerful explanatory factor than current income. Mental health also affects earnings and educational success. But, most strikingly, it affects employment and physical health. In advanced countries mental health problems are the main illness of working age - amounting to 40% of all illness under 65. They account for over ...

  18. [Suffering and mental health during social crises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Juan Carlos

    In this paper the author analyzes the epidemiological data of the effects of the social crisis on the mental health against the background of the political and social events in Argentine in the last years. These effects are found both in the general population and in the health care professionals. The article reviews the clinical and psychopathological approaches to understand the disorders of the patients during a social crisis.

  19. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health (“m-Health”) is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”). However, f...

  20. Collaboration in the provision of mental health care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Valius, L.; Lazarus, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    collaboration with mental health teams were a lack of GPs'confidence in their communication skills and ability to diagnose the most frequent mental disorders, prompt referral to mental health team specialists, low estimation of the prevalence of non-managed mental disorders, and location of mental health team......Background. General practitioners (GPs) often become the first point of care for mental health issues. Improved collaboration between GPs and mental health teams can make a GP's mental health services more efficient. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the collaboration between GPs...... and mental health team members and determine predictors for better collaboration. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, a 41- item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to obtain knowledge about current practices of GPs in providing...

  1. Mental health-related discrimination as a predictor of low engagement with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Hatch, Stephani L; Schauman, Oliver; Jeffery, Debra; Henderson, R Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mental health-related discrimination experienced by adults receiving care from community mental health teams is associated with low engagement with services and to explore the pathways between these two variables. In this cross-sectional study, 202 adults registered with inner-city community mental health teams in the United Kingdom completed interviews assessing their engagement with mental health services (service user-rated version of the Service Engagement Scale), discrimination that they experienced because of mental illness, and other variables. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the relationship of experienced discrimination and service engagement with potential mediating and moderating variables, such as anticipated discrimination (Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination), internalized stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale), stigma stress appraisal (Stigma Stress Appraisal), mistrust in services, the therapeutic relationship (Scale to Assess Therapeutic Relationships), difficulty disclosing information about one's mental health, and social support. Analyses controlled for age, race-ethnicity, and symptomatology. No evidence was found for a direct effect between experienced discrimination and service engagement. The total indirect effect of experienced discrimination on service engagement was statistically significant (coefficient=1.055, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.312-2.074, p=.019), mainly via mistrust in mental health services and therapeutic relationships (coefficient=.804, CI=.295-1.558, p=.019). A 1-unit increase in experienced discrimination via this pathway resulted in .804-unit of deterioration in service engagement. Findings indicate the importance of building and maintaining service users' trust in mental health services and in therapeutic relationships with professionals and countering the discrimination that may erode trust.

  2. Mental Health and Social Networks After Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Gallagher, H Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Pattison, Philippa; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Baker, Elyse; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Forbes, David; Lusher, Dean

    2017-03-01

    Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression. Social networks were assessed by asking participants to nominate people with whom they felt personally close. These nominations were used to construct a social network map that showed each participant's ties to other participants they nominated and also to other participants who nominated them. This map was then analyzed for prevailing patterns of mental health outcomes. Depression risk was higher for participants who reported fewer social connections, were connected to other depressed people, or were connected to people who had left their community. PTSD risk was higher if fewer people reported being connected with the participant, if those who felt close to the participant had higher levels of property loss, or if the participant was linked to others who were themselves not interconnected. Interestingly, being connected to other people who in turn were reciprocally close to each other was associated with a lower risk of PTSD. These findings provide the first evidence of disorder-specific patterns in relation to one's social connections after disaster. Depression appears to co-occur in linked individuals, whereas PTSD risk is increased with social fragmentation. These patterns underscore the need to adopt a sociocentric perspective of postdisaster mental health in order to better understand the potential for societal interventions in the wake of disaster.

  3. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  4. Perceived norms moderate the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Hunter, Sarah B; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-09-01

    There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking.

  5. Mental health and development: targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, Natalie; Faydi, Edwige; Freeman, Melvyn; Funk, Michelle; Kettaneh, Audrey; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    .... It argues that mental health should be included in sectoral and broader development strategies and plans, and that development stakeholders have important roles to play in ensuring that people...

  6. Mental health of refugees: global perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T; Christodoulou, George N

    2016-11-01

    Refugees have high rates of mental health morbidity as a result of conflict. However, their needs for mental healthcare and psychosocial support are often unmet, despite the efforts of professional and humanitarian organisations. The war refugee crisis is a global challenge that needs a global solution. We call on all governments, regional and international organisations to take responsible humanitarian actions to intervene and support people affected by these disasters and for all humanity to unite against the forces of injustice and degradation. The thematic papers in this issue report on the Syrian crisis from a variety of perspectives.

  7. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...... – before and after diagnosis. Results: In all, 78 715 patients were identified and compared with 312 813 matched controls. Patients' partners were also identified and matched with a control group. Patients had lower income and higher mortality and morbidity rates and greater use of medication. Social...

  8. Mental health care of Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Francis; Gaw, Albert

    2007-06-01

    Filipino Americans are the second-fastest-growing Asian immigrant group in the United States, following the Chinese. Yet there exists a dearth of information on mental health issues concerning Filipino Americans, who represent a diverse mixture of culture, beliefs, and practices and vary widely from other minorities as well as from the larger population. This group has experienced emotional and behavioral challenges in acclimatizing to Western culture. Their historical underpinnings, native core values, and traditions exert a crucial influence on their mental well-being. Filipino Americans underutilize existing mental health care services that are culturally, socially, and linguistically incompatible with their needs. Along with stigma, the adherence of traditional practices and healing methods remains a formidable barrier to the appropriate provision of care. The authors review factors influencing perceptions of mental health and illness, including religion, family, support systems, coping styles, and indigenous culture-bound traits. Recommendations for treatment consist of a structured, culturally sensitive, comprehensive approach that addresses the individual as well as the cultural milieu.

  9. Ethical issues in perinatal mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Anna R; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J; Sadler, John Z

    2009-11-01

    To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental healthcare for this subpopulation.

  10. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

  11. Mental Health Literacy in Young Adults: Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Mental Health Literacy Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dias

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental health literacy (MHL is considered a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders, and for this reason, it has become a focus of research over the past few decades. Assessing this construct is relevant for identifying knowledge gaps and erroneous beliefs concerning mental health issues, to inform the development of interventions aimed at promoting mental health literacy as well as the evaluation of these interventions. Recently, we developed a new self-reporting measure (MHLq for assessing mental health literacy in young people (12–14 years-old, meeting the need to assess MHL from a comprehensive perspective of the construct instead of focusing on a restricted number of mental disorders or specific dimensions (e.g., knowledge concerning specific disorders; stigma. The present study aimed to adapt the MHLq for the young adult population and to examine its psychometric properties, according to the following steps: (1 item adaptation, using a think aloud procedure (n = 5; (2 data collection (n = 356, aged between 18 and 25 years old; and (3 psychometric analyses (exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. The final version of the questionnaire included 29 items (total scale α = 0.84, organized by four dimensions: (1 knowledge of mental health problems (α = 0.74; (2 erroneous beliefs/stereotypes (α = 0.72; (3 help-seeking and first aid skills (α = 0.71; and (4 self-help strategies (α = 0.60. The results suggest that the MHLq-adult form is a practical, valid, and reliable screening tool for identifying gaps in knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intentions related to mental health and mental disorders, planning promotion programs, and evaluating intervention effectiveness.

  12. The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-12-01

    There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL). We find significant direct and indirect effects for both forms of health, with indirect effects explaining 10% of the effect of past mental health on physical health and 8% of the effect of past physical health on mental health. Physical activity is the largest contributor to the indirect effects. There are stronger indirect effects for males in mental health (9.9%) and for older age groups in mental health (13.6%) and in physical health (12.6%). Health policies aiming at changing physical and mental health need to consider not only the direct cross-effects but also the indirect cross-effects between mental health and physical health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. "We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health": Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Hendler

    Full Text Available Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs.We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions.Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets", what they advocate for ("asks", how advocates reach their targets ("access", how they make their asks ("arguments", and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes".Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.

  14. "We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health": Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.

  15. Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: a study exploring mental health nurses' views of their role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebe, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor

  16. Workplace mental health: developing an integrated intervention approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425

  17. Different Conceptions of Mental Illness: Consequences for the Association with Patients†

    OpenAIRE

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2013-01-01

    Whenever partial knowledge is considered absolute and turned into ideological and dogmatic conceptions, the risk increases that the conditions for the people involved might become dangerous. This will be illustrated by casuistic examples of consequences of one-sided psychiatric conceptions such as social, biological, and psychological ideas about the treatment and care of the mentally ill. Present perspectives of an integrative model, i.e. the bio-psycho-social conception about specific inter...

  18. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank J H; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-05-10

    Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group) with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in both intervention arms will be assessed, and

  19. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in

  20. Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons. The study included 1944 employees (1413 women and 531 men) from 55 workplaces in Denmark (16 private and 39 public workplaces). During a work day three saliva samples were collected at awakening, +30 min later, and at 20:00 hours, and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Mental health was assessed using items on somatic, cognitive, stress, and depressive mood. Of the 1944 employees, 1.1% was frequently bullied and 7.2% occasionally bullied. Frequently bullied persons reported poorer mental health and had a 24.8% lower salivary cortisol concentration compared with the nonbullied reference group. Occasionally bullied persons had a poorer self-reported mental health, but their cortisol concentrations did not deviate from the group of nonbullied persons. The associations remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, exact time of sampling, mental health, and duration of bullying. Bullying occurred at 78% of the workplaces (43 workplaces); frequent bullying occurred at 21% of the workplaces (40%). Frequent bullying was associated with lower salivary cortisol concentrations. No such association was observed for occasional bullying. Whether the generally lower secretion of cortisol among the frequently bullied persons indicate an altered physiological status remains to be evaluated in future studies. Yet, the physiological response seems to underscore the possibility that bullying indeed may have measurable physiological consequences. Hence, the physiological response supports the mental symptoms found among the frequently bullied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental Health, Social Context, Refugees and Immigrants: A Cultural Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayadas, Nazneen S.; Ramanathan, Chathapuram S.; Suarez, Zulema

    1999-01-01

    Explores how the lack of awareness of human diversity can adversely affect the mental health care of nondominant ethnic groups. Proposes a three-dimensional cultural-interface model for assessing and treating mental health problems. (SLD)

  2. Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape. Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher ...

  3. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  4. Making mental health services accessible for rural Kenyans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New research from the Africa Mental Health Foundation (AMHF), funded by the Global ... In 2004 he founded AMHF to address this gap in services. ... in an informal urban settlement to determine whether this strategy for mental health service ...

  5. Identifying the core competencies of mental health telephone triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen; Gerdtz, Marie; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Droste, Nicolas; Prematunga, Roshani K; Wereta, Zewdu W

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify the core competencies of mental health telephone triage, including key role tasks, skills, knowledge and responsibilities, in which clinicians are required to be competent to perform safe and effective triage. Recent global trends indicate an increased reliance on telephone-based health services to facilitate access to health care across large populations. The trend towards telephone-based health services has also extended to mental health settings, evidenced by the growing number of mental health telephone triage services providing 24-hour access to specialist mental health assessment and treatment. Mental health telephone triage services are critical to the early identification of mental health problems and the provision of timely, appropriate interventions. In spite of the rapid growth in mental health telephone triage and the important role these services play in the assessment and management of mental illness and related risks, there has been very little research investigating this area of practice. An observational design was employed to address the research aims. Structured observations (using dual wireless headphones) were undertaken on 197 occasions of mental health telephone triage over a three-month period from January to March 2011. The research identified seven core areas of mental health telephone triage practice in which clinicians are required to be competent in to perform effective mental health telephone triage, including opening the call; performing mental status examination; risk assessment; planning and action; termination of call; referral and reporting; and documentation. The findings of this research contribute to the evidence base for mental health telephone triage by articulating the core competencies for practice. The mental health telephone triage competencies identified in this research may be used to define an evidence-based framework for mental health telephone triage practice that aims to

  6. Poverty dynamics and parental mental health: Determinants of childhood mental health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Goodman, Alissa; Kelly, Elaine; Smith, James P

    2017-02-01

    Using data from the British Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 18,827 children born in the UK in 2000-2001, we investigate important correlates of mental health issues during childhood. MCS respondents were sampled at birth, at age 9 months, and then when they were 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old. Each sweep contains detailed information on the family's SES, parenting activities, developmental indicators, parental relationship status, and indicators of parental mental health. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the related Rutter scale were used to identify behavioral and emotional problems in children. In this paper, childhood problems are separated into four domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. We focus on two aspects of this relationship at ages 5 and 11-the role of temporary and persistent poverty and the role of temporary and persistent mental health problems of mothers and fathers. At ages 11 and 5, without other controls in the model, persistent and transitory poverty have strong estimated associations with all four domains, with somewhat stronger estimated effects for persistent poverty. After a set of controls are added, we document that both persistent levels of poverty and transitions into poverty are strongly associated with levels of and transitions into childhood mental health problems. Similarly, sustained levels and transitions into mothers' mental health problems are strongly associated with levels and transitions into children's mental health problems. This is much less so for fathers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2013-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  9. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  10. Primary health care, mental health, and the dietitian's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness are at nutritional risk because of health, social, and economic factors. To address this problem, the Canadian Collaborative Mental Health Initiative (CCMHI) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) commissioned the development of a toolkit that outlines the role of the registered dietitian (RD) and advocates for RDs in primary health care (PHC) mental health programs. The development of the toolkit followed a four-stage process: a comprehensive literature review, a focus group discussion with a national working group, interviews with consumers about RD services, and evaluation of the toolkit. The costs of mental illness in Canada are at least US dollars 6.85 billion per year. Currently, little evidence exists on how RD services can reduce these expenses. The focus group identified accessibility as the predominant issue facing individuals with mental illness. To explain consumer experiences with RD services, a three-tier theory based on in-depth interviews was developed. Consumer experiences with RDs occur in five categories: financial concerns, perception of service, status of mental illness, engagement, and self-esteem (tier 1). These are further influenced by five individual and contextual factors, e.g., social environment, the mental illness (tier 2), which are weighed as benefits and barriers instrumental in determining actions (tier 3). The evaluation of the final draft of the RD toolkit confirmed that it reflected the visions of PHC. The toolkit is intended to act as a blueprint for action. Dietitians are encouraged to use its contents to advocate for positions in mental health PHC settings.

  11. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental ...

  12. Interactions between youth and mental health professionals: The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along

  13. Health, Social and Economic Consequences of Polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic costs than controls. They had very marginally lower employment rates, and those who were employed generally had lower incomes. The sum of direct net healthcare costs after the injury (general practitioner services, hospital services and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income...... with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and civil status. Direct costs included frequencies of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, and medication. Indirect costs included the effect...... Danish Patient Registry. In addition, partners of patients in the case group were matched with partners in the corresponding control group. Almost half of the patients in the patient group had a partner. Patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and greater...

  14. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

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    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  15. Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

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    Tomaras Vlassis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this

  16. Childhood health: trends and consequences over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This article first documents evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood physical and mental health problems, focusing on the development of childhood health conditions in the United States. Authors Liam Delaney and James Smith present evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood chronic conditions over time using recalled data as well as contemporaneous accounts of these childhood health problems. The raw data from both sources show sharp increases in the prevalence of most childhood physical health problems (such as asthma, allergies, respiratory problems, and migraines) over time. However, inferring trends is difficult because such data are also consistent with improved detection of childhood disease, and many of the causes of childhood disease have not worsened over time. Conclusions about rapidly rising rates of childhood physical health problems over time are premature at best, especially concerning the magnitude of trends. Documenting real changes in the prevalence of specific diseases is a high-priority research topic. In contrast, the evidence is much stronger that childhood mental health problems are becoming worse. The authors next present new evidence on the effects of early childhood physical and mental problems on health and economic status in adulthood. They find that both childhood physical and mental health problems contribute significantly to poorer adult health. However, they also find that childhood mental health problems have much larger impacts than do childhood physical health problems on four critical areas of socioeconomic status as an adult: education, weeks worked per year, individual earnings, and family income. Finally, the authors examine evidence regarding the efficacy of early mental health treatment for children in terms of promoting good health later on. Existing studies suggest that a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication appears to be effective in the treatment of both anxiety and depression in

  17. Perinatal support to protect maternal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Anthony; Stokes, Jayne

    Family Action is a charity that helps more than 45,000 vulnerable families and children across England a year by offering emotional, practical and financial support. A pilot of a perinatal support project in Southwark, London was found to reduce mental health problems in vulnerable women and is now being extended. Such schemes complement the work of health visitors and other health professionals. Commissioners need to be aware of the long-term impact of such low-cost interventions in the early years.

  18. Individual factors and perceived community characteristics in relation to mental health and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2015-12-12

    It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a

  19. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals.

  20. Characteristics of violence against children in the family and its consequences on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability, dependence and helplessness which characterize life situation of a child, carry a risk of its victimization by different forms of violence. Violence against children, an appearance as old as human civilization, leaves multiple, deep and lasting consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of victimized child. The aim of this paper is to point out basic characteristics of victim, violent parent and way of execution, with particular emphasis on health consequences, through brief overview of previous empirical knowledge about children victimization with domestic violence. In the introductory part of the paper a definition of violence against children and its forms is given. In the second part, on the basis of the analysis of research findings, its basic characteristics, with the emphasis on health consequences, are reviewed. In the final part of the paper author’s concluding considerations about this sensitive problem are given. .