WorldWideScience

Sample records for meningoencephalitis

  1. Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Report of a case of young immunocompetent male adult with autopsy proven acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis. The patient presented with a protracted febrile illness of 3 months duration with features of meningoencephalitis, this was followed by rapid deterioration while on anti tuberculous therapy and steroids and ended fatally. His magnetic resonance imaging showed features of hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed choline peak. Autopsy revealed necrotizing meningoencephalitis and intraocular colonization due to acanthamoeba.

  2. Toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Seizo; Sales, Magaly Machado

    1998-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, occurring in about 19% of the patients. This article is a short communication about pathologic findings and imaging findings by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis. (author)

  3. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muçaj, Sefedin; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hundozi, Hajrije; Gashi, Sanije; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Shala, Nexhmedin; Kryeziu, Manushaqe

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Tuberculous meningitis is a major global health problem and is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with high rate mortality. Last years in Kosovo incidence of TB was decreased in less than 1000 cases per year and 10-20 cases per year of TB meningoencephalitis. Still Kosovo has limited numbers of TB. TBM is diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, and radiological findings. Clinical picture, neurological status, anamnestic data, suspect (but not specific) lab tests, and imaging new methods, together can give very valuable help to clinicians for early adequate and successful treatment.

  4. Mumps Meningoencephalitis, Toronto, 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. M.; Bach, Ruth D.; Larke, R. P. B.; McNaughton, G. A.

    1964-01-01

    Between January and June 1963, 45 children were hospitalized with mumps meningoencephalitis. Of 39 patients with laboratory evidence of mumps infection, 24 had parotitis and 15 showed no salivary gland involvement. Cerebrospinal fluids from 18 of 40 patients yielded mumps virus by inoculation of rhesus monkey kidney cultures; 33 subjects, including 12 of the 18 virus excretors, showed rising or elevated levels of mumps antihemagglutinin during convalescence. Between May 1959 and June 1963, mumps virus was recovered from cerebrospinal fluids of 50 of 126 cases of mumps meningoencephalitis; virus isolation rates were highest during the peak incidence of mumps meningoencephalitis in winter and early spring. Mumps vaccine (inactivated) was administered to 34 parents with no history of mumps, shortly after their children developed mumps. Mumps occurred in three of 17 parents without prevaccination mumps antihemagglutinins, and in two others, but in none of 15 who had prevaccination antibodies. PMID:14120950

  5. Toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; Meningoencefalite por toxoplasmose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Seizo [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Sales, Magaly Machado [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias

    1998-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, occurring in about 19% of the patients. This article is a short communication about pathologic findings and imaging findings by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis. (author) 6 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Granulomatous meningoencephalitis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Pedone Bandarra

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME is an inflamatory, non suppurative disease of the Central Nervous System. This disease has been described since 1972 and a great variety of terms have been used to name (THOMAS; EGGER14, 1989. This paper describes a case o f a 3 years and 8 months old, female Dachshund, that was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, showing incoordenation during the last 10 days and head tilt. After careful examination, concluding to irreversibility of the process, the dog was euthanatised. Necropsy findings were necrosis of the white cerebral matter and in histopathologic examination of the CNS was diagnosticated GME.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in tuberculous meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Memon, W.A. [Aga Khan Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing tuberculosis from other types of meningoencephalitis. MRIs of 100 patients with tuberculous (50), pyogenic (33), viral (14), or fungal (3) meningoencephalitis were analyzed independently by 2 radiologists. Number, size, location, signal characteristics, surrounding edema, and contrast enhancement pattern of nodular lesions; location and pattern of meningeal enhancement; extent of infarct or encephalitis and hydrocephalus were evaluated. Contrast-enhancing nodular lesions were detected in patients with tuberculous (43 of 50 patients), pyogenic (9 of 33), and fungal (3 of 3) infections. No nodules were detected in patients with viral meningoencephalitis. Using the criteria of 1 or more solid rim or homogeneously enhancing nodules smaller than 2 cm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis were 86.0%, 90.0% and 88.0%, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in distinguishing tuberculous from pyogenic, viral and fungal meningoencephalitis. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  9. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    micro-organisms, we diagnosed aseptic meningitis induced by amoxicillin. To our knowledge, this is the seventh well documented publication of such a severe side effect of a commonly used antibiotic.Keywords: drug induced aseptic meningitis, viral meningitis, meningoencephalitis, amoxicillin

  10. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still ...

  11. Fatal Primary Meningoencephalitis Caused By Naegleria Fowleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariq, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Farooqi, B. J.; Husaain, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection. (author)

  12. Predicting unfavourable outcome in herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Karaahmetoglu, Gokhan

    BACKGROUND: Herpetic meningoencephalitis is the most frequent form of sporadic fatal encephalitis in the world and accounts for 10- 20% of all viral encephalitides. There were studies assessing the outcomes particularly by comparing the efficacies of antiviral drugs in the past. To the best of our...... knowledge, no datum exists in the literature on the mortality indicators of HME patients with definite microbiological diagnosis. Thus, our study makes use of the largest case series ever reported in the literature to provide data for the predictors of unfavorable outcome in HME cases. METHODS...... outcome in HME. Thus, it appears that both host and therapeutic parameters contribute to success in these cases. Table. Final model including independent predictors of unfavorable outcome 95% CIs OR [1] Low High p Age (years) 1.04 1.02 1.05 0.000 Glasgow coma scale 0.84 0.77 0.93 0.000 Elapsed time [2] >2...

  13. Primary Amoebic (Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis Presenting as Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare entity. Usual presenting features are fever, headache and seizures with meningeal signs and this disease carries high mortality rate. We present a case report of PAM presenting as status epilepticus.

  14. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case following a cutaneous lesion in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadi, A; Hachimi, A; Soraa, N; Tassi, N; Nejmi, H; Elkhayari, M; Samkaoui, M A

    2014-05-01

    Anthrax meningoencephalitis is very rare especially following skin location. We report a case of meningoencephalitis secondary to skin lesion. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed by microbiological tests. Its evolution remains fatal despite aggressive resuscitation. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Meningoencephalitis due to anthrax: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hanefi; Koc, Mustafa; Murat, Ayse [Firat University, Department of Radiology, Elazig (Turkey); Kabakus, Nimet; Incekoey Girgin, Feyza [Firat University, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Elazig (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, but it also causes cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in humans. Bacillus anthracis is an uncommon cause of meningitis and generally produces a haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis. We present the CT and MR findings of anthrax meningoencephalitis due to the cutaneous form of anthrax in a 12-year-old boy. They showed focal intracerebral haemorrhage with leptomeningeal enhancement. (orig.)

  16. Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Induced meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, An-Chih; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Chen, Ke-Min; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood-brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Saad, N., E-mail: nivena100@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Jeavons, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  18. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J.; Saad, N.; Jeavons, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  19. Soap bubble appearance in brain magnetic resonance imaging: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha e Silva Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptococcal infections begin in the lungs, meningoencephalitis is the most frequently encountered manifestation of cryptococcosis among individuals with advanced immunosuppression. As the infection progresses along the Virchow-Robin spaces, these structures may become dilated with mucoid material produced by the capsule of the organism. We report a case of a 24-year-old man with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in which magnetic resonance imaging showed clusters of gelatinous pseudocysts in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, mammillary bodies, midbrain peduncles and nucleus dentatus with a soap bubble appearance.

  20. Clinical manifestations of meningoencephalitis in HIV-positive patients depending on the etiological factor meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odessa, Ukraine   Summary Authors analyzed of hospital charts a resume 132 patients of the Odessa regional center of fight and the prevention of AIDS which was on hospitalization with the diagnosis a meningoencephalitis. Causative agents of a meningoencephalitis were toxoplasmas, a cytomegalovirus, a cryptococcus, a mycobacteria of tuberculosis and not revealed agent. Authors established that irrespective of character of the activator development of a meningoencephalitis in HIV-positive people is characterized by a slow, sluggish current and a monotonous overall clinical picture. Some features connected with character of the activator take place at research of the neurologic status. Authors connect slackness and monotony of process with decrease general reactionary ability of an organism of HIV-infected, and feature of a neurologic picture with additional load on the brain structures to which affinity  causative agents of a meningoencephalitis. Keywords: HIV; meningoencephalitis; etiology; neurological status.     Резюме Авторы проанализировали данные историй болезни 132 больных Одесского областного центра борьбы и профилактики СПИДа, находившихся на стационарном лечении с диагнозом менингоэнцефалит. Возбудителями менингоэнцефалита были токсоплазмы, цитомегаловирус, криптококк, микобактерия туберкулеза. Авторы установили, что независимо от характера возбудителя развитие минингоэнцефалита у ВИЧ-позитивных людей характеризуется медленным, вялым течением и однообразной общей клинической к

  1. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  2. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with mantle cell lymphoma on ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Kasparian, Saro; Iyer, Swaminathan; Pingali, Sai Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been increasingly widely used in relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [1, 2]. With its use becoming more common, there have been emerging case reports of opportunistic infections like cryptococcal infections [3-8]. These infections in patients receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here, we report two cases of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with MCL on ibrutinib.

  3. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  4. sICAM-1 in meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-Contreras Alberto Juan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningoencephalitis is an emergent disease in the Americas. METHOD: Twelve children suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to this parasite aged between 6-10 years were studied. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were taken simultaneously in the first diagnostic puncture at admission. RESULTS: All cases showed typical findings on the routine CSF and serum analysis: increased CSF total protein, increased Q (CSF/serum albumin accompanied by eosinophilia in CSF. No intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins was found. Mean serum and CSF sICAM-1 values were 337.4 and 3.97 ng/mL. Qalbumin and QsICAM-1 mean values were 4.1 and 6.2 respectively. In 50% of the patients an increased brain-derived fraction of sICAM-1 was found. CONCLUSION: It may be suggested that a dynamic of the sICAM-1 brain derived fraction is perhaps associated to the immune response in the evolution of the disease.sICAM-1 may be an agent in negative feedback for eosinophils passage through the blood-CSF barrier into the inflammatory brain response.

  5. Correlation between CAT-findings and clinical course in viral and bacterial meningoencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.; Drewnitzky, H.; Rohkamm, R.; Grosse, D.

    1983-01-01

    The computed axial tomograms (CAT) of 50 patients with viral or bacterial meningoencephalitis are correlated with the clinical course, the laboratory data, and the EEG changes. The diagnostic value of CAT in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis is of specific importance. Hypodense regions are demonstrated after the fifth day of illness in the temporal lobe. All other viral or bacterial meningoencephalitis cases have no specific changes on CAT examination compared with clinical or laboratoy data. However, in localised encephalitis CAT may reveal hypodense regions. For follow-up studies of meningoencephalitis CAT is of important diagnostic value in demonstrating complications such as abscess or occlusive hydrocephalus. (orig.) [de

  6. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  7. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case report and review of Turkish literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metan, Gökhan; Uysal, Burcu; Coşkun, Ramazan; Perçin, Duygu; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    The incidence of anthrax is decreasing in Turkey, however, it is still endemic in some regions of the country. Although central nervous system involvement is rare in cases with anthrax, high mortality rates are significant. Here, we report a 46-years old woman who was anthrax meningoencephalitis. The patient was from Yozgat located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Her history revealed that following peeling the skin of sheeps and consuming their meat a week ago, a lesion developed in her left forearm and she had been treated with penicilin G with the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in a local health center. The patient was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital due to increased headache and loss of conciousness and diagnosed as anthrax meningitis. Crytallized penicilin G (24 MU/day IV) and vancomycin (2 g/day IV) were initiated. The macroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was haemorrhagic, white blood cell count was 40/mm3 (80% of neutrophil) and Gram staining of CSF yielded abundant gram-positive bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Bacillus anthracis from CSF culture. Although the isolate was susceptible to penicillin and dexamethasone was added to the treatment, the patient died. Review of the Turkish literature revealed seven cases of anthrax with central nervous system involvement between 1980-2008. One of the patients was an 11-years old boy and the others were adults aged between 19 and 64 years. The source of the infection was skin in four patients and inhalation in one patient. The most common findings in all of the patients were inhabitance in rural area, haemorrhagic CSF and loss of all patients despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, anthrax meningitis and meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic meningitis in areas where anthrax is endemic and high rate of mortality despite appropriate therapy should always be kept in mind.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bacterial Meningoencephalitis in a Foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Viu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in equidae suffering meningoencephalitis (ME has not been described. The objective of this paper is to describe brain MRI findings in a foal with bacterial ME. A five-month-old, 200 kg bwt Arabian filly was referred with a history of abnormal mental status and locomotion. The filly was recumbent and obtunded, and pupillary light reflexes were sluggish, and oculocephalic movements were normally present. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral optic neuritis. Hematology revealed leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed neutrophilic pleocytosis with intracellular bacteria. On brain MRI, there were multifocal cortical areas of mild hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI affecting both hemispheres. The lesions had ill-delineated margins, and there was loss of differentiation between gray and white matter. Diffuse hyperintensity was also identified in the left cerebellar cortex on T2WI. Neither mass effect nor cerebral midline shift were identified. On FLAIR images, the lesions were also hyperintense and, in some areas, they seemed to coalescence to form diffuse cortical areas of hyperintensity. The MRI findings described were similar to the MRI features described in cases of humans and small animals with ME. Brain MRI can be a useful diagnostic tool in foals and small-sized equidae with intracranial disease.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of mumps meningoencephalitis with bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding acute parotitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2000-03-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APPENZELLER SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis.METHOD: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. RESULTS: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weighted images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behçet´s disease or systemic lupus erythematosus. After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  13. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  14. First case of scrub typhus with meningoencephalitis from Kerala: An emerging infectious threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saifudheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the most common infectious diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India, and its presence has been documented in at least 11 Indian states. However, scrub typhus meningoencephalitis has not been well documented in Kerala. We report two cases of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis from northern Kerala. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test with a titer of > 1:320. The first patient succumbed to illness due to respiratory failure and the second patient improved well.

  15. Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael; Rodger, Alison; Bell, David J; Bhagani, Sanjay; Cropley, Ian; Filipe, Ana; Gifford, Robert J; Hopkins, Susan; Hughes, Joseph; Jabeen, Farrah; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos; Lackenby, Angie; Lester, Rebecca; Liu, Rebecca S N; MacConnachie, Alisdair; Mahungu, Tabitha; Martin, Daniel; Marshall, Neal; Mepham, Stephen; Orton, Richard; Palmarini, Massimo; Patel, Monika; Perry, Colin; Peters, S Erica; Porter, Duncan; Ritchie, David; Ritchie, Neil D; Seaton, R Andrew; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Templeton, Kate; Warren, Simon; Wilkie, Gavin S; Zambon, Maria; Gopal, Robin; Thomson, Emma C

    2016-07-30

    There are thousands of survivors of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa. Ebola virus can persist in survivors for months in immune-privileged sites; however, viral relapse causing life-threatening and potentially transmissible disease has not been described. We report a case of late relapse in a patient who had been treated for severe Ebola virus disease with high viral load (peak cycle threshold value 13.2). A 39-year-old female nurse from Scotland, who had assisted the humanitarian effort in Sierra Leone, had received intensive supportive treatment and experimental antiviral therapies, and had been discharged with undetectable Ebola virus RNA in peripheral blood. The patient was readmitted to hospital 9 months after discharge with symptoms of acute meningitis, and was found to have Ebola virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). She was treated with supportive therapy and experimental antiviral drug GS-5734 (Gilead Sciences, San Francisco, Foster City, CA, USA). We monitored Ebola virus RNA in CSF and plasma, and sequenced the viral genome using an unbiased metagenomic approach. On admission, reverse transcriptase PCR identified Ebola virus RNA at a higher level in CSF (cycle threshold value 23.7) than plasma (31.3); infectious virus was only recovered from CSF. The patient developed progressive meningoencephalitis with cranial neuropathies and radiculopathy. Clinical recovery was associated with addition of high-dose corticosteroids during GS-5734 treatment. CSF Ebola virus RNA slowly declined and was undetectable following 14 days of treatment with GS-5734. Sequencing of plasma and CSF viral genome revealed only two non-coding changes compared with the original infecting virus. Our report shows that previously unanticipated, late, severe relapses of Ebola virus can occur, in this case in the CNS. This finding fundamentally redefines what is known about the natural history of Ebola virus infection. Vigilance should be maintained in the thousands of Ebola survivors

  16. Meningoencephalitis and Compartmentalization of the Cerebral Ventricles Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Martin B.; Allen, Stephen D.; Neal, Patricia; Reynolds, Janet

    1981-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. A detailed description of the isolate is presented. This communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. PMID:7287892

  17. Fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a Norwegian tourist returning from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubhaug, Tore Taksdal; Reiakvam, Olaug Marie; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Hermansen, Nils Olav; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Gaustad, Knut; Førde, Ingrid Schage; Heger, Bernt

    2016-06-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease caused by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri . Infection occurs by insufflation of water containing amoebae into the nasal cavity, and is usually associated with bathing in freshwater. Nasal irrigation is a more rarely reported route of infection. A fatal case of PAM in a previously healthy Norwegian woman, acquired during a holiday trip to Thailand, is described. Clinical findings were consistent with rapidly progressing meningoencephalitis. The cause of infection was discovered by chance, owing to the unexpected detection of N. fowleri DNA by a PCR assay targeting fungi. A conclusive diagnosis was established based on sequencing of N. fowleri DNA from brain biopsies, supported by histopathological findings. Nasal irrigation using contaminated tap water is suspected as the source of infection. The clinical presentation of PAM is very similar to severe bacterial meningitis. This case is a reminder that when standard investigations fail to identify a cause of infection in severe meningoencephalitis, it is of crucial importance to continue a broad search for a conclusive diagnosis. PAM should be considered as a diagnosis in patients with symptoms of severe meningoencephalitis returning from endemic areas.

  18. Meningoencephalitis, pancytopenia, pulmonary insufficiency and splenic abscess in a patient with brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokca, F.; Yilmaz-Bozkurt, G.; Azap, A.; Memikoglu, O.; Takeli, E.

    2006-01-01

    A complicated case of brucellosis with some rare features is reported. Brucellosis is a multisystematic disease. However, disseminated brucellosis with cerebral, pulmonary, hematopoietic and splenic involvement in an otherwise healthy patient is a rare event. In this article, we report a case of disseminated brucellosis who was initially diagnosed as myeldoplastic syndrome (MDS) and meningoencephalitis, pulmonary symptoms, and splenic abscess formation occurred thereafter. (author)

  19. Experiences of diagnosis and treatment of 102 cases with cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yu CHANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical manifestations and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of 102 cases with cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.  Methods The clinical manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and outcomes of 102 cases with cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis were analyzed retrospectively.  Results The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis raised in recent years. The signs of high intracranial pressure, meningeal irritation and cranial nerves impairment are the main clinical manifestations of cryptococcal meningitis, while seizures, hemiplegia, mental disorders and ataxia can occur when the brain parenchyma is involved. Cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is easy to be misdiagnosed, especially misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis. Repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF smear and latex agglutination test can ensure the diagnostic accuracy. Amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole combined therapy is the most widely used therapeutic strategy at present, which has been proved to be effective; surgery operations (such as ventriculo-peritoneal shunt are effective in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis complicating hydrocephalus.  Conclusions The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is difficult for its lack of specific clinical manifestations. Suspected patients should receive repeated CSF smear, latex agglutination test as well as imageological examination to make an accurate diagnosis. Combined, long-term antifungal therapy should be used immediately in confirmed cases, and surgery operations can be used in necessity to improve outcomes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.008

  20. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri: an old enemy presenting new challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First discovered in 1899, Naegleria fowleri is a protist pathogen, known to infect the central nervous system and produce primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. The most distressing aspect is that the fatality rate has remained more than 95%, despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Although rare worldwide, most cases have been reported in the United States, Australia, and Europe (France. A large number of cases in developing countries go unnoticed. In particular, religious, recreational, and cultural practices such as ritual ablution and/or purifications, Ayurveda, and the use of neti pots for nasal irrigation can contribute to this devastating infection. With increasing water scarcity and public reliance on water storage, here we debate the need for increased awareness of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis and the associated risk factors, particularly in developing countries.

  1. Determination of CMV infection in CSF of children with meningoencephalitis: PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, many ill cases with cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-immuno compromised persons reported. Goal of study: to determine the CMV infection in cerebrospinal fluid of aseptic meningoencephalitis children hospitalized in Rasul & Mofid hospital (2005-2007. "nMethods: In a cross sectional study 132 cases selected with simple sampling. CMV-DNA in their Cerebro spinal fluids searched by qualitative PCR. "nResults: The age range of the study patients was 5 month- 13 years, median age= 2±3.7 years; 87(65.9% male and 45(34.1% was female. The presenting signs and symptoms were convulsion 77(69.4%; meningitis 25(18.8%, loss of consciousness 47(37%; neurologic defects 15.9%. DNA extrated in 11 cases. Mycoplasma- DNA in 2cases; DNA-CMV detected 2(1.5%. Positive DNA HSV found in 7(15.3% of patients. DNA- HSV type- 15.3% (7/132 cases. An infant 5 month age with developmental delay, microcephaly and recurrent convulsions. A 1 year girl with brain atrophy and progressive hydrocephaly with intracranial shunt "nConclusions: Differentiation between herpes meningoencephalitis and other encephalopathy based on clinical signs in children is too difficult. CMV (1.5% has lower rate than herpes simplex type-1 (5.7%. In addition to CMV and HSV1 all of herpes family viruses (varicella, herpes 6, 7, Epstein barr virus could have role in  children with meningoencephalitis. In recent years a sensitive, rapid, simple diagnostic  test "Single tube Multiplex PCR" in cerebro spinal fluid recommend. Rapid diagnosis and faster treatment is necessary for decreasing mortality and morbidity in all of herpes meningoencephalitis cases

  2. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Berisha, Arieta Zogaj

    2017-06-29

    Tuberculous meningitis is globally highly prevalent and is commoner in resource-limited countries and in patients with immunosuppression. Central nervous system tuberculosis is one of the severest forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy and associated brain tuberculomas have been rarely reported. With the availability of neuroimaging at our hospital center, we present the first case of tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy. In this case report we present a 25-year-old, Albanian, pregnant woman living in an urban area in Kosovo, who at 24 weeks of twin pregnancy manifested signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis with decreased level of consciousness, hemiparesis, and generalized recurrent seizures. Based on medical history, origin from a region of high prevalence of tuberculosis, clinical presentation, especially neurological examination, cytobiochemical changes in cerebrospinal fluid (mild mononuclear pleocytosis with decreased level of glucose and elevated proteins), and elevated level of interferon-gamma release assay in cerebrospinal fluid, antituberculous therapy was initiated on the fourth day of admission. After 3 weeks of treatment, at 27 weeks of pregnancy, she had a preterm delivery and both twins, with low birthweight, died after 24 and 72 hours. Although findings on chest radiography were normal, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of meningoencephalitis and multiple intracerebral tuberculomas, while Koch's bacillus was isolated from urine cultures. On long-term follow-up after delivery, she was cured with no sequelae and became pregnant again without any additional complications. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, screening for central nervous system tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Cerebral imaging is essential to establish the diagnosis of brain tuberculomas in such a case of suspected tuberculous

  3. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Namani, Sadie; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Berisha, Arieta Zogaj

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is globally highly prevalent and is commoner in resource-limited countries and in patients with immunosuppression. Central nervous system tuberculosis is one of the severest forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy and associated brain tuberculomas have been rarely reported. With the availability of neuroimaging at our hospital center, we present the first case of tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy...

  4. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neuronameningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondiimeningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  5. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in North Eastern India: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S R; Masaraf, H; Lynrah, K G; Lyngdoh, M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is rampant in northern, eastern, and southern India. Central nervous system involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus. As specific laboratory methods remain inadequate or inaccessible in developing countries, prompt diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological complications in scrub typhus from northeastern region of India. We did a prospective study of scrub meningoencephalitis at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences among patients admitted to hospital between October 2009 and November 2011. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of an eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test (WFT) with a titer of >1:160 and if required a positive scrub IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain performed if needed. Twenty-three patients of scrub typhus meningitis that were serologically confirmed were included in the study. There were 13 males and 10 females. Fever ≥1 week was the most common manifestation (39.1%). Interestingly, none had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 17 cells/μL, 90%, 86 mg/dL, 0.6605 and 3.6 U/mL, respectively. All patients were treated with doxycycline. There was no mortality in our study. Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still serves as a useful and affordable diagnostic tool for this disease in resource-poor countries.

  6. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis with seizure from raw pork ingestion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Teerasukjinda, Ornusa; Yee, Melvin; Chung, Heath H

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a rare but increasingly important condition. Good history taking will give clues to the diagnosis. This is the fourth case report in the United States. A 52-year-old Filipino man who recently returned from a trip to the Philippines was admitted with classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis. His cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus suis. His clinical course was complicated by seizures, hearing loss, and permanent tinnitus. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging disease especially in patients with recent travel history to endemic areas. Early recognition and appropriate management could potentially prevent complications.

  7. Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Relapse after an 8 Year Delay: An Interplay of Infection and Immune Reconstitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, Juri; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nielsen, Kirsten; Branding, Gordian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Meintjes, Graeme; Boulware, David R.; Stocker, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a symptomatic relapse of HIV-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis 8 years after the first diagnosis on the background of immune reconstitution. The findings as well as the clinical course suggests a combination of smouldering localized infection and enhanced inflammatory reaction related to immune restoration due to antiretroviral therapy. A combination of antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Our case challenges the concept that immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and microbiological relapse are dichotomous entities. PMID:25505049

  8. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis relapse after an eight-year delay: an interplay of infection and immune reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, Juri; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nielsen, Kirsten; Branding, Gordian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Meintjes, Graeme; Boulware, David R; Stocker, Hartmut

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a symptomatic relapse of HIV-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis eight years after the first diagnosis on the background of immune reconstitution. The findings as well as the clinical course suggests a combination of smouldering localised infection and enhanced inflammatory reaction related to immune restoration due to antiretroviral therapy. A combination of antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Our case challenges the concept that immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and microbiological relapse are dichotomous entities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A.; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Browne, Sarah K.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C.; Bennett, John E.; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. Results. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. Conclusions. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. PMID:28011613

  10. Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis with vasculitis and thrombosis of small vessels that contained discrete neutrophilic and/or lymphocytic infiltrates admixed with fibrin at the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and trigeminal nerve ganglion of all animals. All tissues from the central nervous system used during this study were previously characterized as negative for rabies virus by the direct immunofluorescence assay. PCR and RT-PCR assays investigated the participation of infectious agents associated with bovine neurological disease by targeting specific genes of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, bovine herpesvirus -1 and -5, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and ovine herpesvirus-2. PCR and subsequent sequencing resulted in partial fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of H. somni from brain sections of all animals with histopathological diagnosis of TME; all other PCR/RT-PCR assays were negative. These findings confirmed the participation of H. somni in the neuropathological disease observed in these animals, extend the geographical distribution of this disease, and support previous findings of H. somni from Brazil.

  11. Meningoencephalitis in farmed monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikesavalu Harresh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of tilapia is a new research venture in India. With intensification in farming practices, tilapia are increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections. This article describes the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from cultured monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L., that experienced moderate to severe mortalities in West Bengal, India between September and August 2014 and histopathological alterations in various organs. Gram-positive diplococci, identified as Streptococcus agalactiae with Streptococcus identification kits and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, were isolated from the brain, operculum, and kidney. Other bacteria from the kidney were identified as Aeromonas sobria, A. caviae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter cloacae. Staphylococcus epidermis was isolated from opercular hemorrhages. Histological sections of the infected tilapia brain revealed meningoencephalitis and granulomatous lesions. Sections from other organs indicated congestion, hemorrhagic and hyperplastic cells, necrosis, vacuolation, hemosiderin deposition, hypertrophic nuclei, melanomacrophage aggregation, and ruptured veins. This report is the first description of S. agalactiae as a primary pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultured tilapia in India.

  12. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in a South American tapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Alarcón, F; Bradley, G A; Houser, B S; Visvesvara, G S

    1997-05-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are known to cause fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease in human beings. N. fowleri causes acute, fulminating primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which generally leads to death within 10 days. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous amebic encephalitis, which may last for 8 weeks. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris also cause CNS disease in animals. N. fowleri, however, has been described only in human beings. This report is the first of PAM in an animal, a South American tapir. Dry cough, lethargy, and coma developed in the animal, and its condition progressed to death. At necropsy, lesions were seen in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and lungs. The CNS had severe, suppurative meningoencephalitis with many neutrophils, fibrin, plasma cells, and amebas. Amebas were 6.5 microns to 9 microns in diameter and had a nucleus containing a large nucleolus. Amebas in the sections reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific for N. fowleri in the immunofluorescent assay and appeared bright green.

  13. Two cases of possible neuro-Sweet disease with meningoencephalitis as the initial manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Makimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases that were considered to be neuro-Sweet disease. They initially manifested with meningoencephalitis and no skin lesions, and rapidly improved with corticosteroid therapy. In both cases, patients complained of meningitic symptoms such as fever and headache, and HLA-B54 and -Cw1 turned out to be positive over the clinical course. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased levels of lymphocytes and protein. In case #1, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion-weighted images (DWI showed high-intensity signals in the right dorsal medulla oblongata, bilateral dorsal midbrain, and left thalamus. In case #2, FLAIR and DWI showed high-intensity signals in the bilateral cerebellar cortex and left caudate nucleus. Symptoms and MRI images were markedly improved in both cases after corticosteroid pulse therapy. According to published diagnostic criteria, these 2 cases were considered possible neuro-Sweet disease. These cases suggest that the combination of meningoencephalitis and HLA specificity is important to consider the possibility of neuro-Sweet disease, even without skin lesions.

  14. Clinical and laboratory peculiarities of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with hiv-negative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Леонидовна Панасюк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research: to study the clinical, ummunologic, pathomorphologic peculiarities of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV-negative status. Materials and methods: there were examined and treated 9 patients (5 women and 5 men 23-65 years old with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CME with HIV-negative status. In this group of patients in 3 (33,3 % mycotic injure of nervous system developed on the background of pathology of ENT-organs (2 – larynx cancer, 1 – nasopharynx tumour, in 2 (22,2 % – endocrinopathy (decompensated diabetes mellitus type 11, chronic suprarenal insufficiency, in 1 case tuberculous meningoencephalitis, chronic suprarenal insufficiency connected with chronic pyelonephritis, polypous cystitis, hemolytic anemia, colloid cyst of the 111 ventricle of brain. Among persons with pathology of ENT-organs three patients entered into intensive care department (ICD after operative treatment and repeated courses of chemo- and radial therapy, 1 – after palliative operative treatment. Results: Primary clinical manifestations of cryptococcal menongoencephalitis depended on premorbid background and character of previous medical manipulations. Typical gradual development of CME was noticed only in patients with decompensated somatic pathology. In single cases initial manifestations of CME can flow acutely, violently imitating an image of an acute disorder of brain blood circulation or feebly, inertly on the background of already present neuroinfection. It was set the separate group of patients whose development of CME had a temporal connection with previous operative interventions. Most patients were transferred to IEID (Public Institution “Institute of Epidemiology and infectious diseases L.V. Gromashevsky National Academy of Medical sciences of Ukraine’ at the mean on 18±2,1 day of disease in the grave condition, in all cases the late diagnostics of disease was observed. At admission in 8 cases were

  15. SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA-ASSOCIATED MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN A PACIFIC WALRUS ( ODOBENDUS ROSMARUS DIVERGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Lana; Fravel, Vanessa; Procter, Diana G; Colegrove, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    A 21-yr-old intact male walrus ( Odobendus rosmarus divergens) presented with acute onset of shifting lameness, initially associated with breeding behaviors. Further clinical signs manifested, including muscle tremors, anorexia, hematuria, and coughing. Diagnostics were limited, as the animal would not offer behaviors for voluntary sample collection. Signs were addressed with anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics. The walrus developed cluster seizures and ultimately, respiratory and cardiac arrest. Postmortem lesions included meningoencephalitis with intra- and extracellular protozoal zoites and schizonts, as well as interstitial pneumonia with intraendothelial protozoa. Immunolabeling of the protozoal organisms revealed Sarcocystis neurona. Previous S. neurona infections in an odobenid have not been reported. Protozoal infection should be considered in all species of captive marine mammals with nonspecific orthopedic, neurological, and respiratory clinical signs.

  16. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los ni

  17. Enteroviral Meningoencephalitis Complicated by Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Garrett; Muriello, Michael; Patel, Aloka; Logan, Latania

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus is a known cause of central nervous system infection in the neonatal population and typically has a benign course; however, neurologic complications have been reported. We describe what we believe to be the first documented case of enteroviral meningoencephalitis complicated by central diabetes insipidus in a neonate. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluation of intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Inés; Richter, Henning; Beckmann, Katrin; Meier, Dieter; Dennler, Matthias; Kircher, Patrick R

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3.0 T. ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel (1)H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same (1)H MRS technique. RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE (1)H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.

  19. Case Series of Naegleria fowleri Primary Ameobic Meningoencephalitis from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, Najia K; Jamil, Bushra; Khan, Erum; Ansar, Zeeshan; Samreen, Azra; Zafar, Afia; Hasan, Zahra

    2017-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. Naegleria fowleri is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of N. fowleri cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of N. fowleri in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were tested at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Nineteen CSF specimens were positive for N. fowleri using PCR. Naegleria fowleri positive patients had a median age of 28 years and were 84% male and 16% female. Overall, CSF wet preparation microscopy was performed in 85 (73%) cases and identified that seven specimens were positive for motile trophozoites. The CSF wet preparation results were available for 15 of the 19 N. fowleri PCR positive CSF samples; seven (40%) wet preparations were positive. Our data highlight the threat of N. fowleri infection as a cause of PAM. It also emphasizes the utility of the PCR-based diagnosis of the amoeba for early diagnosis and management of the disease.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans hyperfilamentous strain is hypervirulent in a murine model of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Feretzaki

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that causes lethal infections of the lung and central nervous system in immunocompromised individuals. C. neoformans has a defined bipolar sexual life cycle with a and α mating types. During the sexual cycle, which can occur between cells of opposite mating types (bisexual reproduction or cells of one mating type (unisexual reproduction, a dimorphic transition from yeast to hyphal growth occurs. Hyphal development and meiosis generate abundant spores that, following inhalation, penetrate deep into the lung to enter the alveoli, germinate, and establish a pulmonary infection growing as budding yeast cells. Unisexual reproduction has been directly observed only in the Cryptococcus var. neoformans (serotype D lineage under laboratory conditions. However, hyphal development has been previously associated with reduced virulence and the serotype D lineage exhibits limited pathogenicity in the murine model. In this study we show that the serotype D hyperfilamentous strain XL280α is hypervirulent in an animal model. It can grow inside the lung of the host, establish a pulmonary infection, and then disseminate to the brain to cause cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Surprisingly, this hyperfilamentous strain triggers an immune response polarized towards Th2-type immunity, which is usually observed in the highly virulent sibling species C. gattii, responsible for the Pacific Northwest outbreak. These studies provide a technological advance that will facilitate analysis of virulence genes and attributes in C. neoformans var. neoformans, and reveal the virulence potential of serotype D as broader and more dynamic than previously appreciated.

  1. Hyposplenism as a cause of pneumococcal meningoencephalitis in an adult patient with coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caraceni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coeliac disease can be associated with hyposplenism and splenic atrophy, which may increase the patient’s risk for fatal infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Pneumococcus. It is general opinion that many more patients with coeliac disease have died from hyposplenism-related infections than those reported in literature. Case report: A 62-year-old woman with recently diagnosed coeliac disease was hospitalized with high fever, disorientation, and nuchal rigidity. Cerebral computed tomography was negative. Laboratory tests showed an elevated leukocyte count and very high levels of C reactive protein. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contained an increased number of mononuclear cells associated with a low glucose level and high protein concentrations. The CSF culture was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Neurological conditions rapidly deteriorated with the onset of coma, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed initial signs of encephalitis extending above and below the tentorium. Abdominal ultrasonography disclosed splenic hypotrophy that raised the suspicion of hyposplenism. The diagnosis of hyposplenism was confirmed by demonstration of Howell-Jolly bodies in a peripheral blood smear. Discussion: This is the first reported case of pneumococcal meningoencephalitis caused by splenic hypofunction in a patient with coeliac disease. When coeliac disease is diagnosed with a marked delay in an elderly patient, spleen function should always be assessed. If impaired, the patient should undergo vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to prevent pneumococcal infections.

  2. Seasonal primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the south: summertime is PAM time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a typically fatal, free-living amebic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is caused by the thermophilic, freshwater protozoan, Naegleria fowleri. More than 145 cases of PAM have been reported worldwide, with most reported cases in the United States (US). Since annual PAM case clusters in the US and worldwide have demonstrated recent increases over background cases, the objectives of this investigation included (1) an epidemiological and statistical analysis of a 2007 cluster of six PAM cases in the southern US, nested in a retrospective review of 121 confirmed US cases of PAM over the period, 1937 to 2007; and (2) a statistical analysis of all existing demographic, temporal, and behavioral risk factors for PAM. Significant risk factors for PAM in the United States included male sex and warm recreational freshwater exposures in seasonal patterns (July - August) in southern tier states, including Louisiana. Although there have been a few recent survivors of PAM treated with combinations of intensive critical care, antifungals, and synergistic antibiotics, case fatality rates for PAM remain very high. PAM is best prevented by combinations of public health educational and behavioral modification strategies. Further investigations will be required to determine the significance of freshwater wakeboarding as a significant risk factor for PAM and to determine any dose-response effects of global warming on rising freshwater temperatures and the growth of aquatic Naegleria fowleri.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Fatores prognósticos de letalidade na meningoencefalite tuberculosa Prognostic factors for tuberculous meningoencephalitis lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEUCI NUNES

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo de prognóstico em que é avaliada uma coorte retrospectiva de 231 pacientes com diagnóstico de meningoencefalite tuberculosa, com o objetivo de determinar os fatores prognósticos de letalidade. A idade variou de menos de 1 a 68 anos, com 97 pacientes (42% na faixa etária igual ou inferior a 4 anos. Em 62 casos ocorreu a confirmação diagnóstica por líquor (cultura, baciloscopia, PCR ou necropsia; nos demais casos o diagnóstico foi baseado em critérios clínicos, epidemiológicos e resposta terapêutica. Na análise multivariada observamos que os fatores prognósticos mais importantes foram: faixa etária menor que 4 anos, ocorrência de convulsão e alterações de consciência consideradas graves.In order to describe the lethality predictors of patients with tuberculous meningoencephalitis, records of 231 patients were analysed. Ages ranged from less than 1 year to 68 years. Ninety-seven patients (42% were four years old or less. Apart from 73.2% of patients whose diagnosis was performed by clinical and epidemiologic criteria associated with response to specific therapy, 26.8% had diagnostic confirmation through cerebrospinal fluid (culture, bacilloscopy, PCR or necropsy. The lethality predictors were: less than 4 years of age, seizures, and severe alterations of consciousness.

  5. Neospora caninum and Ehrlichia canis co-infection in a dog with meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, Itamar; Baneth, Gad; Salant, Harold; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Berkowitz, Asaf; Shamir, Merav; Chai, Orit

    2018-06-01

    An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented for acute, progressive weakness and ataxia, inappetence, and weight loss. The patient was mentally normal, but nonambulatory, with a right head tilt, right positional ventral strabismus, and slight head tremors. A neurologic lesion was localized to the cerebellum and right brainstem. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly increased protein concentration and mixed pleocytosis, with eosinophil predominance (44%), intracytoplasmic inclusions within eosinophils, consistent with Ehrlichia canis (E canis) morulae, and Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) or Neospora caninum (N caninum) tachyzoites within eosinophils and monocytes. A serum indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was positive for N caninum (titer 1:12 800) and negative for T gondii. Both blood and CSF PCR results were N caninum- and E canis-positive and T gondii- and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-negative, and blood PCR, but not CSF PCR, was Hepatozoon canis-positive. The dog was treated for 30 days with clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, doxycycline, prednisone, and cephalosporin, but did not improve neurologically, and was euthanized. Brain histopathology showed moderate multifocal, subacute meningoencephalitis with necrosis and gliosis. The neurologic disease was mostly attributed to central nervous system (CNS) neosporosis, with the possible contribution of ehrlichiosis, which was likely a manifestation of blood-brain barrier disruption. Hepatozoonosis was probably a result or cause of underlying immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNSN caninum and E canis co-infection detected by both CSF PCR and cytology and E canis morulae identified within CSF eosinophils. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M; Jennings, Gareth; Zhou, Wenxu; Aksenov, Alexander; Luth, Madeline R; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W David; McKerrow, James H; Podust, Larissa M

    2017-12-01

    Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  7. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Debnath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51 target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  8. Meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MRI leading to treatment with corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorens, Philippe G.; Demey, Hendrik E.; Parizel, Paul M.; Smets, Katrien; Jadoul, Kris; Verbeek, M.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Cras, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but only rarely causes other infections such as brain abscess, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis or meningoencephalitis. We report on three adult patients with meningoencephalitis caused by S. pneumoniae. In all three, CT and MRI revealed widespread brain lesions, suggesting extensive parenchymal injury. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed lesions with restricted diffusion, reflecting local areas of ischaemia with cytotoxic oedema secondary to an immunologically mediated necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis. High levels of markers of neuronal, glial and myelin damage were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. According to the literature, brain parenchyma lesions in adults with pneumococcal meningoencephalitis are often associated with death or severe neurological deficit. Our patients were treated with pulse doses of glucocorticoids: this resulted in dramatic clinical improvement and an excellent final neurological recovery. (orig.)

  9. Meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MRI leading to treatment with corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorens, Philippe G.; Demey, Hendrik E. [University Hospital of Antwerp, UZA, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Edegem (Belgium); Parizel, Paul M. [University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Smets, Katrien [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurology, Edegem (Belgium); General Hospital AZ Middelares, Department of Neurology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Jadoul, Kris [General Hospital AZ Middelares, Department of Neurology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Verbeek, M.M.; Wevers, R.A. [University Hospital of Nijmegen, Laboratory of Paediatrics and Neurology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cras, Patrick [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but only rarely causes other infections such as brain abscess, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis or meningoencephalitis. We report on three adult patients with meningoencephalitis caused by S. pneumoniae. In all three, CT and MRI revealed widespread brain lesions, suggesting extensive parenchymal injury. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed lesions with restricted diffusion, reflecting local areas of ischaemia with cytotoxic oedema secondary to an immunologically mediated necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis. High levels of markers of neuronal, glial and myelin damage were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. According to the literature, brain parenchyma lesions in adults with pneumococcal meningoencephalitis are often associated with death or severe neurological deficit. Our patients were treated with pulse doses of glucocorticoids: this resulted in dramatic clinical improvement and an excellent final neurological recovery. (orig.)

  10. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis.Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis.Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test.Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 % patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%, 13 (100%, 6 (46.15% and 10 (76.92% patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications.

  11. Toscana virus meningo-encephalitis: an important differential diagnosis for elderly travellers returning from Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veater, James; Mehedi, Farhan; Cheung, Chee Kay; Nabarro, Laura; Osborne, Jane; Wong, Nicholas; Wiselka, Martin; Tang, Julian W

    2017-08-29

    Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation. Such infections may not be routinely considered by geriatric medical teams. An 87-year old gentleman presented with a three-day history of worsening confusion, lethargy, ataxia, and fevers following a trip to Spain, where he may have sustained a sandfly bite. By the time of admission, he had a reduced GCS, was hallucinating, and was incontinent of urine and faeces, though blood pressure and heart rate were normal. He also appeared hyperaesthetic, and found even capillary blood sugar testing extremely painful. He had no history of cognitive defect or other neurological conditions. He had been previously independently active, with frequent trips to Spain where he maintained a holiday home. He probably sustained a sandfly bite during this most recent trip, whilst cleaning out a shed. Acute and convalescent sera demonstrated IgG antibodies to Toscana virus at extremely high titres of ≥1:10,000 by immunofluorescence assay, though no Toscana virus RNA was detectable in these sera by the time of presentation. Toscana virus should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patients presenting with meningo-encephalitis who have recently returned from a Mediterranean country. Testing for Toscana virus infection is performed by serological testing on acute/convalescent paired sera, and/or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) if presenting within 5 days of

  12. Meningoencefalite necrotizante de cão Maltês Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Maltese dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalan Bastos Violin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A Meningoencefalite Necrotizante (MEN é uma encefalopatia causada por uma disfunção inflamatória de característica necrotizante. O objetivo deste relato é descrever os aspectos clínicos e anatomopatológicos da Meningoencefalite Necrotizante (MEN em um cão Maltês. A doença tem um caráter necrótico único e está relacionada intimamente à Encefalite do Cão Pug (ECP devido a suas semelhanças, bem como à Leucoencefalite Necrotizante (LEN. Embora o primeiro relato de caso de ECP tenha mais de 15 anos e o primeiro relato de caso de MEN em Maltês tenha 11 anos, há muito a ser revelado sobre a etiologia e os mecanismos imunopatológicos da doença. Neste trabalho, relata-se o caso de um cão Maltês com sinais que foram compatíveis com a MEN. Foram detectadas nas imagens macroscópicas, cavitação cerebral, e na microscopia, perda de células do parênquima em certas regiões do córtex cerebral. A partir dessas descobertas descreve-se o primeiro caso de MEN em cão Maltês no Brasil.The Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis (NME is an encephalopathy caused by an inflammatory dysfunction with necrotic characterization. The aim of this report is to describe the anatomopathological features of the NME in a Maltese dog. The disease has a unique necrotic pattern and is closely related to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE because of their similarity as well as to Necrotizing Leukoencephalitis (NLE. Although the first PDE report has more than 15 years and the first Maltese NME report has 11 years there is a lot to be unveiled about the etiologic and the immunopathologic mechanisms of the disease. Here we report one case of a Maltese dog with signs that were compatible with NME. The gross morphology pictures with the cerebral cavitation and the histological loss of parenchymal cells in some regions of the cerebral cortex were detected. Based on these findings, we describe the first case of NME in Maltese dog in Brazil.

  13. Meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2007-07-01

    testar sorologicamente os bovinos a serem introduzidos nos rebanhos, minimizar situações de estresse, sobretudo no desmame, e isolamento dos bovinos afetados.Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5 is an often fatal, acute or subacute infectious disease that affects mainly young cattle under stressing conditions. The disease has been recognized in several Brazilian regions and in other parts of the world. BoHV-5 is a double stranded DNA virus member of the Herpesviridae family and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The virus is characterized by rapid and lytic replication in cell cultures and by the ability to establish lifelong latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia of the host. BoHV-5 is transmitted mainly by direct and indirect contact and replicates acutely in the oral, nasal, oropharingeal or ocular mucosae. After primary replication, the virus invades nerve endings and is transported to the neuron cell bodies of the sensory ganglia where it replicates actively and/or establishes latency. Viral invasion of the brain may result in massive virus replication and production of neurological disease. Virtually all cattle developing neurological disease die of meningoencephalitis; yet the infection may be subclinical in some animals. These animals recover and become latently infected. Viral dissemination within a herd is facilitated by conditions such as crowding, introduction of cattle from other herds and weaning of calves in ages that coincide with decrease of passive immunity. Certain natural or induced conditions may reactivate the latent virus and favor its transmission and dissemination to other susceptible individuals. The disease may occur as outbreaks or as sporadic cases, with morbidity rates ranging of 0.05%-5%; lethality is almost always 100%. Clinical signs include depression, nasal and ocular discharge, grinding of teeth, circling, blindness, fever, paddling movements, disphagia, abdominal pain, nystagmus, muscle tremors, drooling

  14. Co-existence of Chiari malformation type I and Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in a 3-year-old child: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomou, E.K.; Kotsarini, C.; Badra, F.A.; Krepis, A.; Papanastasiou, D.; Patriarcheas, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the present report we describe an unusual case of a 3-year-old girl who was admitted to our hospital with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse abnormalities in white matter and Chiari I malformation with cervical and thoracic hydro-syringomyelia. (orig.)

  15. Cryptococcal neuroradiological lesions correlate with severity during cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in HIV-positive patients in the HAART era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Charlier

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has an overall global mortality rate of 20% in AIDS patients despite antifungals. There is a need for additional means of precise assessment of disease severity. We thus studied the radiological brain images available from 62 HIV-positive patients with cryptococcocal meningoencephalitis to analyse the brain lesions associated with cryptococcosis in relationship with disease severity, and the respective diagnostic contribution of magnetic resonance (MR versus computed tomography (CT. In this retrospective multicenter analysis, two neuroradiologists blindly reviewed the brain imaging. Prospectively acquired clinical and mycological data were available at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline images were abnormal on 92% of the MR scans contrasting with 53% of the CT scans. MR/CT cryptococcosis-related lesions included mass(es (21%/9%, dilated perivascular spaces (46%/5% and pseudocysts (8%/4%. The presence compared to absence of cryptococcosis-related lesions was significantly associated with high serum (78% vs. 42%, p = 0.008 and CSF (81% vs. 50%, p = 0.024 antigen titers, independently of neurological abnormalities. MR detected significantly more cryptococcosis-related lesions than CT for 17 patients who had had both investigations (76% vs. 24%, p = 0.005. In conclusion, MR appears more effective than CT for the evaluation of AIDS-associated cerebral cryptococcosis. Furthermore, brain imaging is an effective tool to assess the initial disease severity in this setting. Given this, we suggest that investigation for cryptococcosis-related lesions is merited, even in the absence of neurological abnormality, if a high fungal burden is suspected on the basis of high serum and/or CSF antigen titers.

  16. An unusual case of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis. Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection.

  17. Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Schapira, Andrea; Anderson, Mark; Clothier, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Adult-onset of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome presenting as acute meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Fu-Chi; Perng, Cherng-Lih; Tso, An-Chen; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Hsu, Chang-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disorder with a wide range of multisystemic symptoms. Epileptic seizures are common features of both MELAS and meningoencephalitis and are typically treated with anticonvulsants. To provide the reader with a better understanding of MELAS and the adverse effects of valproic acid. A 47-year-old man with a history of diabetes, hearing loss, sinusitis, and otitis media was brought to our emergency department due to acute onset of fever, headache, generalized seizure, and agitation. Because acute meningoencephalitis was suspected, the patient was treated with antibiotics on an empirical basis. The seizure activity was aggravated by valproic acid and abated after its discontinuation. MELAS was suspected and the diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of a nucleotide 3243 A→G mutation in the mitochondrial DNA. Detailed history-taking and systematic review help emergency physicians differentiate MELAS from meningoencephalitis in patients with the common presentation of epileptic seizures. Use of valproic acid to treat epilepsy in patients suspected of having mitochondrial disease should be avoided. Underlying mitochondrial disease should be suspected if seizure activity worsens with valproic acid therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Presence of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tick-borne encephalitis and enteroviral meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labská, Klára; Roubalová, Kateřina; Pícha, Dušan; Marešová, Vilma

    2015-07-01

    Reactivation of HHVs in the CNS due to inflammation has not been well described yet. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HHV DNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of immunocompetent patients with meningoencephalitis of other than HHV origin. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of herpesvirus co-infection on the clinical course and patient outcome. Ninety-six patients with clinically and laboratory proven tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and 77 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis (EVM), along with a control group of 107 patients without evidence of inflammation in the CSF were retrospectively tested by nested PCR for the presence of DNA of the neurotropic herpesviruses HSV1, HSV2, VZV, and HHV6 in the CSF. The clinical course, laboratory tests, antiviral treatment, and neurological complications in a 6-month follow-up were compared between the groups positive or negative for HHV DNA in the CSF. HHV DNA was found in the CSF of 12 (6.9%) patients (6.3% and 7.8% in the TBE and EVM groups, respectively) and in 1 (0.9%) control patient. None of the patients had recent blisters or rash. The clinical course was comparably mild in all patients. No permanent neurological sequelae were observed. Only the CSF total protein level was significantly higher in HHV DNA-positive than in HHV-negative patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, R; Lysons, R; Venables, C; Horigan, M; Jeffrey, M; Dawson, M

    1998-08-01

    In an experiment on bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), the virological and serological aspects of which were reported in an earlier paper, three groups (A, B and C) of three calves were inoculated subcutaneously with a recently isolated strain (FL112). For group B and group C, the virus was suspended in milk, and for group C (controls) the viral suspension was subjected to pasteurization before inoculation. The calves were killed for necropsy 12 months later. Clinical assessment revealed subtle ataxia in two group A calves, which took the form of an intermittent "shifting" (from one leg to another) lameness, and palpable enlargement of the pre-scapular lymph nodes in one group B animal. At necropsy, haemal lymph nodes (0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter), occurring singly, were observed in all animals. However, in groups A and B (but not C), enlarged haemal lymph nodes (< or = 2 cm in diameter) were also seen, occurring singly and in chains; and in one group A animal they occurred in grape-like clusters. In groups A and B (but not C), histopathological examination revealed generalized hyperplastic changes in lymph nodes, especially the haemal lymph nodes. This finding was particularly striking in the two clinically ataxic animals from group A, which also showed a non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis; the latter was possibly the cause of the subtle clinical signs. This study supports previous findings on lymphadenopathy resulting from experimental infection with BIV.

  1. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain Snyder Hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, M; Nguyen, D T; Silin, D; Lyubomska, O; de Vries, R D; von Messling, V; McQuaid, S; De Swart, R L; Duprex, W P

    2012-07-01

    The propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDV(SH)) and show that this virus rapidly circumvents the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers to spread into the subarachnoid space to induce dramatic viral meningoencephalitis. The use of recombinant CDV(SH) (rCDV(SH)) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or red fluorescent protein (dTomato) facilitated the sensitive pathological assessment of routes of virus spread in vivo. Infection of ferrets with these viruses led to the full spectrum of clinical signs typically associated with distemper in dogs during a rapid, fatal disease course of approximately 2 weeks. Comparison with the ferret-adapted CDV(5804P) and the prototypic wild-type CDV(R252) showed that hematogenous infection of the choroid plexus is not a significant route of virus spread into the CSF. Instead, viral spread into the subarachnoid space in rCDV(SH)-infected animals was triggered by infection of vascular endothelial cells and the hematogenous spread of virus-infected leukocytes from meningeal blood vessels into the subarachnoid space. This resulted in widespread infection of cells of the pia and arachnoid mater of the leptomeninges over large areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The ability to sensitively assess the in vivo spread of a neurovirulent strain of CDV provides a novel model system to study the mechanisms of virus spread into the CSF and the pathogenesis of acute viral meningitis.

  2. Identification and Molecular Typing of Naegleria fowleri from a Patient of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Mao; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Chen, Hua-Liang; Pan, Jin-Ren; Ruan, Wei; Yao, Li-Nong

    2018-05-08

    Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in human. In 2016, a suspected PAM patient was found in Zhejiang Province of China. The pathogen was identified by microscopic examination and PCR. The positive PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were aligned using NCBI BLAST programme. The homologous and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the MEGA 6 programme. Under the microscopy, the motile cells with pseudopodia were observed in the direct smear, the motion characteristics of pseudopodia as well as the cell morphology suggested that the pathogen were amoeba trophozoites. The smears stained with Wright-Giemsa showed amoeba trophozoites with various sharps, which were measured of 10-25μm and characterized by the prominent, centrally placed nucleolus and the vacuolated cytoplasm. The PCR showed negative for E. histolytica and E. dispar, while positive for Naegleria spp.and N. fowleri. The nucleotide sequences acquired from this study were submitted to the Genbank with accession numbers of KX909928 and KX909927, respectively. The Blast analysis revealed that the sequences of KX909928 and KX909927 have 100% similarity with the sequence of N. fowleri gene (KT375442.1). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree reavealed that N. fowleri collected from this study was classified as genotype 2 and had a closest relative with N. lovaniensis. This study confirms N. fowleri as the agent responsible for this patient, however, PAM normally progresses fast and universally fatal within a week, so the patient still died at two weeks after the onset of symptoms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Comparative study of clindamycin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous and intrathecal administration in patients with toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Петрович Борщов

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: to study the difference of clindamycin concentration in CSF at the intravenous and combined (intrathecal + intravenous ways of administration of preparation.Materials and methods: study was carried out at the treatment of 11 HIV-positive patients 27-63 years old (men and women with toxoplasmic meningoencephalitises.There was measured the clindamycin concentration in CSF of every patient after intravenous and combined (intrathecal + intravenous ways of administration of preparation. The determinations of concentration were done by the way of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with ultraviolet (UV detection. Statistic processing of the received data was carried out using the Wilcoxon criterion.Results of research. There was received the statistically significant increase of clindamycin concentration in CSF of patients in a day after combined (intrathecal + intravenous administration of preparation comparing with an intravenous administration.Conclusions. 1. Intrathecal administration of 150 mg. of clindamycin with 8 mg. of dexamethasone is safe.2. Intrathecal administration of 150 mg. of clindamycin with 8 mg. of dexamethasone in combination with an intravenous administration of preparation leads to statistically significant increase of clindamycin concentration in CSF at least during a day after injection.3. Intrathecal administration of clindamycin with dexamethasone in offered doses can be recommended for treatment of meningoencephalitises that caused by microorganisms susceptible to clindamycin.4. If the therapy of toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis was started with an intravenous prescription of clindamycin it is recommended an additional treatment with an intrathecal administration of clindamycin with dexamethasone in offered doses to increase efficiency by creating an effective concentration of preparation in the nidus of infection.5. Intrathecal methods of therapy must be used by the specialists of

  4. Intranasal Coadministration of the Cry1Ac Protoxin with Amoebal Lysates Increases Protection against Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A.; López-Revilla, Rubén; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo A.; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2004-01-01

    Cry1Ac protoxin has potent mucosal and systemic adjuvant effects on antibody responses to proteins or polysaccharides. In this work, we examined whether Cry1Ac increased protective immunity against fatal Naegleria fowleri infection in mice, which resembles human primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) than IgA anti-N. fowleri responses were elicited in the serum and tracheopulmonary fluids of mice immunized by the intranasal or intraperitoneal route with N. fowleri lysates either alone or with Cry1Ac or cholera toxin. Superior protection against a lethal challenge with 5 × 104 live N. fowleri trophozoites was achieved for immunization by the intranasal route. Intranasal immunization of N. fowleri lysates coadministered with Cry1Ac increased survival to 100%; interestingly, immunization with Cry1Ac alone conferred similar protection to that achieved with amoebal lysates alone (60%). When mice intranasally immunized with Cry1Ac plus lysates were challenged with amoebae, both IgG and IgA mucosal responses were rapidly increased, but only the increased IgG response persisted until day 60 in surviving mice. The brief rise in the level of specific mucosal IgA does not exclude the role that this isotype may play in the early defense against this parasite, since higher IgA responses were detected in nasal fluids of mice intranasally immunized with lysates plus either Cry1Ac or cholera toxin, which, indeed, were the treatments that provided the major protection levels. In contrast, serum antibody responses do not seem to be related to the protection level achieved. Both acquired and innate immune systems seem to play a role in host defense against N. fowleri infection, but further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in protective effects conferred by Cry1Ac, which may be a valuable tool to improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:15271892

  5. [A case of neuro-neutrophilic disease presenting with 5 months' with cognitive decline, meningoencephalitis, and marked systemic inflammatory findings, and diagnosed with brain biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Yasuko; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Deguchi, Ichiro; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cognitive decline. On admission, he had a fever and mild cognitive dysfunction, suggesting chronic meningoencephalitis. Apart from a mild increase in serum C-reactive protein level and marked neutrophilia, laboratory findings were unremarkable. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed multiple small T2-hyperintense lesions in the white matter. Systemic evaluations for infectious organisms, autoantibodies, and malignancy were all negative. For 5 months we conducted therapeutic trials of various antibacterial, antifungal, and antituberculous drugs, but these were completely ineffective, and both meningoencephalitis and inflammatory signs persisted. Repeated brain MRI during the clinical course showed growth of the white matter lesions and progressive cerebral atrophy. C11-methionine positron emission tomography demonstrated a bright focus in the right frontal lobe, and this was biopsied. Key neuropathological findings were neutrophilic infiltration in the subarachnoid space and the frontal lobe without necrotic angiitis. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of neuro-neutrophilic disease, although skin tissue findings characteristic of Sweet disease and a B51, B54, or Cw1 HLA-profile were absent. After intravenous bolus administration of steroid and prolonged oral steroid therapy, fever and inflammatory signs diminished and cognitive symptoms improved.

  6. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambonie, G; Sarran, N; Leboucq, N; Luc, F; Bongrand, A F; Slim, G; Lassus, P; Fournier-Favre, S; Montoya, F; Astruc, J; Rieu, D

    1999-03-01

    Severe central nervous system diseases, such as encephalitis, have been reported in association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. After an ENT infection, a 9-year-old boy with Down's syndrome developed encephalitis revealed by an acute alteration in consciousness. Head computed tomography showed, after 2 weeks, an infiltration in the basal ganglia region. The diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis was made; recovery was complete in a few weeks. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of acute encephalopathy; yet the pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and the treatment uncertain.

  7. Amebic Meningoencephalitis and Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    suggestive of an expanding mass. Differen- tial diagnosis includes brain tumor, abscess , or intracerebral hematoma. Common clinical symptoms include...state, lethargy, and hemiparesis are less com- mon symptoms. Some patients, especially those with HIV/ AIDS, develop skin lesions, abscesses , or...Trophozoites and cysts may be found in liver, lung , kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, skin, and other organs, suggesting hematogenous dissemination of

  8. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Martha F; Fenton, Heather; Cleveland, Christopher A; Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis , the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) and one Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a "squash prep" method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp) from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  9. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha F. Dalton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and one Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a “squash prep” method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Salvatore Rossi Spadafora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE and meningoencephalitis (NME. The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF- and paraffin-embedded- (PE- tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas’ disease.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease. PMID:25763312

  12. Meningoencephalitis caused by a zygomycete fungus (Basidiobolus associated with septic shock in an immunocompetent patient: 1-year follow-up after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Auxiliadora-Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an infection caused by opportunistic fungi of the Zygomycetes class, specifically those from the Mucorales and Entomophthorales orders. It is an uncommon disease, mainly restricted to immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a history of fever (39°C lasting for 1 day, accompanied by shivering, trembling, and intense asthenia. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with complex partial seizures, and submitted to orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation under sedation with midazolam. The electroencephalogram showed evidence of non-convulsive status epilepticus. There is no fast specific laboratory test that permits confirmation of invasive fungal disease. Unless the physician suspects this condition, the disease may progress rapidly while the patient is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Differential diagnosis between fungal and bacterial infection is often difficult. The clinical presentation is sometimes atypical, and etiological investigation is not always successful. In the present case, the histopathological examination of the biopsy obtained from the right temporal lobe indicated the presence of irregular, round, thick-walled fungi forming papillae and elongated structures of irregular diameter, with no septa, indicative of zygomycete (Basidiobolus. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole was initiated after diagnosis of meningoencephalitis by zygomycete, with a successful outcome.

  13. Variabilidad de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en el Hospital Pediátrico "Pepe Portilla" Variability of the bacterial meningoencephalitis at "Pepe Portilla" Paediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelin Fernández González

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y prospectivo longitudinal de las Meningoencefalitis Bacterianas diagnosticadas en el Hospital Pediátrico "Pepe Portilla" en el año 2006 y 2007, con el objetivo de determinar los gérmenes que han aislado en dicha patología, comparándose con años anteriores desde 1992, analizando el impacto de la vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. Los estudios de líquido cefalorraquídeo se realizaron como indican las normativas para estos casos. Se encontró que en el 2006 solo hubo un caso de meningitis a Neisseria meningitidis y en el 2007 dos casos de meningitis por Streptocuccus pneumoneae, y además que la incidencia de Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae disminuyó después de la aplicación de las vacunas VAMENGO BC y Hib de manera ostensible como lo hizo en el país en general, demostrándose la efectividad de dicha vacuna en nuestro medio.A retrospective-prospective and longitudinal study about Bacterial Meningoencephalitis diagnosed at "Pepe Portilla" Paediatric Hopital was carried out during 2006-2007 aimed at determining the isolated germs of this pathology comparing them with previous years (since 1992 and analyzing the impact of vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. The studies about cerebrospinal fluid were conducted as indicated by the rules towards these cases. Results showed that in 2006 only one case of meningitis a Neisseria meningitidis occurred and two cases of meningitis by Streptocuccus pneumoneae in 2007; besides the incidence of Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenza diminished after the vaccination with VAMENGON BC and Hib observed in all the country, showing the effectiveness of the vaccine in our environment.

  14. Características clínicas e laboratoriais de 62 casos de meningoencefalite tuberculosa Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 62 tuberculous meningoencephalitis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci Nunes

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningite tuberculosa se constitui em uma patologia endêmica há vários anos em várias cidades de países em desenvolvimento. Em Salvador foram estudados 62 pacientes com diagnóstico comprovado de meningoencefalite tuberculosa. A idade dos pacientes variou de 2 meses a 50 anos, 59,7% dos casos se encontravam na faixa etária inferior a 4 anos. O tempo de doença antes do diagnóstico variou de horas a 90 dias, com média de 13 dias. Os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais comuns foram febre (86,7% e rigidez de nuca (81,8%. O exame de líquido cefalorraquidiano mostrou: em média celularidade de 406/mm³(4 a 1509, glicose de 37,3 mg/dL (20 a 70 e proteínas de 203 mg/dL (30 a 500; predominância de linfócitos foi observada na maioria dos casos, mas em 21,3% havia mais que 50% de polimorfonucleares.The authors present clinical, demographic and laboratory characteristics of 62 patients with proven tuberculous meningoencephalitis admitted at Couto Maia Hospital, reference for patients with infectious diseases in the State of Bahia. The patients' age varied from 2 months to 50 years, 59.7% of the cases with ages ranging from 0 to 4 years, no sex predominance. The time length for the disease varied from 0 to 90 days, average around 13 days. The most common signs and symptoms were fever and neck stiffness in 86.7 and 81.8% of the cases respectively. The cerebrospinal fluid showed cells varying from 4 to 1549/mm³, average of 406; glucose from 20 to 70 mg/dL, average of 37.3, protein from 30 to 500mg/dL, average of 203; lymphocyte predominance occurred in most cases, however in 21.3% there was predominance of neutrophils.

  15. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Barber, Renee M; Schatzberg, Scott J; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Porter, Brian F; Vernau, Karen M; Keesler, Rebekah I; Matiasek, Kaspar; Flegel, Thomas; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa; Mariani, Christopher L; Johnson, Gayle C; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  16. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7 and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7. Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively. This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  17. Broadly reactive pan-paramyxovirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for the detection of Canine distemper virus in a case of canine meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzberg, Scott J.; Li, Qiang; Porter, Brian F.; Barber, Renee M.; Claiborne, Mary Kate; Levine, Jonathan M.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Israel, Sarah K.; Young, Benjamin D.; Kiupel, Matti; Greene, Craig; Ruone, Susan; Anderson, Larry; Tong, Suxiang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immunologic protection associated with routine vaccination protocols, Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains an important pathogen of dogs. Antemortem diagnosis of systemic CDV infection may be made by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or immunohistochemical testing for CDV antigen; central nervous system infection often requires postmortem confirmation via histopathology and immunohistochemistry. An 8-month-old intact male French Bulldog previously vaccinated for CDV presented with multifocal neurologic signs. Based on clinical and postmortem findings, the dog’s disease was categorized as a meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology. Broadly reactive, pan-paramyxovirus RT-PCR using consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers, combined with sequence analysis, identified CDV amplicons in the dog’s brain. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CDV antigens, and a specific CDV RT-PCR based on the phosphoprotein gene identified a wild-type versus vaccinal virus strain. This case illustrates the utility of broadly reactive PCR and sequence analysis for the identification of pathogens in diseases with unknown etiology. PMID:19901287

  18. MENINGOENCEFALITE NECROSANTE EM BOVINOS CAUSADA POR HERPESVÍRUS BOVINO NO ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO, BRASIL NECROTIZING MENINGO-ENCEPHALITIS IN CATTLE DUE TO BOVINE HERPESVIRUS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Moleta Colodel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e microbiológicos de 13 casos de meningoencefalite necrosante pelo Herpesvírus Bovino (BHV, afetando 12 rebanhos bovinos ocorridos no período de março de 1999 a agosto de 2000 em 11 municípios do Estado de Mato Grosso são descritos. Onze surtos ocorreram em sistemas de criação extensiva, afetando com maior freqüência animais da raça nelore, e idade média de 24 meses com uma variação de dois a 72 meses. Os principais sinais clínicos descritos foram as alterações neurológicas, sendo relatados salivação profusa, descarga nasal e ocular serosa, depressão profunda, incoordenação, andar a esmo ou em círculo, cegueira, diminuição do tonus lingual, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, opistótono e morte. Ausência de alterações foi o relato mais comum durante a necropsia. Em alguns casos, observou-se congestão encefálica difusa, hemorragias submeningeanas multifocais, achatamento de circunvoluções cerebrais e áreas focais de malacias. Os principais achados microscópicos foram meningoencefalite com corpúsculos de inclusão eosinofílicos, intranucleares em astrócitos. As áreas de malacia afetavam principalmente o córtex cerebral. Foi realizado isolamento e caracterização viral em três de um total de sete amostras encaminhadas Em um dos casos, dos que houve isolamento viral, o diagnóstico histopatológico foi de polioencefalomalacia não se observando meningoencefalite e corpúsculos de inclusão.The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and microbiological aspects of 13 cases of necrotizing meningo-encephalitis associated to bovine herpesvirus are described. The disease is described in 12 cattle herds from March 1999 to August 2000 at 11 counties of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The outbreaks were described in cattle raised on farms in which, mostly Zebu breeds were involved. The average age of the cattle affected was 24 months, ranging from two

  19. A newly designed radiation therapy protocol in combination with prednisolone as treatment for meningoencephalitis of unknown origin in dogs: a prospective pilot study introducing magnetic resonance spectroscopy as monitor tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katrin; Carrera, Inés; Steffen, Frank; Golini, Lorenzo; Kircher, Patrick R; Schneider, Uwe; Bley, Carla Rohrer

    2015-01-31

    A plethora of treatment options have been described for canine meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO), yet a gold standard has not been established. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to document the effect of a newly designed 30 Gray (Gy) radiation therapy (RT) protocol plus corticosteroids as treatment for focal and multifocal MUO, to monitor clinical and imaging changes during the course of the disease with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR Spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) and to detect the occurrence of radiation related side effects. Six dogs (3 with focal and 3 with multifocal lesions) were included in the study. The RT protocol used consisted of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The neurological status of all six dogs improved during RT, with 3 of 6 cases returning to a normal condition. One dog was euthanized early during follow-up (dog and improved in 3 dogs and H-1 MRS normalized in 4. In the dog without improvement of the MRI lesions, the N-acetyl aspartate continued to decrease, while choline and creatine concentrations remained stable during that time. This dog was euthanized 18 month after the end of RT due to relapse. One dog was lost to follow up 12 month after completion of RT. The other 3 dogs are still alive at the time of writing. RT with 30 Gy in 10 fractions can provide an additional option for anti-inflammatory treatment of focal and multifocal MUO. The protocol used for treatment monitoring was feasible while no side effects of RT could be observed during the follow up period. Moreover, H-1 MRS could represent a new and non-invasive tool to control the progression of the disease during the treatment course.

  20. Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM): a MRI-based follow-up study and a clinical comparison to HIV-negative CM adults without ASCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2011-01-26

    Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30 HIV-negative CM adults who did not have ASCI were also included for a comparative analysis. The seven HIV-negative CM adults with ASCI were four men and three women, aged 46-78 years. Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7) of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior and posterior cerebrovascular territories. The seven CM patients with ASCI were significantly older and had a higher rate of DM and previous stroke than the other 30 CM adults without ASCI. They also had a higher incidence of consciousness disturbance at presentation and had a poor prognosis. ASCI was found in 18.9% (7/37) of HIV-negative CM adults. Serial MRI follow-up studies may allow a better delineation of ASCI in this specific group of infectious disease and multiple lacunar infarctions was the most common type. Older in age and presence of DM and previous stroke were the significant underlying conditions. CM patients with ASCI also had a poor therapeutic outcome.

  1. Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM: a MRI-based follow-up study and a clinical comparison to HIV-negative CM adults without ASCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chiung-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. Methods The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30 HIV-negative CM adults who did not have ASCI were also included for a comparative analysis. Results The seven HIV-negative CM adults with ASCI were four men and three women, aged 46-78 years. Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7 of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior and posterior cerebrovascular territories. The seven CM patients with ASCI were significantly older and had a higher rate of DM and previous stroke than the other 30 CM adults without ASCI. They also had a higher incidence of consciousness disturbance at presentation and had a poor prognosis. Conclusion ASCI was found in 18.9% (7/37 of HIV-negative CM adults. Serial MRI follow-up studies may allow a better delineation of ASCI in this specific group of infectious disease and multiple lacunar infarctions was the most common type. Older in age and presence of DM and previous stroke were the significant underlying conditions. CM patients with ASCI also had a poor therapeutic outcome.

  2. IgG2 immunodeficiency: association to pediatric patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis Inmunodeficiencia de IgG2: asociación en pacientes pediátricos con meningoencefalitis bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIOMARA ESCOBAR-PÉREZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An IgG subclass deficiency is often associated with bacterial infections. We studied four pediatric patients suffering from meningoencephalitis, two of them due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and two due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Simultaneous diagnostic serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken during income. The four subclasses of IgG and albumin were quantified in both biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion. Very low levels of seric IgG2 with non detectable cerebrospinal fluid IgG2 were found in the patients. No intrathecal IgG subclass synthesis was found in two patients. One patient with S. pneumoniae had IgG3 intrathecal synthesis. Intrathecal IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 synthesis was found in one patient suffering from H. influenzae according with reibergrams. Substitutive therapy with intravenous gammaglobulin was given to the patients as part of the treatment.Las deficiencias por subclases de IgG se asocian frecuentemente con infecciones de origen bacteriano. Se estudian cuatro pacientes en edad pediátrica con meningoencefalitis, dos de ellos a Streptococcus pneumoniae y dos a Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. Se toman muestras simultáneas diagnósticas de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo en el momento del ingreso. Se cuantificaron las cuatro sublclases de IgG y albúmina en ambos líquidos biológicos por inmunodifusión radial. Se encontró que los pacientes presentaban cifras muy disminuidas de IgG2 sérico y ningun exhibia IgG2 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Dos pacientes no sintetizaron ninguna subclase de IgG intratecalmente. Un paciente con S. pneumoniae sintetizó IgG3 intratecal. Uno de los pacientes con meningoencefalitis a H. influenzae sintetizó IgG1, IgG3 e IgG4 intratecalmente de acuerdo com el reibergrama. Estos pacientes recibieron terapia substitutiva com gammaglobulina intravenosa como parte de la medicación.

  3. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  4. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cranial nerve deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain performed if needed. Results: ... There were 13 males and 10 females. Fever ≥1 week ... fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF. ADA were .... With early usage of antibiotics, all features of the disease.

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  6. Meningoencefalites toxoplásmica e chagásica em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana: diagnóstico diferencial anatomopatológico e tomográfico Meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with HIV infection. Diferencial diagnosis of pathologic and tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Lazo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 22 pacientes com sorologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com ou sem síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, dos quais 7 com meningoencefalite toxoplásmica e 15 com meningoencefalite chagásica associadas, procuraram-se dados diferenciais, entre as duas encefalopatias, tanto à anatomia patológica quanto à tomografia computadorizada do crânio. Os resultados observados e os dados da literatura nos permitiram concluir que enquanto na meningoencefalite necrosante focal por Toxoplasma gondii o acometimento dos núcleos da base é freqüente, na meningoencefalite necrosante focal causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, lesões dessas estruturas parecem não ocorrer ou ser excepcionais. De outro lado, o acometimento da substância branca parece nitidamente maior na meningoencefalite chagásica que na meningoencefalite toxoplásmica, ao passo que o parasitismo e a hemorragia do tecido nervoso, bem como as lesões das bainhas de mielina são mais freqüentes e intensos na meningoencefalite causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi que naquela por Toxoplasma.Twenty-two HIV+ patients with encephalitis were studied. Of these, 7 had meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii (MT and 15 due to Trypanosoma cruzi (MC. Pathologic and computerized axial tomography (CAT changes were compared. We found that focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma involved the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, whereas lesions due to Trypanosoma cruzi were centered in the white matter, sometimes extending into the cortex. Hemorrhages, myelin lesions and organisms were more pronounced in chagasic than in toxoplasmic encephalitis. These findings are consistent with the literature reviewed.

  7. [Early-summer meningo-encephalitis (ESME) and ESME-vaccination: status 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, U; Bernhard, G; Böhm, G; Groman, E

    2000-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a public health problem very well under control in Austria because of a vaccination programme using a safe, efficient and well tolerated vaccine and a carefully designed social marketing concept. The Austrian vaccine underwent another technological updating and is now marketed under a new brand name (TicoVac) on the basis of an EU registration. A second product is also available (Encepur), but some limitations of use have to be taken into account. To improve the epidemiological situation even further (only 41 hospital cases in 1999) special attention has to be given to the age group 50 years and older as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases is observed. TBE is a growing international health problem as awareness increases and cases are identified in many European countries, even in regions where TBE so far was not diagnosed. An "International Scientific Working-group on Tick-borne encephalitis (ISW-TBE)" was established to coordinate research and public health activities.

  8. Meningoencefalite tuberculosa: avaliação de 231 casos Tuberculosis meningoencephalitis: exposure of 231 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci Nunes

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados 231 pacientes com meningoencefalite tuberculosa, sendo que 62 casos tiveram diagnóstico comprovado e 169 apresentavam quadro clínico e laboratorial compatíveis com este diagnóstico. Foram 127 (55% pacientes do sexo masculino, a idade variou de 1 mês a 68 anos, com 97 (42% na faixa etária igual ou inferior a um ano. As características clínicas, demográficas e liquóricas foram estudadas e comparadas entre os casos confirmados e os de diagnóstico provável. Em conclusão reafirmamos a gravidade desta doença, com altas taxas de letalidade principalmente na faixa etária de zero a quatro anos e a possibilidade de erros diagnósticos nas apresentações com formas agudas e predominância de neutrófilos no líquor.This study assessed 231 cases of tuberculous meningitis of which 62 (26.8% had diagnostic confirmation against 169 (73.2% with only clinical picture and laboratorial indication for this diagnosis. Fifty-five percent of the sample was male; ages ranged from one month to 68 years, 42% comprising children below four years.Clinical, demographic and liquoric characteristics were investigated and compared amongst those with likely and confirmed diagnosis. In conclusion, atention is drawn to the severity of this desease with high rates of lethality mainly within the age-range of 0-4 years, and to the possibility of misdiagnosis in the presentation of acute forms and predominance of neutrophils in the liquor.

  9. Testing of dogs with meningitis and meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology for vector-transmitted microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzerini, Kali

    2016-01-01

    In many cases of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs, no aetiological infectious agent can be found. These inflammatory conditions are thus named inflammations of unknown aetiology. Results of immunpathological studies imply that an antigen may trigger an autoimmune response (Hit-and-Run-Hypothesis). Serum was analyzed for antibodies against vector-transmitted pathogens and blood and cerebrospinal fluid for DNA of such infectious agents in order to further define th...

  10. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  11. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  12. Meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes em ovinos Meningoencephalitis in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos sete casos de doença neurológica em ovinos por Listeria monocytogenes no Rio Grande do Sul e Paraná entre 2000 e 2007. Foram afetados ovinos com idades entre 12-24 meses. Os casos ocorreram no verão e início da primavera e os índices gerais de morbidade e letalidade foram de 3,15% e 100%, respectivamente. Quando essa informação estava disponível, nenhum dos ovinos afetados era alimentado com silagem. Em três propriedades havia contato próximo dos ovinos afetados com outras espécies. A evolução do quadro clínico foi de 12 horas a três dias e os sinais clínicos foram caracterizados por decúbito (7/7, desvio da cabeça (4/7, incoordenação (3/7, depressão (3/7, andar em círculos (2/7, cegueira unilateral, emagrecimento progressivo, febre, midríase, movimentos de pedalagem, nistagmo lateral, opistótono, paralisia flácida dos membros pélvicos ou dos quatro membros, salivação excessiva e tremores (1/7 cada. Histologicamente observou-se encefalite com microabscessos, predominantemente unilateral com variáveis graus de gliose e alterações degenerativas como esferóides axonais e infiltração de células Gitter. As lesões se estendiam desde a medula oblonga até o mesencéfalo. Antígenos de Listeria monocytogenes foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica em seções de tronco encefálico de todos os ovinos afetados. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados epidemiológicos e clinico-patológicos, e confirmado pela imuno-histoquímica (IHQ utilizando anticorpo policlonal anti-L. monocytogenes.Seven cases of neurological disease in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná state, southern Brazil are described. The cases occurred between 2000 and 2007 and 12-24-month-old sheep were affected. Overall morbidity and lethality rates were 3.15% and 100%, respectively. Cases occurred in the summer and early spring. When this information was available, affected sheep had not been fed with silage. In three farms there were close contact among affected sheep and other species. Clinical signs were characterized by recumbency (7/7, head tilt (4/7, incoordination (3/7, depression (3/7, circling (2/7, unilateral blindness, wasting, fever, midriasis, paddling, opisthotonus, hind or hind and fore limb paralysis, drooling, and muscle tremors (1/7 each. Clinical evolution varied from 12 hours to three days. Histological findings consisted of predominantly unilateral, microabscedative encephalitis with variable degrees of gliosis and degenerative lesions characterized by axonal spheroids and infiltration by Gitter cells. These lesions were observed extending from medulla oblongata to mesencephalon. Listeria monocytogenes antigen was showed by imunohistochemistry in routinely processed sections of brainstem from all seven affected sheep. The diagnostic was based on epidemiological, clinical, and pathological findings and confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ using polyclonal anti-L. monocytogenes antibody.

  13. Successful treatment with ganciclovir of presumed Epstein-Barr meningo-encephalitis following bone marrow transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellemijn, P L; Brandenburg, A; Niesters, H G; van den Bent, M J; Rothbarth, P H; Vlasveld, L T

    Epstein-Barr virus-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose EBV-meningo-encephalitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient. The patient made complete recovery with ganciclovir treatment. Pitfalls in diagnosis with EBV-PCR and the potential therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir in EBV

  14. [YEL-AND meningoencephalitis in a 4-year-old boy consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, M; Wroblewski, I; Bost-Bru, C; N'guyen, M-A; Debillon, T

    2014-04-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted by an endemic mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. It causes fever and possibly liver and renal failure with hemorrhagic signs, which may be fatal. The yellow-fever vaccine is an attenuated vaccine that is recommended for all travelers over the age of 9 months in high-risk areas. Adverse effects have been reported: minor symptoms (such as viral syndrome), hypersensitivity reactions, and major symptoms such as viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). The yellow-fever vaccine-associated autoimmune disease with central nervous system involvement (such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) associates fever and headaches, neurologic dysfunction, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and elevated protein, with neuroimaging consistent with multifocal areas of demyelization. The presence of antibodies or virus in CSF, within 1-30 days following vaccination, and the exclusion of other causes is necessary for diagnosis. We describe herein the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with severe encephalitis consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine, with favorable progression. Diagnosis is based on the chronology of clinical and paraclinical signs and the presence of yellow-fever-specific antibodies in CSF. The treatment consists of symptomatic treatment and immunoglobulin injection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinant canine distemper virus strain snyder hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); D. Silin; O. Lyubomska; R.D. de Vries (Rory); V. von Messling; S. McQuaid (Stephen); R.L. de Swart (Rik); W.P. Duprex (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDVSH) and show that this virus rapidly

  16. A Case Report of Nonvasculitic Autoimmune Inflammatory Meningoencephalitis with Sensory Ganglionopathy: A Rare Presentation of Sjögren Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the emergency department with a progressive history of behavioural symptoms and anxiety followed by visual and auditory hallucinations, forgetfulness, and impaired gait in the previous 3 months. On examination she was psychotic and had a postural and rest tremor of the upper limbs, cogwheel rigidity of the four limbs, retropulsion on standing position, and inability to walk. During the following 2 weeks she developed xerostomia and unilateral parotiditis that improved with steroids. A simultaneous improvement of the cognitive abilities allowed for the detection of sensory ataxia of the lower limbs. Sensory ganglionopathy was then detected with electrophysiological studies. A diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome was suspected and confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy, Schirmer’s test, and submaxillary gland biopsy. We report a case of Sjögren syndrome associated with central and peripheral nervous system involvement, without sicca symptoms preceding the neurological clinical picture. The coexistence of ganglionopathy and a favourable response to immunosuppression are key features that can lead to the correct diagnosis in cases with atypical CNS symptoms, mimicking a rapidly progressive dementia.

  17. Sepsis and meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in patients with liver cirrhosis: a case of nonhepatic encephalopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The appearance of neurological disorders in a patient with liver cirrhosis initially suggests hepatic encephalopathy, but other causes should be considered, including bacterial infections.Materials and methods An 80-year-old woman suffering from HCV-related cirrhosis was admitted for fever, confusion, and stupor. No improvement was seen after treatment with cephalosporins, lactulose, and fluids.Results Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from blood cultures and subsequently from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen as well. On the basis of the antibiogram, the antibiotic therapy was modified to include ampicillin, but shock and multiorgan failure developed and the patient died one week later.Discussion Bacterial infections are more common and more aggressive in patients with liver cirrhosis, probably because of the immune dysfunction associated with this disorder. The presence of neurological disorders in a patient with liver cirrhosis may be a sign of hepatic encephalopathy, but it is important to recall that there are other potential causes as well, including bacterial infections. In this case, it is possible that the patient's symptoms were the result of the CNS infection with L. monocytogenes, which was particularly aggressive as a result of her cirrhosis.

  18. Mumps meningoencephalitis: an epidemiological approach Meningoencefalite pelo vírus da caxumba: abordagem epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Leboreiro-Fernandez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse distribution of meningoencefalitis caused by mumps viras in children related to sex, age and seasonal influences. Thirty seven children were evaluated, ages ranging from 2 to 14 years. They were seen at Emergency Unit of Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro and at Hospital da Criança, in Uberaba-MG, Brazil, from March 1st 1991 to February 1st 1993 and they were hospitalized for about 5 days. Through a protocol findings were studied during hospitalization and clinical course stressing epidemiology, symptomatology, cerebrospinal fluid studies, electroencephalogram and cortical function analysis. Only epidemiological data were considered in the present study. Data analysis revealed male predominance, at a range from 5 to 9 years and great number of occurrences at the last quarter of the year.O presente trabalho tem por objetivo, estudar a distribuição quanto ao sexo, idade e sazonalidade, em crianças com meningencefalite pelo vírus da caxumba. Foram avaliadas 37 crianças, com idades variando de 2 a 14 anos, atendidas no Pronto-Socorro do Hospital Escola da FMTM e do Hospital da Criança, MG, no período de 1-março-1991 a 1-fevereiro-1993 e hospitalizadas por período médio de 5 dias. Através de protocolo pré-elaborado foram estudados os achados obtidos por ocasião da internação e evolução, enfatizando-se a epidemiologia, sintomatologia, líquido cefalorraqueano, eletrencefalograma e função cortical. São considerados apenas os dados epidemiológicos, no presente estudo. A análise das informações pertinentes revela predomínio no sexo masculino, na faixa etária dos 5 aos 9 anos e maior número de casos no último trimestre do ano, correspondente à estação da primavera.

  19. Meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria: comunicacion de dos nuevos casos Venezolanos Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: two new cases report from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Petit

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria (MAP es infrecuente. Describimos dos nuevos casos de MAP en pacientes Venezolanos. Caso 1, Varón de 10 años, con fiebre, cefalea, vómitos y debilidad generalizada, y antecedente de inmersión en un estanque de agua días antes del inicio de sus síntomas, falleciendo 72 horas después del ingreso. Caso 2, Varón de 23 años con historia de cefalea, fiebre, vómitos, somnolencia y cambios de conducta. El paciente falleció 40 horas después. El estudio neuropatológico en ambos casos reveló MAP por Naegleria fowleri. La encefalitis por amebas anfizoicas debe sospecharse en casos de meningoencefalitis asépticas.Primary amebic menigoencephalitis (PAM is rare. Two cases of PAM in Venezuelan patients are described. Case 1, a 10 year-old male with headache, fever, vomiting. The patient swam in a water reservoir before the onset of his disease. He died during his third hospital day. Case 2, a 23 year-old male with a history of headache, fever, vomiting, drowsiness, and behavioral disturbances. The patient died on his second hospital day. The diagnosis in both cases was PAM due to Naegleria fowleri. Central nervous system infection by free-living amebas should be considered in meningoencephalitides with bacterial-free cerebro-spinal fluid.

  20. WITHDRAWN: Clinical Signs, Neuroanatomical Distribution and Histopathological Characterisation of Meningoencephalitis in Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) Associated with a Novel fox Circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, A L; Mitchell, J A; Priestnall, S L

    2016-07-05

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis-related deaths due to Naegleria fowleri infections from freshwater in Pakistan: An analysis of 8-year dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abbas Naqvi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from contaminated municipal water supply, the use of water for ablution directly from ground source is believed to be a major contributing factor to the increasing number of infections; however, this claim could not be statistically verified. This study suggests that concerted efforts by all stakeholders are required if Pakistan needs to bring down the number of Naegleria infection cases. Further research is also immediately required to uncover the role of environmental factors in the rise of Naegleria infection cases.

  2. Acute community-acquired meningoencephalitis with Morganella morganii – a case report / Meningoencefalită acută comunitară cu Morganella morganii – prezentare de caz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilea Brindusa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii (M. morganii este un bacil Gram negativ aerob, facultativ anaerob ce aparține familiei Enterobacteriaceae, prezent atât în mediul ambiant cât și în flora saprofită intestinală. Este considerat un agent patogen rar întâlnit în infecțiile comunitare, fiind mai frecvent identificat în infecții nozocomiale postoperatorii și infecțiile de tract urinar. Afectarea sistemului nervos central este rară. Prezentăm cazul unui pacient în vârstă de 66 ani cu neoplasm de colon operat, chimio și radio tratat, cu anus iliac stâng, diabet zaharat tip II, care a dezvoltat o meningoencefalită acută cu M. morganii. Examenul lichidului cefalorahidian a relevat o citologie crescută constând din polimorfonucleare neutrofile, biochimie modificată și cultură bogată de M. morganii, o tulpină secretoare de AmpC beta- lactamază. După instituirea tratamentului antibiotic, inițial empiric cu meropenem și vancomicină, ulterior conform sensibilității germenului, meropenem și ciprofloxacină, evoluția pacientului a fost favorabilă chiar și în condițiile existenței celor două afecțiuni imunodeprimante.

  3. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  4. Meningite eosinofílica e eosinofilia sanguínea de origem parasitária Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to parasite associated with blood eosinophilia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um menino de 12 meses de idade que apresentava febre, rigidez de nuca e hepatoesplenomgalia e que, em dois exames sucessivos, apresentou eosinofilia sangüínea de 72% e 75% e liquórica de 75% e 78%, respectivamente. A biópsia hepática mostrou um granuloma eosinofílico. Embora a criança apresentasse grande infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides, os autores admitem que o quadro clínico apresentado possa ter sido determinado por larvas de Toxocara canis, apesar do parasita não ter sido encontrado.The case of a 12-month boy with hyperthermia, neck stifness, liver and spleen enlargement is reported. By two sucessive examinations there was found eosinophilia in the blood smear (72% and 75% and in the cerebrospinal fluid citology (75% and 78%. An eosinophilic granuloma was found by a liver biopsy. Although there was severe intestinal infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides, the authors believe that the clinical picture could be related to the Toxocara canis larvas (visceral larva migrans.

  5. Meningoencefalite em bovinos causada por herpesvírus bovino-5 no Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo Meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 in Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Salvador

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinze focos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 (BHV-5 foram diagnosticados entre agosto de 1993 e dezembro de 1996, sendo 14 provenientes do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e um do estado de São Paulo. A doença ocorreu em diversos municípios e em diferentes épocas do ano. Foram afetados bovinos de 6 a 60 meses de idade, com uma morbidade de 0,05% a 5% e letalidade próxima a 100%. Os sinais clínicos foram exclusivamente nervosos e o curso da enfermidade variou de 1 a 15 dias. As principais lesões histológicas detectadas foram meningite e encefalite difusa com malacia do córtex cerebral e presença de corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em astrócitos e neurônios. O vírus foi isolado do cérebro de 11 de um total de 12 animais, e sua identidade confirmada por imunoperoxidase, utilizando-se anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os surtos de encefalite por BHV-5 representam 5% dos diagnósticos realizados em bovinos pelo Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciam a importância da doença no Mato Grosso do Sul e indicam a necessidade de incluir a encefalite por BHV-5 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos frequentes no Estado.Fifteen outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus-type 5 (BHV-5 infection were diagnosed from August 1993 to December 1996. Fourteen outbreaks occurred in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and one in the State of São Paulo. Cattle 6 to 60 months old were affected. Morbidity reached 0.05% to 5% and case fatality rate was nearly 100%. The disease occurred in different municipalities and at different times of the year. Clinical signs were exclusively nervous, and the clinical course varied from 1 to 15 days. The main histologic lesions were meningitis, diffuse encephalitis and necrosis of the cerebral cortex with intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons. BHV-5 was isolated from 11 out of 12 brains of infected animals inoculated in calf testis cells and MDBK cells. The virus was identified by immunoperoxidase staining with use of monoclonal specific antibodies. Outbreaks of infection by BHV-5 represent 5% of the total number of bovine cases submitted for diagnosis to the Clinical Hospital of the University of Mato Grosso do Sul. These results indicate the importance of the disease in Mato Grosso do Sul and the need for its differentiation from other diseases which affect the nervous system.

  6. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk İncecik; M. Özlem Hergüner; Şakir Altunbaşak

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  7. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk İncecik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  8. Cryptococcus gattii : A dilemma in diagnosis and treatment in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-Saharan Africa contributes at least 70% of the global cryptococcal meningoencephalitis cases each year and the majority of cases are caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans species. We present a case of meningoencephalitis due to Cryptococcus gattii in an 18 year old apparently immunocompetent male patient ...

  9. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital, including: viral meningitis , an infection of the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) ... and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In newborns, symptoms can develop within 2 weeks ...

  10. Rasmussen's encephalitis | Dawodu | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complicated meningo.encephalitis and the third episode was associated with receptive aphasia, hemiparesis and intellectual impairment. Neuroimaging studies revealed cerebellar atrophy and infarction of territory of the middle cerebral artery.

  11. Acute Febrile Encephalopathy in Adults; a Review of 3 Prospective Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Sajadi

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Primary CNS infections including bacterial meningitis and viral meningoencephalitis account for the most causes of AFE in adult and elderly patients with the most fatality for viral agents.

  12. Syntropy in Children with EBV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Khodak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of the disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are diverse and include both infectious mononucleosis and damage of the liver, nervous system and other organs. Damage of the nervous system (meningoencephalitis caused by EBV may have isolated clinical course or run concurrently with infectious mononucleosis or hepatitis (syntropy. The paper presents a case of acute EBV infection in a 16-year-old child diagnosed with hepatitis and meningoencephalitis.

  13. Tuberculous and brucellosis meningitis differential diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Gencer, Serap

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the dif......BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included...

  14. Two cases of listeria rhombencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thomas Mansbridge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria rhombencephalitis (LRE is a rare encephalitis of the hindbrain that can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. It is a diagnostic challenge, but prompt antimicrobial therapy is important to prevent high rates of mortality and morbidity. We report two cases of LRE, with several contrasting clinical features and different disease courses. Despite being rare, it is important to consider listeria in patients with possible meningoencephalitis, even if cultures are negative. Empirical treatment of meningoencephalitis should provide coverage for listeria, especially if the patient is at risk of listeriosis or there is a potential history of listeria exposure.

  15. 血清尿酸水平与中枢神经系统感染的相关性研究%The study of relationship between the serum levels of uric acid and infections of central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 王玉鸽; 彭福华; 李敏; 邓旭辉; 胡学强

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI), which may be helpful to provide new ways for evaluation and clinical intervention of CNSI. Methods The SUA levels was measured in 357 patients with different types of CNSI (viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis, brain cysticercosis, tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitisi respectively) and 132 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 89 healthy controls (HO. Each group of CNSI was administered with relevantly conventional therapy [main treatments were as fallows; viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis ; Valaciclovir Hydrochloride Tablets et al; cysticercosis of brain; Albendazole et al; tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis: using Isonicotinyl hydrazide, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Aldinamide (PZA) and Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets et al; cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis: Amphotericin B, 5-FU, Diflucan et alt bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis: Rocephin et al]. SUA levels were compared before and after relevant conventional therapy. Results SUA levels of patients with viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of brain, tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis ormeningoencephalitis [ (264. 94 ± 120. 67), (264. 86 ± 96. 97), (200.04 ± 129.81), (179.59 ± 106.77), (170. 22±102. 02) μmol/L, respectively] were significantly lower when compared with HC C(312. 06 ± 92. 76) μmol/L3 (all P0. 05); but the SUA levels in tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis were significantly lower when compared with MS (all P<0. 01), were also lower than viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis (all P = 0

  16. Scalable Emergency Response System for Oceangoing Assets Report on Defining Proposed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    electropherogram of RNA extracted from ocean water spiked with Salmonella sp ...meningoencephalitis Waterborne Balantidium coli Balantidosis (dysentery) Waterborne Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidiosis Waterborne Entamoeba histolytica Amoebic...extracted from ocean water spiked with Salmonella sp . The significance of bioanalyzer results lays in bands labeled as 23S rRNA in Figure 2 and 3. The

  17. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-08-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August-October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  18. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August?October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  19. CLINICAL AND VIROLOGIC FOUNDATION FOR PATHOGENETIC THERAPY OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS TYPE 6 INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Myukke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about an infection caused by human herpes virus type 6, its' epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical variants, is reviewed. Clinical cases, diagnosed at a time of study, are briefly reviewed.Key words: human herpes virus type 6, exanthema subitum (roseola infantum, fever of unknown origin, mononucleosis like syndrome, meningoencephalitis, children.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); R. Hapsari (Rebriarina); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); G.J. Sá Nchez Contreras (Guillermo J.); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M. de Graaf (Miranda); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the

  1. Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Newly Diagnosed AIDS Patient: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is a very important cause of fungal meningitis in immunosuppressed patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in an HIV/AIDS patient from the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. METHODS: An 18 -year -old male student presented with ...

  2. Neurological Manifestation of Behcet's Disease: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behcet's disease causes inflammation of blood vessels but it is of unknown aetiology. When it involves the nervous system, it may present with benign headaches, aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cranial nerve palsies, seizures, personality changes, and cerebral venous thrombosis. We present the case of A.G is a ...

  3. Severe neonatal parechovirus infection and similarity with enterovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Krediet, Tannette G.; Gerards, Leo J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; van Loon, Anton M.

    Background: Enteroviruses (EV) are an important cause of neonatal disease including hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, and myocarditis that can lead to death or severe long-term sequelae. Less is known about severe neonatal infection caused by the parechoviruses (PeV) of which type 1 (PeV1) and type 2

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowder, C. D.; Carolan, H. E.; Rounds, M. A.; Hönig, Václav; Mothes, B.; Haag, H.; Nolte, O.; Luft, B. J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Ecker, D. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Eshoo, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2014), s. 1678-1682 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ionization mass spectrometry * polymerase chain reaction * Lyme disease * burgdorferi * spirochete * infection * vector * meningoencephalitis * identification * pathogens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases , Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.751, year: 2014

  5. Meningococcal disease and future drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, L K; Colding, H; Hartzen, S H

    2011-01-01

    recent data and current knowledge on molecular mechanisms of meningococcal disease and explains how host immune responses ultimately may aggravate neuropathology and the clinical prognosis. Within this context, particular importance is paid to the endotoxic components that provide potential drug targets...... for novel neuroprotective adjuvants, which are needed in order to improve the clinical management of meningoencephalitis and patient prognosis....

  6. Cerebral Palsy in Pakistani Children: A Hospital Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Ahmed Khan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion:Spastic quadriplegia or spastic diplegia are the commonest presentations in Pakistani children diagnosed with CP. The frequent etiological factors in CP development are birth asphyxia, prematurity, meningoencephalitis and kernicterus. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 705-711

  7. Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y; Coffey, Lark L; Murkey, Jamie; Symmes, Kelly; Sample, Hannah A; Wilson, Michael R; Naccache, Samia N; Arevalo, Shaun; Somasekar, Sneha; Federman, Scot; Stryke, Doug; Vespa, Paul; Schiller, Gary; Messenger, Sharon; Humphries, Romney; Miller, Steve; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States.

  8. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S. Getu (Sarah); M. Beukers (Martijn); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J. Poen (Marjolein); N. Osinga (Nynke); G.J. Sánchez Contreras (Guillermo); T. Kuiken (Thijs); S.L. Smits (Saskia); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUsing random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the

  9. EDITORIAL Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa: Are we winning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ready-to-eat meat and dairy product food chain? Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by. Listeria monocytogenes. It primarily causes infections of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, cerebritis) and bacteremia in those who are immunocompromised, pregnant ...

  10. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryptococcal infections in two patients receiving ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowicz, Matthew; Banaszynski, Megan; Crawford, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcal infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Reports of these infections in patients on small molecular kinase inhibitors have not been widely reported in clinical trials. We describe one case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and one case of cryptococcal pneumonia in two patients who were receiving ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite different sites of cryptococcal infection, both patients had similar presentations of acute illness. Patient 1 was worked up for health care-associated pneumonia, as well as acute sinusitis prior to the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. He also had a more complex past medical history than patient 2. Patient 2 developed atrial fibrillation from ibrutinib prior to admission for presumed health care-associated pneumonia. Cryptococcal antigen testing was done sooner in this patient due to patient receiving high-dose steroids for the treatment of underlying hemolytic anemia. We conclude that patients who develop acute illness while receiving ibrutinib should be considered for cryptococcal antigen testing.

  12. Clinical Features and Neurologic Complications of Children Hospitalized With Chikungunya Virus in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, José A; Hagood, Nancy L; Summer, Andrea; Medina, Marco T; Holden, Kenton R

    2017-07-01

    The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of 235 children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis. Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system.

  13. Human Parechovirus Meningitis with Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Mylene C; Bruning, Andrea Hl; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wolthers, Katja C; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-03-14

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections usually cause mild symptoms in children. Although their contribution to severe disease in young children - such as neonatal sepsis and meningo-encephalitis - is increasingly recognized, data on long-term consequences are scarce. Here we present the case of a five-year old boy with severe long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae following HPeV-3 meningitis.

  14. Chikungunya infection presenting as mild encephalitis with a reversible lesion in the splenium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Kadam; Agarwal, Puneet; Kumar, Amit; Reddi, Rajashekhar

    2017-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an Aedes mosquito-transmitted infection caused by chikungunya virus, an RNA virus in the family Togaviridae. The disease is characteristically manifested as fever, arthralgia, and/or rash. Various neurological manifestations like meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and myeloneuropathy have been mentioned in various reports. We present a rare case of chikungunya fever presenting with mild encephalitis with a reversible lesion of the splenium (MERS), which showed complete clinical and radiological recovery.

  15. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  16. Brain-Eating Amoebae: Predilection Sites in the Brain and Disease Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Timothy Yu Yee; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2017-01-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection that lasts a few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016, in order to explore the affinity of these amoebae for particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities...

  17. A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Repon C.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Diorditsa, Serguei; Hasan, ASM Mainul; Banu, Sultana S.; Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Sandhu, Hardeep; Fischer, Marc; Luby, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals' catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8–4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9–4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4–0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas. PMID:21813862

  18. CT and MRI findings in patients with neuroinfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarska, A.; Zboinska, J.; Piekarski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Although in most patients a diagnosis of neuroinfection is not based on the results of brain imaging, there is a trend to perform MRI or CT on any patient in whom such infection is suspected. However, in selected cases, especially in patients with brain abscess or with herpetic encephalitis, brain CT and/or MRI are essential for diagnosis. Therefore we decided to analyze the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brains of patients with neuroinfections and to assess the usefulness of these imaging methods in clinical practice. Brain imaging (CT and/or MRI) was performed in 106 cases (62 purulent and 44 aseptic ingoencephalitis patients). The results were analyzed in subgroups of patients with different etiology of neuroinfection. In 40 of the 58 patients (68.9%) with purulent meningoencephalitis on whom computed tomography was made, the image revealed the pathology. In the remaining 18 cases (31.1%) the results were normal. In all 4 patients on whom only MRI was done, the results were abnormal (4/4, 100%). Among the 41 patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis on whom computed tomography was done, the pathology was found in 11 (26.8%). Of the 20 patients who underwent brain MRI, the pathology was depicted in 12 (12/20, 60.0%). In 4 of the 24 patients (16.7%) with aseptic meningoencephalitis on whom only computed tomography was done, the results were abnormal. In 2 of the 3 patients (66.7%) on whom MRI was done as the only radiological examination, the results were abnormal. The pathology was found on the radiograms of 11 of the 17 patients (64.7%) in whom both imaging methods were used. In the remaining 6 of these 17 cases (6/17, 35.3%) neither CT nor MRI revealed any abnormality. Altogether, of the 44 patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis in whom brain imaging was performed, pathology was depicted in 17 (38.7%). 1. The high percentage of abnormal CT and MR images in patients with meningoencephalitis warrants the use of brain

  19. Successfully Managed Acute Transverse Myelitis Related to Scrub Typhus and Serial Image Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae Sung; Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop; Park, Eun Hae

    2017-03-01

    AbstractCentral nervous system involvement manifesting as meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a known complication of scrub typhus, but very few spinal cord lesions such as acute transverse myelitis (ATM) have been reported in association with this disease. Scrub typhus patients with a spinal lesion present with neurologic symptoms including dysuria, motor, and sensory weakness. Herein, we describe a rare case of ATM associated with scrub typhus. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, Orientia tsutsugamushi serum antibody titer, and serial magnetic resonance imaging scans resulted in a diagnosis of ATM associated with scrub typhus.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Machado

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary report the results of PCR for detection of DNA sequences (65 KDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in CSF samples from 20 patients are registered. In 10 patients there were clinical and laboratory findings suggesting the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (test group. In the other 10 patients, clinical and laboratory findings suggested meningitis or meningo-encephalitis from other etiologies (control group. In 7 patients from the test group antigenic DNA sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found in CSF by PCR; positive results were not registered in the control group.

  1. Anthrax Meningitis - Report Of An Autopsied Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a rare cause of hemorrhagic meningitis in man. This report illustrates the characteristic hemorrhagic manifestations in the brain of a patient dying of anthrax meningitis secondary to overwhelming bacteremia. Gross examination of the brain revealed a thick dense subarachnoid hemorrhage with numerous petechial hemorrhages in the cortex. Histologically, meningoencephalitis with vascular necrosis, edema, perivascular cortical hemorrhages and clumps of Gram positive bacilli in the vascular lumen and invading vessel wall were the salient features. The anthrax bacillus was isolated from CSF and brain tissue and further its pathogenecity was confirmed by animal inoculation.

  2. Addison's Disease: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, S; Bain, S

    2017-07-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, but is life threatening when overlooked. Addison's disease may be an acquired form of adrenal insufficiency due to the destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex. It affects both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid function. Main presenting symptoms of Addison's disease such as fatigue, anorexia, vomiting and convulsion often mimics central nervous system (CNS) infections. We describe a case of Addison's disease who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of meningo-encephalitis subsequently renal tubular acidosis and finally Addison's disease. Addison's disease can remain unrecognized until acute crisis and sometimes it may be misdiagnosed.

  3. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M. [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  4. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis.

  5. Expansion of Achatina fulica in Brazil and potential increased risk for angiostrongyliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    The explosive introduction of the snail Achatina fulica in Brazil illustrates the current concern with global changes favouring dissemination of infectious diseases. The mollusc is an important host for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which occurs in Asia and the Pacific Islands and is a causative agent for eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. In the Americas there is another metastrongylid worm, An. costaricensis, that causes abdominal disease and may also be transmitted by Ac. fulica. Although both infections may occur in focal outbreaks and with low morbidity, very severe complicated clinical courses pose a challenge for diagnosis and treatment. Data on abdominal angiostrongyliasis are briefly reviewed.

  6. Splenic Infarct and Pulmonary Embolism as a Rare Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Rawla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a type of herpes infection that has a characteristic feature of maintaining lifelong latency within the host cell. CMV manifestations can cover a broad spectrum from fever to as severe as pancytopenia, hepatitis, retinitis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, pneumonia, and thrombosis. Multiple case reports of thrombosis associated with CMV have been reported. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is more common in immunocompetent patients while splenic infarct is more common in immunocompromised patients. However, here we report a female patient on low-dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis who presented with both pulmonary embolism and splenic infarct.

  7. [Mondini dysplasia: traumatic cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea with meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftan, H; Adamaszek, M; Hosemann, W

    2006-08-01

    Mondini dysplasia is a rare malformation of the inner ear commonly associated with loss of hearing and vestibular function. Children with Mondini dysplasia are predisposed to developing a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and recurrent meningitis. If there is no CSF leak but a unilateral hearing loss, the condition may go undiagnosed for years. We describe a 65-year-old man with unrecognized unilateral Mondini dysplasia who presented with CSF leak and meningoencephalitis after minor head trauma. Two operative interventions were undertaken to close the defect properly. Patients with Mondini dysplasia or their parents should be cautioned about the potential hazards of any head trauma.

  8. [Clinical picture and complex treatment of septic thromboses of the cavernous sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, S V; Zubkov, Iu N; Ponomarev, A M; Shimchenko, P Ia

    1980-07-01

    Under analysis are etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis of a septic thrombosis of cavernous sinuses in 28 patients. The authors have shown the interrelationship between local manifestations of the disease, injuries of the brain and its sheaths and septic complications (abscessing pneumonia as the most severe of them). A scheme of the complex treatment of patients with thrombosis of the cavernous sinus is proposed. The leading role in this treatment is played by intracarotid infusion of antibiotics in combination with anticoagulant drugs, vasodilatatory agents and novocaine as well as the therapy of septic complications (abscesses of the face and hairy part of the head, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia).

  9. X-linked agammaglobulinemia - first case with Bruton tyrosine kinase mutation from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Samreen Kulsom; Qureshi, Sonia; Qamar, Farah Naz

    2017-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency with more than 600 mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Bkt) gene which are responsible for early-onset agammaglobulinemia and repeated infections. Herein we present a case of a 3-year-old boy with history of repeated diarrhoea and an episode of meningoencephalitis with hemiplegia. The workup showed extremely low levels of immunoglobulin with low CD+19 cells. Genetic analysis showed Btk mutation 18 c.1883delCp.T628fs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a case of XLA confirmed by molecular technique from Pakistan.

  10. DAMAGE OF NERVOUS SYSTEM IN TICK-BITE BORRELIOSIS (LYME DISEASE IN СHILDREN IN THE KIROV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Egorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1993—2016 there were treated 1255 children 9 months — 14 ages old with tick-bite infections in Kirov Infectious Clinical Hospital and 1214 children from them with the verified diagnosis of Lyme disease. Damage of nervous system was detected in 98 (8.1% patients in the forms of serous meningitis, meningoencephalitis, polyneuropathies, neuropathies, disseminated encephalomyelitis, diencephalic syndrome with impaired thermal regulation. 45.9 % of cases were mixed-infection (tick-bite encephalitis and Lyme disease. 

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiner, L.; Demaerel, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes simplex meningoencephalitis is one of the most common viral central nervous system infection in adults. Early diagnosis is essential for treatment. Case report: We present a case of a 68-year-old female patient with herpes simplex infection. On admission, she was in severe clinical condition. Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging detected brain involvement better than conventional sequences. After acyclovir therapy, the patient fully recovered. Conclusion: DW magnetic resonance imaging is expected to provide a more sensitive imaging in herpes simplex patients than conventional sequences

  12. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M.; Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  13. Brain-Eating Amoebae: Predilection Sites in the Brain and Disease Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Timothy Yu Yee; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection that lasts a few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016, in order to explore the affinity of these amoebae for particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options, and disease outcomes in a comparative manner. PMID:28404683

  14. Interface Molecules of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Their Role in Parasite Survival and Modulation of Host Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Morassutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Disease presents following the ingestion of third-stage larvae residing in the intermediate mollusk host and disease manifests as an acute inflammation of the meninges characterized by eosinophil infiltrates which release a battery of proinflammatory and cytotoxic agents in response to the pathogen. As a mechanism of neutralizing these host defenses, A. cantonensis expresses different molecules with immunomodulatory properties that are excreted or secreted (ES. In this paper we discuss the role of ES proteins on disease exacerbation and their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  15. Invasive trichosporonosis due to Trichosporon asahii in a non-immunocompromised host: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of invasive Trichosporonosis due to Trichosporon asahii in an otherwise healthy young adult male presenting as meningoencephalitis and pneumonia is reported here. T. asahii was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and sputum of the patient and morphologic forms of organism was also demonstrated on direct Gram stain of sputum. The isolate was identified as T. asahii. The patient partially responded to fluconazole therapy. Our case suggests that T. asahii can no longer be linked with Trichospronosis in immunocompromised patient alone and any case of meningitis needs thorough mycological workup for its correct etiological identification and appropriate management.

  16. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Yuh-Jey; Chang, Ying-Chao; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  17. [Growth in children with diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla Báez, E; Dorantes Alvarez, L M; Chavarría Bonequi, C

    1980-01-01

    Commercial preparations of vasopressin for the treatment of diabetes insipidus are not available in Mexico. Besides, the hormone is useless in the nephrogenic variety. In the department of Endocrinology at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico, a preparation containing hydrochlorothiazide, aminopyrine and potassium chloride, which reduces urinary volumes in about two thirds, is employed in all varieties of the disease. Growth in stature was investigated in 44 patients under treatment, attending the Endocrine Outpatient Clinic since 1967 for a period of 2 to 12 years. Clinical material included 29 males and 15 females. There were 23 idiopathic, 7 histiocytosis, 5 nephrogenic, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 2 psychogenic polydipsia, 2 traumatic and 1, as a sequel of tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Six idiopathic, 2 nephrogenic, 2 traumatic, 1 histiocytosis, and 1 psychogenic proceeded between percentiles 3 and 97, parallel to the nearest line of reference along the whole period of study. Two nephrogenic, 2 histiocytosis, 1 psychogenic, 1 post-meningoencephalitis and 14 idiopathic, grew below the third percentile, but parallel to it. One nephrogenic, 4 histiocytosis, 4 craniopharyngioma and 3 idiopathic progressively departed from the initial centile. Two of the latter had growth hormone deficiency, and 1 had been very irregularly treated. It is concluded that the therapy employed limits stature impairment but does not produce catch-up growth. Accordingly, it is proposed that the treatment of diabetes insipidus should be started as early as possible, and that if progress in stature is appreciably deteriorated, the presence of additional pathology should be suspected.

  18. Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding - Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit. The Field Epidemiology Training Program of the Secretariat of Surveillance in Health of the Brazilian Ministry of Health assisted state and municipal health departments with an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the infant acquired yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding. The mother reported 2 days of headache, malaise, and low fever occurring 5 days after receipt of yellow fever vaccine. The infant, who was exclusively breast-fed, was hospitalized at age 23 days with seizures requiring continuous infusion of intravenous anticonvulsants. The infant received antimicrobial and antiviral treatment for meningoencephalitis. The presence of 17DD yellow fever virus was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the infant's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); yellow fever--specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies also were present in serum and CSF. The infant recovered completely, was discharged after 24 days of hospitalization, and has had normal neurodevelopment and growth through age 6 months. The findings in this report provide documentation that yellow fever vaccine virus can be transmitted via breast-feeding. Administration of yellow fever vaccine to breast-feeding women should be avoided except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot be avoided or postponed.

  19. Brain american trypanosomiasis: chagoma with involvement of the corpus callosum in a patient with aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Sonia; Sanz Margarita M; Aponte Milena

    2009-01-01

    Chagas's disease affects 7% of the Colombian population and is an uncommonly diagnosed disease due to its non-specific symptoms. In the acute phase of the disease, direct invasion of the brain can be present, with acute eningoencephalitis. In the chronic phase, there can be a residual meningoencephalitis or ischemic events related to cardiomyopathy. In acute reactivation,there is parasitaemia due to an immunosuppressed state with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and formation of cerebral masses, also called chagomas. There are no pathognomonic findings for chagomas, which consist of solitary or multiple nodular lesions, located in the white matter,basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, brainstem or spinal cord. They present an irregular and peripheral gadolinium enhancement pattern. The main differential diagnoses include Toxoplasma gondii infection and neoplasms. This article presents a case of a 74-year-old female HIV + patient,with progressive walking impairment, presented with a corpus callosum and left periventricular white matter mass on MRI. The histological study revealed amastigotes. She had positive serum titles for Trypanosoma cruzi, confirming the diagnosis of a chagoma in a patient with AIDS.

  20. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  1. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  2. Lesions of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Youming; Wu, Linzhan; Zhong, Rong; Ouyang, Xiaoming; Liang, Junyan; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Qiu, Wei; Chang, Yanyu; Wang, Zhanhang; Ye, Jinlong

    2017-05-01

    Posterior limb of the internal capsule lesions (PLICL) are one of the MRI features of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, there is no evidence that such lesions are pathogenically related to NMOSD. We retrospectively analyzed features of PLICL in NMOSD, and other central nervous system inflammatory disorders, in 561 patients. We also examined the pathological samples of six patients. Of the 561 patients investigated, PLICL were found in 65 patients (11.6%). Lesions were bilateral in 26 cases (40%) and unilateral in 39 cases (60%). Unilateral lesions were mainly located on the left side (74.3%, 29/39). Of the 65 patients with PLICL, 46 patients had NMOSD (70.8%) and were positive for anti-aquaporin (AQP4-IgG), four had NMOSD (6.2%) and were AQP4-IgG negative, 10 patients had multiple sclerosis (MS), three patients had NMDAR encephalitis, and two had autoimmune meningoencephalitis. Of the six patients whose pathological samples were evaluated, all had PLICL and were negative for AQP4-IgG, and none had pathological NMOSD lesion features. These cases included three patients with multiple sclerosis, one with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and two with autoimmune meningoencephalitis. In conclusion, PLICL are found not only in patients with NMOSD, but also in MS and other disorders.

  3. Cryptococcus neoformans-derived microvesicles enhance the pathogenesis of fungal brain infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-He Huang

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is the most common fungal disease in the central nervous system. The mechanisms by which Cryptococcus neoformans invades the brain are largely unknown. In this study, we found that C. neoformans-derived microvesicles (CnMVs can enhance the traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB by C. neoformans invitro. The immunofluorescence imaging demonstrates that CnMVs can fuse with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, the constituents of the BBB. This activity is presumably due to the ability of the CnMVs to activate HBMEC membrane rafts and induce cell fusogenic activity. CnMVs also enhanced C. neoformans infection of the brain, found in both infected brains and cerebrospinal fluid. In infected mouse brains, CnMVs are distributed inside and around C. neoformans-induced cystic lesions. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were found surrounding the cystic lesions, overlapping with the 14-3-3-GFP (14-3-3-green fluorescence protein fusion signals. Substantial changes could be observed in areas that have a high density of CnMV staining. This is the first demonstration that C. neoformans-derived microvesicles can facilitate cryptococcal traversal across the BBB and accumulate at lesion sites of C. neoformans-infected brains. Results of this study suggested that CnMVs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

  4. [Mondini dysplasia: recurrent bacterial meningitis in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Dĭaz, J; Garófalo-Gómez, N; Rodríguez, U; Parra, M; Barroso-García, E; Novoa-López, L; Rojas-Massipe, E; Sardiñas-Hernández, N L

    Episodes of recurrent bacterial meningitis can occur in patients due to either congenital or acquired disorders. Congenital deformity of the bony labyrinth can be linked to a fistulous tract communicating it with the intracranial subarachnoid space. Mondini deformity is a frequent malformation in congenitally deaf patients. We report the case of an adolescent with a history of being unable to hear in one ear who, from the age of 10 years, began to suffer repeated bacterial meningoencephalitis with microbiological recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae on three occasions. The type of germ recovered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the history of congenital deafness that was detected when the patient was 3 years old were the diagnostic clues to the possible anomaly of the inner ear with a CSF fistula. The clinically proven CSF rhinorrhea contributed to the diagnosis of an ear anomaly with a fistula. Computerised axial tomography and magnetic resonance studies of the petrous portion of the temporal bone revealed the malformation that was later found and closed during the surgical intervention on the affected ear. The clinical absence of rhinorrhea, a year's progression without new infections after operating on the patient and post-surgery imaging studies were all proof that the fistula had closed. Mondini dysplasia with CSF fistula must be included as a possible diagnosis when faced with a patient with recurrent bacterial meningoencephalitis. Imaging studies, especially magnetic resonance, enable the clinician to check the diagnosis and the CSF fistula can be closed with ear surgery.

  5. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yi-Fang [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Lin, Yuh-Jey [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); Chang, Ying-Chao [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Children Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Huang, Chao-Ching [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Institute of Molecular Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  6. Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Siqueira Soares-Ishigaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Meningoencephalitis early in life, of any etiology, is a risk factor for development of subsequent sequelae, which may be of physical, psychiatric, behavioral or cognitive origin. Anomia is a language abnormality frequently found in such cases, and other language deficits are rarely described. The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive and linguistic manifestations following a case of herpetic meningoencephalitis in a 13-year-old patient with eight years of schooling. CASE REPORT: The patient underwent a speech-language audiology assessment nine months after the neurological diagnosis. The battery of tests included the Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment test protocol (MT Beta-86, modified, the description from the Cookie Theft task of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, an informal assessment of the patient's logical and mathematical reasoning, and the neuropsychological subtests from the WAIS-III scale, which assess working memory. The patient presented mixed aphasia, impairment of short-term memory and working memory, and dyscalculia. This case also presented severe cognitive and linguistic deficits. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, in order to enable timely treatment and rehabilitation of this neurological infection and minimize the cognitive deficits caused by the disease.

  7. Neurobrucellosis: Clinical and laboratory findings in 22 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoolinejad M

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a multisystem disease with diverse clinical presentations and involvement of the nervous system is considered to 5 to be 10% in adult patients and 1% in children. The presentations of neurobrucellosis includes meningoencephalitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage, myelitis, radiculoneuritis, intracerebral and epidural abscess, psychosis and vascular syndrome. Twenty-two patients with neurobrucellosis are described. Ten patients had meningoencephalitis, seven patients had meningitis, three patients had polyradiculopathy and one patient presented with spinal epidural abscess and one patient had brain abscess. Results of an agglutination test for Brucella in serum were positive for all patients (>1:160; eight of 15 patients had positive agglutination test in CSF. Five patients had positive blood cultures, 3 patients had positive bone marrow cultures and 2 of 15 patients had positive CSF cultures. All of cultures were Brucella Mellitensis. Antimicrobial treatment included concurrent administration of Doxycycline, Rifampin and Trimethoprim-Sulfametoxazole. Four patients received Dexamethason concurrently. In conclusion, nervous system involvement is a serious manifestation of brucellosis. As brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran we suggest that brucellosis be investigated with neurological symptoms and signs.

  8. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Profilaxis con antibióticos en fracturas de base de cráneo: ¿tiene justificación esa conducta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Luis González González

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 380 pacientes con fractura de la base del cráneo y a 71 de ellos (18,7 % se les administraron antibióticos como profilaxis de la meningoencefalitis y a 309 (81,3 % no se les suministraron estos agentes. Se evaluó la relación entre uso profiláctico o terapéutico de antimicrobianos, localización de la fractura, lesiones asociadas, complicaciones sépticas, edad y sexo, con la aparición de meningoencefalitis. Desarrollaron infección del sistema nervioso central 7 pacientes (1,8 %, 3 de ellos (4,2 % entre los que recibieron profilaxis y 4 (1,3 % entre los que no la recibieron. Se probó que la presencia de meningoencefalitis estaba asociada con el tipo de complicaciones sépticas que además pudieron tener los pacientes, así como al uso de antibióticos como terapéutica de éstas en análisis bivariado, lo que no se corroboró en el multivariado. Se concluye que el empleo de antibióticos profilácticos en estos pacientes no tiene justificación, lo que convierte a esta conducta en una práctica negativa desde el punto de vista médico y económicoA study of 380 patients with basilar skull fracture was performed. 71 (18.7 % of these patients were given antibiotic prophylaxis for meningoencephalitis and 309 (81.3 % were not. The relation of prophylactic or therapeutical use of antimicrobial agents, fracture location, associated injures, septic complications, age and sex to the meningoencephalitis coming out was evaluated. 7 patients (1.8 % developed infections of the central nervous system, 3 (4.2 % had been treated with antibiotics and 4 (1.3 % had not. The bivariate analysis proved that the meningoencephalitis was linked to the type of septic complications that might affect patients as well as the therapeutical use of antibiotics to eliminate them but the multivariate analysis did not demonstrate so. It is concluded that the use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients is not substantiated which turns

  10. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN HORMONE AND CORTISOL DYNAMIC VARIATION IN CASE OF CHILDREN›S NEUROINFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Malyugina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  data  presented in the  article  deal  with  research  of hormone changes in hypophysial-paranephric system in the course  of neuroinfections. The  given  work  was  carried  out with  the  purpose of detection of dependence of the  cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone level on aetiology, gender, severity and  period  (cycle  of the  disease.A comprehensive clinical  and  laboratorial checkup of 109 children with  different  nosological forms of neuroinfections was carried  out: meningitis: viral, enteroviral, purulent and  cerebromeningitis. Control board group was composed of 10 healthy children of the identical age. All the patients underwent the Adrenocorticotropin Hormone and  Cortisol  blood  serum  level,  IFA technique being  used,  during acuity and  reconvalesence. It has  been  determined that  in  case  of neuroinfections  irrrespective of the ethiology, hypophysis trophic funtction undergoes arrest during the whole disease period. While studying adrenal gland  functioning during the  acuity the  increased cortisol secretion is observed, the degree of which  is authentically  higher  in case  of purulent meningitis and  meningoencephalitis compared to hydromeningitis. On recovery  the cortisol values decrease to healthy children’s level. A reliable dependence of the  ACTH  and  cortisol  level  on the  severity degree in case of purulent meningitis and meningoencephalitis was discovered ( brought to light. It is also satisfactorily brought to light that ACTH and cortisol levels depend on the severity degree in case of purulent meningitis and meningoencephalitis. It is proved that adrenal gland  system function does  not depend on the patients’ gender and  age in case of neuroinfections.

  11. Paciente inmunocompetente con criptococosis cerebral: reporte de un caso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Pedraza, Luis Cuitláhuac; Martínez-Piña, Daniel Arturo; Calles-Carmona, Génesis Rocío; San-Juan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A 14-year-old female, presenting sudden and progressive holocraneal headache along with incoercible vomiting arrived to emergency room. Acute confusional state and meningoencephalitis syndrome where identified. Brain computed tomography-scan with normal results was performed. Lumbar puncture with crystal-clear cerebrospinal fluid was obtained: low glucose, elevated proteins and cell-count of 15/mm. China-Ink and Criptococcus neoformans culture both positive. Viral, lupus-anticoagulant, and HIV tests negative. Fluconazole 200 mg/kg/day, amphotericin-B 0.7 mg/kg/day, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg/day were prescribed. 48-h later evolved to cerebral edema, multiple-organ-failure and death. Hereby we present a Cryptococcus spp. infection case report, addressing the public health challenge and vulnerability of immunocompromised patients in Mexico. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  12. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  13. The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Aslanyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS either as a single cell or inside of macrophages. Upon traversing the blood brain barrier, C. neoformans has the capacity to form biofilm-like structures known as cryptococcomas. Hence, we will discuss the C. neoformans elements contributing to biofilm formation including the fungus’ ability to survive in the acidic environment of a macrophage phagosome and inside of the CNS. The purpose of this mini-review is to instill fresh interest in understanding the importance of biofilms on fungal pathogenesis.

  14. Neurologic emergencies in HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-De-Villoria, J A; Fernández-García, P; Borrego-Ruiz, P J

    HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response. Infectious disease is the first diagnostic suspicion, and the identification of an opportunistic pathogen should be oriented in function of the type and degree of immunosuppression. Other neurologic emergencies include ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, neoplastic processes, and pharmacological neurotoxicity. This article reviews the role of neuroimaging in HIV-negative immunodepressed patients with a neurologic complication that requires urgent management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of pediatric central nervous system emergencies: a review for general radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo Polo, M

    2016-05-01

    To review the most common and most important diseases and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) in pediatric emergencies, discussing the indications for different imaging tests in each context. In pediatric patients, acute neurologic symptoms (seizures, deteriorating level of consciousness, focal neurologic deficits, etc.) can appear in diverse clinical situations (trauma, child abuse, meningoencephalitis, ischemia…). It is important to decide on the most appropriate neuroimaging diagnostic algorithm for each situation and age group, as well as to know the signs of the most typical lesions that help us in the etiological differential diagnosis. Pediatric patients' increased vulnerability to ionizing radiation and the possible need for sedation in studies that require more time are factors that should be taken into account when indicating an imaging test. It is essential to weigh the risks and benefits for the patient and to avoid unnecessary studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Atypical outbreak of acute coenurosis by Taenia multiceps in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintus, Davide; Varcasia, Antonio; Dessì, Giorgia; Tamponi, Claudia; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Carboni, Giovanni Antonio; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Ligios, Ciriaco; Scala, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    Herein, we examined the brain of adult ewes and lambs less than 30 days old which were found affected by neurological signs in a flock located in Sardinia (Italy). Gross anatomo-pathological examination of all brains of the animals revealed multiple linear reddish-yellow foci of necrotic purulent inflammation due to oncosphere migration. Histologically, we confirmed a multifocal pyo-granulomatous meningo-encephalitis both in ewes and in lambs, confirming acute coenurosis. Morphological examination and DNA sequencing identified the Taenia multiceps we isolated as Tm1 strain. This report describes for the first time a natural acute coenurosis infection in suckling lambs under 30 days of age.

  17. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  18. Neuro-Behcet: about a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Perez, R.; Satriano, R.; Rotondo, M.

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 7-year-old Uruguayan boy with recurrent episodes of fever, oral aphthas lesions and meningoencephalitis with elevated protein levels and lymphocytic pleocytosis is presented. Other diagnoses were excluded. MRI showed in acute stages CNS involvement in iso- or hipointense in T1- weighted images and hyperintense in T2-weighted or fluid- attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in mesodiencephalic junction, cerebellar peduncles, pons, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and internal capsule, and cerebral hemispheres. In the evolution skin lesions appeared, fulfilling the International Study Group Criteria for the Diagnosis of Behcet' Disease. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressant treatment was done.The main difficulty in children is having all the criteria for diagnosis; especially when recurrent genital ulceration and eye lesion rarely appear at this age. (author) [es

  19. Severe neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in a child with undiagnosed Addison's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Messacar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of West Nile virus (WNV meningoencephalitis in a child who presented with fever, headache, seizures, and altered mental status, as well as hyponatremia and bronzing of the skin. Findings that led to the diagnosis of WNV included plasma-cell pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and linear chorioretinitis on ophthalmologic exam. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive serum and CSF WNV IgM. The acute WNV infection triggered an adrenal crisis which uncovered a new diagnosis of underlying Addison's disease. This is the first case report of severe neuroinvasive WNV disease in a pediatric patient with primary adrenal insufficiency. Neuroinvasive WNV disease is uncommon in children, but may have a more severe presentation in those with certain underlying medical conditions.

  20. CNS manifestation in progressive facial hemiatrophy (Romberg's disease). MRI findings and review of the literature. Zerebrale Manifestation der progressiven fazialen Hemiatrophie (Romberg-Erkrankung). Kernspintomographische Befunde und Literaturuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terstegge, K [Strahlenklinik mit Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Henkes, H [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Neuroradiologie Univ. des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Kunath, B [Medizinische Akademie ' ' Carl Gustav Carus' ' , Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie; Felber, S [Univ. des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Uhrmeister, P [Strahlenklinik mit Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kern, A [Strahlenklinik mit Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1993-10-01

    In this article the authors describe the clinical and MR imaging findings of the CNS in three female patients with PFH and present a comprehensive review of the literature. One of three PFH patients had partial epilepsy. MRI showed ventricular enlargement, white matter lesions, flattening of the cortical surface and meningeal adhesions homolateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Two other patients had completely normal intracranial findings. These findings confirm that cerebral hemiatrophy can occur in a subgroup of PFH patients. The MRI pattern, however, does not seem to be consistent with a simple atrophic or malnutrition process. The authors consider chronic localized meningoencephalitis with vascular involvement as a possible underlying mechanism for the occasional CNS involvement in PFH. (orig./MG)

  1. Autoimmune Neurological Conditions Associated With Zika Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Acosta-Ampudia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the tropical Americas. Aedes mosquitoes is the principal way of transmission of the virus to humans. ZIKV can be spread by transplacental, perinatal, and body fluids. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic and those with symptoms present minor illness after 3 to 12 days of incubation, characterized by a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, widespread pruritic maculopapular rash, arthralgia and myalgia. ZIKV has been linked to a number of central and peripheral nervous system injuries such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, transverse myelitis (TM, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications. Nevertheless, mechanisms of host-pathogen neuro-immune interactions remain incompletely elucidated. This review provides a critical discussion about the possible mechanisms underlying the development of autoimmune neurological conditions associated with Zika virus infection.

  2. Antibodies against oligodendrocytes in serum and CSF in multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases: 125I-protein A studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, A.J.; Link, H.

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies against oligodendrocytes were determined in pairs of unconcentrated CSF serum from 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 25 control patients including 10 with aseptic meningoencephalitis (AM), using a 125 I-protein A microassay. Antibody levels in serum and in CSF did not differ between MS and controls. Calculating the antibody index equal to (CSF/serum antibodies against oligodendrocytes):(CSF/serum albumin) in analogy to the CSF IgG index, thereby compensating for influence of serum antibody concentration as well as altered blood-brain barrier, no evidence was obtained for intrathecal antibody production in the patients with MS. Those with AM had higher antibody index values, probably reflecting intrathecal synthesis. Antibodies against oligodendrocytes seem to be regular component of CSF and serum in neurological diseases; intrathecal antibody production is less frequent in MS than in AM. (author)

  3. A Severe Case of Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis with Encephalitis and Neurologic Sequelae in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O‘ahu in Hawai‘i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

  4. Neurological manifestations of Chikungunya and Zika infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talys J. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Zika virus (ZIKV infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis. The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.

  5. Coma blisters in children: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Laura; Schena, Donatella; Colato, Chiara; Biban, Paolo; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2013-12-01

    Coma-induced blisters is a rare condition associated with prolonged impairment of conscious level, which is relatively well-known in adults following overdose with barbiturates. However, it has been very rarely described in children. A case of coma-bullae occurring in an 11-year-old child with meningoencephalitis is herein reported. The bullous lesions occurred on the limbs and trunks, and evolved into necrotic ulcers in a few days. No correlation with any drug overdosage was found. A skin biopsy revealed epidermal and eccrine sweat gland necrosis with abundant neutrophils, and thrombosis of the vessels in the lower dermis. A comprehensive review of the literature showed that only 5 cases of coma-bullae in children have been published so far. Coma blistering resolves spontaneously within days or weeks. Diagnosis of coma-bullae may require careful clinical-pathologic correlation to exclude other blistering diseases in children.

  6. Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcosis Treated with Debridement and Fluconazole Monotherapy in an Immunosuppressed Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast present in the environment. Practitioners are familiar with the presentation and management of the most common manifestation of cryptococcal infection, meningoencephalitis, in patients with AIDS or other conditions of immunocompromise. There is less awareness, however, of uncommon presentations where experience rather than evidence guides therapy. We report a case of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC in a patient who had been immunosuppressed by chronic high-dose corticosteroid for the treatment of severe asthma. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of aggressive cellulitis that fails standard empiric antibiotic treatment in an immunocompromised patient. It also demonstrates successful treatment of PCC with a multispecialty approach including local debridement and fluconazole monotherapy.

  7. Morbillivirus infection in a wild siberian tiger in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kathy S; Evermann, James F; Leathers, Charles W; Armstrong, Douglas L; Goodrich, John; Duncan, Neil M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-10-01

    We report the first documented case of morbillivirus infection in a wild, free-ranging Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). The tigress entered a small village in the Russian Far East in an ambulatory but stuporous state with no apparent recognition or fear of humans. Her condition progressed rapidly with neurological signs, anorexia, and ultimately death. Histologic lesions included vacuolated to malacic white matter in the brain stem, cerebellum, and thalamus, with associated lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Large, intranuclear, eosinophilic inclusions were within regional astrocytes, and the brain lesions were immunohistochemically positive when stained for canine distemper viral antigen. Hematologic and blood chemistry results were consistent with overwhelming systemic infection and starvation. The animal also was antibody-positive for canine distemper virus, feline panleukopenia, and feline coronavirus.

  8. Concentration of Naegleria fowleri in natural waters used for recreational purposes in Sonora, Mexico (November 2007-October 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares-Villa, Fernando; Hernández-Peña, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    A survey was designed to know the concentration of Naegleria fowleri in recreational areas in Hornos, Sonora, during a year. Samples were taken monthly at La Isleta and Las Palmas and the total amoeba counts were obtained by the most probable number method (MPN). The identification of N. fowleri was made by PCR. The maximum concentration of total thermophilic amoebae was 9175 MPN/L for La Isleta and 3477 MPN/L for Las Palmas. Thermophilic Naegleria were present mainly during summer and fall. October's concentrations were up to 201 MPN/L, at both places. The maximum concentrations of N. fowleri were 201 MPN/L and 18 MPN/L for La Isleta and Las Palmas respectively, and were isolated from August to October. The presence of N. fowleri in these particular natural bodies of water reinforces the need for adaptation of preventive measures to avoid cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regurgitations in a Lamb with Acute Coenurosis-A case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Ioannidou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Multiceps multiceps, which inhabits the small intestine of Canidae. A case of regurgitations in a 2.5 month old lamb with acute coenurosis is being reported. The lamb was presented with a sudden onset of ataxia and regurgitations for 10 days. The post-mortem examination revealed 4 immature C. cerebralis cysts between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter located in the brainstem and cerebellum, and histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, so a diagnosis of acute coenurosis was established. Thus, acute coenurosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of regurgitations in lambs.

  10. Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of Fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lamas

    Full Text Available A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.

  11. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature. The availability of literature on the neurological manifestations of scrub typhus is limited to case reports mainly. This article reviews various neurological manifestations of scrub typhus reported in literature.

  12. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens......, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. FINDINGS: 1051 (95%) of 1112...... patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than...

  13. Transient gyriform brightness on non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) brain scan of seven infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, P.J.; Carty, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous gyriform brightness seen on CT scan is an unusual finding unless associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVM). There are sporadic case reports in the literature of its occurrence in association with herpex simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), purulent meningitis, following chemotherapy for leukaemia, in a child with chronic renal failure, and in a child with folic acid deficiency. We present a series of seven cases exhibiting this phenomenon, none of whom have AVMs, who have been scanned at this hospital in the first 2 1/2 years following the installation of a CT scanner. Four of the cases had congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery or cardiac catheterisation. The other three had probable meningo-encephalitis. In all cases the gyriform brightness followed an ischaemic insult to the child's brain. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is an ischaemic response in the immature brain and that its occurrence is not so rare as the literature may suggest. (orig.)

  14. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Kiani, I. G.; Shah, F.; Rehman, R. N.; Haq, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. (author)

  15. CNS manifestation in progressive facial hemiatrophy (Romberg's disease). MRI findings and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terstegge, K.; Henkes, H.; Kern, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the authors describe the clinical and MR imaging findings of the CNS in three female patients with PFH and present a comprehensive review of the literature. One of three PFH patients had partial epilepsy. MRI showed ventricular enlargement, white matter lesions, flattening of the cortical surface and meningeal adhesions homolateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Two other patients had completely normal intracranial findings. These findings confirm that cerebral hemiatrophy can occur in a subgroup of PFH patients. The MRI pattern, however, does not seem to be consistent with a simple atrophic or malnutrition process. The authors consider chronic localized meningoencephalitis with vascular involvement as a possible underlying mechanism for the occasional CNS involvement in PFH. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Palatal-Myoclonus as a Presentation of Hashimoto Encephalopathy: an Interesting case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeel Ghoreishi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE is known as a steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis or nonvascular inflammation-related autoimmune meningoencephalitis. The average age of onset of HE is approximately 50 years; and it is more common in women. The onset of HE may be acute or subacute. The course of most HE cases is relapsing and remitting, which is similar to that of vasculitis and stroke.Methods: In this article, we present a previously healthy 32 years old; veterinarian male with palatal myoclonus, as a rare presentation of this disorder, and review the neurologic aspects of hashimoto encephalitis . Results:The clinical presentation of HE is characterized by progressive cognitive decline tremor, transient aphasia, seizures, abnormal gait, sleep disorder and stroke-like episodes .Myoclonus, either generalized or multifocal, and tremor, often of the bilateral upper extremities, is the most frequently observed involuntary movements in HE.Conclusion:The rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction and encephalopathies observed.

  17. The value of MRI in the diagnosis of cerebral infection. Die Bedeutung der Kernspintomographie in der Diagnostik zerebraler Infektionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glathe, S.; Heindel, W.; Steinbrich, W. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik)

    1989-09-01

    Amongst 1.345 MR examinations of the skull 49 patients were suspected of a cerebral infection. With a knowledge of the clinical situation, the abnormal findings were classified according to their localization, number, extent and distribution. The final diagnoses included meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, and abscesses of varying etiology. CT was carried out in 29 patients; it was found that MRI was more sensitive and able to show the lesion at an earlier stage (sensitivity 90% compared with 66%). Observations of proton density and relaxation time combined with morphological criteria and clinical history reduced differential diagnoses. On the other hand, the changes due to intracranial infections lead to an inflammatory reaction that may be similar to the findings in degenerative or even tumorous cerebral lesions. This explains why twelve patients with abnormal MRI findings were erroneously diagnosed as having cerebral infections. (orig.).

  18. Clinical spectrum of seizures and efficacy of anticonvulsive treatment in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, S.; Zman, S.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical spectrum of seizures and efficacy of anticonvulsive treatment in children. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from October 2011 to March 2012. Material and Methods: One hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 12 years presenting with seizures at Military Hospital Rawalpindi were evaluated and consented to participate in the study. All children with a febrile seizures were evaluated. The seizures were classified according to international league against epilepsy guidelines. Antiepileptic treatment regimen was evaluated in terms of number of drugs, correct dosage and efficacy in control of seizures. Results: It was observed that generalized seizures were (58 percent) followed by focal seizures (32 percent) in children. Valproic acid was prescribed in (51 percent) cases. Epilepsy was diagnosed in (56 percent) followed by cerebral palsy (20 percent), post meningoencephalitis sequalae (11 percent), intracranial hemorrhage (7 percent) and leukodystrophies (3 percnet) as underlying cause of seizures. Statistically significant association was seen between age groups and diagnosis (p value=0.001); age groups and types of seizures (p value=0.046); correct dosage of antiepileptics and control of seizures (p value=0.007); compliance to treatment and control of seizures (p value=0.007). Conclusion: Generalized seizures are the commonest form followed by focal seizures. Epilepsy was the common etiology of seizures in all age groups in children. Cerebral palsy was the second leading cause of seizures in children followed by post meningoencephalitis, stroke and leukodystrophies. Valproic acid was the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic. Normal delivery with delayed cry was the major risk factor for cerebral palsy. Prescription of appropriate antiepileptics according to diagnosis in optimum dosage and compliance to treatment affect control of seizures in children. (author)

  19. Comparative analysis of inflammatory complications after firearm injuries of the cerebrum in two clinics with different surgical behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Y.; Guergueltchev, N.

    2008-01-01

    Injuries in the cerebrum caused by firearm shots are found to be more and more in our everyday life. The mortality rate is high (40 - 90 %) regardless of the differences in the therapy applied according to the viewpoints of the surgeons. The valuation of the results is contradictory due to the difficulties to set up systematized groups for these appraisals. Some of the severe complications, which aggravate the process of recovery on the days after the trauma, are the suppurations of the wounds and the purulent meningoencephalitis. The aim of this study is to compare the inflammatory complications after injuries caused by firearm shots in the head according to their type and severity in two clinics with different surgical behaviour. The study involved 30 patients in the Clinic of Emergency Neurosurgery at the Military Medical Academy in Sofia, Bulgaria, during a 7-year period, and 11 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Neurosurgery in the city of Tours, France, during a 3-year period. At the group of the Military Medical Academy suppuration of the wounds was found in 2 patients without development of cerebral infection. At the Neurosurgical Clinic in Tours, France, 4 patients developed meningoencephalitis and three died (p<0.001). The comparative analysis gives grounds to draw a conclusion that the inflammatory complications of the cerebrum after gunshot injuries have a direct relation to the operative procedure. In order to avert these complications, it is necessary to have aggressive surgical behaviour: elimination of devitalized soft tissues, craniectomy around the inlet and outlet openings, revision of the brain wound in depth of 3-4 cm and hermetic closure of the dura. (authors)

  20. Toxoplasma gondii oral infection induces intestinal inflammation and retinochoroiditis in mice genetically selected for immune oral tolerance resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Ramos Furtado Dias

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS or resistance (TR to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis.

  1. Clinical profile and outcome of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES patients treated in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhjung J Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute encephalitis syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was thought to be a major cause for acute encephalitis syndrome, more non-Japanese encephalitis virus cases are reported. The outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome is variable. Our study was designed to study the clinical profile and outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome managed in tertiary care center in central Nepal. Methods: The record of patients admitted with diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome,from January 2010 to December 2010 in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH was reviewed. They were classified clinically as meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. The clinical details and reports of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Total of 85 cases of meningitis and encephalitis were identified. Mean age was 19.18 years. Fifty-six (65.9% patients were males and 29 (34.1% were females. Sixty (70.58% patients had meningitis, 8 (9.41% had encephalitis, and 17 (20.0% had meningoencephalitis. JE serology was positive in 4 patients (4.7%. Seventy-two (84.7% patients made full recovery and were discharged from hospital. Thirteen (15.3% patients left against medical advice (LAMA. Conclusion: Acute encephalitis syndrome is still a major public health problem in Nepal. Few of these patients have Japanese Encephalitis. There is a trend towards improved outcome because of availability of improved health services. However, financial constraint remains a challenge in management of acute encephalitis syndrome. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 31-37 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9685

  2. Surface-associated plasminogen binding of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes extracellular matrix invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Stie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of illness and death in persons with predisposing factors, including: malignancies, solid organ transplants, and corticosteroid use. C. neoformans is ubiquitous in the environment and enters into the lungs via inhalation, where it can disseminate through the bloodstream and penetrate the central nervous system (CNS, resulting in a difficult to treat and often-fatal infection of the brain, called meningoencephalitis. Plasminogen is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by cancer cells during metastasis and several pathogenic species of bacteria have been found to manipulate the host plasminogen system to facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of plasminogen at their surface.The invasion of the brain and the central nervous system by penetration of the protective blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite to the establishment of meningoencephalitis by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. neoformans. In this study, we examined the ability of C. neoformans to subvert the host plasminogen system to facilitate tissue barrier invasion. Through a combination of biochemical, cell biology, and proteomic approaches, we have shown that C. neoformans utilizes the host plasminogen system to cross tissue barriers, providing support for the hypothesis that plasminogen-binding may contribute to the invasion of the blood-brain barrier by penetration of the brain endothelial cells and underlying matrix. In addition, we have identified the cell wall-associated proteins that serve as plasminogen receptors and characterized both the plasminogen-binding and plasmin-activation potential for this significant human pathogen.The results of this study provide evidence for the

  3. Trojan Horse Transit Contributes to Blood-Brain Barrier Crossing of a Eukaryotic Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H; Onken, Michael D; Cooper, John A; Klein, Robyn S; Doering, Tamara L

    2017-01-31

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system (CNS) by restricting the passage of molecules and microorganisms. Despite this barrier, however, the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans invades the brain, causing a meningoencephalitis that is estimated to kill over 600,000 people annually. Cryptococcal infection begins in the lung, and experimental evidence suggests that host phagocytes play a role in subsequent dissemination, although this role remains ill defined. Additionally, the disparate experimental approaches that have been used to probe various potential routes of BBB transit make it impossible to assess their relative contributions, confounding any integrated understanding of cryptococcal brain entry. Here we used an in vitro model BBB to show that a "Trojan horse" mechanism contributes significantly to fungal barrier crossing and that host factors regulate this process independently of free fungal transit. We also, for the first time, directly imaged C. neoformans-containing phagocytes crossing the BBB, showing that they do so via transendothelial pores. Finally, we found that Trojan horse crossing enables CNS entry of fungal mutants that cannot otherwise traverse the BBB, and we demonstrate additional intercellular interactions that may contribute to brain entry. Our work elucidates the mechanism of cryptococcal brain invasion and offers approaches to study other neuropathogens. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans invades the brain, causing a meningoencephalitis that kills hundreds of thousands of people each year. One route that has been proposed for this brain entry is a Trojan horse mechanism, whereby the fungus crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as a passenger inside host phagocytes. Although indirect experimental evidence supports this intriguing mechanism, it has never been directly visualized. Here we directly image Trojan horse transit and show that it is regulated independently of free fungal entry, contributes

  4. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection Induces Intestinal Inflammation and Retinochoroiditis in Mice Genetically Selected for Immune Oral Tolerance Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis. PMID:25437299

  6. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  7. Novel approaches for immunotherapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David H

    2006-07-01

    Immunotherapy can attenuate amyloid neuropathology and improve cognitive function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the first clinical trial was halted when 6% of the Alzheimer's patients developed aseptic meningoencephalitis. Postmortem analysis of two cases with meningoencephalitis showed robust glial activation, T-cell infiltration and sporadic clearance of Abeta. Interestingly, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease failed as predictors of these adverse inflammatory events. However there are now several studies with amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice that have reported an increased risk of microhemorrhages at sites of cerebrovascular amyloid deposits and because approximately 80% of Alzheimer's patient's have cerebrovascular pathology, there is concern regarding clinical trials using passive administration of humanized anti-Abeta antibodies. Although many studies have now been published on immunotherapy in mouse models, the mechanism(s) of antibody-mediated clearance of beta-amyloid from the brain, and the cause of the antibody-induced microhemorrhages remain unclear. In this review, we will discuss the most recent results from the first clinical trial, offer speculation on possible causes for the failure of the trial, review data on antibody-mediated clearance mechanisms, explore the role of complement and inflammation in the clearance of beta-amyloid, and suggest novel strategies for avoiding problems in future clinical trials. The central hypothesis being proposed in this review is that anti-Abeta antibodies delivered directly to the CNS at the sites of amyloid deposits will be far more effective at clearing Abeta and safer than active or passive immunization strategies where the majority of the antibodies are in the periphery.

  8. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, D; Mostashari, F; Fine, A; Miller, J; O'Leary, D; Murray, K; Huang, A; Rosenberg, A; Greenberg, A; Sherman, M; Wong, S; Layton, M

    2001-06-14

    In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral encephalitis and meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and tissue specimens from patients with suspected cases underwent serologic and viral testing for evidence of arboviral infection. Outbreak surveillance identified 59 patients who were hospitalized with West Nile virus infection in the New York City area during August and September of 1999. The median age of these patients was 71 years (range, 5 to 95). The overall attack rate of clinical West Nile virus infection was at least 6.5 cases per million population, and it increased sharply with age. Most of the patients (63 percent) had clinical signs of encephalitis; seven patients died (12 percent). Muscle weakness was documented in 27 percent of the patients and flaccid paralysis in 10 percent; in all of the latter, nerve conduction studies indicated an axonal polyneuropathy in 14 percent. An age of 75 years or older was an independent risk factor for death (relative risk adjusted for the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 59.1), as was the presence of diabetes mellitus (age-adjusted relative risk, 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 17.3). This outbreak of West Nile meningoencephalitis in the New York City metropolitan area represents the first time this virus has been detected in the Western Hemisphere. Given the subsequent rapid spread of the virus, physicians along the eastern seaboard of the United States should consider West Nile virus infection in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and viral meningitis during the summer months, especially in older patients and in those with muscle weakness.

  9. Review of idiopathic eosinophilic meningitis in dogs and cats, with a detailed description of two recent cases in dogs : review and clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME has been described in various species of animals and in humans. In dogs it has been associated with protozoal infections, cuterebral myiasis and various other aetiologies. Ten cases of idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis have been reported in dogs and one in a cat where the origin was uncertain or unknown. The dogs were all males, of various breeds but with a predominance of Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers; they generally had a young age of onset. Two cases with no apparent underlying aetiology were diagnosed on post mortem examination. The 18-month-old, male Boerboel presented with sudden onset of cerebellar ataxia, as well as various asymmetrical cranial nerve deficits of 2 weeks' duration and without progression. Haematology revealed a peripheral eosinophilia. Necropsy showed extreme generalised congestion especially of the meninges and blood smear and histological sections of various tissues showed intravascular erythrocyte fragmentation with the formation of microcytes. Histopathology revealed severe diffuse cerebrocortical subarachnoidal meningitis and submeningeal encephalitis, the exudate containing variable numbers of eosinophils together with neutrophils and mononuclear cells. There was also deeper white matter and hippocampal multifocal perivascular mononuclear encephalitis and multifocal periventricular malacia, gliosis and phagocytosis of white matter. The cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord showed only mild multifocal oedema or scattered occasional axon and myelin degeneration respectively, with no inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining of central nervous tissue for Toxoplasma gondii failed to show any antigen in the central nervous tissue. Ultrastructure of a single submeningeal suspected parasitic cyst showed it to be chromatin clumping within a neuron nucleus indicating karyorrhexis. Gram stain provided no evidence of an aetiological agent. The 3-year-old Beagle bitch had a

  10. Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en la población infantil cubana: 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas (MEB en Cuba entre 1998 y el año 2000, según los datos de la Vigilancia Nacional de las MEB (VNMEB disponibles. Se reportaron un total de 530 casos en menores de 15 años en todo el país durante el período. El grupo de edad más afectado resultó el de menos de 5 años. Los agentes más frecuentemente identificados fueron Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn y Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. La incidencia de Hib disminuyó 4 veces por el efecto de la vacunación masiva, especialmente en los menores de 5 años, a partir del año 2000 Spn es el principal agente causante de MEB y el más letal en Cuba. La letalidad general se incrementó de 10,6 a 20,4 %, y fue el grupo de los de menos de 1 año uno de los más afectados. Futuros estudios permitirán profundizar en la epidemiología de estas infecciones y monitorear los cambios que ocurran como consecuencia de intervenciones.Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from 1998-2000 are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of 530 cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time. The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year 2000 on. Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from 10.6 to 20.4% and the under one-year old age group was the most affected. Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a

  11. Single-shot echo-planar MR sequences in the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Yamakami, Norio; Hachiya, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our preliminary experience in the application of echo-planar-imaging (EPI) MR sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases and to assess the value of these sequences. We reviewed single-shot EPI MR images obtained at 1.5 T in 17 patients and compared these images with conventional or fast spin-echo (SE) or fluid attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. The clinical diagnoses for the 17 patients were meningitis (2 patients), encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (7 patients), brain abscess (5 patients), epidural empyema (2 patients) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (1 patient). We obtained EPI-T 2 -weighted (T 2 W) images in 8 patients, EPI-FLAIR images in 13 patients and EPI-diffusion-weighted (DW) images in 14 patients. Among the 8 patients for whom EPI-T 2 W imaging was performed, EPI-T 2 W imaging yielded superior results compared with SE-T 2 W imaging in 3 patients as a consequence of patient motion and equal results compared with SE-T 2 W imaging in 5 patients. Among the 13 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, the EPI-FLAIR images were superior to conventional FLAIR images in 3 unstable patients. In the remaining 10 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, EPI-FLAIR images were equivalent or inferior to conventional FLAIR images. In 6 patients with encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, the encephalitic lesions showed hyperintensity in EPI-DW images to a greater extent than in images obtained with the other techniques. In 3 patients, EPI-DW images also demonstrated hyperintensity for the contents of abscesses or areas of empyema that was not seen with the other imaging techniques. The value of EPI-T 2 W and EPI-FLAIR imaging is limited in uncooperative patients. EPI-DW imaging was found to be of value for the evaluation of several intracranial infectious diseases. (author)

  12. Single-shot echo-planar MR sequences in the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Yamakami, Norio; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our preliminary experience in the application of echo-planar-imaging (EPI) MR sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases and to assess the value of these sequences. We reviewed single-shot EPI MR images obtained at 1.5 T in 17 patients and compared these images with conventional or fast spin-echo (SE) or fluid attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. The clinical diagnoses for the 17 patients were meningitis (2 patients), encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (7 patients), brain abscess (5 patients), epidural empyema (2 patients) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (1 patient). We obtained EPI-T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}W) images in 8 patients, EPI-FLAIR images in 13 patients and EPI-diffusion-weighted (DW) images in 14 patients. Among the 8 patients for whom EPI-T{sub 2}W imaging was performed, EPI-T{sub 2}W imaging yielded superior results compared with SE-T{sub 2}W imaging in 3 patients as a consequence of patient motion and equal results compared with SE-T{sub 2}W imaging in 5 patients. Among the 13 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, the EPI-FLAIR images were superior to conventional FLAIR images in 3 unstable patients. In the remaining 10 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, EPI-FLAIR images were equivalent or inferior to conventional FLAIR images. In 6 patients with encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, the encephalitic lesions showed hyperintensity in EPI-DW images to a greater extent than in images obtained with the other techniques. In 3 patients, EPI-DW images also demonstrated hyperintensity for the contents of abscesses or areas of empyema that was not seen with the other imaging techniques. The value of EPI-T{sub 2}W and EPI-FLAIR imaging is limited in uncooperative patients. EPI-DW imaging was found to be of value for the evaluation of several intracranial infectious diseases. (author)

  13. Detecção molecular de herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5 em amostras de encéfalo conservadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina provenientes de bovinos com doença neurológica Molecular detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from cattle with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P. Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por herpesvírus bovino (BoHV é uma das principais causas de doença neurológica em bovinos na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. O uso de técnicas moleculares de diagnóstico representa uma contribuição importante para o estudo dessa doença. Este trabalho descreve o uso de uma técnica específica de PCR multiplex para identificar BoHV-5 e BoHV-1 em 76 amostras de encéfalo de bovinos fixadas em formol e incluídas em parafina. Com base nas alterações histológicas, as amostras foram separadas em 2 grupos: o Grupo 1 era composto de 40 amostras de bovinos com meningoencefalite necrosante característica da infecção por BoHV; no Grupo 2 estavam 36 amostras de casos com encefalite não-supurativa inespecífica. Identificação de BoHV-5 foi constatada em 40% das amostras do grupo 1 e em 33% das amostras do grupo 2. Não houve amplificação de DNA de BoHV-1 em nenhuma amostra.Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV is an important cause of neurological disease in cattle in the Midwest Brazil. The application of molecular diagnostic techniques represents an important contribution for the study of BoHV. This paper describes the detection of BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 by a specific multiplex PCR assay in 76 paraffin-embedded samples from central nervous system (CNS of cattle with neurological disorders. The samples were divided into 2 groups according to the histological features: Group 1 was composed of 40 cases of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (characteristic of BoHV infection, and Group 2 was composed of 36 cases of nonspecific nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. Positive results for BoHV-5 accounted for 40% of the samples in the group 1 and 33% in the group 2. No detection of BoHV-1 was recorded.

  14. The role of mutated amyloid beta 1-42 stimulating dendritic cells in a PDAPP transgenic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jia-lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Amyloid plaque is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-beta-amyloid (Aβ immunotherapy is effective in removing brain Aβ, but has shown to be associated with detrimental effects. To avoid severe adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis induced by amyloid beta vaccine with adjuvant, and take advantage of amyloid beta antibody's therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease sufficiently, our group has developed a new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating dendritic cells (DC. Our previous work has confirmed that DC vaccine can induce adequate anti-amyloid beta antibody in PDAPP Tg mice safely and efficiently. The DC vaccine can improve impaired learning and memory in the Alzheimer's animal model, and did not cause microvasculitis, microhemorrhage or meningoencephalitis in the animal model. However, the exact mechanism of immunotherapy which reduces Aβ deposition remains unknown. In this report, we studied the mechanism of the vaccine, thinking that this may have implications for better understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods A new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating DC which were obtained from C57/B6 mouse bone marrow was developed. Amyloid beta with Freund's adjuvant was inoculated at the same time to act as positive control. After the treatment was done, the samples of brains were collected, fixed, cut. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR, membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45, the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters (ABCA1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE and Aβ in mouse brain tissue. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to defect CA1, CA2, CA3, DG, Rad in hippocampus region and positive neuron in cortex region. Results Aβ was significantly reduced in the

  15. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  16. Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction in acute nonmycobacterial infections of central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS infections are not uncommon in tropical countries and are associated with high morbidity and mortality if specific targeted therapy is not instituted in time. Effects of tubercular meningitis, a form of chronic meningitis on hypothalamic pituitary axis, are well known both at the time of diagnosis and after few months to years of illness. However, there are few reports of pituitary dysfunction in subjects with acute CNS infections. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the pituitary hormonal profile in patients with nonmycobacterial acute meningitis at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: This prospective case series study included 30 untreated adult patients with acute meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or encephalitis, due to various nonmycobacterial agents, admitted and registered with Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Aazd Medical College, New Delhi, between September 2007 and March 2009. Patients with preexisting endocrine diseases, tubercular meningitis and patients on steroids were carefully excluded from the study. The basal pituitary hormonal profile was measured by the electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, thyrotropin (TSH, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxine (fT4. Results: The cases (n = 30 comprised of patients with acute pyogenic meningitis (n = 23, viral meningoencephalitis (n = 4, brain abscess (n = 2, and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 1. The mean age of patients was 28.97 ± 11.306 years. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7% were males and 16 (58.1% were females. Adrenal insufficiency both absolute and relative was seen in seven (23.3% and hyperprolactinemia was seen in nine (30.0% of the patients. One study subject had central hypothyroidism and seven (23.3 showed low levels of LH and/or FSH. None of patients showed clinical features suggestive of

  17. Criptococosis infantil: Presentación de 3 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Álvarez Lam

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 casos pediátricos de meningoencefalitis por Criptococcus neoformans serotipo A. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo del líquido cefalorraquídeo con tinta china. La cefalea, fiebre, fotofobia y signos meníngeos fueron las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes. Aunque se descartó la infección por VIH se demostró compromiso de la inmunidad celular en todos los pacientes. La evolución fue desfavorable en 1 caso, y coincide con un diagnóstico tardío de la enfermedad. El tratamiento con antifúngicos de acción sistémica (anfotericín B y/o fluconazol fue efectivo en todos los casos.3 pediatric cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A are described. The diagnosis was made by direct examination of the cerebrospinal fluid with India ink. Headache, fever, photophobia and meningeal signs were the predominant clinical manifestations. Although the HIV infection was discarded, cellular immunity compromise was observed in all patients. The evolution was unfavorable in one case and coincided with a late diagnosis of the disease. The treatment with antifungal agents of systemic action (amphotericin B and/or fluconazole was effective in all cases.

  18. The contribution of MRI to the diagnosis of diffuse meningeal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzberg, B.; Kastner, J.; Ferda, J.

    2004-01-01

    We analysed MRI findings in patients in whom a diffuse abnormality of the meninges was revealed by MRI. We looked at T1 and T2-weighted spin-echo or fast spin-echo images and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. There were 15 patients with abnormalities on MRI, clinically suspected in ten. Four had meningoencephalitis, one meningeal and subcortical sarcoidosis nodules, four meningeal malignancies - one disseminated oligodendroglioma, one with meningeal infiltration around an adenocarcinoma, three meningeal infiltration by a haematological malignancy, and one a chronic subdural haematoma without a history of injury. We excluded patients with primary meningeal tumours and typical injury-related meningeal bleeding. The relatively small number of patients is due to both the infrequency of diffuse meningeal disease and to the low frequency of suspected meningeal pathology as an indication for MRI. The latter's diagnostic contribution is greatest in infectious disease and neoplastic infiltration, and less obvious in haematological malignancies. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images are most useful. (orig.)

  19. [Autopsy case of Lissauer's general paresis with rapidly progressive left hemiparesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Mari; Ando, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Makoto; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2009-06-01

    A 48-years-old man presented with slowly progressive bradykinesia, personality change and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis. On admission, he presented dementia, poor judgment, left hemiparesis. MRI revealed a widespread high intensity area in right hemisphere and MRA was almost normal. Serological tests of serum and CSF demonstrated high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. He was treated for syphilis with daily penicillin injections without improvement. He died of sepsis eight months after admission. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1,100 g and the right cerebral hemisphere was atrophic, especially in frontal base, temporal, parietal, angular, and posterior regions covered by thickened, fibrotic leptomeninges. Microscopically, chronic meningoencephalitis was observed. Severe neuronal loss with gliosis was seen in the right cerebral cortices. Scattered rod-shaped microglia and inflammatory cell infiltration were visible in the cerebral parenchyma. The dorsal column of the spinal cord was not involved and meningovascular syphilis was unclear. The distribution of the encephalitic lesions was well correlated with the clinical and neuroradiological findings. This was a rare autopsy case presenting Lissauer's general paresis, clinically manifesting as rapidly progressive stroke-like episode.

  20. HaNDL Syndrome Presenting During Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kaplan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Headache associated with neurological deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL is a self-limited syndrome characterized by sudden-onset headache with a temporary neurological deficit and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF lymphocytosis. We aimed to disscus a case of HaNDL syndrome presenting during pregnancy with relevant literature. A 20-year-old female presented with a 5-day history of severe, bilateral throbbing headache accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and phonophobia. Approximately 2 days after the pain developed, she became acutely confused for less than 90 minutes. 2 days after this episode, she experienced again confusional state and left hemiparesis. There were no symptoms consistent with meningoencephalitis. She was pregnant and at 11 weeks gestation. A neurologic examination showed confusional state, bilateral papilledema, and mild left hemiparesis. The neuroradiological examination was normal. The cerebrospinal fluid revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis, mildly elevated protein, and increased opening pressure. She recovered completely after 8 days. The precise etiology of HaNDL is unknown, although an inflammatory or infectious origin and autoimmune factors have been proposed. Moreover, the risk factors and medical conditions associated with HaNDL are unknown. It is obviously difficult to determine whether the pregnancy was coincidental or associated in this case. We believe that comprehensive studies are needed to clarify the risk factors and medical conditions associated with HaNDL

  1. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  2. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak-Wyspiańska, Jolanta; Nawotczyńska, Ewa; Kozubski, Wojciech

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). We report a case of YEL-AND with meningitis presentation in a 39-year-old Caucasian man without evidence of significant risk factors, which was confirmed by the presence of the YF virus and specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In conclusion, we should stress the importance of balancing the risk of SAEs associated with the vaccine and the benefits of YF vaccination for each patient individually. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Scrub Typhus: A Clinico-Laboratory Differentiation of Children with and without Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nowneet Kumar; Pandita, Neerul; Saini, Manju; Dhar, Minakshi; Ahmed, Sohaib; Shirazi, Nadia; Wasim, Sanober; Shirke, Rupali; Chandar, Vipan

    2016-06-01

    Neurological involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, although well documented in scrub typhus, has not been extensively studied in the pediatric population. We report the clinical and laboratory profile of 96 children with scrub typhus and compared those with and without meningitis. Twenty seven (28%) children had clinical and laboratory evidence of meningitis. The most frequent presenting features were fever (100%), meningeal signs (66.6%), nausea and vomiting (56.3%), seizures (55.5%) and altered sensorium (51.8%). The children with meningitis presented early and had significantly lower respiratory and renal impairments when compared with the non-meningitis group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed elevated total leukocyte count (86.73 ± 94.50 cells/mm(3)), mononuclear pleocytosis (lymphocyte percentage of 76.85 ± 15.86), elevated proteins (108.33 ± 52.63 mg%) and normal CSF glucose (64.18 ± 15.92 mg%). We conclude that meningitis is a common and early complication of childhood scrub typhus. The CSF reveals a lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and a normal glucose level. These children respond promptly to appropriate antibiotics as do children without meningitis. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Hematogenously disseminated Orientia tsutsugamushi-infected murine model of scrub typhus [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Shelite

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25 × 10(6 focus (FFU forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼ 6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  6. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients.

  7. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients

  8. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sayantani; Sarma, Nilendu

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km2 bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north. Eschar is the characteristic lesion that starts as a vesicular lesion at the site of mite feeding. Later, an ulcer forms with black necrotic center and an erythematous border along with regional lymphadenopathy. Other features are fever, maculopapular rash starting from the trunk, and spreading to the limbs. It may affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, renal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Serious complication in the form of myocarditis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome may develop. Tetracycline or chloramphenicol remains the main stay of therapy. PMID:28979009

  9. Do natural spring waters in Australia and New Zealand affect health? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Jessica; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus

    2018-02-01

    Therapeutic use of spring waters has a recorded history dating back to at least 1550 BC and includes both bathing in and drinking such waters for their healing properties. In Australia and New Zealand the use of therapeutic spring waters is a much more recent phenomenon, becoming a source of health tourism from the late 1800s. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the potential health outcomes relating to exposure to Australian or New Zealand natural spring water. We found only low-level evidence of adverse health outcomes relating to this spring water exposure, including fatalities from hydrogen sulphide poisoning, drowning and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. We found no studies that investigated the therapeutic use of these waters, compared with similar treatment with other types of water. From the broader literature, recommendations have been made, including fencing potentially harmful spring water, and having signage and media messages to highlight the potential harms from spring water exposure and how to mitigate the risks (e.g. not putting your head under water from geothermal springs). Sound research into the potential health benefits of Australian and New Zealand spring waters could provide an evidence base for the growing wellness tourism industry.

  10. Review: Occurrence of the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2017-06-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living amoeba found worldwide in soils and warm freshwater. It is the causative agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a nearly always fatal disease afflicting mainly children and young adults. Humans are exposed to the organism via swimming, bathing, or other recreational activity during which water is forcefully inhaled into the upper nasal passages. Although many studies have looked at the occurrence of N. fowleri in surface waters, limited information is available regarding its occurrence in groundwater and geothermally heated natural waters such as hot springs. This paper reviews the current literature related to the occurrence of N. fowleri in these waters and the methods employed for its detection. Case reports of potential groundwater exposures are also included. Despite increased interest in N. fowleri in recent years due to well-publicized cases linked to drinking water, many questions still remain unanswered. For instance, why the organism persists in some water sources and not in others is not well understood. The role of biofilms in groundwater wells and plumbing in individual buildings, and the potential for warming due to climate change to expand the occurrence of the organism into new regions, are still unclear. Additional research is needed to address these questions in order to better understand the ecology of N. fowleri and the conditions that result in greater risks to bathers.

  11. Deleterious effect of Usutu virus on human neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salinas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the number of emerging Flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably. Among them Zika virus (ZIKV and Usutu virus (USUV are African mosquito-borne viruses that recently emerged. Recently, ZIKV has been intensely studied due to major outbreaks associated with neonatal death and birth defects, as well as neurological symptoms. USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, despite significant human and veterinary associated disorders. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years ago, and it emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing massive bird mortality. More recently, USUV has been described to be associated with neurological disorders in humans such as encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, highlighting USUV as a potential health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of USUV to infect neuronal cells. Our results indicate that USUV efficiently infects neurons, astrocytes, microglia and IPSc-derived human neuronal stem cells. When compared to ZIKV, USUV led to a higher infection rate, viral production, as well as stronger cell death and anti-viral response. Our results highlight the need to better characterize the physiopathology related to USUV infection in order to anticipate the potential threat of USUV emergence.

  12. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  13. The Rift Valley fever: could re-emerge in Egypt again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    The Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus of the family of Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus. RVF is an acute, febrile disease affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is trans-mitted through the bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or contact with tissues of infected animals or by inhaling natural virus aerosols, also possibly by consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. The RVF-virus replicate at the site introduction and in local lymphatic followed by viremia and spread to other organs as the liver and central nervous system, causing the hepatic necrosis and eosinophilia cytoplasmic degeneration. The main signs and symptoms are fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, photophobia, bradycardia, conjunctivitis and flushing face. Main complications include jaundice, hemorrhagic, meningoencephalitis and retinal lesions. Generally speaking, in the 21st Century, the vector-borne infectious diseases, was accepted as the disaster issues with the considerable significant morbidity and mortality. These facts should be considered by the public health, veterinary and agricultural authorities

  14. DIAGNOSTIC MEANING OF DETERMINATION OF HOMOCYSTEIN IN THE BLOOD SERUM IN CHILDREN WITH NEUROINFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Berezovskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the serum level of homocysteine in children with neuroinfections.Mаterials and methods: A blood serum assay of 60 children with viral and bacterial neuroinfections was performed using the enzyme immunoassay to evaluate homocysteinemia as a marker of endothelial dysfunction.Results: In interpreting the results, the average level of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with bacterial and viral neuroinfections was established. The highest homocysteine levels in serum were observed in bacterial neuroinfections, especially in the presence of signs of meningoencephalitis and pneumococcal etiology of the disease. Dependence of changes in the level of homocysteinemia from the sex of sick children was not revealed.Conclusion: Neuroinfections in children, regardless of the cause, are accompanied by hyperhomocysteinemia, indicating the presence of endothelial activation in this pathology, more pronounced in the case of a bacterial etiology of the infectious process and the combined lesion of the soft dura mater and the brain substance. 

  15. Amyloid and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2018-03-01

    Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  17. Pleiotropic effects of deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp5 on growth and pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification that influences various cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes remove ubiquitin, maintain ubiquitin homeostasis and regulate protein degradation via the ubiquitination pathway. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important basidiomycete pathogen that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis primarily in the immunocompromised population. In order to understand the possible influence deubiquitinases have on growth and virulence of the model pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, we generated deletion mutants of seven putative deubiquitinase genes. Compared to other deubiquitinating enzyme mutants, a ubp5Δ mutant exhibited severely attenuated virulence and many distinct phenotypes, including decreased capsule formation, hypomelanization, defective sporulation, and elevated sensitivity to several external stressors (such as high temperature, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, high salts, and antifungal agents. Ubp5 is likely the major deubiquitinating enzyme for stress responses in C. neoformans, which further delineates the evolutionary divergence of Cryptococcus from the model yeast S. cerevisiae, and provides an important paradigm for understanding the potential role of deubiquitination in virulence by other pathogenic fungi. Other putative deubiquitinase mutants (doa4Δ and ubp13Δ share some phenotypes with the ubp5Δ mutant, illustrating functional overlap among deubiquitinating enzymes in C. neoformans. Therefore, deubiquitinating enzymes (especially Ubp5 are essential for the virulence composite of C. neoformans and provide an additional yeast survival and propagation advantage in the host.

  18. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinetti Maurizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluconazole (FLC, a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results Simultaneous analysis of over 6823 transcripts revealed that 476 genes were responsive to FLC. As expected up-regulation of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed, including the azole target gene ERG11 and ERG13, ERG1, ERG7, ERG25, ERG2, ERG3 and ERG5. In addition, SRE1 which is a gene encoding a well-known regulator of sterol homeostasis in C. neoformans was up-regulated. Several other genes such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e. lipid and fatty acid metabolism, cell wall maintenance, stress and virulence were found to be up-regulated in response to FLC treatment. Conversely, expression of AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans, was not regulated by FLC. Conclusions Short-term exposure of C. neoformans to FLC resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the observed changes could represent specific adaptive responses to the antifungal agent in this pathogenic yeast.

  19. Natural Infections With Pigeon Paramyxovirus Serotype 1: Pathologic Changes in Eurasian Collared-Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) and Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Afonso, C L; Stanton, J B; Knowles, S; Ip, H S; White, C L; Fenton, H; Ruder, M G; Dolinski, A C; Lankton, J

    2017-07-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  20. Real-time PCR for type-specific identification of herpes simplex in clinical samples: evaluation of type-specific results in the context of CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sylvain; Robert, Daniel; Estrade, Christine; Grimbuehler, Valérie; Péter, Olivier; Meylan, Pascal R; Sahli, Roland

    2008-02-01

    HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause CNS infections of dissimilar clinico-pathological characteristics with prognostic and therapeutic implications. To validate a type-specific real-time PCR that uses MGB/LNA Taqman probes and to review the virologico-clinical data of 25 eligible patients with non-neonatal CNS infections. This real-time PCR was evaluated against conventional PCR (26 CSF and 20 quality controls), and LightCycler assay (51 mucocutaneous, 8 CSF and 32 quality controls) and culture/immunofluorescence (75 mucocutaneous) to assess typing with independent methods. Taqman real-time PCR detected 240 HSV genomes per ml CSF, a level appropriate for the management of patients, and provided unambiguous typing for the 104 positive (62 HSV-1 and 42 HSV-2) out the 160 independent clinical samples tested. HSV type diagnosed by Taqman real-time PCR predicted final diagnosis (meningitis versus encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, p<0.001) in 24/25 patients at time of presentation, in contrast to clinical evaluation. Our real-time PCR, as a sensitive and specific means for type-specific HSV diagnosis, provided rapid prognostic information for patient management.

  1. Neuroinfection survey at a neurological ward in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E Marchiori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 + 13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.

  2. Neuroimaging of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with and without immune reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, Juri; Branding, Gordian; Jefferys, Laura; Arastéh, Keikawus; Stocker, Hartmut; Siebert, Eberhard

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency, imaging characteristics, neuroanatomical distribution and dynamics of magnetic resonance imaging findings in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients we compared patients without antiretroviral therapy with patients undergoing immune reconstitution. Neuroimaging and clinical data of 21 consecutive patients presenting to a German HIV centre in a 10-year period between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. We identified eight patients with magnetic resonance imaging findings related to cryptococcal disease: five patients without antiretroviral therapy and three patients receiving effective antiretroviral therapy resulting in immune reconstitution. The pattern of magnetic resonance imaging manifestations was different in the two groups. In patients not on antiretroviral therapy, pseudocysts (n = 3) and lacunar ischaemic lesions (n = 2) were detected. Contrast-enhancing focal leptomeningeal and/or parenchymal lesions were found in all patients under immune reconstitution (n = 3). Magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of leptomeningitis or meningoencephalitis were detected in all patients with a recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis under immune reconstitution, which differs from the classical magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients without antiretroviral therapy. In antiretroviral therapy-treated patients with past medical history of cryptococcal meningitis, detection of contrast-enhancing focal meningeal and/or parenchymal lesions should prompt further investigations for a recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis under immune reconstitution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Advances in the Characterization of the T-Cell Response to Human Herpesvirus-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J. Hanson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus (HHV 6 is thought to remain clinically latent in most individuals after primary infection and to reactivate to cause disease in persons with severe immunosuppression. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, reactivation of HHV-6 species B is a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality. HHV-6B reactivation is the most frequent cause of infectious meningoencephalitis in this setting and has been associated with a variety of other complications such as graft rejection and acute graft versus host disease. This has inspired efforts to develop HHV-6-targeted immunotherapies. Basic knowledge of HHV-6-specific adaptive immunity is crucial for these endeavors, but remains incomplete. Many studies have focused on specific HHV-6 antigens extrapolated from research on human cytomegalovirus, a genetically related betaherpesvirus. Challenges to the study of HHV-6-specific T-cell immunity include the very low frequency of HHV-6-specific memory T cells in chronically infected humans, the large genome size of HHV-6, and the lack of an animal model. This review will focus on emerging techniques and methodological improvements that are beginning to overcome these barriers. Population-prevalent antigens are now becoming clear for the CD4+ T-cell response, while definition and ranking of CD8+ T-cell antigens and epitopes is at an earlier stage. This review will discuss current knowledge of the T-cell response to HHV-6, new research approaches, and translation to clinical practice.

  4. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Mull

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems.

  5. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  6. Glucosylceramide Administration as a Vaccination Strategy in Mouse Models of Cryptococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visesato Mor

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the causative agent of the disease cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is initiated as a pulmonary infection and in conditions of immune deficiency disseminates to the blood stream and central nervous system, resulting in life-threatening meningoencephalitis. A number of studies have focused on the development of a vaccine against Cryptococcus, primarily utilizing protein-conjugated components of the Cryptococcus polysaccharide capsule as antigen. However, there is currently no vaccine against Cryptococcus in the clinic. Previous studies have shown that the glycosphingolipid, glucosylceramide (GlcCer, is a virulence factor in C. neoformans and antibodies against this lipid inhibit fungal growth and cell division. In the present study, we have investigated the possibility of using GlcCer as a therapeutic agent against C. neoformans infections in mouse models of cryptococcosis. GlcCer purified from a non-pathogenic fungus, Candida utilis, was administered intraperitoneally, prior to infecting mice with a lethal dose of C. neoformans. GlcCer administration prevented the dissemination of C. neoformans from the lungs to the brain and led to 60% mouse survival. GlcCer administration did not cause hepatic injury and elicited an anti-GlcCer antibody response, which was observed independent of the route of administration and the strains of mouse. Taken together, our results suggest that fungal GlcCer can protect mice against lethal doses of C. neoformans infection and can provide a viable vaccination strategy against Cryptococcus.

  7. Glucosylceramide Administration as a Vaccination Strategy in Mouse Models of Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Visesato; Farnoud, Amir M; Singh, Ashutosh; Rella, Antonella; Tanno, Hiromasa; Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Toshiya; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the causative agent of the disease cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is initiated as a pulmonary infection and in conditions of immune deficiency disseminates to the blood stream and central nervous system, resulting in life-threatening meningoencephalitis. A number of studies have focused on the development of a vaccine against Cryptococcus, primarily utilizing protein-conjugated components of the Cryptococcus polysaccharide capsule as antigen. However, there is currently no vaccine against Cryptococcus in the clinic. Previous studies have shown that the glycosphingolipid, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), is a virulence factor in C. neoformans and antibodies against this lipid inhibit fungal growth and cell division. In the present study, we have investigated the possibility of using GlcCer as a therapeutic agent against C. neoformans infections in mouse models of cryptococcosis. GlcCer purified from a non-pathogenic fungus, Candida utilis, was administered intraperitoneally, prior to infecting mice with a lethal dose of C. neoformans. GlcCer administration prevented the dissemination of C. neoformans from the lungs to the brain and led to 60% mouse survival. GlcCer administration did not cause hepatic injury and elicited an anti-GlcCer antibody response, which was observed independent of the route of administration and the strains of mouse. Taken together, our results suggest that fungal GlcCer can protect mice against lethal doses of C. neoformans infection and can provide a viable vaccination strategy against Cryptococcus.

  8. Behçet's syndrome / AIDS / cerebral toxoplasmosis: an unusual association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliam Habib Chahade

    Full Text Available Few cases of AIDS associated to manifestations suggesting Behçet's syndrome have been reported. This case is of a young married woman who presented, during a period of 7 years, clinical manifestations consistent with the late diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome, when she developed recurrent lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis. At this time, she was found to be infected by HIV-1. Immunosupressive doses of glucocorticoid produced an unsatisfactory response and she evolved to death due to CNS toxoplasmosis. The latter diagnosis was presumed on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings and proved by necropsy after her third hospital stay. One of the factors hindering the appropriate diagnosis was the low level of CD4 and the CD4/CD8 ratio, sometimes observed in active Behçet's syndrome and higher than those observed in patients with this severe opportunistic infection. No information about the exact period of time she had been infected with HIV-1 is available. So, we do not know whether both diseases were overlor, if the patient, infected by HIV-1, developed an unusual clinical feature consistent with Behçet's Behçet's syndrome, and subsequently evolved to AIDS.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea as a complication of ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in a patient with morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar'ya Viktorovna Petrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease (CD is a progressive neuroendocrine disease caused by a pituitary tumor producing excessive amounts of ACTH. In most cases (80-85% the cause of the disease is a pituitary corticotroph microadenomas (located within the sella, measuring 3–10 mm, rarely multiple microadenomas and only 15% of cases are presented as corticotroph hyperplasia or pituitary macroadenoma extending beyond the sella. The macroadenomas in CD usually extend suprasellar (10%, infrasellar tumor growth is relatively rare (5%. If the clinical picture is subtle, the symptoms are caused by the development "mass effect" of the tumor as it propagates to the surrounding pituitary structures. Suprasellar growth leads to compression of the optic chiasm with narrowing of visual fields, infrasellar growth destructs the bottom of the sella turcica and may cause nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak, which is dangerous due depressurization of the cranial cavity and its communication with environmental pathogens, development of life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis. Leading life-threatening complications of the CD are infectious and cardiovascular. But in the case of nasal liquorrhea with expansion of the tumor in sphenoid sinus with destruction of the bottom of the sella, there is an immediate threat to the life of the patient. This article presents an example of a patient with morbid obesity and lack of specific clinical manifestations of CD, in whom the diagnosis of disease CD was made on the results of laboratory and instrumental examination, which experienced a spontaneous nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  10. Infecciones fúngicas emergentes: fungemia por Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. Reporte de un caso Emerging fungal infections: Sporobolomyces salmonicolor fungemia. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paola Franco Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la emergencia de infecciones por hongos se ha dado en parte por el aumento en las infecciones por microrganismos que normalmente no son patógenos. El siguiente reporte describe la fungemia y meningoencefalitis por Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, una levadura frecuente en el medio ambiente y las plantas, en un paciente sin factores de riesgo conocidos, con desenlace fatal a pesar del manejo con antifúngicos. Este caso nos recuerda que dentro de las infecciones micóticas emergentes se encuentra el S. salmonicolor y se debe tener en cuenta dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de levaduras en sangre, como causa infrecuente, potencialmente mortal.The emergence of pathogens, mainly fungi, in recent years has been partly due to overappearance of organisms that normally are not pathogenic in humans. The following report describes Sporobolomyces salmonicolor fungaemia and proven meningoencephalitis in a patient not showing risk factors who suffers a fatal outcome despite management with antifungal agents. The said yeast lives mainly in tree environments and plants. This case reminds us that there is S. salmonicolor within the emerging fungal infections, and this fact should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of yeasts in blood as a rare and lifethreatening cause.

  11. Iron-Binding Protein Degradation by Cysteine Proteases of Naegleria fowleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Martínez-Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naegleria fowleri causes acute and fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This microorganism invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa and then traveling up the mesaxonal spaces and crossing the cribriform plate; finally, the trophozoites invade the olfactory bulbs. During its invasion, the protozoan obtains nutrients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and cationic ions (e.g., iron, calcium, and sodium from the host. However, the mechanism by which these ions are obtained, particularly iron, is poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of N. fowleri to degrade iron-binding proteins, including hololactoferrin, transferrin, ferritin, and hemoglobin. Zymography assays were performed for each substrate under physiological conditions (pH 7 at 37°C employing conditioned medium (CM and total crude extracts (TCEs of N. fowleri. Different degradation patterns with CM were observed for hololactoferrin, transferrin, and hemoglobin; however, CM did not cause ferritin degradation. In contrast, the TCEs degraded only hololactoferrin and transferrin. Inhibition assays revealed that cysteine proteases were involved in this process. Based on these results, we suggest that CM and TCEs of N. fowleri degrade iron-binding proteins by employing cysteine proteases, which enables the parasite to obtain iron to survive while invading the central nervous system.

  12. A rare complication of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome: Sınus vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Ahmedov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome (RHS is a rare affection characterized by peripheral facial paralysis (PFP, skin eruption in the auricular canal and cochleovestibular symptoms. It is produced by varicella-zoster virus(VZV reactivation at the geniculate ganglia. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, the virus may reactivate to produce shingles (zoster. After zoster resolves, many elderly patients experience postherpetic neuralgia. Uncommonly, VZV can spread to large cerebral arteries to cause a spectrum of large-vessel vascular damage, ranging from vasculopathy to vasculitis, with stroke. In immunocompromised individuals, especially those with cancer or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, deeper tissue penetration of the virus may occur (as compared with immunocompetent individuals, with resultant myelitis, small-vessel vasculopathy, ventriculitis, and meningoencephalitis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of cerebrospinal fluid remains the mainstay for diagnosing the neurologic complications of VZV during life. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Patient received treatment with acyclovir and anticoagulation. Early treatment with acyclovir therapy and anticoagulation could improve the recovery rate of facial nerve palsy and sinus vein thrombosis

  13. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  14. Identification of genes from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans related to transmigration into the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Kuang Tseng

    Full Text Available A mouse brain transmigration assessment (MBTA was created to investigate the central nervous system (CNS pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.Two cryptococcal mutants were identified from a pool of 109 pre-selected mutants that were signature-tagged with the nourseothricin acetyltransferase (NAT resistance cassette. These two mutants displayed abnormal transmigration into the central nervous system. One mutant displaying decreased transmigration contains a null mutation in the putative FNX1 gene, whereas the other mutant possessing a null mutation in the putative RUB1 gene exhibited increased transmigration into the brain. Two macrophage adhesion-defective mutants in the pool, 12F1 and 3C9, showed reduced phagocytosis by macrophages, but displayed no defects in CNS entry suggesting that transit within macrophages (the "Trojan horse" model of CNS entry is not the primary mechanism for C. neoformans migration into the CNS in this MBTA.This research design provides a new strategy for genetic impact studies on how Cryptococcus passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB, and the specific isolated mutants in this assay support a transcellular mechanism of CNS entry.

  15. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. 1995 outbreak: clinical profile of the case with neurologic involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, O M; Morales, M C; Soto, I D; Peña, J A; Haack, R S; Cardozo, D P; Cardozo, J J

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus has caused periodic epidemics and epizootics in the American continent since the 1920s. Such events have been profusely documented from the epidemiologic point of view, however, reports concerning the clinical features of this disease are rather scarce. To analyze the clinical characteristics evidenced by Venezuelan equine encephalitis patients from Zulia state (western Venezuela) studied during the outbreak that occurred in Colombia and Venezuela in 1995. These cases, classified as complicated, were hospitalized at the Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, state of Zulia, Venezuela. The clinical charts of 313 Venezuelan equine encephalitis patients hospitalized during the period January 1st 1995-March 31st 1996 were reviewed. These cases accounted for 2.82% of 11,072 patients that were medically assisted during the outbreak. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender, signs and symptoms, contact history, complications and evolution. Intracranial hypertension signs became eloquent in 55.9% of these patients. Neurologic complications were represented by two cases of cerebellitis, two cases of meningoencephalitis and one case of encephalomyelitis. The mortality rate was 1.7%. Our results corroborate the benign evolutionary profile that is typical of this entity.

  16. THE PATHOLOGIC EFFECTS OF STREPTOCOCCI FROM CASES OF POLIOMYELITIS AND OTHER SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carroll G.

    1917-01-01

    Streptococci cultivated from the tonsils of thirty-two cases of poliomyelitis were used to inoculate various laboratory animals. In no case was a condition induced resembling poliomyelitis clinically or pathologically in guinea pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, or monkeys. On the other hand, a considerable percentage of the rabbits and a smaller percentage of some of the other animals developed lesions due to streptococci. These lesions consisted of meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, abscess of the brain, arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, abscess of the kidney, endocarditis, pericarditis, and neuritis. No distinction in the character or frequency of the lesions could be determined between the streptococci derived from poliomyelitic patients and from other sources. Streptococci isolated from the poliomyelitic brain and spinal cord of monkeys which succumbed to inoculation with the filtered virus failed to induce in monkeys any paralysis or the characteristic histological changes of poliomyelitis. These streptococci are regarded as secondary bacterial invaders of the nervous organs. Monkeys which have recovered from infection with streptococci derived from cases of poliomyelitis are not protected from infection with the filtered virus, and their blood does not neutralize the filtered virus in vitro. We have failed to detect any etiologic or pathologic relationship between streptococci and epidemic poliomyelitis in man or true experimental poliomyelitis in the monkey. PMID:19868109

  17. Hydroxyurea treatment inhibits proliferation of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra eTripathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is a serious threat to immunocompromised individuals, especially for HIV patients who develop meningoencephalitis. For effective cryptococcal treatment, novel antifungal drugs or innovative combination therapies are needed. Recently, sphingolipids have emerged as important bioactive molecules in the regulation of microbial pathogenesis. Previously we reported that the sphingolipid pathway gene, ISC1, which is responsible for ceramide production, is a major virulence factor in Cn infection. Here we report our studies of the role of ISC1 during genotoxic stress induced by the antineoplastic hydroxyurea (HU and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS, which affect DNA replication and genome integrity. We observed that Cn cells lacking ISC1 are highly sensitive to HU and MMS in a rich culture medium. HU affected cell division of Cn cells lacking the ISC1 gene, resulting in cell clusters. Cn ISC1, when expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc strain lacking its own ISC1 gene, restored HU resistance. In macrophage-like cells, although HU affected the proliferation of WT Cn cells by 50% at the concentration tested, HU completely inhibited Cn isc1-delta cell proliferation. Interestingly, our preliminary data show that mice infected with WT or Cn isc1-delta cells and subsequently treated with HU had longer lifespans than untreated, infected control mice. Our work suggests that the sphingolipid pathway gene, ISC1, is a likely target for combination therapy with traditional drugs such as HU.

  18. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and Pathologic Characterization of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N8 in Commercial Turkeys in Southern Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Grant N; Ramos-Vara, José A; Murphy, Duane A

    2017-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema. Histologic lesions in the brain included severe, multifocal lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with foci of malacia, neuronal necrosis, and neuronophagia. All anatomic locations of the brain were affected, although histologic changes in the cerebellum were considered mild. Other histologic lesions included pulmonary congestion and edema, splenic congestion and lymphoid depletion, fibrinoid necrosis of vessels within the spleen, and multifocal pancreatic acinar necrosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was weakly positive for influenza A in the brain; IHC was negative in other tissues tested. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of this case matched previously published material concerning HPAI and add to instances of known or suspected mutation of a low pathogenic virus to a highly pathogenic virus.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  2. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongyloidea in molluscs from harbour areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common aetiological agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Following a report indicating the presence of this parasite in Brazil in 2007, the present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of A. cantonensis in the surrounding Brazilian port areas. In total, 30 ports were investigated and the following molluscs were identified: Achatina fulica, Belocaulus sp., Bradybaena similaris sp., Cyclodontina sp., Helix sp., Leptinaria sp., Melampus sp., Melanoides tuberculata, Phyllocaulis sp., Pomacea sp., Pseudoxychona sp., Rhinus sp., Sarasinula marginata, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Succinea sp., Tomigerus sp., Wayampia sp. and specimens belonging to Limacidae and Orthalicinae. Digestion and sedimentation processes were performed and the sediments were examined. DNA was extracted from the obtained larvae and the internal transcribed spacer region 2 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after digestion with the endonuclease ClaI. Of the 30 ports investigated in this study, 11 contained molluscs infected with A. cantonensis larvae. The set of infected species consisted of S. octona, S. marginata, A. fulica and B. similaris. A total of 36.6% of the investigated ports were positive for A. cantonensis, indicating a wide distribution of this worm. It remains uncertain when and how A. cantonensis was introduced into South America.

  3. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Lane

    Full Text Available Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%, abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%, gastroenteritis (70%, hepatitis (62%, and endometritis (42%. Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung, Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin. Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%, splenic filamentous tags (45%, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%, and myocardial fibrosis (26%. No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  4. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  5. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  6. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Naegleria fowleri and their role in invasion of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Charlton; Jamerson, Melissa; Cabral, Guy; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2017-10-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability. These enzymes also are upregulated in tumorigenic cells and have been implicated in metastasis of certain tumours. In the present study, in vitro experiments linked MMPs functionally to the degradation of the ECM. Gelatin zymography demonstrated enzyme activity in N. fowleri whole cell lysates, conditioned media and media collected from invasion assays. Western immunoblotting indicated the presence of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-9 (gelatinase B) and MMP-14 [membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)]. Highly virulent mouse-passaged amoebae expressed higher levels of MMPs than weakly virulent axenically grown amoebae. The functional relevance of MMPs in media was indicated through the use of the MMP inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline. The collective in vitro results suggest that MMPs play a critical role in vivo in invasion of the CNS and that these enzymes may be amenable targets for limiting PAM.

  7. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case report and differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Tatsuno, Brent K; Inaba, Michiko; Velligas, Stephanie; Masaki, Kamal; Liow, Kore K

    2013-04-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology that causes rapidly progressive dementia. This disease is uniformly fatal and most patients die within 12 months. Clinical findings include myoclonus, visual disturbances, and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs in addition to rapidly progressive cognitive and functional impairment. These findings are all non-specific and it is often difficult and challenging to diagnose premortem because of low awareness and clinical suspicion. We present a 66-year-old woman with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia. After a series of extensive diagnostic examinations and continuous follow-up, she was diagnosed with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria, with key findings of rapidly progressive dementia, blurry vision, extrapyramidal signs (cogwheel rigidity), and abnormal hyperintensity signals on diffusion-weighted MRI. Her symptoms progressively worsened and she died 7 months after the onset. The postmortem brain autopsy demonstrated the presence of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein by Western Blot analysis. A literature review was performed on differential diagnoses that present with rapidly progressive dementia and thereby mimic sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These include Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy Bodies, frontotemporal dementia, meningoencephalitis, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, CADASIL, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis.

  9. Iron economy in Naegleria gruberi reflects its metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Jan; Bíla, Jarmila; Ženíšková, Kateřina; Arbon, Dominik; Malych, Ronald; Glavanakovová, Marie; Nývltová, Eva; Sutak, Robert

    2018-05-05

    Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Iron metabolism is among the most conserved pathways found in all eukaryotes. It includes the delivery, storage and utilisation of iron in many cell processes. Nevertheless, most of the iron metabolism pathways of N. gruberi are still not characterised, even though iron balance within the cell is crucial. We found a single homolog of ferritin in the N. gruberi genome and showed its localisation in the mitochondrion. Using comparative mass spectrometry, we identified 229 upregulated and 184 down-regulated proteins under iron-limited conditions. The most down-regulated protein under iron-limited conditions was hemerythrin, and a similar effect on the expression of hemerythrin was found in N. fowleri. Among the other down-regulated proteins were [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its maturase HydG and several heme-containing proteins. The activities of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase, were also decreased by iron deficiency. Our results indicate that N. gruberi is able to rearrange its metabolism according to iron availability, prioritising mitochondrial pathways. We hypothesise that the mitochondrion is the center for iron homeostasis in N. gruberi, with mitochondrially localised ferritin as a potential key component of this process. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The burden of serious human fungal infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Juliana; Baethgen, Ludmila; Carneiro, Lilian C; Millington, Maria Adelaide; Denning, David W; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human fungal infections are prevalent, however, these conditions are not officially reportable diseases. To estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in 1 year in Brazil, based on available data and published literature. Historical official data from fungal diseases were collected from Brazilian Unified Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS). For fungal diseases for which no official data were available, assumptions of frequencies were made by estimating based on published literature. The incidence (/1000) of hospital admissions for coccidioidomycosis was 7.12; for histoplasmosis, 2.19; and for paracoccidioidomycosis, 7.99. The estimated number of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis cases was 6832. Also, there were 4115 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients per year, 1 010 465 aspergillosis and 2 981 416 cases of serious Candida infections, including invasive and non-invasive diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that more than 3.8 million individuals in Brazil may be suffering from serious fungal infections, mostly patients with malignant cancers, transplant recipients, asthma, previous tuberculosis, HIV infection and those living in endemic areas for truly pathogenic fungi. The scientific community and the governmental agencies should work in close collaboration in order to reduce the burden of such complex, difficult-to-diagnose and hard to treat diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Astrocyte Apoptosis and HIV Replication Are Modulated in Host Cells Coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Urquiza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In immunosuppressed individuals, as it occurs in the coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the central nervous system may be affected. In this regard, reactivation of Chagas disease is severe and often lethal, and it accounts for meningoencephalitis. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the environment maintenance of healthy neurons; however, they can host HIV and T. cruzi. In this report, human astrocytes were infected in vitro with both genetically modified-pathogens to express alternative fluorophore. As evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, HIV and T. cruzi coexist in the same astrocyte, likely favoring reciprocal interactions. In this context, lower rates of cell death were observed in both T. cruzi monoinfected-astrocytes and HIV-T. cruzi coinfection in comparison with those infected only with HIV. The level of HIV replication is significantly diminished under T. cruzi coinfection, but without affecting the infectivity of the HIV progeny. This interference with viral replication appears to be related to the T. cruzi multiplication rate or its increased intracellular presence but does not require their intracellular cohabitation or infected cell-to-cell contact. Among several Th1/Th2/Th17 profile-related cytokines, only IL-6 was overexpressed in HIV-T. cruzi coinfection exhibiting its cytoprotective role. This study demonstrates that T. cruzi and HIV are able to coinfect astrocytes thus altering viral replication and apoptosis.

  12. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  13. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  14. Intracranial ring enhancing lesions in dogs: a correlative CT scanning and neuropathologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Michael; Pedroia, Vince; Higgins, Robert J.; Koblik, Philip D.; Turrel, Jane M.; Owens, Jerry M.

    1995-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of 15 dogs with postcontrast ring enhancing brain lesions, each detected by a single Computed Tomography (CT) examination, searched for any association between their CT appearance and the pathologic diagnosis. In a subgroup of these dogs (n = 71) necropsied within 2 days of the last CT scan, we evaluated whether there was any anatomic correlation between the ring zone and the histopathologic features of the lesions. Our study consisted of eight dogs with primary brain tumors (3 meningiomas, 3 astrocytomas, 1 mixed glioma, 1 oligodendroglioma), 4 with metastatic brain tumors (2 fibrosarcomas, 1 mammary carcinoma, 1 melanoma) and 3 with non-neoplastic brain lesions (2 intraparenchymal hemorrhages, 1 pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis). The overall size and shape of the contrast enhancing CT lesions, as well as the thickness, surface texture and degree of enhancement of the ring were subjectively evaluated. No association was found between the CT lesion characteristics and the pathologic diagnosis. In the sub-group of dogs euthanatized within 2 days of the CT examination, distinct histologic features which anatomically correlated with the zone of ring enhancement were found in 3 of 7 lesions. The findings of this study are consistent with those of ring-enhancing lesions in people, and indicates that CT ring enhancement is a nonspecific phenomenon which can occur in a variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in the dog

  15. First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Meynard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.

  16. Diverse pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) isolates in CBA mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Htay Htay; Kasem, Samy Gomaa Ahmed; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Yanai, Tokuma; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ohya, Kenji; Fukushi, Hideto

    2010-03-01

    The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) isolates of Japan were evaluated by using the CBA mouse model. CBA mice were inoculated with eight Japanese EHV-1 strains (89c1, 90c16, 90c18, 97c11, 98c12, 00c19, 01c1 and HH-1) and one British strain (Ab4p). 89c1 caused slight body weight loss and nervous signs in mice at 8 days post infection (dpi). Severe weight loss and nervous signs were observed in mice inoculated with Ab4p at 6 dpi. The other strains did not cause apparent clinical signs. Infectious viruses were recovered from the lungs of all groups at 2 dpi. Histopathological analysis revealed interstitial pneumonia in the lungs of all mice inoculated with EHV-1. Encephalitis or meningoencephalitis was observed in the brains of mice inoculated with 89c1, 90c18, 97c11, 98c12, 01c1 and Ab4p. Japanese EHV-1 strains showed low pathogenicity in CBA mice, whereas the sequential affects of infection are similar to those of the highly pathogenic strain Ab4p. These results suggest that field isolates of EHV-1 have varying degrees of pathogenicity in CBA mice.

  17. Molecular confirmation of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever lesions in cattle from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular findings that confirmed the participation of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 in the lesions that were consistent with those observed in malignant catarrhal fever of cattle are described. Three mixed-breed cattle from Rio Grande do Norte state demonstrated clinical manifestations that included mucopurulent nasal discharge, corneal opacity and motor incoordination. Routine necropsy examination demonstrated ulcerations and hemorrhage of the oral cavity, corneal opacity, and lymph node enlargement. Significant histopathological findings included widespread necrotizing vasculitis, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic interstitial nephritis and hepatitis, and thrombosis. PCR assay performed on DNA extracted from kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one animal amplified a product of 423 base pairs corresponding to a target sequence within the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Direct sequencing of the PCR products, from extracted DNA of the kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one cow, amplified the partial nucleotide sequences (423 base pairs of OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Blast analysis confirmed that these sequences have 98-100% identity with similar OVH-2 sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the deduced amino acid sequences, demonstrated that the strain of OVH-2 circulating in ruminants from the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte and Minas Gerais are similar to that identified in other geographical locations. These findings confirmed the active participation of OVH-2 in the classical manifestations of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever.

  18. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with subacute and fatal course of disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börnke Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is an idiopathic disorder characterized by vasculitis within the dural confines. The clinical presentation shows a wide variation and the course and the duration of disease are heterogeneous. This rare but treatable disease provides a diagnostic challenge owing to the lack of pathognomonic tests and the necessity of a histological confirmation. Case presentation A 28-year-old patient presenting with headache and fluctuating signs of encephalopathy was treated on the assumption of viral meningoencephalitis. The course of the disease led to his death 10 days after hospital admission. Postmortem examination revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Conclusion Primary angiitis of the central nervous system should always be taken into consideration when suspected infectious inflammation of the central nervous system does not respond to treatment adequately. In order to confirm the diagnosis with the consequence of a modified therapy angiography and combined leptomeningeal and brain biopsy should be considered immediately.

  19. Varicella zoster virus infection of the central nervous system – 10 year experience from a tertiary hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Albert Benton Carey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we looked at the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of patients who were admitted with varicella zoster of the CNS from 2005 to 2014. Results: There were 17 patients. Fever was present in 13 patients, seizures in 9 patients and headache and vomiting in 4 patients each. A generalized varicella rash was present in 8 out of 17 patients. A single dermatomal herpes zoster was present in seven patients. Two patients had no rash. Varicella zoster polymerase chain reaction (PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was done in 5 patients of which 4 were positive and 1 was negative. Nine patients had diabetes with an average glycated hemoglobin of 8.6%. Total number of deaths was five. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes who develop varicella or herpes zoster may be at risk for CNS complications. The diagnosis of varicella encephalitis has to rest on a combination of clinical findings and CSF PCR, as neither the rash nor the PCR is sensitive enough to diagnose all the cases with varicella encephalitis.

  20. Bird's Eye View of a Neonatologist: Clinical Approach to Emergency Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kuei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the incidence of neonatal infection in term and near-term infants is relatively low, incidence of infection in preterm very low birth weight infants is as high as 20–30% and may result in neurodevelopmental impairment or mortality. Pediatricians should be familiar with recognition and emergency management of life-threatening neonatal infections, such as congenital pneumonia, early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis, bacterial and fungal meningitis, disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV, and HSV meningoencephalitis. For the pediatrician, it is logical to approach the management of these infections by time of onset, i.e., early versus late onset of infection. Perinatal risk factors and simple laboratory tests, such as total white blood-cell count, immature/total ratio, and C-reactive protein are helpful in guiding the decision of antibiotics therapy. Successful management of these critical infections depends upon early diagnosis and timely administration of adequate antibiotics. Empiric antibiotic therapy must cover the most likely pathogens according to the risk factors of each individual neonate, and therapy duration is dependent upon culture results, clinical course, and the microorganism. Future research may focus on developing a practical neonatal sepsis score system based on risk factors and common biomarkers, which are readily available at bedside to make early accurate decisions and achieve better outcomes.

  1. Characterization of a single-chain variable fragment recognizing a linear epitope of aβ: a biotechnical tool for studies on Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dornieden

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with devastating effects. Currently, therapeutic options are limited to symptomatic treatment. For more than a decade, research focused on immunotherapy for the causal treatment of AD. However, clinical trials with active immunization using Aβ encountered severe complications, for example meningoencephalitis. Consequently, attention focused on passive immunization using antibodies. As an alternative to large immunoglobulins (IgGs, Aβ binding single-chain variable fragments (scFvs were used for diagnostic and therapeutic research approaches. scFvs can be expressed in E. coli and may provide improved pharmacokinetic properties like increased blood-brain barrier permeability or reduced side-effects in vivo. In this study, we constructed an scFv from an Aβ binding IgG, designated IC16, which binds the N-terminal region of Aβ (Aβ(1-8. scFv-IC16 was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with respect to its interaction with different Aβ species and its influence on Aβ fibril formation. We were able to show that scFv-IC16 strongly influenced the aggregation behavior of Aβ and could be applied as an Aβ detection probe for plaque staining in the brains of transgenic AD model mice. The results indicate potential for therapy and diagnosis of AD.

  2. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  3. Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Morgan, Matthew J; Walsh, Tom; Wylie, Jason T; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2018-05-06

    The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the highly fatal disease, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, and estimated to cause 16 deaths per year in the United States alone. Colonisation of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) by the N. fowleri is a significant public health issue. Understanding the factors which enable this pathogen to colonise and thrive in DWDSs is critical for proper management. The microbial ecology within DWDSs may influence the ability of N. fowleri to colonise DWDSs by facilitating the availability of an appropriate food source. Using biofilm samples obtained from operational DWDSs, 16S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding was combined with genus-specific PCR and Sanger sequencing of intracellular associated bacteria from isolated amoeba and their parental biofilms to identify Meiothermus chliarophilus as a potential food source for N. fowleri. Meiothermus was confirmed as a food source for N. fowleri following successful serial culturing of axenic N. fowleri with M. chliarophilus or M. ruber as the sole food source. The ability to identify environmental and ecological conditions favourable to N. fowleri colonisation, including the detection of appropriate food sources such as Meiothermus, could provide water utilities with a predictive tool for managing N. fowleri colonisation within the DWDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  5. Successful adjuvant-free vaccination of BALB/c mice with mutated amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahi Monika M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent human clinical trial of an Alzheimer's disease (AD vaccine using amyloid beta (Aβ 1–42 plus QS-21 adjuvant produced some positive results, but was halted due to meningoencephalitis in some participants. The development of a vaccine with mutant Aβ peptides that avoids the use of an adjuvant may result in an effective and safer human vaccine. Results All peptides tested showed high antibody responses, were long-lasting, and demonstrated good memory response. Epitope mapping indicated that peptide mutation did not lead to epitope switching. Mutant peptides induced different inflammation responses as evidenced by cytokine profiles. Ig isotyping indicated that adjuvant-free vaccination with peptides drove an adequate Th2 response. All anti-sera from vaccinated mice cross-reacted with human Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse brain tissue. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that an adjuvant-free vaccine with different Aβ peptides can be an effective and safe vaccination approach against AD. This study represents the first report of adjuvant-free vaccines utilizing Aβ peptides carrying diverse mutations in the T-cell epitope. These largely positive results provide encouragement for the future of the development of human vaccinations for AD.

  6. Advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Xu, Min-Jun; Huang, Si-Yang; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-10-01

    The genus Toxocara contains parasitic nematodes of human and animal health significance, such as Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara vitulorum. T. canis and T. cati are among the most prevalent parasites of dogs and cats with a worldwide distribution. Human infection with T. canis and T. cati, which can cause a number of clinical manifestations such as visceral larva migrans (VLMs), ocular larva migrans (OLMs), eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME), covert toxocariasis (CT) and neurotoxocariasis, is considered the most prevalent neglected helminthiasis in industrialized countries. The accurate identification Toxocara spp. and their unequivocal differentiation from each other and from other ascaridoid nematodes causing VLMs and OLMs has important implications for studying their taxonomy, epidemiology, population genetics, diagnosis and control. Due to the limitations of traditional (morphological) approaches for identification and diagnosis of Toxocara spp., PCR-based techniques utilizing a range of genetic markers in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have been developed as useful alternative approaches because of their high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity and utility. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge and advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp. with prospects for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR...... (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0-62.9). For "Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1-62.0). Similarly, the PPV for "Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4A......) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5-72.9). "Herpes viral encephalitis" (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5-89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. CONCLUSION: The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence...

  8. Effective PCR-based detection of Naegleria fowleri from cultured sample and PAM-developed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Mi Yeoun; Lee, Won-Ja; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) cases due to Naegleria fowleri are becoming a serious issue in subtropical and tropical countries as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). To establish a rapid and effective diagnostic tool, a PCR-based detection technique was developed based on previous PCR methods. Four kinds of primer pairs, Nfa1, Nae3, Nf-ITS, and Naegl, were employed in the cultured amoebic trophozoites and a mouse with PAM experimentally developed by N. fowleri inoculation (PAM-mouse). For the extraction of genomic DNA from N. fowleri trophozoites (1×10(6)), simple boiling with 10μl of PBS (pH 7.4) at 100°C for 30min was found to be the most rapid and efficient procedure, allowing amplification of 2.5×10(2) trophozoites using the Nfa-1 primer. The primers Nfa1 and Nae3 amplified only N. fowleri DNA, whereas the ITS primer detected N. fowleri and N. gruberi DNA. Using the PAM-mouse brain tissue, the Nfa1 primer was able to amplify the N. fowleri DNA 4 days post infection with 1ng/μl of genomic DNA being detectable. Using the PAM-mouse CSF, amplification of the N. fowleri DNA with the Nae3 primer was possible 5 days post infection showing a better performance than the Nfa1 primer at day 6. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN BLOOD FOR DIAGNOSIS OF GENERALISED TUBERCULOSIS IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zimina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the informative value of the detection of mycobacteria in blood with the cultural method in patients with suspected tuberculous sepsis and to determine the most significant clinical and laboratory criteria for testing. Materials and methods: The investigation to detect M.tuberculosis was fulfilled in 159 HIV-positive patients with suspected tuberculosis sepsis. Blood culture was completed with culture medium Myco/F Lytic Culture Vials and analyzer BACTEC 9050. Results: Mycobacteria were detected in blood of 19 patients (11,9% of all patients: in 18 patients the growth of М. tuberculosis complex was detected (25,3% of all patients with diagnosed tuberculosis and in 1 patient it was Mycobacterium avium complex (0,6% of all patients. It was shown, that the probability of M.tuberculosis detection was especially associated with the severity of the disease, immunosupression (less than 100 cells/mkl, hemoglobin quantity less than 90 g/l (levels were determined through the seeking for the most significant cutoffs. It was not proofed, that meningoencephalitis develops more often in patients with proven bacteremia. There were no evident differences in detection frequency of mycobacteria in sputum between patients with tuberculous sepsis and without it.

  10. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INFECTION CAUSED BY ENTEROVIRUS-71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Simovanyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse course of enterovirus-71 infection (EVI-71 in children, frequent development of the nervous system pathology determine the need for early disease diagnosis. The study included 139 children aged 6 months to 13 years. Modern EVI-71 features is a frequent defeat of children aged from 3 to 7 years, attending organized groups, the priority development of combined moderate severity forms without nervous system pathology. EVI-71 is characterized by cyclical course, appearance in the first two disease days fever, murrain-like, catarrhal, lymphoproliferative syndromes, conjunctivitis, headaches. The second stage of the disease (3— 6 days in 37.9% children accompanied by attaching of meningitis and meningoencephalitis symptoms (common cerebral, meningeal and encephalic syndromes, changes in cerebrospinal fluid. In the EVI-71 diagnosis must be observed epidemiological history, clinical and laboratory parameters, detection of enterovirus-71 and its RNA from feces, oropharyngeal mucus and cerebrospinal fluid. Patients with EVI-71 need for combined treatment, including causal agents and pathogenetic therapy. 

  11. Psychiatric adult-onset of urea cycle disorders: A case-series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bigot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset urea cycle disorders (UCD may present with psychiatric symptoms, occasionally as the initial presentation. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with a psychiatric adult-onset of UCDs, to discuss which signs could suggest this diagnosis in such a situation, and to determine which tests should be conducted. A survey of psychiatric symptoms occurring in teenagers or adults with UCD was conducted in 2010 among clinicians involved in the French society for the study of inborn errors of metabolism (SFEIM. Fourteen patients from 14 to 57 years old were reported. Agitation was reported in 10 cases, perseveration in 5, delirium in 4, and disinhibition in 3 cases. Three patients had pre-existing psychiatric symptoms. All patients had neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as ataxia or dysmetria, psychomotor slowing, seizures, or hallucinations. Fluctuations of consciousness and coma were reported in 9 cases. Digestive symptoms were reported in 7 cases. 9 patients had a personal history suggestive of UCD. The differential diagnoses most frequently considered were exogenous intoxication, non-convulsive status epilepticus, and meningoencephalitis. Hyperammonemia (180–600 μmol/L was found in all patients. The outcome was severe: mechanical ventilation was required in 10 patients, 5 patients died, and only 4 patients survived without sequelae. Adult onset UCDs can present with predominant psychiatric symptoms, associated with neurological involvement. These patients, as well as patients presenting with a suspicion of intoxication, must have UCD considered and ammonia measured without delay.

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence.as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002.SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  13. Mouse hepatitis virus infection upregulates genes involved in innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Neurotropic recombinant strain of Mouse Hepatitis Virus, RSA59, induces meningo-encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination following intracranial inoculation. RSA59 induced neuropathology is partially caused by activation of CNS resident microglia, as demonstrated by changes in cellular morphology and increased expression of a microglia/macrophage specific calcium ion binding factor, Iba1. Affymetrix Microarray analysis for mRNA expression data reveals expression of inflammatory mediators that are known to be released by activated microglia. Microglia-specific cell surface molecules, including CD11b, CD74, CD52 and CD68, are significantly upregulated in contrast to CD4, CD8 and CD19. Protein analysis of spinal cord extracts taken from mice 6 days post-inoculation, the time of peak inflammation, reveals robust expression of IFN-γ, IL-12 and mKC. Data suggest that activated microglia and inflammatory mediators contribute to a local CNS microenvironment that regulates viral replication and IFN-γ production during the acute phase of infection, which in turn can cause phagolysosome maturation and phagocytosis of the myelin sheath, leading to demyelination.

  14. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Precechtelova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions.

  15. Fibrinogen is not elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehling Rainer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are a well known finding in acute infectious diseases, acute stroke and myocardial infarction. However its role in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of acute and chronic central (CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS diseases is unclear. Findings We analyzed CSF and plasma fibrinogen levels together with routine parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, acute inflammatory diseases of the CNS (bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis, BM and VM and PNS (Guillain-Barré syndrome; GBS, as well as in non-inflammatory neurological controls (OND in a total of 103 patients. Additionally, MS patients underwent cerebral MRI scans at time of lumbar puncture. CSF and plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly lower in patients with MS and OND patients as compared to patients with BM, VM and GBS. There was a close correlation between fibrinogen levels and albumin quotient (rho = 0.769, p Conclusions Although previous work has shown clear evidence of the involvement of fibrinogen in MS pathogenesis, this is not accompanied by increased fibrinogen in the CSF compartment.

  16. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  17. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  18. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A

    2000-02-01

    Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Run, Peter R W A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Poen, Marjolein J; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2013-01-01

    Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  20. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease.

  1. Frequency and clinical significance of CAT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.; Kloes, G.; Hopp, G.; Becker, H.

    1982-01-01

    From 1974-1980, computerized tomography was carried out on 34 patients with purulent and on 17 patients with lymphocytic meningitis. 25 out of the patients with purulent meningitis resp. meningoencephalitis could be examined in the acute stage. For all patients with already attenuated clinical symptoms normal results were obtained, while for the remainder findings were in part highly pathological consisting, e.g. in dilatations or narviowings of the ventricula system, failure to make the outer liquor cavities roentgenoparens, accumulation of pas in the subarachnoidal and subdur spaces including the interhemispheric clefs, cerebral medulla and periventricular edemas, abscesses and signs of ependymitis. Various findings could only be classified as pathological upon serial examination. Correlation statistics showed that all patients with marked pathological CT findings also suffered from distinct pertubations of consciousness. Out of 14 patients with pathological CT findings, 12 died. No connexions could be established between the level of liquor cell counts and CT alterations. Among 17 patients with a lymphocytic meningitis, CT findings were pathological with a mean dilatation of the ventricular system in only one case of chronic course and predominantly basal localization. The patient decreased. Phathological CT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis point to an unfavourable prognosis. (orig.) [de

  2. Inflammatory diseases of the orbit; Entzuendungen der Orbita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Inflammatory conditions belong to the most important diseases of the orbit. Children and adolescents are mostly affected and the most common cause is secondary pathogen invasion from acute sinusitis. However in adults most cases involve idiopathic orbital inflammation, previously termed pseudotumor orbitae. Clinical presentation may include painful exophthalmus, skin redness and warming, chemosis and disturbed eye motility. The challenge for imaging investigations, mainly a combination of CT scanning and MRI, is to distinguish inflammatory from malignant conditions, to define the extent of lesions and to document possible complications, such as cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningoencephalitis or cerebral abscesses. Serious potential consequences of orbital infections, including loss of vision or death, are still a risk factor and must be averted by avoidance of delays in diagnosis and appropriate clinical management. (orig.) [German] Entzuendliche Veraenderungen zaehlen zu den wichtigen Erkrankungen der Orbita. Meist sind Kinder und Jugendliche betroffen, wobei eine fortgeleitete Infektion der Nasennebenhoehlen die haeufigste Ursache darstellt. Bei Erwachsenen handelt es sich in den meisten Faellen um eine idiopathische Orbitaentzuendung - frueher unter dem Begriff Pseudotumor orbitae zusammengefasst. Zu den Leitsymptomen zaehlen schmerzhafter Exophthalmus, Ueberwaermung und Roetung der Haut, Chemosis sowie eine Bewegungseinschraenkung des Bulbus. Die Rolle bildgebender Verfahren - hier ergaenzen sich Computer- und Magnetresonanztomographie - besteht in der Differenzierung inflammatorischer und tumoroeser Prozesse und insbesondere in der Darstellung der Laesionsausdehnung sowie dem Nachweis von Komplikationen, wie einer Sinus-cavernosus-Thrombose, einer Meningoenzephalitis oder zerebralen Abszessen. Auch heute noch koennen Infektionen der Orbita schwerwiegende Folgen wie komplette Erblindung oder Tod nach sich ziehen. (orig.)

  3. Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presenting with Fever and Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranthi Kongala Liyanage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT is a diagnostic conundrum as it may present with a myriad of nonspecific clinical features and laboratory and neuroimaging investigations are not diagnostic. We report a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with an acute febrile illness associated with headache and confusion, tangential thoughts, and loose association. Based on neutrophil leukocytosis in the full blood count and elevated inflammatory markers, she was commenced on empirical intravenous antibiotics suspecting meningoencephalitis. Further evaluation found a very high titer of both anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies and anti-thyroid globulin antibodies. She was clinically and biochemically euthyroid. EEG showed right sided frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA. Cranial MRI revealed age related cerebral atrophy and nonspecific periventricular white matter changes. A diagnosis of SREAT was made and she was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone. Her condition improved dramatically within 48 hours of starting steroids. SREAT is a diagnosis of exclusion in patients with a central nervous system disorder. There are no specific clinical features or investigative findings. Elevated anti-TPO antibodies are considered a hallmark of SREAT and steroid responsiveness supports the diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment reverses the neurological dysfunction in most cases.

  4. Clinical profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Patil, Rahul; Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly. Materials and Methods: Children attending child development clinic with developmental delay were evaluated as per protocol. Z scores of head circumference were calculated using WHO charts. Clinical, radiological and etiological profile of those with microcephaly and those without was compared. Results: Of the 414 children with developmental delay 231 had microcephaly (z score ≤ -3). Mean age of children with microcephaly was 35.1 ± 27.9 months (range 4-184), males (72.7%). Comorbidities were epilepsy (42.9%), visual abnormality (26.4%), hearing abnormality (16.9%). Mean DQ was 29.75 + 17.8 in those with microcephaly was significantly lower compared to the rest (P = 0.002). Secondary microcephaly was associated with cerebral palsy in 69.7%. Other causes were congenital infections (4), inborn error of metabolism (3), post-meningoencephalitis (5), malformations (12), and syndromic (13). Neuroimaging was done in 118 (51.1%) cases of which 104 (88.1%) were abnormal. On comparison children with microcephaly had more epilepsy, lower developmental quotient, vision abnormalities findings as compared to normocephalic children with developmental delay (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Microcephaly was associated with lower, DQ, higher comorbidities in children with developmental delay. Spastic CP is commonly associated with microcephaly. PMID:24250161

  5. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-26

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  6. Zika Virus Infects, Activates, and Crosses Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, without Barrier Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Michelle P.; Meuren, Lana M.; Coelho, Sharton V. A.; Lucas, Carolina G. de Oliveira; Mustafá, Yasmin M.; Lemos Matassoli, Flavio; Silveira, Paola P.; Frost, Paula S.; Pezzuto, Paula; Ribeiro, Milene R.; Tanuri, Amilcar; Nogueira, Mauricio L.; Campanati, Loraine; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Paula Neto, Heitor A.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Figueiredo, Claudia P.; de Aguiar, Renato S.; de Arruda, Luciana B.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated to central nervous system (CNS) harm, and virus was detected in the brain and cerebrospinal fluids of microcephaly and meningoencephalitis cases. However, the mechanism by which the virus reaches the CNS is unclear. Here, we addressed the effects of ZIKV replication in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), as an in vitro model of blood brain barrier (BBB), and evaluated virus extravasation and BBB integrity in an in vivo mouse experimental model. HBMECs were productively infected by African and Brazilian ZIKV strains (ZIKVMR766 and ZIKVPE243), which induce increased production of type I and type III IFN, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Infection with ZIKVMR766 promoted earlier cellular death, in comparison to ZIKVPE243, but infection with either strain did not result in enhanced endothelial permeability. Despite the maintenance of endothelial integrity, infectious virus particles crossed the monolayer by endocytosis/exocytosis-dependent replication pathway or by transcytosis. Remarkably, both viruses' strains infected IFNAR deficient mice, with high viral load being detected in the brains, without BBB disruption, which was only detected at later time points after infection. These data suggest that ZIKV infects and activates endothelial cells, and might reach the CNS through basolateral release, transcytosis or transinfection processes. These findings further improve the current knowledge regarding ZIKV dissemination pathways. PMID:29312238

  7. Enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot and mouth diseases with neurologic symptoms, a university hospital experience in Korea, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Cho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD is a common viral illness in children, which is usually mild and self-limiting. However, in recent epidemics of HFMD in Asia, enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been recognized as a causative agent with severe neurological symptoms with or without cardiopulmonary involvement. HFMD was epidemic in Korea in the spring of 2009. Severe cases with complications including death have been reported. The clinical characteristics in children with neurologic manifestations of EV71 were studied in Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. Methods : Examinations for EV71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of children who presented neurologic symptoms associated with HFMD by realtime PCR. Clinical and radiologic data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Results : EV71 was isolated from the stool of 16 patients but not from respiratory secretion or CSF. Among the 16 patients, meningitis (n=10 was the most common manifestation, followed by Guillain-Barr&eacute; syndrome (n=3, meningoencephalitis (n=2, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease (n=1, and myoclonus (n=1. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a, which was prevalent in China in 2008. Conclusion : Because EV71 causes severe complications and death in children, a surveillance system to predict upcoming outbreaks should be established and maintained and adequate public health measures are needed to control disease.

  8. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  9. Preliminary findings on Bagaza virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae growth kinetics, transmission potential & transovarial transmission in three species of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Sudeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bagaza virus (BAGV, a flavivirus synonymous with Israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in India. BAGV has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in Spain. A study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit BAGV experimentally. Methods: Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were inoculated with BAGV; samples were harvested every day and titrated in BHK-21 cell line. Vector competence and experimental transmission were determined by examining the saliva of infected mosquitoes for virus and induction of sickness in suckling mice, respectively. Results: Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes yielded 5 log 10 and 4.67 log 10 TCID 50 /ml of virus on day 3 post-infection (PI, respectively while Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded a titre of 4 log 10 TCID 50 /ml on day 4 PI. BAGV was detected in saliva of all the infected mosquitoes demonstrating their vector competence. Experimental transmission of BAGV to infant mice as well as transovarial transmission was demonstrated by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus but not by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of BAGV to high titres and dissemination to saliva in three most prevalent mosquitoes in India is of immense public health importance. Though no major outbreak involving man has been reported yet, BAGV has a potential to cause outbreaks in future.

  10. Neuropsychiatric autoimmune encephalitis without VGKC-complex, NMDAR, and GAD autoantibodies: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Souhel; Pearlman, Daniel; Devinsky, Orrin; Najjar, Amanda; Nadkarni, Siddhartha; Butler, Tracy; Zagzag, David

    2013-03-01

    We report a patient with a seronegative autoimmune panencephalitis, adding a subtype to the emerging spectrum of seronegative autoimmune encephalitis, and we review the sparse literature on isolated psychiatric presentations of autoimmune encephalitis. (A PubMed search for "seronegative autoimmune encephalitis," "nonvasculitic autoimmune inflammatory meningoencephalitis," and related terms revealed VGKC)-complex, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies. We excluded genetic, metabolic, paraneoplastic, degenerative, and infectious etiologies. The patient's symptoms remitted fully with immune therapy, but recurred in association with widespread bihemispheric brain lesions. Brain biopsy revealed mild nonvasculitic inflammation and prominent vascular hyalinization. Immune therapy with plasma exchanges cleared the MRI abnormalities but, 10 years after onset, the patient still suffers neuropsychiatric sequelae. We conclude that autoimmune panencephalitis seronegative for VGKC-complex, NMDAR, and GAD autoantibodies is a subtype of autoimmune encephalitis that can present with pure neuropsychiatric features and a normal brain MRI. Immunologic mechanisms may account for psychiatric symptoms in a subset of patients now diagnosed with classical psychotic disorders. Delay in starting immune therapy can lead to permanent neuropsychiatric sequelae. We propose a standardized classification system for the autoimmune encephalitides, integrating earlier pathology-oriented terms with more recently defined serologic and clinical phenotypes.

  11. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in a closed-loop power plant; risk assessment and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, P.; Pernin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980, the water used for cooling in French power plants has been tested for pathogenic amoebae, especially Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapid fatal disease of the central nervous system. The replacement of brass condensers by stainless steel condensers resulted in increased Naegleria fowleri development, to a density of as much as 3000 l -1 in the Dampierre power plant cooling water. Downstream from Dampierre, the maximum detected density of this amoeba during the summer of 1995 was 80 l -1 , at low river flow. The replacement of a second condenser in 1996 at the same power plant was expected to double the amoebae concentration in the river. The hypothetical PAM risk for swimmers was then predicted to be 10 -4 per swim. To reduce the risk continuous chlorination of the closed-loop cooling system was implemented at a free residual chlorine level in the range of 0.3-0.5 mg.l -1 . Naegleria fowleri concentrations decreased immediately and thereafter remained under 4 l -1 . Total residual chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds were also monitored in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this preventive action. (authors)

  12. Sequence analysis of the first C2 subgenogroup strain of enterovirus 71 isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Young Sil; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Jung Sik; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, June-Woo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with severe neurological complications, which may lead to death in children. Large outbreaks caused by EV71 have frequently occurred in Asia-Pacific region. In Korea, the outbreaks have been caused by EV71 subgenogroups C3, and C4. Only genogroup C, especially subgenogroup C1, C3, C4, and C5, has been detected by the national enterovirus surveillance system in Korea. This study reports the first isolation of EV71 A1451 strain, which belongs to subgenogroup C2. EV71 was isolated from a Korean patient with meningoencephalitis. Complete genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of the strain. Comparative genome analysis of the A1451 strain indicated that this novel C2 strain is associated with the Taiwan strains, which are recombinant virus combined with subgenogroup C2 and B3. Because the subgenogroup B3 was not previously detected in Korea, the A1451 strain is regarded as an imported recombinant virus. Periodic surveillance of EV71 is required to control the spread of this disease and its introduction from overseas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cutaneous anthrax in Lima, Peru: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication Ántrax cutáneo en Lima, Perú: análisis retrospectivo de 71 casos, incluyendo cuatro con complicación meningoencefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Maguiña

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis, and as an human infection is endemic in several areas in the world, including Peru. More than 95% of the reported naturally acquired infections are cutaneous, and approximately 5% of them can progress to meningoencephalitis. In this study we review the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax evaluated between 1969 and 2002 at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH and the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt in Lima, Peru. Seventy one patients were included [49/71 (69% of them men], with a mean age of 37 years. The diagnoses were classified as definitive (44% or probable (56%. The most common occupation of the patients was agriculture (39%. The source of infection was found in 63 (88.7% patients. All the patients had ulcerative lesions, with a central necrosis. Most of the patients (65% had several lesions, mainly located in the upper limbs (80%. Four patients (5.6% developed meningoencephalitis, and three of them eventually died. In conclusion, considering its clinical and epidemiological characteristics, cutaneous anthrax must be included in the differential diagnosis of skin ulcers. A patient with clinical suspicion of the disease should receive effective treatment soon, in order to avoid neurological complications which carry a high fatality rate.El ántrax es una zoonosis producida por el Bacillus anthracis y la infección humana es endémica en diversas partes del mundo, incluyendo el Perú. Más del 95% de las infecciones adquiridas naturalmente son cutáneas y aproximadamente 5% de ellas pueden evolucionar para meningoencefalitis. En este estudio revisamos las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de ántrax cutáneo evaluados entre 1969 y 2002 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH y en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, en Lima, Per

  14. Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of Bologna, northeastern Italy: an epidemiological and clinical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Baldi, Elena; Manfredi, Roberto; Chiodo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    .9%) diseases, and alcohol or substance abuse (4.2%). Infectious diseases (alone or with concurrent disorders) were reported in 881 discharged individuals, representing 12.1% of the 7,312 DRGs attributed to foreign patients. The comprehensive patient population discharged from our hospital with at least one infectious disease diagnosis had lower rates of respiratory tract infections, followed by chronic viral hepatitis, HIV infection and related diseases, enterocolitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, severe skin and soft tissue infection, meningoencephalitis, and malaria, as the most frequently-reported disorders. Our survey, through a combined analysis of both DRGs and discharge diagnoses, allowed us to conclude that 12.1% of foreign citizens hospitalized at our General teaching Hospital of Bologna (Italy) suffered from at least one infectious disease. Respiratory tract, liver, and gastrointestinal infections, and HIV infection, were found with an appreciable frequency among discharge diagnoses, while the frequency of malaria and meningoencephalitis was lower, compared with other series. Among disorders other than infectious diseases, obstetric-gynecological conditions and post-traumatic episodes (for male patients) were the most frequent causes of hospitalization.

  15. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2009-11-01

    meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

  16. Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of bologna, northeastern Italy: An epidemiological and clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sabbatani

    (5.2%, and metabolic (4.9% diseases, and alcohol or substance abuse (4.2%. Infectious diseases (alone or with concurrent disorders were reported in 881 discharged individuals, representing 12.1% of the 7,312 DRGs attributed to foreign patients. The comprehensive patient population discharged from our hospital with at least one infectious disease diagnosis had lower rates of respiratory tract infections, followed by chronic viral hepatitis, HIV infection and related diseases, enterocolitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, severe skin and soft tissue infection, meningoencephalitis, and malaria, as the most frequently-reported disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey, through a combined analysis of both DRGs and discharge diagnoses, allowed us to conclude that 12.1% of foreign citizens hospitalized at our General teaching Hospital of Bologna (Italy suffered from at least one infectious disease. Respiratory tract, liver, and gastrointestinal infections, and HIV infection, were found with an appreciable frequency among discharge diagnoses, while the frequency of malaria and meningoencephalitis was lower, compared with other series. Among disorders other than infectious diseases, obstetric-gynecological conditions and post-traumatic episodes (for male patients were the most frequent causes of hospitalization.

  17. Acute febrile encephalopathy in adults from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute onset fever with altered mentation is a common problem encountered by the physician practicing in tropical countries. Central nervous system (CNS infections are the most common cause resulting in fever with altered mentation in children. Aim : In this study, we have tried to analyze the cause of encephalopathy following short febrile illness in adults presenting to a tertiary care center in Northwestern part of India. Setting and Design : A prospective observational study carried out in a tertiary care center in the Northwestern India over a period of 1 year. Material and Methods : A total of 127 patients with fever of less than 2 weeks duration along with alteration in mentation were studied prospectively over a period of 12 months. The demographic variables were recorded in detail. In addition to routine investigations, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, noncontrast- and contrast-enhanced computed tomography, along with magnetic resonance imaging were performed in all the subjects. Statistical Analysis : The results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The values were expressed as mean with standard deviation for contiguous variable as percentage for the others. Results and Conclusion : Out of these, 70% had primary CNS infection as the etiology. A total of 33% patients had meningitis, 29.9% had evidence of meningoencephalitis, and 12.7% were diagnosed as sepsis-associated encephalopathy. These were followed by cerebral malaria, leptospirosis, and brain abscess as the cause of febrile encephalopathy in adults. Among the noninfectious causes, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cortical venous thrombosis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome were documented in 2.36% each. In 11% of the patients, the final diagnosis could not be made in spite of the extensive investigations. Our study demonstrates that acute febrile encephalopathy in adults is a heterogeneous syndrome with primary CNS infections being the commonest

  18. A bovine herpesvirus 5 recombinant defective in the thymidine kinase (TK gene and a double mutant lacking TK and the glycoprotein E gene are fully attenuated for rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, the agent of herpetic meningoencephalitis in cattle, is an important pathogen of cattle in South America and several efforts have been made to produce safer and more effective vaccines. In the present study, we investigated in rabbits the virulence of three recombinant viruses constructed from a neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99. The recombinants are defective in glycoprotein E (BoHV-5gEΔ, thymidine kinase (BoHV-5TKΔ and both proteins (BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ. Rabbits inoculated with the parental virus (N = 8 developed neurological disease and died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 13 post-infection (pi. Infectivity was detected in several areas of their brains. Three of 8 rabbits inoculated with the recombinant BoHV-5gEΔ developed neurological signs between days 10 and 15 pi and were also euthanized. A more restricted virus distribution was detected in the brain of these animals. Rabbits inoculated with the recombinants BoHV-5TKΔ (N = 8 or BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ (N = 8 remained healthy throughout the experiment in spite of variable levels of virus replication in the nose. Dexamethasone (Dx administration to rabbits inoculated with the three recombinants at day 42 pi did not result in viral reactivation, as demonstrated by absence of virus shedding and/or increase in virus neutralizing titers. Nevertheless, viral DNA was detected in the trigeminal ganglia or olfactory bulbs of all animals at day 28 post-Dx, demonstrating they were latently infected. These results show that recombinants BoHV-5TKΔ and BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ are attenuated for rabbits and constitute potential vaccine candidates upon the confirmation of this phenotype in cattle.

  19. Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurek Seyfi C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%, high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day. He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated.

  20. CLINICAL PROFILE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN SCRUB TYPHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scrub typhus is an underdiagnosed disease, but potentially treatable, if diagnosis is made with high index of suspicion. Deaths are attributable to late presentation, delayed diagnosis and drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was an observational study of prospective design conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, over a period of one year. History, physical examination and relevant lab investigations were done in 70 patients in the study. RESULTS Majority of patients were in working class. Most common physical finding was lymphadenopathy. Eschar was present in 46% of patients. Majority responded to doxycycline. Case fatality was 14.3%. CONCLUSION 1. Most cases occurred during cooler months of the year (Oct-Feb. 2. Fever and headache were the most common symptoms. 3. Lymphadenopathy was the most common sign followed by splenomegaly. 4. Eschar was present in 46% cases. 5. Leucocytosis was associated with poor prognosis and increased complication like meningoencephalitis. 6. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with increased incidence of complications like myocarditis and encephalitis. 7. More than 2 times, elevation of transaminases was a poor prognostic marker. 8. Most common and important complication was Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. 9. Microangiopathic haemolysis could possibly be a contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 10. Rampant NSAID use is another contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 11. Resistance to doxycycline is emerging in our community and we should consider this possibility in cases with strong suspicion with no response to doxycycline.

  1. Orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimoto T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Masahiro Tonari1, Norihiko Ishizaki1, Mitsuhiro Monta2, Saori Hirata2, Hidehiro Oku1, Jun Sugasawa1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shitennoji Hospital, Osaka, JapanAbstract: We report our findings for a patient with orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Our patient was initially admitted to a neighborhood hospital because of nausea and loss of appetite of 10 days' duration. The day after hospitalization, she developed skin vesicles along the first division of the trigeminal nerve, with severe lid swelling and conjunctival injection. On suspicion of meningoencephalitis caused by varicella zoster virus, antiviral therapy with vidarabine and betamethasone was started. Seventeen days later, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia developed in the right eye. The light reflex in the right eye was absent and anisocoria was present, with the right pupil larger than the left. Fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images showed high intensity areas in the muscle cone, cavernous sinus, and orbital optic nerve sheath. Our patient was diagnosed with orbital apex syndrome, and because of skin vesicles in the first division of the trigeminal nerve, the orbital apex syndrome was considered to be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. After the patient was transferred to our hospital, prednisolone 60 mg and vidarabine antiviral therapy was started, and fever and headaches disappeared five days later. The ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis, but not the anisocoria, gradually resolved during tapering of oral therapy. From the clinical findings and course, the cause of the orbital apex syndrome was most likely invasion of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus by the herpes virus through the trigeminal nerve ganglia.Keywords: varicella zoster virus, orbital apex syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complete ophthalmoplegia

  2. Sepsis-like disease in infants due to human parechovirus type 3 during an outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; McMullan, Brendan J; Webber, Murray; Stewart, Phoebe; Francis, Stephanie; Timmers, Karin J; Rodas, Elicia; Druce, Julian; Mehta, Bhavesh; Sloggett, Nichola A; Cumming, Germaine; Papadakis, Georgina; Kesson, Alison M

    2015-01-15

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are associated with a wide range of clinical presentations in children, ranging from mild or asymptomatic infections to severe sepsis-like presentations or meningoencephalitis. We reviewed medical records of infants admitted to 5 hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, during an outbreak of HPeV-3 infection. Data were collected on clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and outcome of infants with HPeV infection confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We identified 118 infected infants. Most presented with an acute sepsis-like syndrome with high fever, tachycardia, poor perfusion, and severe irritability. Other common features were erythrodermic rash, abdominal distension, edema, and hepatitis. The age range of infants was 4 days to 9.5 months; 75% were <2 months old, including all but 1 of the 30 infants (25%) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), who as a group, were significantly younger than infants not admitted to ICUs. Only 4% of evaluable cerebrospinal fluid samples had pleocytosis, but HPeV was detected in 95%. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on a small number of children demonstrated white matter changes and diffusion restriction. Sequencing of the VP1 gene confirmed HPeV-3 in all samples tested. All children recovered without ongoing complications at last follow-up. We report the largest series of HPeV-3 infection in infants, and the first outbreak in Australia. Infants presented with a severe sepsis-like syndrome with a high rate of ICU admissions, but all recovered from the acute infection without complications. Long-term sequelae are unknown. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Implementation of different histochemical methods in diagnostics of brain Aspergillosis in turkey chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is a frequent fungal disease in different species of birds and mammals caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. It is characterized by inflammatory changes primarily in the respiratory system, even though it sometimes takes on a generalized form when several organ systems are affected. Mucotic-granulomatous meningoencephalitis with a predominant localization in the cerebellum has been described in turkeys, ducks and geese. Within this paper, examinations have been performed on a flock of broiler turkeys aged 12 days who had sustained evident neurological disorders in the form of ataxy, torticollis, paresis, and paralysis of the hind extremities and wings. In three of the ten autopsied chicks the macroscopic findings indicated granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebellum. A white-coloured granuloma, around 3mm in diameter, was situated cranioventrally and was clearly visible on the sagital section of the cerebellum. Mucological examinations of the cerebellum lesion resulted in the isolation of the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE, Grocott and PAS methods were used for the evaluation of histopathological changes and proving Aspergillus fumigatusa hyphae. The microscopic examination of brain tissue sections stained with the HE method revealed the existence of a granuloma with a centrally placed necrotic area. The necrotic area was infiltrated with heterophilic granulocytes and surrounded by macrophage, giant cells and lymphocytes. A connective tissue capsule was located on the periphery of the granuloma. The fungi hyphae, as integral parts of the granuloma, were difficult to observe, and in some samples stained using the HE method they could not be seen at all. On the other hand, sections stanied using the Grocott and PAS methods showed prominent septed and branched hyphae in different parts of the granuloma. With the objective of making an etiological diagnosis of mucotic diseases, it is necessary to apply several

  4. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  6. Immunology of Cryptococcal Infections: Developing a Rational Approach to Patient Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsegeiny, Waleed; Marr, Kieren A; Williamson, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions. The Damage Framework Response, originally proposed in 1999, was recently used to discuss dichotomous etiologies of host damage in cryptococcal disease. These include patients suffering microbiological damage with low host immunity (especially those immunosuppressed with HIV) and those having low (live) microbiological burden but high immune-mediated damage (HIV-related immune reconstitution syndrome and non-HIV-related postinfectious inflammatory response syndrome). Cryptococcal disease in previously healthy hosts, albeit rare, has been known for a long time. Immunophenotyping and dendritic cell-T cell signaling studies on cerebral spinal fluid of these rare patients reveal immune capacity for recognition and T-cell activation pathways including increased levels of HLA-DR and CD56. However, despite effective T-cell signals, brain biopsy and autopsy specimens demonstrated an M2 alternative macrophage polarization and poor phagocytosis of fungal cells. These studies expand the paradigm for cryptococcal disease susceptibility to include a prominent role for immune-mediated damage and suggest a need for careful individual consideration of immune activation during therapy of cryptococcal disease in diverse hosts.

  7. Meningitis neonatal e infección puerperal por Streptococcus pneumoniae: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ortiz Rodríguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones neonatales causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae constituyen un fenómeno raro, poco reportado en la literatura médica; en el presente trabajo se describe el caso de una meningoencefalitis purulenta de aparición precoz, en un neonato nacido por parto eutócico, a termino y de buen peso. Se aisló el microorganismo en la sangre y en el líquido cefalorraquídeo del recién nacido, así como en los loquios de la madre. Las 3 antibiotipias fueron idénticas. La evolución del niño fue desfavorable, el cual falleció a las 81 horas de vida, en un cuadro de fallo multiorgánico. La necropsia corroboró el diagnóstico. La madre desarrolló una endometritis puerperal a los 4 días, con buena evolución.Neonatal infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare phenomenon that is barely reported in the medical literature. The present paper describes a case of early purulent meningoencephalitis occurred in an adequate birthweight neonate born to term eutocic delivery. The microorganism was isolated in the newborn's blood and cerebrospinal fluid as well as in his mother's lochia. The three antibiotypes were identical. The newborn did not recover and died after 81 hours due to a multiple organ failure. Necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. The mother developed puerperal endometritis after 4 days but did recover.

  8. Histophilus somni IbpA Fic cytotoxin is conserved in disease strains and most carrier strains from cattle, sheep and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekarias, B; O'Toole, D; Lehmann, J; Corbeil, L B

    2011-04-21

    Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis and arthritis, as well as a genital or upper respiratory carrier state in normal animals. However, differences in virulence factors among strains are not well studied. The surface and secreted immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA) Fic motif of H. somni causes bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) cells to retract, allowing virulent bacteria to cross the alveolar monolayer. Because H. somni IbpA is an important virulence factor, its presence was evaluated in different strains from cattle, sheep and bison to define whether there are syndrome specific markers and whether antigenic/molecular/functional conservation occurs. A few preputial carrier strains lacked IbpA by Western blotting but all other tested disease or carrier strains were IbpA positive. These positive strains had either both IbpA DR1/Fic and IbpA DR2/Fic or only IbpA DR2/Fic by PCR. IbpA Fic mediated cytotoxicity for BAT2 cells and sequence analysis of IbpA DR2/Fic from selected strains revealed conservation of sequence and function in disease and IbpA positive carrier strains. Passive protection of mice against H. somni septicemia with antibody to IbpA DR2/Fic, along with previous data, indicates that the IbpA DR1/Fic and/or DR2/Fic domains are candidate vaccine antigens for protection against many strains of H. somni. Since IbpA DR2/Fic is conserved in most carrier strains, they may be virulent if introduced to susceptible animals at susceptible sites. Conservation of the protective IbpA antigen in all disease isolates tested is encouraging for development of protective vaccines and diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Clinical and neuroradiological manifestations of reversible splenial lesion syndrome: a report of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To summarize the clinical and MRI imaging features, treatment and prognosis of reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES. Methods  The clinical manifestation and MRI imaging appearances of 13 RESLES patients were retrospectively evaluated and the pertinent literatures of RESLES were reviewed. Results  Of the 13 cases (11 males and 2 female, aged from 13 to 58 years, 1 was complicated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome, 1 with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, 1 with antiepileptic drug withdraw, 1 with pituitary crisis combining Sjogren syndrome, 1 with still disease, and 8 cases were complicated with viral encephalitis (meningoencephalitis. The first MRI imaging was performed from 2 to 39 days after onset. All the lesions were measured about 1-2cm, located in the central area and involved no other part of corpus callosum. They were characterized by high signal intensity on FLAIR and T2 sequences, with mild signal reduction on T1 sequence, and hyperintensity on DWI with low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values. The lesions formed as ovoid and boomerang. Following intravenous injection of contrast medium in 3 cases, no enhancement was found in the splenial lesions. All the patients completely recovered or obviously improved after appropriate treatments. The splenial lesions disappeared or obviously weakened on the follow-up MRI imaging, ranging from 6 to 30 days after first MRI imaging. Conclusions  RESLES is characterized by the MRI finding as a reversible lesion with transiently reduced diffusion in the splenium of corpus callosum. Symptoms of RESLES are various, the outcome is favorable in most cases, and the etiology and pathogenesis of RESLES are still unclear. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.09

  11. Chemotactic and inflammatory responses in the liver and brain are associated with pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K Gray

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a major human and animal pathogen associated with severe disease including hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but there is significant concern regarding its introduction into non-endemic regions and the potentially devastating effect to livestock populations with concurrent infections of humans. To date, there is little detailed data directly comparing the host response to infection with wild-type or vaccine strains of RVFV and correlation with viral pathogenesis. Here we characterized clinical and systemic immune responses to infection with wild-type strain ZH501 or IND vaccine strain MP-12 in the C57BL/6 mouse. Animals infected with live-attenuated MP-12 survived productive viral infection with little evidence of clinical disease and minimal cytokine response in evaluated tissues. In contrast, ZH501 infection was lethal, caused depletion of lymphocytes and platelets and elicited a strong, systemic cytokine response which correlated with high virus titers and significant tissue pathology. Lymphopenia and platelet depletion were indicators of disease onset with indications of lymphocyte recovery correlating with increases in G-CSF production. RVFV is hepatotropic and in these studies significant clinical and histological data supported these findings; however, significant evidence of a pro-inflammatory response in the liver was not apparent. Rather, viral infection resulted in a chemokine response indicating infiltration of immunoreactive cells, such as neutrophils, which was supported by histological data. In brains of ZH501 infected mice, a significant chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine response was evident, but with little pathology indicating meningoencephalitis. These data suggest that RVFV pathogenesis in mice is associated with a loss of liver function due to liver necrosis and hepatitis yet the long-term course of disease for those that

  12. Factors Required for Activation of Urease as a Virulence Determinant in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arpita; Panting, Robert J.; Varma, Ashok; Saijo, Tomomi; Waldron, Kevin J.; Jong, Ambrose; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Chang, Yun C.; Rutherford, Julian C.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urease in Cryptococcus neoformans plays an important role in fungal dissemination to the brain and causing meningoencephalitis. Although urea is not required for synthesis of apourease encoded by URE1, the available nitrogen source affected the expression of URE1 as well as the level of the enzyme activity. Activation of the apoenzyme requires three accessory proteins, Ure4, Ure6, and Ure7, which are homologs of the bacterial urease accessory proteins UreD, UreF, and UreG, respectively. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed positive interaction of Ure1 with the three accessory proteins encoded by URE4, URE6, and URE7. Metalloproteomic analysis of cryptococcal lysates using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a biochemical assay of urease activity showed that, as in many other organisms, urease is a metallocentric enzyme that requires nickel transported by Nic1 for its catalytic activity. The Ure7 accessory protein (bacterial UreG homolog) binds nickel likely via its conserved histidine-rich domain and appears to be responsible for the incorporation of Ni2+ into the apourease. Although the cryptococcal genome lacks the bacterial UreE homolog, Ure7 appears to combine the functions of bacterial UreE and UreG, thus making this pathogen more similar to that seen with the plant system. Brain invasion by the ure1, ure7, and nic1 mutant strains that lack urease activity was significantly less effective in a mouse model. This indicated that an activated urease and not the Ure1 protein was responsible for enhancement of brain invasion and that the factors required for urease activation in C. neoformans resemble those of plants more than those of bacteria. PMID:23653445

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Seal Parvovirus, 1988–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00×10−4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15×10−4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses. PMID:25390639

  14. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4) for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4) for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  15. [Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment.

  16. Chikungunya fever: CNS infection and pathologies of a re-emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trina; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine; Hoarau, Jean Jacques; Krejbich Trotot, Pascale; Denizot, Melanie; Lee-Pat-Yuen, Ghislaine; Sahoo, Renubala; Guiraud, Pascale; Ramful, Duksha; Robin, Stephanie; Alessandri, Jean Luc; Gauzere, Bernard Alex; Gasque, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes an acute symptomatic illness with fever, skin rash, and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve into chronic rheumatoid arthritis in elderly patients. This is a tropical disease originally described in central/east Africa in the 1960s, but its 2004 re-emergence in Africa and rapid spread in lands in and around the Indian Ocean (Reunion island, India, Malaysia) as well as Europe (Italy) led to almost 6 million cases worldwide. The risk of importation and spreading diseases with long-term sequelae is even greater today given the global distribution of the vectors (including in the Americas), increased tourism and the apparent capacity of CHIKV to produce high levels of viremia (10(9)-10(12) virus/ml of blood) and new mutants. CHIKV-associated neuropathology was described early in the 1960s, but it is the unprecedented incidence rate in Indian Ocean areas with efficient clinical facilities that allowed a better description of cases with severe encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, peripheral neuropathies and deaths among newborns (mother-to-child infection), infants and elderly patients. Death rates following CHIKV infection were estimated at 1:1000 cases in la Reunion's outbreak. These clinical observations have been corroborated by experimental infection in several mouse models, leading to CNS pathologies. We further describe in this review the capacity of CHIKV to infect neurons and glial cells, delineate the fundamental innate (intrinsic) immune defence mechanisms to protect from infection and argue about the possible mechanisms involved in the encephalopathy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  18. Characteristics of a large mumps outbreak: Clinical severity, complications and association with vaccination status of mumps outbreak cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, C Stein; Schroeder, H; Shoob, H; Abramson, N; Zentner, G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, large mumps outbreaks, involving mainly adolescents and young adults, have re-emerged in several countries. We investigated a large mumps outbreak, evaluated the association between mumps clinical severity (complications, hospitalization) and vaccination status (number of previous measles, mumps and rubella - MMR vaccine doses), and assessed vaccine effectiveness. The first mumps cases emerged in an ultra-orthodox boys' school in Jerusalem and were epidemiologically linked to the mumps outbreak in New York. Overall, 3130 mumps cases were notified in the Jerusalem district during September 2009-August 2011 (median age 13y, 64% males). Most cases were reported from community clinics. Patients with systemic symptoms and/or complications (419, 13.4%) were either hospitalized (n = 79) or treated in an emergency medical center (n = 340). The main complications included orchitis (3.8% males> age 12y) and meningoencephalitis (0.5%). The mumps virus genotype was G5. The distribution of previous MMR vaccine doses (n = 0,1,2) was: 24.8%, 28.3% and 46.9%, respectively. The number of previous vaccine doses was inversely associated with clinical severity. Adjusted values for MMR vaccine effectiveness against complications were estimated as 52.1% (95% CI -4 -78%) for one vaccine dose and 62.7% (95% CI 25.7-81.3%) for 2 doses. The outbreak was characterized by predominance of male students; the majority of whom had been previously vaccinated. The reported complication rate was relatively low. Vaccination status was associated with age and disease severity. The combination of limited mumps vaccine effectiveness and the specific school setting (dense learning and living conditions) probably contributed to the disease spread.

  19. Pathogenicity of Human ST23 Streptococcus agalactiae to Fish and Genomic Comparison of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS, is a major pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. CC23, including its namesake ST23, is not only the predominant GBS strain derived from human and cattle, but also can infect a variety of homeothermic and poikilothermic species. However, it has never been characterized in fish. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS to fish and explore the mechanisms causing the difference in the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS based on the genome analysis. Infection of tilapia with 10 human-derived ST23 GBS isolates caused tissue damage and the distribution of pathogens within tissues. The mortality rate of infection was ranged from 76 to 100%, and it was shown that the mortality rate caused by only three human isolates had statistically significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain (P < 0.05, whereas the mortality caused by other seven human isolates did not show significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain. The genome comparison and prophage analysis showed that the major genome difference between virulent and non-virulent ST23 GBS was attributed to the different prophage sequences. The prophage in the P1 region contained about 43% GC and encoded 28–39 proteins, which can mediate the acquisition of YafQ/DinJ structure for GBS by phage recombination. YafQ/DinJ belongs to one of the bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA systems and allows cells to cope with stress. The ST23 GBS strains carrying this prophage were not pathogenic to tilapia, but the strains without the prophage or carrying the pophage that had gene mutation or deletion, especially the deletion of YafQ/DinJ structure, were highly pathogenic to tilapia. In conclusion, human ST23 GBS is highly pathogenic to fish, which may be related to the phage recombination.

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus influenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos.The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophilus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

  1. [Etiologic diagnosis in meningitis and encephalitis molecular biology techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conca, Natalia; Santolaya, María Elena; Farfan, Mauricio J; Cofré, Fernanda; Vergara, Alejandra; Salazar, Liliana; Torres, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aetiological study of infections of the central nervous system has traditionally been performed using bacterial cultures and, more recently, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus (HSV). Bacterial cultures may not have good performance, especially in the context of patients who have received antibiotics prior to sampling, and a request for HSV only by PCR reduces the information to only one aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to determine the infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis, using traditional microbiology and molecular biology to improve the aetiological diagnosis of these diseases. A prospective study was conducted on 19 patients with suspected meningitis, admitted to the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago, Chile, from March 1, 2011 to March 30, 2012. After obtaining informed consent, the CSF samples underwent cytochemical study, conventional culture, multiplex PCR for the major producing bacterial meningitis (N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae), real-time single PCR for HSV-1 and 2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6 and enterovirus. Clinical and epidemiological data were also collected from the clinical records. Of the 19 patients analysed, 2 were diagnosed by conventional methods and 7 by adding molecular biology (increase to 37%). Three patients had meningitis due to S. pneumoniae, one due to Enterobacter cloacae, 2 patients meningoencephalitis HSV-1, and one VZV meningitis. The addition of PCR to conventional diagnostic methods in CNS infections increases the probability of finding the causal agent. This allows a more adequate, timely and rational management of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Tuberculous meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults with central nervous system infections in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heng Gee; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Ralph, Anna P; Ooi, Eng Eong; Hou, Yan'an; Sessions, October; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2016-06-16

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections. A better understanding of these is essential for the development of local guidelines for diagnosis and management. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in patients aged 12 years and older with suspected central nervous system infections at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia between February 2012 and March 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid was sent for microscopy, biochemistry, bacterial and mycobacterial cultures, Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and multiplex and MassCode PCR for various viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 84 patients with clinically suspected meningitis and encephalitis were enrolled. An aetiological agent was confirmed in 37/84 (44 %) of the patients. The most common diagnoses were tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (41/84, 48.8 %) and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (14/84, 16.6 %). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 13/41 (31.7 %) clinically diagnosed TBM patients by cerebrospinal fluid PCR or culture. The acute case fatality rate during hospital admission was 16/84 (19 %) in all patients, 4/43 (9 %) in non-TBM, and 12/41 (29 %) in TBM patients respectively (p = 0.02). TBM is the most common cause of CNS infection in patients aged 12 years or older in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Further studies are required to improve the management and outcome of TBM.

  3. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Barr, B C; Nordhausen, R; James, E R; Magargal, S L; Murray, M; Conrad, P A; Toy-Choutka, S; Jessup, D A; Grigg, M E

    2009-10-01

    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Schizonts, free merozoites and tissue cysts were observed in the brains of all three infected animals. Tissue cysts walls from sea otter 1 (SO1) stained positively using anti-S. neurona polyclonal antiserum. However, positive staining does not preclude infection by closely related or cross-reactive tissue cyst-forming coccidian parasites. Two immature tissue cysts in the brain of SO1 were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features included cyst walls with thin villous projections up to 1 microm long with tapered ends and a distinctive, electron-dense outer lining layer composed of linearly-arranged, semi-circular structures with a "hobnailed" surface contour. Small numbers of microtubules extended down through the villi into the underlying granular layer. Metrocytes were short and plump with an anterior apical complex, 22 sub-pellicular microtubules, numerous free ribosomes and no rhoptries. Some metrocytes appeared to be dividing, with two adjacent nuclear profiles. Collectively these ultrastructural features were compatible with developing protozoal cysts and were similar to prior descriptions of S. neurona tissue cysts. Panspecific 18S rDNA primers were utilized to identify protozoa infecting the brains of these otters and DNA amplification and additional sequencing at the ITS1 locus confirmed that all three otters were infected with S. neurona. No other Sarcocystis spp. were detected in the brains or skeletal muscles of these animals by immunohistochemistry or PCR. We believe this is the first ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of S. neurona tissue cysts in the CNS of any animal.

  4. The spectrum of neurological disease associated with Zika and chikungunya viruses in adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcus Tulius Texeira; Rosala-Hallas, Anna; Jardim, Marcia Rodrigues; Burnside, Girvan; Pamplona, Luciana; Bhojak, Maneesh; Manohar, Radhika; da Silva, Gabriel Amorelli Medeiros; Adriano, Marcus Vinicius; Brasil, Patricia; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Carolina Cardoso; Turtle, Lance; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Brown, David W.; Griffiths, Michael J.; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo

    2018-01-01

    Background During 2015–16 Brazil experienced the largest epidemic of Zika virus ever reported. This arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults but other neurological associations are uncertain. Chikungunya virus has caused outbreaks in Brazil since 2014 but associated neurological disease has rarely been reported here. We investigated adults with acute neurological disorders for Zika, chikungunya and dengue, another arbovirus circulating in Brazil. Methods We studied adults who had developed a new neurological condition following suspected Zika virus infection between 1st November 2015 and 1st June 2016. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine were tested for evidence of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. Results Of 35 patients studied, 22 had evidence of recent arboviral infection. Twelve had positive PCR or IgM for Zika, five of whom also had evidence for chikungunya, three for dengue, and one for all three viruses. Five of them presented with GBS; seven had presentations other than GBS, including meningoencephalitis, myelitis, radiculitis or combinations of these syndromes. Additionally, ten patients positive for chikungunya virus, two of whom also had evidence for dengue virus, presented with a similar range of neurological conditions. Conclusions Zika virus is associated with a wide range of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system disease. Chikungunya virus appears to have an equally important association with neurological disease in Brazil, and many patients had dual infection. To understand fully the burden of Zika we must look beyond GBS, and also investigate for other co-circulating arboviruses, particularly chikungunya. PMID:29432457

  5. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  6. Immunology of Cryptococcal Infections: Developing a Rational Approach to Patient Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Elsegeiny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30–50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions. The Damage Framework Response, originally proposed in 1999, was recently used to discuss dichotomous etiologies of host damage in cryptococcal disease. These include patients suffering microbiological damage with low host immunity (especially those immunosuppressed with HIV and those having low (live microbiological burden but high immune-mediated damage (HIV-related immune reconstitution syndrome and non-HIV-related postinfectious inflammatory response syndrome. Cryptococcal disease in previously healthy hosts, albeit rare, has been known for a long time. Immunophenotyping and dendritic cell-T cell signaling studies on cerebral spinal fluid of these rare patients reveal immune capacity for recognition and T-cell activation pathways including increased levels of HLA-DR and CD56. However, despite effective T-cell signals, brain biopsy and autopsy specimens demonstrated an M2 alternative macrophage polarization and poor phagocytosis of fungal cells. These studies expand the paradigm for cryptococcal disease susceptibility to include a prominent role for immune-mediated damage and suggest a need for careful individual consideration of immune activation during therapy of cryptococcal disease in diverse hosts.

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans: Tripping on Acid in the phagolysosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miguel De Leon Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that is a frequent cause of meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. Cn is a facultative intracellular pathogen in mammals, insects and amoeba. Cn infection occurs after inhalation of spores or desiccated cells from the environment. After inhalation Cn localizes to the lungs where it can be phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages. Cn is surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule that helps the fungus survive in vivo by interfering with phagocytosis, quenching free radical bursts and shedding polysaccharides that negatively modulates the immune system. After phagocytosis, Cn resides within the phagosome that matures to become a phagolysosome, a process that results in the acidification of the phagolysosomal lumen. Cn replicates at a higher rate inside macrophages than in the extracellular environment, possibly as a result that the phagosomal pH is near that optimal for growth. Cn increases the phagolysosomal pH and modulates the dynamics of Rab GTPases interaction with the phagolysosome. Chemical manipulation of the phagolysosomal pH with drugs can result in direct and indirect killing of Cn and reduced non-lytic exocytosis. Phagolysosomal membrane damage after Cn infection occurs both in vivo and in vitro, and is required for Cn growth and survival. Macrophage treatment with IFN-γ reduces the phagolysosomal damage and increases intracellular killing of Cn. Studies on mice and humans show that treatment with IFN-γ can improve host control of the disease. However the mechanism by which Cn mediates phagolysosomal membrane damage remains unknown but likely candidates are phospholipases and mechanical damage from an enlarging capsule. Here we review Cn intracellular interaction with a particular emphasis on phagosomal interactions and develop the notion that the extent of damage of the phagosomal membrane is a key determinant of the outcome of the Cn-macrophage interaction.

  8. Endemic angiostrongyliasis in the Brazilian Amazon: natural parasitism of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and sympatric giant African land snails, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, V L C; Giese, E G; Melo, F T V; Simões, R O; Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Santos, J N

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Tainá CC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8 from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode’s main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Methods The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. Results The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. Conclusion The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions. PMID:23130987

  11. Astrovirus infection in hospitalized infants with severe combined immunodeficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Wunderli

    Full Text Available Infants with severe primary combined immunodeficiency (SCID and children post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT are extremely susceptible to unusual infections. The lack of generic tools to detect disease-causing viruses among more than 200 potential human viral pathogens represents a major challenge to clinicians and virologists. We investigated retrospectively the causes of a fatal disseminated viral infection with meningoencephalitis in an infant with gamma C-SCID and of chronic gastroenteritis in 2 other infants admitted for HSCT during the same time period. Analysis was undertaken by combining cell culture, electron microscopy and sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA techniques. Caco-2 cells inoculated with fecal samples developed a cytopathic effect and non-enveloped viral particles in infected cells were detected by electron microscopy. SISPA led to the identification of astrovirus as the pathogen. Both sequencing of the capsid gene and the pattern of infection suggested nosocomial transmission from a chronically excreting index case to 2 other patients leading to fatal infection in 1 and to transient disease in the others. Virus-specific, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was then performed on different stored samples to assess the extent of infection. Infection was associated with viremia in 2 cases and contributed to death in 1. At autopsy, viral RNA was detected in the brain and different other organs, while immunochemistry confirmed infection of gastrointestinal tissues. This report illustrates the usefulness of the combined use of classical virology procedures and modern molecular tools for the diagnosis of unexpected infections. It illustrates that astrovirus has the potential to cause severe disseminated lethal infection in highly immunocompromised pediatric patients.

  12. Cryptococcal infections over a 15 year period at a tertiary facility & impact of guideline management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassiep, Ian; Douglas, Joel; Emeto, Theophilus I; Crawley, Katherine; Playford, Elliott G

    2018-04-17

    Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection caused primarily by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species, presenting predominantly as meningoencephalitis. The aim of this study is to assess all cryptococcal infections managed at our facility from 2001-2015 to determine incidence, risk factors, and comparison of outcomes prior to and following introduction of the 2010 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 97 were eligible for study inclusion. There appears to be an overall increased incidence of cryptococcosis in both transplant and non-transplant cohorts with a peak in 2015 of 6 transplant and 13 non-transplant cases. In the meningitis cohort, 38/52 (73%) of identified isolates were C. neoformans, and 14/52 (27%) were C. gattii. Notably, 14/14 (100%) of C. gattii isolates were associated with meningitis, as compared to only 38/64 (59%) C. neoformans associated with meningitis (p: 0.003). It appears that patients presenting with cough are less likely to have meningitis, 17/27 (63%), (p: 0.005). When stratifying for culture positive meningitis lumbar puncture opening pressure, the median in the culture positive cohort was 31.5 cmH2O compared with 15.5 cmH2O (p: 0.036).Multiple admissions were required prior to diagnosis in the majority of cases with only 18/72 (25%) diagnosed on 1st presentation. Post-guideline mortality has improved from 15% to 6.1% (p: 0.046). Cryptococcal infection remains relatively uncommon, but there appears to be an increasing trend in incidence. Overall mortality is relatively low and has improved since introduction of the 2010 IDSA guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian isolates of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) employing mitochondrial COI gene sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Tainá C C; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Novaes, Clodoaldo F; Thiengo, Silvana C; Silva, Alexandre J; Estrela, Pedro C; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2012-11-06

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This nematode's main definitive hosts are rodents and its intermediate hosts are snails. This parasite was first described in China and currently is dispersed across several Pacific islands, Asia, Australia, Africa, some Caribbean islands and most recently in the Americas. Here, we report the genetic variability among A. cantonensis isolates from different geographical locations in Brazil using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. The isolates of A. cantonensis were obtained from distinct geographical locations of Brazil. Genomic DNAs were extracted, amplified by polymerase reaction, purified and sequenced. A partial sequence of COI gene was determined to assess their phylogenetic relationship. The sequences of A. cantonensis were monophyletic. We identified a distinct clade that included all isolates of A. cantonensis from Brazil and Asia based on eight distinct haplotypes (ac1, ac2, ac3, ac4, ac5, ac6, ac7 and ac8) from a previous study. Interestingly, the Brazilian haplotype ac5 is clustered with isolates from Japan, and the Brazilian haplotype ac8 from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pará and Pernambuco states formed a distinct clade. There is a divergent Brazilian haplotype, which we named ac9, closely related to Chinese haplotype ac6 and Japanese haplotype ac7. The genetic variation observed among Brazilian isolates supports the hypothesis that the appearance of A. cantonensis in Brazil is likely a result of multiple introductions of parasite-carrying rats, transported on ships due to active commerce with Africa and Asia during the European colonization period. The rapid spread of the intermediate host, Achatina fulica, also seems to have contributed to the dispersion of this parasite and the infection of the definitive host in different Brazilian regions.

  14. In Vitro Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against Naegleria fowleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri, popularly known as the “brain-eating ameba.” The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children. Since N. fowleri causes extensive inflammation in the brain it is important to select compounds that can enter brain to kill ameba. In this study, we identified two central nervous system (CNS active compounds, ebselen and BAY 11-7082 as amebicidal with EC50 of 6.2 and 1.6 μM, respectively. The closely related BAY 11-7085 was also found active against N. fowleri with EC50 similar to BAY 11-7082. We synthesized a soluble ebselen analog, which had amebicidal activity similar to ebselen. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated for 48 h with EC50 concentration of ebselen showed alteration in the cytoplasmic membrane, loss of the nuclear membrane, and appearance of electron-dense granules. Incubation of N. fowleri trophozoites with EC50 concentrations of BAY 11-7082 and BAY 11-7085 for 48 h showed the presence of large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, disruption of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes and appearance of several vesicles and chromatin residues. Blood-brain barrier permeable amebicidal compounds have potential as new drug leads for Naegleria infection.

  15. Early invasion of brain parenchyma by African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Frevert

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a vector-borne parasitic disease that has a major impact on human health and welfare in sub-Saharan countries. Based mostly on data from animal models, it is currently thought that trypanosome entry into the brain occurs by initial infection of the choroid plexus and the circumventricular organs followed days to weeks later by entry into the brain parenchyma. However, Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms rapidly cross human brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and appear to be able to enter the murine brain without inflicting cerebral injury. Using a murine model and intravital brain imaging, we show that bloodstream forms of T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense enter the brain parenchyma within hours, before a significant level of microvascular inflammation is detectable. Extravascular bloodstream forms were viable as indicated by motility and cell division, and remained detectable for at least 3 days post infection suggesting the potential for parasite survival in the brain parenchyma. Vascular inflammation, as reflected by leukocyte recruitment and emigration from cortical microvessels, became apparent only with increasing parasitemia at later stages of the infection, but was not associated with neurological signs. Extravascular trypanosomes were predominantly associated with postcapillary venules suggesting that early brain infection occurs by parasite passage across the neuroimmunological blood brain barrier. Thus, trypanosomes can invade the murine brain parenchyma during the early stages of the disease before meningoencephalitis is fully established. Whether individual trypanosomes can act alone or require the interaction from a quorum of parasites remains to be shown. The significance of these findings for disease development is now testable.

  16. Lesion-induced pseudo-dominance at functional magnetic resonance imaging: implications for preoperative assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mathews, Vincent P; Mueller, Wade M; DeYoe, Edgar A; Prost, Robert W; Meyer, Glenn A; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2004-09-01

    To illustrate how lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling at functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can mimic hemispheric dominance opposite the side of a lesion preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative fMRI mapping data from 50 patients with focal brain abnormalities to establish patterns of hemispheric dominance of language, speech, visual, or motor system functions. Abnormalities included gliomas (31 patients), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (11 patients), other congenital lesions (4 patients), encephalomalacia (3 patients), and tumefactive encephalitis (1 patient). A laterality ratio of fMRI hemispheric dominance was compared with actual hemispheric dominance as verified by electrocortical stimulation, Wada testing, postoperative and posttreatment deficits, and/or lesion-induced deficits. fMRI activation maps were generated with cross-correlation (P frontal gyrus gliomas and in one patient with focal tumefactive meningoencephalitis, fMRI incorrectly suggested strong right hemispheric speech dominance. In two patients with lateral precentral gyrus region gliomas and one patient with a left central sulcus AVM, the fMRI pattern incorrectly suggested primary corticobulbar motor dominance contralateral to the side of the lesion. In a patient with a right superior frontal gyrus AVM, fMRI revealed pronounced left dominant supplementary motor area activity in response to a bilateral complex motor task, but right superior frontal gyrus perilesional hemorrhage and edema subsequently caused left upper-extremity plegia. Pathophysiological factors that might have caused neurovascular uncoupling and facilitated pseudo-dominance at fMRI in these patients included direct tumor infiltration, neovascularity, cerebrovascular inflammation, and AVM-induced hemodynamic effects. Sixteen patients had proven (1 patient), probable (2 patients), or possible (13 patients) but unproven lesion-induced homotopic cortical reorganization. Lesion-induced neurovascular

  17. Two cation transporters Ena1 and Nha1 cooperatively modulate ion homeostasis, antifungal drug resistance, and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans via the HOG pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Strain, Anna K; Nielsen, Kirsten; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of cation homeostasis is essential for survival of all living organisms in their biological niches. It is also important for the survival of human pathogenic fungi in the host, where cation concentrations and pH will vary depending on different anatomical sites. However, the exact role of diverse cation transporters and ion channels in virulence of fungal pathogens remains elusive. In this study we functionally characterized ENA1 and NHA1, encoding a putative Na+/ATPase and Na+/H+ antiporter, respectively, in Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycete fungal pathogen which causes fatal meningoencephalitis. Expression of NHA1 and ENA1 is induced in response to salt and osmotic shock mainly in a Hog1-dependent manner. Phenotypic analysis of the ena1, nha1, and ena1 nha1 mutants revealed that Ena1 controls cellular levels of toxic cations, such as Na+ and Li+ whereas both Ena1 and Nha1 are important for controlling less toxic K+ ions. Under alkaline conditions, Ena1 was highly induced and required for growth in the presence of low levels of Na+ or K+ salt and Nha1 played a role in survival under K+ stress. In contrast, Nha1, but not Ena1, was essential for survival at acidic conditions (pH 4.5) under high K+ stress. In addition, Ena1 and Nha1 were required for maintenance of plasma membrane potential and stability, which appeared to modulate antifungal drug susceptibility. Perturbation of ENA1 and NHA1 enhanced capsule production and melanin synthesis. However, Nha1 was dispensable for virulence of C. neoformans although Ena1 was essential. In conclusion, Ena1 and Nha1 play redundant and discrete roles in cation homeostasis, pH regulation, membrane potential, and virulence in C. neoformans, suggesting that these transporters could be novel antifungal drug targets for treatment of cryptococcosis. PMID:22343280

  18. Role of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in diseases of cattle. Recent findings on BoHV-5 association with genital disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, Girdhar G

    2013-04-01

    To study prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders--epilepsy, global developmental delay, and motor, vision, and hearing defects--in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India. A two-stage community survey for neurological disorders was conducted in rural and urban areas of Lucknow. After initial screening with a new instrument, the Lucknow Neurodevelopment Screen, screen positives and a random proportion of screen negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence was calculated by weighted estimates. Demographic, socio-economic, and medical risk factors were compared between validated children who were positive and negative for neurological disorders by univariate and logistic regression analysis. Of 4801 children screened (mean age [SD] 15.32mo [5.96]; 2542 males, 2259 females), 196 were positive; 190 screen positives and 269 screen negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 27.92 per 1000 (weighted 95% confidence interval 12.24-43.60). Significant risk factors (p≤0.01) for neurological disorders were higher age in months (p=0.010), lower mean number of appliances in the household (p=0.001), consanguineous marriage of parents (p=0.010), family history of neurological disorder (p=0.001), and infants born exceptionally small (parental description; p=0.009). On logistic regression, the final model included age (p=0.0193), number of appliances (p=0.0161), delayed cry at birth (p=0.0270), postneonatal meningoencephalitis (p=0.0549), and consanguinity (p=0.0801). Perinatal factors, lower socio-economic status, and consanguinity emerged as predictors of neurological disorders. These factors are largely modifiable. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Clinical Spectrum, Etiology, and Outcome of Neurological Disorders in the Rural Hospital of Mosango, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Deby; Lilo Kalo, Jean-Roger; Mpanya, Alain; Minikulu, Luigi; Kayembe, Tharcisse; Lutumba, Pascal; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Van Loen, Harry; Yansouni, Cédric P; Chappuis, François; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Verdonck, Kristien; Boelaert, Marleen; Winkler, Andrea S; Bottieau, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    There is little published information on the epidemiology of neurological disorders in rural Central Africa, although the burden is considered to be substantial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children > 5 years and adults admitted to the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on severe and treatable infections of the central nervous system (CNS). From September 2012 to January 2015, 351 consecutive patients hospitalized for recent and/or ongoing neurological disorder were prospectively evaluated by a neurologist, subjected to a set of reference diagnostic tests in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and followed-up for 3-6 months after discharge. No neuroimaging was available. Severe headache (199, 56.7%), gait/walking disorders (97, 27.6%), epileptic seizure (87, 24.8%), and focal neurological deficit (86, 24.5%) were the predominant presentations, often in combination. Infections of the CNS were documented in 63 (17.9%) patients and mainly included bacterial meningitis and unspecified meningoencephalitis (33, 9.4%), second-stage human African trypanosomiasis (10, 2.8%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurological disorders (10, 2.8%). Other focal/systemic infections with neurological manifestations were diagnosed in an additional 60 (17.1%) cases. The leading noncommunicable conditions were epilepsy (61, 17.3%), psychiatric disorders (56, 16.0%), and cerebrovascular accident (23, 6.6%). Overall fatality rate was 8.2% (29/351), but up to 23.8% for CNS infections. Sequelae were observed in 76 (21.6%) patients. Clinical presentations and etiologies of neurological disorders were very diverse in this rural Central African setting and caused considerable mortality and morbidity.

  1. Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a National British Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Anu; Michael, Benedict D; Ledger, Elizabeth; Hart, Ian J; Absoud, Michael; Chow, Gabriel; Lilleker, James; Lunn, Michael; McKee, David; Peake, Deirdre; Pysden, Karen; Roberts, Mark; Carrol, Enitan D; Lim, Ming; Avula, Shivaram; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was met with increased reports of associated neurological manifestations. We aimed to describe neurological manifestations of influenza in adults and children in the United Kingdom that presented at this time. A 2-year surveillance study was undertaken through the British adult and pediatric neurological surveillance units from February 2011. Patients were included if they met clinical case definitions within 1 month of proven influenza infection. Twenty-five cases were identified: 21 (84%) in children and 4 (16%) in adults. Six (29%) children had preexisting neurological disorders. Polymerase chain reaction of respiratory secretions identified influenza A in 21 (81%; 20 of which [95%] were H1N1) and influenza B in 4 (15%). Twelve children had encephalopathy (1 with movement disorder), 8 had encephalitis, and 1 had meningoencephalitis. Two adults had encephalopathy with movement disorder, 1 had encephalitis, and 1 had Guillain-Barré syndrome. Seven individuals (6 children) had specific acute encephalopathy syndromes (4 acute necrotizing encephalopathy, 1 acute infantile encephalopathy predominantly affecting the frontal lobes, 1 hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy, 1 acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy). Twenty (80%) required intensive care, 17 (68%) had poor outcome, and 4 (16%) died. This surveillance study described a cohort of adults and children with neurological manifestations of influenza. The majority were due to H1N1. More children than adults were identified; many children had specific encephalopathy syndromes with poor outcomes. None had been vaccinated, although 8 (32%) had indications for this. A modified classification system is proposed based on our data and the increasing spectrum of recognized acute encephalopathy syndromes.

  2. Side effects and late sequelae of combined irradiation- and chemotherapy of the neurocranium in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippel, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Therapeutical procedures are not only judged according to their efficacy, but also with respect to their affection to the patient. For acute side effects as headaches, nausea, tiredness and fever, which occurred in several children, cranial irradiation and intrathecal MTX injections have to be considered as responsible factors. These accompanying symptoms, for example also alopecia, have to be tolerated with respect to the successful course of phase II, i.e. the prevention of a leukaemic meningo-encephalitis. The somnolence syndrome can be observed also after cerebral irradiation with a different indication; in several patients the occurrence of this syndrome has to be expected. Up to the present no secondary damages caused by this syndrome have been observed. Severe neurologic disorders only rarely appear within the course of the ALL; nevertheless it is necessary to determine at the earliest possible date also more subtle disturbances in the neurologic and psychic development of the children by neurologic examinations, regular ECG registrations, and psychologic tests. A delineation of late damages of ZNS therapy is only possible on the basis of the cerebral post-mortem findings. Since the dose of the brain irradiations of phase II are within the limits of the generally accepted tolerance range, a late necrosis induced by irradiation, has not to be expected. Single cases of leukoencephalopathies are ascribed to the ALL therapy. Growth retardations - which in the most cases are reversible - are found in children treated with ALL therapy; as possibly damaging agent also neurocranial irradiation might be considered as responsible. Regular control examinations of the length show a possibly occuring growth reduction, which should be accessible by hormone therapy if necessary. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Fluxes of Ca2+ and K+ are required for the listeriolysin O-dependent internalization pathway of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadia, Stephen; Seveau, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the life-threatening food-borne disease listeriosis. This disease mainly affects elderly and immunocompromised individuals, causing bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. In pregnant women, L. monocytogenes infection leads to abortion and severe infection of the fetus or newborn. The L. monocytogenes intracellular life cycle is critical for pathogenesis. Previous studies have established that the major virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), is sufficient to induce L. monocytogenes internalization into human epithelial cell lines. This internalization pathway strictly requires the formation of LLO pores in the plasma membrane and can be stimulated by the heterologous pore-forming toxin pneumolysin, suggesting that LLO acts nonspecifically by forming transmembrane pores. The present work tested the hypothesis that Ca2+ and K+ fluxes subsequent to perforation by LLO control L. monocytogenes internalization. We report that L. monocytogenes perforates the host cell plasma membrane in an LLO-dependent fashion at the early stage of invasion. In response to perforation, host cells undergo Ca2+ -dependent but K+ -independent resealing of their plasma membrane. In contrast to the plasma membrane resealing process, LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires both Ca2+ and K+ fluxes. Further linking ion fluxes to bacterial internalization, treating cells with a combination of Ca2+ and K+ ionophores but not with individual ionophores is sufficient to induce efficient internalization of large cargoes, such as 1-μm polystyrene beads and bacteria. We propose that LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires a Ca2+ - and K+ -dependent internalization pathway that is mechanistically distinct from the process of plasma membrane resealing.

  4. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Trowbridge, Paul; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Thomas, Kurien; Peter, John V; Mathews, Prasad; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Kavitha, M L

    2014-06-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, may cause multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and is associated with significant mortality. This study was undertaken to document the clinical and laboratory manifestations and complications and to study time trends and factors associated with mortality in patients with scrub typhus infection. This retrospective study, done at a university teaching hospital, included 623 patients admitted between 2005 and 2010 with scrub typhus. The diagnosis was established by a positive IgM ELISA and/or pathognomonic eschar with PCR confirmation where feasible. The clinical and laboratory profile, course in hospital, and outcome were documented. Factors associated with mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (100%), nausea/vomiting (54%), shortness of breath (49%), headache (46%), cough (38%), and altered sensorium (26%). An eschar was present in 43.5% of patients. Common laboratory findings included elevated transaminases (87%), thrombocytopenia (79%), and leukocytosis (46%). MODS was seen in 34% of patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9.0%. Features of acute lung injury were observed in 33.7%, and 29.5% required ventilatory support. On multivariate analysis, shock requiring vasoactive agents (relative risk (RR) 10.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-25.7, p<0.001), central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction (RR 5.1, 95% CI 2.4-10.7, p<0.001), and renal failure (RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5, p=0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Over 4 years, a decreasing trend was observed in the mortality rate. Scrub typhus can manifest with potentially life-threatening complications such as lung injury, shock, and meningoencephalitis. MODS occurred in a third of our patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9%, with shock, renal failure, and CNS associated with a higher mortality. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  5. Efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine using mutated β-amyloid sensitized dendritic cells in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongqiu; Li, Jialin; Nabar, Neel R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Bai, Ge; Cai, Jianfeng; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Jinhuan

    2012-09-01

    Despite FDA suspension of Elan's AN-1792 amyloid beta (Aβ) vaccine in phase IIb clinical trials, the implications of this study are the guiding principles for contemporary anti-Aβ immunotherapy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). AN-1792 showed promising results with regards to Aβ clearance and cognitive function improvement, but also exhibited an increased risk of Th1 mediated meningoencephalitis. As such, vaccine development has continued with an emphasis on eliciting a notable anti-Aβ antibody titer, while avoiding the unwanted Th1 pro-inflammatory response. Previously, we published the first report of an Aβ sensitized dendritic cell vaccine as a therapeutic treatment for AD in BALB/c mice. Our vaccine elicited an anti-Aβ titer, with indications that a Th1 response was not present. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy and safety of our dendritic cell vaccine for the prevention of AD in transgenic mouse models (PDAPP) for AD. We also used Immunohistochemistry to characterize the involvement of LXR, ABCA1, and CD45 in order to gain insight into the potential mechanisms through which this vaccine may provide benefit. The results indicate that (1) the use of mutant Aβ1-42 sensitized dendritic cell vaccine results in durable antibody production, (2) the vaccine provides significant benefits with regards to cognitive function without the global (Th1) inflammation seen in prior Aβ vaccines, (3) histological studies showed an overall decrease in Aβ burden, with an increase in LXR, ABCA1, and CD45, and (4) the beneficial results of our DC vaccine may be due to the LXR/ABCA1 pathway. In the future, mutant Aβ sensitized dendritic cell vaccines could be an efficacious and safe method for the prevention or treatment of AD that circumvents problems associated with traditional anti-Aβ vaccines.

  6. MER5101, a novel Aβ1-15:DT conjugate vaccine, generates a robust anti-Aβ antibody response and attenuates Aβ pathology and cognitive deficits in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Frost, Jeffrey L; Sun, Jing; Fu, Hongjun; Grimes, Stephen; Blackburn, Peter; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2013-04-17

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ∼6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10-month-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Restimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after restimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T-cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101-vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared with Tg adjuvant controls. Last, MER5101-immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both contextual fear conditioning and the Morris water maze. Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD.

  7. Pathogenesis of bat rabies in a natural reservoir: Comparative susceptibility of the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) to three strains of Lagos bat virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu-Ire, Richard; Begeman, Lineke; Banyard, Ashley C; Breed, Andrew C; Drosten, Christian; Eggerbauer, Elisa; Freuling, Conrad M; Gibson, Louise; Goharriz, Hooman; Horton, Daniel L; Jennings, Daisy; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Marston, Denise; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Riesle Sbarbaro, Silke; Selden, David; Wise, Emma L; Kuiken, Thijs; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation. To allow comparison between strains, we ensured the same titer of virus was inoculated in the same location of the brain of each bat. All bats (n = 3 per strain) were infected, and developed neurological signs, and fatal meningoencephalitis with lyssavirus antigen expression in neurons. There were three main differences among the groups. First, time to death was substantially shorter in the Senegal and Ghana groups (4 to 6 days) than in the Nigeria group (8 days). Second, each virus strain produced a distinct clinical syndrome. Third, the spread of virus to peripheral tissues, tested by hemi-nested reverse transcriptase PCR, was frequent (3 of 3 bats) and widespread (8 to 10 tissues positive of 11 tissues examined) in the Ghana group, was frequent and less widespread in the Senegal group (3/3 bats, 3 to 6 tissues positive), and was rare and restricted in the Nigeria group (1/3 bats, 2 tissues positive). Centrifugal spread of virus from brain to tissue of excretion in the oral cavity is required to enable lyssavirus transmission. Therefore, the Senegal and Ghana strains seem most suitable for further pathogenesis, and for transmission, studies in the straw-colored fruit bat.

  8. Molecular characterization of phosphorylcholine expression on the lipooligosaccharide of Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elswaifi, Shaadi F.; St. Michael, Frank; Sreenivas, Avula; Cox, Andrew; Carman, George M.; Inzana, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus) is an important pathogen of cattle that is responsible for respiratory disease, septicemia, and systemic diseases such as thrombotic meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and abortion. A variety of virulence factors have been identified in H. somni, including compositional and antigenic variation of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) has been identified as one of the components of H. somni LOS that undergoes antigenic variation. In this study, five genes (lic1ABCDHs and glpQ) with homology to genes responsible for ChoP expression in Haemophilus influenzae LOS were identified in the H. somni genome. An H. somni open reading frame (ORF) with homology to H. influenzae lic1A (lic1AHi) contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). However, whereas the tetranucleotide repeat 5′-CAAT-3′ is present in lic1AHi, the VNTR in H. somni lic1A (lic1AHs) consisted of 5′-AACC-3′. Due to the propensity of VNTR to vary during replication and cause the ORF to shift in and out of frame with the upstream start codon, the VNTR were deleted from lic1AHs to maintain the gene constitutively on. This construct was cloned into Escherichia coli, and functional enzyme assays confirmed that lic1AHs encoded a choline kinase, and that the VNTR were not required for expression of a functional gene product. Variation in the number of VNTR in lic1AHs correlated with antigenic variation of ChoP expression in H. somni strain 124P. However, antigenic variation of ChoP expression in strain 738 predominately occurred through variable extension/truncation of the LOS outer core. These results indicated that the lic1Hs genes controlled expression of ChoP on the LOS, but that in H. somni there are two potential mechanisms that account for antigenic variation of ChoP. PMID:19682567

  9. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  10. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of antibody response in neuroinvasive infection caused by Toscana virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, A; Ficarelli, S; Ayhan, N; Morini, S; Raumer, L; Bartoletti, M; Mastroianni, A; Prati, F; Schivazappa, S; Cenni, P; Vocale, C; Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Sambri, V; Landini, M P; Lewis, R E; Charrel, R N; Varani, S

    2017-11-01

    Among sandfly-borne pathogens, Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent cause of summer meningitis in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we assessed the kinetics of anti-TOSV antibodies over time in 41 patients diagnosed with TOSV meningitis or meningoencephalitis in northeastern Italy. Acute and follow-up serum samples were collected up to 20 months after diagnosis of TOSV infection and tested for the presence of specific antibody using immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assays. In addition, maturation of anti-TOSV IgG over time was evaluated as well as production of neutralizing antibodies. Specific IgM and IgG response was present at diagnosis in 100% of patients; TOSV-specific IgM and IgG were detected in patients' sera up to 6 and 20 months after diagnosis, respectively. The avidity index (AI) increased over the first month after infection in 100% of patients and most cases exceeded 60% by Day 30 post infection. The AI subsequently plateaued then declined at 20 months after diagnosis. Finally, neutralization assay to TOSV was performed in 217 sera collected from 41 patients; 69.6% of tested samples resulted in reactive and moderate levels of neutralizing antibodies observed during all phases of infection despite high titres of total anti-TOSV IgG. Specific antibody response develops rapidly and is long-lasting for neuroinvasive TOSV infection. Serodiagnosis of neuroinvasive TOSV requires simultaneous detection of specific IgM and IgG. Moderate levels of neutralizing antibodies were maintained over the study period, while the protective role of antibodies lacking neutralizing activity is unclear and requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Convulsive status epilepticus in a quaternary hospital paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in South Africa: An 8 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Yavini; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Mubaiwa, Lawrence

    2017-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus. The median age at presentation was 15 months (IQR 6-37 months). The main aetiologies were meningoencephalitis and gastroenteritis in 33(43%) and 19(25%) patients respectively. The most frequently used antiepileptic drugs for CSE in PICU consisted of infusions of midazolam (96%) and thiopentone (22%). Neuroimaging findings were abnormal in 53(75%) patients with hypoxic changes in 17 patients. On multivariable regression, the predictors of poor outcome included the use of more than 3 antiepileptic drugs in PICU(RR-1.41(1.12-1.78), p=0.003), duration of mechanical ventilation for more than 3days (RR 1.98(1.22-3.20), p=0.005) and abnormal neuroimaging findings (RR 3.21(1.53-6.72), p=0.002). The mortality rate was 24%(n=18). Persistent seizures or a new neurological deficit occurred in 58%(n=44). The main cause of mortality was CSE related diffuse cortical and brainstem injury. Predominant neurological sequelae were cerebral palsy and persistent epilepsy. The high burden of infection related CSE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in contrast to the rates in developed countries. This highlights the need for early recognition and treatment of underlying conditions. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  14. Fungal-induced cell cycle impairment, chromosome instability and apoptosis via differential activation of NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben-Abdallah

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have developed efficient strategies to compromise host immune responses. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen, recognised as the most common cause of systemic fungal infections leading to severe meningoencephalitis, mainly in immunocompromised patients. This yeast is characterized by a polysaccharide capsule, which inhibits its phagocytosis. Whereas phagocytosis escape and macrophage intracellular survival have been intensively studied, extracellular survival of this yeast and restraint of host innate immune response are still poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated whether C. neoformans affected macrophage cell viability and whether NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB, a key regulator of cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation, was involved. Using wild-type (WT as well as mutant strains of C. neoformans for the pathogen side, and WT and mutant cell lines with altered NF-κB activity or signalling as well as primary macrophages for the host side, we show that C. neoformans manipulated NF-κB-mediated signalling in a unique way to regulate macrophage cell fate and viability. On the one hand, serotype A strains reduced macrophage proliferation in a capsule-independent fashion. This growth decrease, which required a critical dosage of NF-κB activity, was caused by cell cycle disruption and aneuploidy, relying on fungal-induced modification of expression of several cell cycle checkpoint regulators in S and G2/M phases. On the other hand, C. neoformans infection induced macrophage apoptosis in a capsule-dependent manner with a differential requirement of the classical and alternative NF-κB signalling pathways, the latter one being essential. Together, these findings shed new light on fungal strategies to subvert host response through uncoupling of NF-κB activity in pathogen-controlled apoptosis and impairment of cell cycle progression. They also provide the first demonstration of induction of

  15. Clinically unrecognized miliary tuberculosis: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivana; Trifunovic-Skodric, Vesna; Mitrovic, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Miliary tuberculosis (TB) usually presents with atypical clinical manifestations; thus it is often recognized only at autopsy. Our objectives were to study the frequency of MT diagnosed at autopsy and determine clinical diagnoses that masked TB, as well as causes of death and comorbidities. Retrospective study of all autopsies performed between 2008 and 2014. Institute of Pathology, Belgrade, Serbia. in subjects where autopsy showed the presence of MT that was not recognized clinically, we recorded the clinical diagnoses (presumed causes of death) as reported in autopsy request forms, as well as actual cause of death and comorbidities as determined at autopsy. Clinically unrecognized MT. The total number of autopsies in this period was 6206. thirty-five individuals showed clinically unrecognized MT (0.56% of all autopsies, age: 62.2 [17.2] years, M:F=2:3). Common clinical diagnoses masking pulmonary MT were exacerbation of COPD (25%) and pulmonary thromboembolism (25%), with common radiological presentation of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates (56.3%). Dominant clinical diagnoses in patients with generalized MT were adult respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding and meningoencephalitis. Disseminated MT was often associated with secondary anemia or thrombocytopenia (15.8%) and recent surgery (15.8%). Frequent comorbidities included chronic renal failure and malignancies, whereas MT was a dominant cause of death. Greater awareness of MT is needed to improve recognition in clinical settings. In particular, MT should be considered in patients with atypical clinical presentation and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, particularly if they have chronic renal failure, malignancy, hematological disorders or a history of recent surgery. None.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8% of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5% of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  17. Patterns of contrast enhancement in the brain and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirniotopoulos, James G; Murphy, Frances M; Rushing, Elizabeth J; Rees, John H; Schroeder, Jason W

    2007-01-01

    Contrast material enhancement for cross-sectional imaging has been used since the mid 1970s for computed tomography and the mid 1980s for magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the patterns and mechanisms of contrast enhancement facilitate radiologic differential diagnosis. Brain and spinal cord enhancement is related to both intravascular and extravascular contrast material. Extraaxial enhancing lesions include primary neoplasms (meningioma), granulomatous disease (sarcoid), and metastases (which often manifest as mass lesions). Linear pachymeningeal (dura-arachnoid) enhancement occurs after surgery and with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Leptomeningeal (pia-arachnoid) enhancement is present in meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Superficial gyral enhancement is seen after reperfusion in cerebral ischemia, during the healing phase of cerebral infarction, and with encephalitis. Nodular subcortical lesions are typical for hematogenous dissemination and may be neoplastic (metastases) or infectious (septic emboli). Deeper lesions may form rings or affect the ventricular margins. Ring enhancement that is smooth and thin is typical of an organizing abscess, whereas thick irregular rings suggest a necrotic neoplasm. Some low-grade neoplasms are "fluid-secreting," and they may form heterogeneously enhancing lesions with an incomplete ring sign as well as the classic "cyst-with-nodule" morphology. Demyelinating lesions, including both classic multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelination, may also create an open ring or incomplete ring sign. Thick and irregular periventricular enhancement is typical for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Thin enhancement of the ventricular margin occurs with infectious ependymitis. Understanding the classic patterns of lesion enhancement--and the radiologic-pathologic mechanisms that produce them--can improve image assessment and differential diagnosis.

  18. Intravital imaging of a massive lymphocyte response in the cortical dura of mice after peripheral infection by trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Coles

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral infection by Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan responsible for sleeping sickness, activates lymphocytes, and, at later stages, causes meningoencephalitis. We have videoed the cortical meninges and superficial parenchyma of C56BL/6 reporter mice infected with T.b.brucei. By use of a two-photon microscope to image through the thinned skull, the integrity of the tissues was maintained. We observed a 47-fold increase in CD2+ T cells in the meninges by 12 days post infection (dpi. CD11c+ dendritic cells also increased, and extravascular trypanosomes, made visible either by expression of a fluorescent protein, or by intravenous injection of furamidine, appeared. The likelihood that invasion will spread from the meninges to the parenchyma will depend strongly on whether the trypanosomes are below the arachnoid membrane, or above it, in the dura. Making use of optical signals from the skull bone, blood vessels and dural cells, we conclude that up to 40 dpi, the extravascular trypanosomes were essentially confined to the dura, as were the great majority of the T cells. Inhibition of T cell activation by intraperitoneal injection of abatacept reduced the numbers of meningeal T cells at 12 dpi and their mean speed fell from 11.64 ± 0.34 μm/min (mean ± SEM to 5.2 ± 1.2 μm/min (p = 0.007. The T cells occasionally made contact lasting tens of minutes with dendritic cells, indicative of antigen presentation. The population and motility of the trypanosomes tended to decline after about 30 dpi. We suggest that the lymphocyte infiltration of the meninges may later contribute to encephalitis, but have no evidence that the dural trypanosomes invade the parenchyma.

  19. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  20. Unisexual and heterosexual meiotic reproduction generate aneuploidy and phenotypic diversity de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Down's syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individuals with compromised immunity, such as HIV/AIDS patients, causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. C. neoformans has a defined a-α opposite sexual cycle; however, >99% of isolates are of the α mating type. Interestingly, α cells can undergo α-α unisexual reproduction, even involving genotypically identical cells. A central question is: Why would cells mate with themselves given that sex is costly and typically serves to admix preexisting genetic diversity from genetically divergent parents? In this study, we demonstrate that α-α unisexual reproduction frequently generates phenotypic diversity, and the majority of these variant progeny are aneuploid. Aneuploidy is responsible for the observed phenotypic changes, as chromosome loss restoring euploidy results in a wild-type phenotype. Other genetic changes, including diploidization, chromosome length polymorphisms, SNPs, and indels, were also generated. Phenotypic/genotypic changes were not observed following asexual mitotic reproduction. Aneuploidy was also detected in progeny from a-α opposite-sex congenic mating; thus, both homothallic and heterothallic sexual reproduction can generate phenotypic diversity de novo. Our study suggests that the ability to undergo unisexual reproduction may be an evolutionary strategy for eukaryotic microbial pathogens, enabling de novo genotypic and phenotypic plasticity and facilitating rapid adaptation to novel environments.

  1. Pediatric bloodstream infections in Cambodia, 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Moore, Catrin E; Pocock, Joanna M; An, Khun Peng; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; Sona, Soeng; Poda, Sar; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Parry, Christopher M

    2013-07-01

    Pediatric bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological data from resource-limited settings in southeast Asia, such as Cambodia, are sparse but have important implications for treatment and public health strategies. We retrospectively investigated BSI in children at a pediatric hospital and its satellite clinic in Siem Reap, Cambodia, from January 1, 2007, to July 31, 2011. The range of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were analyzed in conjunction with demographic, clinical and outcome data. Of 7682 blood cultures with results (99.9% of cultures taken), 606 (7.9%) episodes of BSI were identified in 588 children. The incidence of BSI increased from 14 to 50/1000 admissions (P < 0.001); this was associated with an increased sampling rate. Most BSI were community acquired (89.1%). Common pathogens included Salmonella Typhi (22.8% of all isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (12.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%) and Escherichia coli (6.3%). 21.5% of BSI were caused by a diverse group of uncommon organisms, the majority of which were environmental Gram-negative species. No Listeria monocytogenes or Group B streptococcal BSI were identified. Antimicrobial resistance, particularly among the Enterobacteriaceae, was common. Overall mortality was substantial (19.0%), higher in neonates (36.9%) and independently associated with meningitis/meningoencephalitis and K. pneumoniae infection. BSI is a common problem in Cambodian children attending hospital and associated with significant mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis, the contribution of atypical organisms and the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease before the introduction of vaccine.

  2. Streptococcus azizii sp. nov., isolated from naïve weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, Patricia Lynn; Whitney, Anne M; Gulvik, Christopher A; Lipman, Neil S

    2017-12-01

    Three isolates of a previously reported novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, alpha-haemolytic, Streptococcus species that were associated with meningoencephalitis in naïve weanling mice were further evaluated to confirm their taxonomic status and to determine additional phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed nearly identical intra-species sequence similarity (≥99.9 %), and revealed the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptococcus acidominimus and Streptococcuscuniculi, with 97.0 and 97.5 % sequence similarity, respectively. The rpoB, sodA and recN genes were identical for the three isolates and were 87.6, 85.7 and 82.5 % similar to S. acidominimus and 89.7, 86.2 and 80.7 % similar to S. cuniculi, respectively. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization analyses of mouse isolate 12-5202 T against S. acidominimus CCUG 27296 T and S. cuniculi CCUG 65085 T produced estimated values of 26.4 and 25.7 % relatedness, and the calculated average nucleotide identity values were 81.9 and 81.7, respectively. These data confirm the taxonomic status of 12-5202 T as a distinct Streptococcus species, and we formally propose the type strain, Streptococcusazizii 12-5202 T (=CCUG 69378 T =DSM 103678 T ). The genome of Streptococcus azizii sp. nov. 12-5202 T contains 2062 total genes with a size of 2.34 Mbp, and an average G+C content of 42.76 mol%.

  3. In Vitro Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Nelson, Andrew T; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Siegel, Dionicio; McKerrow, James H

    2018-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri , popularly known as the "brain-eating ameba." The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children. Since N. fowleri causes extensive inflammation in the brain it is important to select compounds that can enter brain to kill ameba. In this study, we identified two central nervous system (CNS) active compounds, ebselen and BAY 11-7082 as amebicidal with EC 50 of 6.2 and 1.6 μM, respectively. The closely related BAY 11-7085 was also found active against N. fowleri with EC 50 similar to BAY 11-7082. We synthesized a soluble ebselen analog, which had amebicidal activity similar to ebselen. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated for 48 h with EC 50 concentration of ebselen showed alteration in the cytoplasmic membrane, loss of the nuclear membrane, and appearance of electron-dense granules. Incubation of N. fowleri trophozoites with EC 50 concentrations of BAY 11-7082 and BAY 11-7085 for 48 h showed the presence of large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, disruption of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes and appearance of several vesicles and chromatin residues. Blood-brain barrier permeable amebicidal compounds have potential as new drug leads for Naegleria infection.

  4. The live attenuated chimeric vaccine rWN/DEN4Δ30 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in healthy flavivirus-naïve adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P; Wright, Peter F; Cox, Amber; Kagucia, Wangeci; Elwood, Daniel; Henderson, Susan; Wanionek, Kimberli; Speicher, Jim; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pletnev, Alexander G

    2013-11-19

    WNV has become the leading vector-borne cause of meningoencephalitis in the United States. Although the majority of WNV infections result in asymptomatic illness, approximately 20% of infections result in West Nile fever and 1% in West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND), which causes encephalitis, meningitis, or flaccid paralysis. The elderly are at particular risk for WNND, with more than half the cases occurring in persons older than sixty years of age. There is no licensed treatment for WNND, nor is there any licensed vaccine for humans for the prevention of WNV infection. The Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health has developed a recombinant live attenuated WNV vaccine based on chimerization of the wild-type WNV NY99 genome with that of the live attenuated DENV-4 candidate vaccine rDEN4Δ30. The genes encoding the prM and envelope proteins of DENV-4 were replaced with those of WNV NY99 and the resultant virus was designated rWN/DEN4Δ30. The vaccine was evaluated in healthy flavivirus-naïve adult volunteers age 18-50 years in two separate studies, both of which are reported here. The first study evaluated 10³ or 10⁴ PFU of the vaccine given as a single dose; the second study evaluated 10⁵ PFU of the vaccine given as two doses 6 months apart. The vaccine was well-tolerated and immunogenic at all three doses, inducing seroconversion to WNV NY99 in 74% (10³ PFU), 75% (10⁴ PFU), and 55% (10⁵ PFU) of subjects after a single dose. A second 10⁵ PFU dose of rWN/DEN4Δ30 given 6 months after the first dose increased the seroconversion rate 89%. Based on the encouraging results from these studies, further evaluation of the candidate vaccine in adults older than 50 years of age is planned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection and identification of free-living amoeba from aquatic environment in different seasons in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, K.; Hsu, B.; Tsai, H.; Huang, P.; Tsai, J.; Kao, P.; Huang, K.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba includes Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which are widely distributed in water and soil. Human infection with free-living amoeba leads to serious illness, even lethal. For example, central nervous system infection will cause amoebic meningoencephalitis, and infections will cause amoebic keratitis. The presence of free-living amoeba in environment water can be used as a water quality indicator in ecosystem assessment. In Taiwan, reservoirs are indispensable because of the water source are limited by the steep terrain and the short river flow. Therefore, we need to pay more attention in the quality control of reservoirs water. The aims of this study are to investigate the presence of free-living amoeba in Taiwan reservoirs, and to compare the differences among seasons. At last, the identification and genotyping of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are investigated. In this study, we use polymerase chain reaction with specific primers to analyze the presence of free-living amoeba in aquatic environment. We collected total 60 samples from reservoirs in Taiwan. The water samples are divided into two parts for both direct concentration method and culture method. The results show the different detection rates among seasons. For Acanthamoeba, the detection rates were 28.3% (17 of 60 water samples), 21.7% (13 of 60 water samples) and 8.3% (5 of 60 water samples) in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. For Naegleria, the detection rates were 6.7% (4 of 60 water samples), 0% (0 of 60 water samples) and 0% (0 of 60 water samples) were detected positive in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the major genotypes in Acanthamoeba were T3, T4, T10 and T11 in autumn, T2, T4 and T10 in winter, T4 in spring. Due to the presences of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in reservoirs, we should pay more attention in water quality monitoring to prevent the potential risks of diseases. Keywords: free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, polymerase

  6. Neutropenia induced in outbred mice by a simplified low-dose cyclophosphamide regimen: characterization and applicability to diverse experimental models of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Ana X

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For its low cost and ease of handling, the mouse remains the preferred experimental animal for preclinical tests. To avoid the interaction of the animal immune system, in vivo antibiotic pharmacodynamic studies often employ cyclophosphamide (CPM to induce neutropenia. Although high doses (350–450 mg/kg are still used and their effects on mouse leukocytes have been described, a lower dose (250 mg/kg is widely preferred today, but the characteristics and applicability of this approach in outbred mice have not been determined. Methods Fifteen female ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 150 and 100 mg/kg of CPM on days 1 and 4, respectively. Blood samples (~160 μL were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of each mouse on days 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11. Leukocytes were counted manually and the number of granulocytes was based on microscopic examination of Wright-stained smears. The impact of neutropenia induced by this method was then determined with a variety of pathogens in three different murine models of human infections: pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, meningoencephalitis (S. pneumoniae, and the thigh model (S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis. Results The basal count of leukocytes was within the normal range for outbred mice. On day 4, there was an 84% reduction in total white blood cells, and by day 5 the leukopenia reached its nadir (370 ± 84 cells/mm3. Profound neutropenia (≤10 neutrophils/mm3 was demonstrated at day 4 and persisted through days 5 and 6. Lymphocytes and monocytes had a 92% and 96% decline between days 1 and 5, respectively. Leukocytes recovered completely by day 11. Mice immunosupressed under this protocol displayed clinical and microbiological patterns of progressive and lethal infectious diseases after inoculation in different organs with diverse human pathogens. Conclusion A CPM total dose of 250 mg/kg is sufficient to induce

  7. Insights into the mechanisms of protective immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans infection using a mouse model of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Wozniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in immune compromised individuals. Previous studies have shown that immunization of BALB/c mice with an IFN-gamma-producing C. neoformans strain, H99gamma, results in complete protection against a second pulmonary challenge with an otherwise lethal cryptococcal strain. The current study evaluated local anamnestic cell-mediated immune responses against pulmonary cryptococcosis in mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma compared to mice immunized with heat-killed C. neoformans (HKC.n.. Mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma had significantly reduced pulmonary fungal burden post-secondary challenge compared to mice immunized with HKC.n. Protection against pulmonary cryptococcosis was associated with increased pulmonary granulomatous formation and leukocyte infiltration followed by a rapid resolution of pulmonary inflammation, which protected the lungs from severe allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM-pathology that developed in the lungs of mice immunized with HKC.n. Pulmonary challenge of interleukin (IL-4 receptor, IL-12p40, IL-12p35, IFN-gamma, T cell and B cell deficient mice with C. neoformans strain H99gamma demonstrated a requirement for Th1-type T cell-mediated immunity, but not B cell-mediated immunity, for the induction of H99gamma-mediated protective immune responses against pulmonary C. neoformans infection. CD4(+ T cells, CD11c(+ cells, and Gr-1(+ cells were increased in both proportion and absolute number in protected mice. In addition, significantly increased production of Th1-type/pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and conversely, reduced Th2-type cytokine production was observed in the lungs of protected mice. Interestingly, protection was not associated with increased production of cytokines IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha in lungs of protected mice. In conclusion, immunization with C

  8. Neurotoxocarosis Neurotoxocaríase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection of humans with embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis (larva migrans remains asymptomatic, or results in covert or common toxocarosis, visceral larva migrans syndrome, or ophthalmologic and neurologic impairment. Though neurological manifestations of Toxocara canis larvae are rare, toxocarosis remains an important differential diagnosis of various neurological disorders. Manifestations of the central nervous system are dementia, meningo-encephalitis, myelitis, cerebral vasculitis, epilepsy, or optic neuritis. Manifestations of the peripheral nervous system comprise radiculitis, affection of cranial nerves, or musculo-skeletal involvement. If toxocarosis is neglected, ignored, or refused as a differential of these abnormalities, it may be easily overlooked for years. Early recognition and treatment of the infection is, however, of paramount importance since it reduces morbidity and mortality and the risk of secondary superinfection. Like the visceral manifestations, neurological manifestations of toxocarosis are treated by benzimidazole components, most frequently albendazole, corticosteroids, or diethylcarbamazine. If detected and treated early, the prognosis of neurological manifestations of toxocarosis is favourable.Infecção humana com ovos embrionados de Toxocara canis (larva migrans pode permanecer assintomática ou resultar em toxocaríase acentuada ou comum, síndrome da larva migrans visceral ou manifestações neurológicas ou oftalmológicas. Embora manifestações neurológicas das larvas de Toxocara canis sejam raras, a toxocaríase permanece como importante diagnóstico diferencial de várias manifestações neurológicas. Manifestações do sistema nervoso central são demência, meningoencefalite, mielite, vasculite cerebral, epilepsia, ou neurite ótica. Manifestações do sistema nervoso periférico compreendem radiculite, agressão de nervos cranianos ou envolvimento músculo-esquelético. Se a toxocaríase

  9. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  10. Herpes–Zoster Infection in a Tertiary Hospital in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniolli, Luciana; Azambuja, Aline; Rodrigues, Camila; Borges, Rafael; Goldani, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background herpes zoster (HZ) is a common infection with potential complications requiring hospital care, especially for patients with multiple comorbities. However, there is little information on HZ from hospital registries. Methods we searched for hospital-based records of B02 code (ICD-10) between March 2000 and January 2017 at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, a tertiary, university hospital in south Brazil. To avoid misclassifications, we considered clinical evaluation for the diagnosis of cutaneous HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmological evaluation for ophthalmic HZ and the combination of clinical, radiologic and cerebrospinal fluid analysis for HZ meningo-encephalitis (ME). We analyzed conditions associated with immune dysregulation, complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier estimator were used for statistical analyses. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results there were 847 records for this period, of which 801 were confirmed according to our criteria and included in the analysis. Most patients were women (n = 448; 60%), with an average of 48.8 years, standard deviation of 22.2. There were more diagnoses in the inpatients group (74.4%), and fewer in the emergency room (22.4%) and outpatient (3.3%). The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (2-10, P25-P75) when HZ was the main reason for admission. Most patients presented cutaneous HZ (n = 743, 92.8%). There were fewer cases of PHN (6.1%), ophthalmic HZ (7.6%) and ME (4.1%). Seventy percent had some kind of immune dysregulation; more frequently AIDS (31%), use of immunosuppressive agents (18.7%) and malignant disease (16.2%). We followed the subjects for a median of 28.2 (2.8-77.5) months. During this period, there were 105 (13.1%) deaths. Five were related to HZ ME. The 30-day overall mortality rate was 1.5%. There was no statistical difference in cumulative survival (graph 1, P = 0.05) or incidence of

  11. Real-Time PCR in HIV/Trypanosoma cruzi Coinfection with and without Chagas Disease Reactivation: Association with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Vera Lúcia Teixeira; da Silva, Sheila Cristina Vicente; Sartori, Ana Marli; Bezerra, Rita Cristina; Westphalen, Elizabeth Visone Nunes; Molina, Tatiane Decaris; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactivation of chronic Chagas disease, which occurs in approximately 20% of patients coinfected with HIV/Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is commonly characterized by severe meningoencephalitis and myocarditis. The use of quantitative molecular tests to monitor Chagas disease reactivation was analyzed. Methodology Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kDNA sequences, competitive (C-) PCR and real-time quantitative (q) PCR were compared with blood cultures and xenodiagnosis in samples from 91 patients (57 patients with chronic Chagas disease and 34 with HIV/T. cruzi coinfection), of whom 5 had reactivation of Chagas disease and 29 did not. Principal Findings qRT-PCR showed significant differences between groups; the highest parasitemia was observed in patients infected with HIV/T. cruzi with Chagas disease reactivation (median 1428.90 T. cruzi/mL), followed by patients with HIV/T. cruzi infection without reactivation (median 1.57 T. cruzi/mL) and patients with Chagas disease without HIV (median 0.00 T. cruzi/mL). Spearman's correlation coefficient showed that xenodiagnosis was correlated with blood culture, C-PCR and qRT-PCR. A stronger Spearman correlation index was found between C-PCR and qRT-PCR, the number of parasites and the HIV viral load, expressed as the number of CD4+ cells or the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Conclusions qRT-PCR distinguished the groups of HIV/T. cruzi coinfected patients with and without reactivation. Therefore, this new method of qRT-PCR is proposed as a tool for prospective studies to analyze the importance of parasitemia (persistent and/or increased) as a criterion for recommending pre-emptive therapy in patients with chronic Chagas disease with HIV infection or immunosuppression. As seen in this study, an increase in HIV viral load and decreases in the number of CD4+ cells/mm3 and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were identified as cofactors for increased parasitemia that can be used to target the introduction of early, pre-emptive therapy. PMID

  12. Differential diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis from tuberculous meningitis using clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Ashraf V; Thiruvoth, Sohanlal; Peedikayil, Jabir M; Raghunath, Praveenkumar; Thekkedath, Manojan

    2017-12-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Patients who had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive scrub typhus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology (n=28) were included in the scrub typhus meningitis group, while the TBM group included those who satisfied the consensus diagnostic criteria of TBM (n=29). Compared with the TBM group, the mean duration of symptoms was less in patients with scrub typhus meningitis, who also had a lower magnitude of neurological deficits, such as altered mental status and cranial nerve and motor deficits. Patients with scrub typhus meningitis had a lower CSF white blood-cell count (WBC) than the TBM group (130.8±213 195±175 cells/mm 3 , P=0.002), lower CSF protein elevation (125±120 vs. 195.2±108.2mg/dl, P=0.002), and higher CSF sugar (70.1±32.4 vs. 48.7±23.4mg/dl, P=0.006). Features predictive of the diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis included the absence of neurological impairment at presentation, blood serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase>40 international units (IU)/L, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>60 IU/L, total blood leukocyte count>10,000/mm 3 , CSF protein50mg/dl, CSF WBC<100 cells/mm 3 . All patients with scrub typhus meningitis recovered completely following doxycycline therapy CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, clinical features, including duration of fever, neurological deficits at presentation and laboratory parameters such as CSF pleocytosis,CSF protein elevation, CSF sugar levels and liver enzyme values are helpful in

  13. Sarcocystis jamaicensis n. sp., from Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) Definitive Host and IFN-γ Gene Knockout Mice as Experimental Intermediate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; von Dohlen, A Rosypal; Mowery, J D; Scott, D; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 × 9.9-μm sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW, Mus musculus) and also to KO mice. The sporocysts were infective for KO mice but not for SW mice. All SW mice remained asymptomatic, and neither schizonts nor sarcocysts were found in any SW mice euthanized on days 54, 77, 103 (n = 2) or 137 post-inoculation (PI). The KO mice developed neurological signs and were necropsied between 52 to 68 days PI. Schizonts/merozoites were found in all KO mice euthanized on days 52, 55 (n = 3), 59, 61 (n = 2), 66, and 68 PI and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neural tissue. The schizonts/merozoites were located in neural tissue and were apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice by subcutaneous inoculation and when seeded on to CV-1 cells. Microscopic sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of 5 of 8 KO mice euthanized between 55-61 days PI. Only a few sarcocysts were detected. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 3.5 mm long. When viewed with light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall appeared thin (<1 μm thick) and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall classified as "type 1j" (new designation). Molecular characterization using 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 genes revealed a close relationship with Sarcocystis microti and Sarcocystis glareoli; both species infect birds as definitive hosts

  14. [Meningitis and white matter lesions due to Streptococcus mitis in a previously healthy child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Reyhan; Yüksel, Ciğdem Nükhet; Derundere, Umit; Yiş, Uluç

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus mitis, an important member of viridans streptococci, is found in the normal flora of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, female genital tract and skin. Although it is of low pathogenicity and virulence, it may cause serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by S.mitis has been described in patients with previous spinal anesthesia, neurosurgical procedure, malignancy, bacterial endocarditis with neurological complications and alcoholics, but it is rare in patients who are previously healthy. In this report, a rare case of meningoencephalitis caused by S.mitis developed in a previously healthy child has been presented. A previously healthy eight-year-old girl who presented with fever, altered state of consciousness, and headache was hospitalized in intensive care unit with the diagnosis of meningitis. Past history revealed that she was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate for acute sinusitis ten days before her admission. Whole blood count revealed the followings: hemoglobin 13 g/dl, white blood cell count 18.6 x 109/L (90% neutrophils), platelet count 200 x 109/L and 150 leucocytes were detected on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. Protein and glucose levels of CSF were 80 mg/dl and 40 mg/dl (concomitant blood glucose 100 mg/dl), respectively. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed widespread white matter lesions, and alpha-hemolytic streptococci were grown in CSF culture. The isolate was identified as S.mitis with conventional methods, and also confirmed by VITEK2 (bioMerieux, France) and API 20 STREP (bioMerieux, France) systems. Isolate was found susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Regarding the etiology, echocardiography revealed no vegetation nor valve pathology, and peripheral blood smear showed no abnormality. Immunoglobulin and complement levels were within normal limits. Ongoing inflammation in maxillary sinuses detected in

  15. [The incidence, etiology and clinical significance of visceral mycoses in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, R; Nanetti, A; Mazzoni, A; Mastroianni, A; Chiodo, F

    1993-01-01

    The incidence, aetiology and clinical significance of visceral mycoses in HIV-infected subjects were evaluated by a retrospective survey of the clinical and microbiological records of 237 consecutive AIDS patients followed-up since 1984. Seventy-four patients out of 237 (31.2%) (56 males, 18 females; 55 IV drug abusers, 7 heterosexuals, 6 homobisexuals, 3 blood recipients and 3 children with congenitally-acquired HIV infection) presented 77 different episodes of visceral fungal infection as a whole, represented by candidiasis in 56 cases (oesophageal 45, pulmonary 5, sepsis 2, eye involvement 2, endocarditis and invasive oropharyngeal infection in the remaining 2 patients), cryptococcosis in 17 cases (meningoencephalitis in all subjects, with disseminated infection in 11 of them), and aspergillosis in 4 cases (pulmonary 2, cerebral and cranio-facial in the remaining 2 patients). In 57 out of 74 patients (77%), visceral mycoses were diagnostic or concurrent with the diagnosis of AIDS. Fungal diseases, as a whole, showed a significantly higher incidence (p drug abusers, whereas homobisexual men presented a significantly lower frequency (p test) than AIDS patients with other risk factors for HIV infection. The onset of cryptococcosis was significantly associated with the male sex (p test). All subjects suffering from a visceral mycosis were severely immunosuppressed, with a higher rate of neutropenia in patients developing Candida and Aspergillus spp. infection (23 out of 56 patients with visceral candidiasis and 3 out of 4 cases of aspergillosis had an absolute neutrophil count lower than 1500 cells/mm3), while a severe reduction in CD4+ lymphocyte count was more evident among patients with cryptococcosis (13 out of 17 patients had a CD4+ cell count lower than 50/mm3). After remission of the primary episode of fungal infection (obtained in 80.5% of cases), the incidence of relapse observed in a long follow-up period (mean time 57.6 +/- 39.2 weeks) was elevated both

  16. Strains of Sarcocystis neurona exhibit differences in their surface antigens, including the absence of the major surface antigen SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Marsh, Antoinette E; Patil, Bhagyashree A; Saville, William J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E

    2008-05-01

    A gene family of surface antigens is expressed by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona, the primary cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). These surface proteins, designated SnSAGs, are immunodominant and therefore excellent candidates for development of EPM diagnostics or vaccines. Prior work had identified an EPM isolate lacking the major surface antigen SnSAG1, thus suggesting there may be some diversity in the SnSAGs expressed by different S. neurona isolates. Therefore, a bioinformatic, molecular and immunological study was conducted to assess conservation of the SnSAGs. Examination of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed several notable SnSAG polymorphisms. In particular, the EST information implied that the EPM strain SN4 lacked the major surface antigen SnSAG1. The absence of this surface antigen from the SN4 strain was confirmed by both Western blot and Southern blot. To evaluate SnSAG polymorphisms in the S. neurona population, 14 strains were examined by Western blots using monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the four described SnSAGs. The results of these analyses demonstrated that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 are present in all 14 S. neurona strains tested, although some variance in SnSAG4 was observed. Importantly, SnSAG1 was not detected in seven of the strains, which included isolates from four cases of EPM and a case of fatal meningoencephalitis in a sea otter. Genetic analyses by PCR using gene-specific primers confirmed the absence of the SnSAG1 locus in six of these seven strains. Collectively, the data indicated that there is heterogeneity in the surface antigen composition of different S. neurona isolates, which is an important consideration for development of serological tests and prospective vaccines for EPM. Furthermore, the diversity reported herein likely extends to other phenotypes, such as strain virulence, and may have implications for the phylogeny of the various Sarcocystis spp. that undergo sexual stages

  17. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin B and cathepsin B-Like proteins of Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kang, Heekyoung; Seo, Ga-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics. Seven hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB McAbs and three hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB-L McAbs were produced. Among these, 2C9 (monoclone for rNfCPB) and 1C8 (monoclone for rNfCPB-L) McAb showed high antibody titres and were finally selected for use. As determined by western blotting, 2C9 McAb bound to N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB protein, which had bands of 28 kDa and 38.4 kDa. 1C8 McAb reacted with N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB-L protein, which had bands of 24 kDa and 34 kDa. 2C9 and 1C8 monoclonal antibodies did not bind to lysates of other amoebae, such as N. gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga in western blot analyses. Immuno-cytochemistry analysis detected NfCPB and NfCPB-L proteins in the cytoplasm of N. fowleri trophozoites, particularly in the pseudopodia and food-cup. These results suggest that monoclonal antibodies produced against rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins may be useful for further immunological study of PAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurolisteriosis en adultos: a propósito de seis casos clínicos Neurolisteriosis in adults: report of six clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Salamano

    2005-12-01

    neurolisterioris, five of which in healthy adults; we also describe the images and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings, RESULTS: Three patients contracted acute meningitis, one of them meningoencephalitis, one cerebritis and the last one rhomboencephalitis. The CSF was turbid or slightly turbid with normal glycorrachia in three patients. The diagnosis was made in five through culture of CSF. The patient with the rhomboencephalitis had brain stem microabscesses in the brain magnetic resonance. All the patients had a good outcome under antibiotics treatment. CONCLUSION: Neurolisteriosis has to be kept in mind as a feasible diagnosis not only in immunocompromised but also in newborn as well as elderly patients. It should also be taken into account in young healthy adults living in regions under poor sanitary conditions where there is no adequate control of food manufacturing.

  20. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in donkeys: hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes Infecção experimental em jumentos com Trypanosoma evansi: alterações hematológicas, bioquímicas e histopatológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Cadioli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Five adult donkeys were experimentally infected with Brazilian strain of Trypanosoma evansi originally isolated from a naturally infected dog to study the hematological biochemical and histopathological alterations during the evolution of the disease. The course of the experimental infection was followed up to 145 days. Hematological analyses of the infected donkeys revealed a marked decline in hemoglobin, packed-cell volume, and erythrocyte count. Anemia was observed after successive peaks of parasitemia. Biochemical analyses showed increased levels of icterus index, serum globulins and decreased serum albumin and glucose values. All infected donkeys revealed enlargement of spleen and its white pulp, enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs congestion. The main histopathological features consisted of meningoencephalitis. Demyelination in some areas of the cerebellum pediculus and neuropil vacuolization were observed. This study showed that donkeys infected with a Brazilian strain of T. evansi developed a chronic disease.Cinco jumentos, adultos foram infectados experimentalmente com cepa brasileira de Trypanosoma evansi, isolada de um cão naturalmente infectado, com o intuito de observar as alterações hematológicas, bioquímicas e histopatológicas durante a evolução da enfermidade. O curso da infecção experimental foi de 145 dias. Análise hematológica dos jumentos infectados revelou declínio nos valores de hemoglobina, hematócrito e contagem total de eritrócitos. Notou-se anemia após sucessivos picos de parasitemia. Análise bioquímica indicou aumento dos níveis de índice ictérico, globulinas séricas e diminuição dos valores séricos de albumina e glicose. Todos os jumentos infectados apresentaram aumento do baço e de sua polpa branca, aumento de linfonodos mediastínicos e congestão pulmonar. Meningoencefalite foi o principal achado histopatológico. Em algumas áreas do pedículo cerebelar foram observadas

  1. Construction of a Streptococcus agalactiae phoB mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaohui; Wang, Bei; Peng, Yinhui; Li, Yuan; Lu, Yishan; Huang, Yucong; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive pathogen that can survive inside professional phagocytes and nonphagocytic cells to cause septicemia and meningoencephalitis in freshwater and marine fish. However, vaccines based on extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole S. agalactiae cells, as well as subunit vaccine are unable to protect fish from infection by variant serotypes S. agalactiae. The search for live attenuated vaccine with highly conserved and virulent-related genes is essential for producing a vaccine to help understand and control streptococcosis In this study, the phoB gene was cloned from pathogenic S. agalactiae TOS01 strain and the mutant strain SAΔphoB was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. The results showed that the deduced amino acid of S. agalactiae TOS01 shares high similarities with other Streptococcus spp. and has high conserved response regulator receiver domain (REC) and DNA-binding effector domain of two-component system response regulators (Trans_reg_C). Cell adherence and invasion assays, challenge experiments and histopathological changes post-vaccination were performed and observed, the results showed that the mutant strain SAΔphoB has a lower adherence and invasion rate and less virulent than the wild type strain in golden pompano, and it doesn't induce clinical symptoms and obvious pathological changes in golden pompano, thereby indicating that the deletion of phoB affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. agalactiae. Golden pompano vaccinated via intraperitoneal injection SAΔphoB had the relative percent survival value of 93.1% after challenge with TOS01, demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate. Real-time PCR assays showed that the SAΔphoB was able to enhance the expression of immune-related genes, including MHC-I, MyD88, IL-22 and IL-10 after vaccination, indicating that the SAΔphoB is able to induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response

  2. Comparative genome analysis identifies two large deletions in the genome of highly-passaged attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain YM001 compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Huang, Yan; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Lei, Aiying; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lianfu

    2015-11-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen for neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. The global outbreaks of Streptococcus disease in tilapia cause huge economic losses and threaten human food hygiene safety as well. To investigate the mechanism of S. agalactiae pathogenesis in tilapia and develop attenuated S. agalactiae vaccine, this study sequenced and comparatively analyzed the whole genomes of virulent wild-type S. agalactiae strain HN016 and its highly-passaged attenuated strain YM001 derived from tilapia. We performed Illumina sequencing of DNA prepared from strain HN016 and YM001. Sequencedreads were assembled and nucleotide comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) , indels were analyzed between the draft genomes of HN016 and YM001. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and prophage were detected and analyzed in different S. agalactiae strains. The genome of S. agalactiae YM001 was 2,047,957 bp with a GC content of 35.61 %; it contained 2044 genes and 88 RNAs. Meanwhile, the genome of S. agalactiae HN016 was 2,064,722 bp with a GC content of 35.66 %; it had 2063 genes and 101 RNAs. Comparative genome analysis indicated that compared with HN016, YM001 genome had two significant large deletions, at the sizes of 5832 and 11,116 bp respectively, resulting in the deletion of three rRNA and ten tRNA genes, as well as the deletion and functional damage of ten genes related to metabolism, transport, growth, anti-stress, etc. Besides these two large deletions, other ten deletions and 28 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were also identified, mainly affecting the metabolism- and growth-related genes. The genome of attenuated S. agalactiae YM001 showed significant variations, resulting in the deletion of 10 functional genes, compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016. The deleted and mutated functional genes all

  3. Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadinis, N D; Psychas, V; Polizopoulou, Z; Papadopoulos, E; Papaioannou, N; Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A-L; Petridou, E J; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Lafi, S Q; Brellou, G D

    2012-07-01

    A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining four flocks (5, 8, 9, 10) the animals were fed alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and concentrates indoors. A follow-up study of the affected flocks was conducted during the next 12 months. Of 42 sheep with acute coenurosis that were examined, the most prominent neurological abnormalities were ataxia, depression, blindness, scoliosis, coma and dysmetria. Except for the four sheep that were comatose, all other animals had normal body temperatures and their appetites remained normal or were slightly decreased. Haematological findings of 15 examined sheep were within normal limits. The affected sheep were subject to euthanasia. A histopathological examination was performed in 13 cases. Faecal samples from dogs associated with these flocks were negative for taeniid infections. During the following 12 months cases of chronic coenurosis in these flocks were observed. In the 42 animals that were necropsied, the main gross findings were cystic formations between 0.5-1 cm in diameter with translucent walls that were seen lying free on the leptomeninges or partly penetrating the brain tissue, sterile microabscecess and brain necrosis. Histopathological evaluation of tissue sections of 13 brains showed multifocal purulent or pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, accompanied by eosinophilic infiltrations. No bacteria were isolated following bacterial culture of brain tissue Parasitological examination of the cysts from five cases revealed whitish specks on the transparent cyst wall and germination membrane representing the scolices. Acute coenurosis was diagnosed in all cases studied. Acute coenurosis can be one of the

  4. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  5. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Diversity of Restriction-Modification Systems and DNA Methylation Sites in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Poyin; den Bakker, Henk C; Korlach, Jonas; Kong, Nguyet; Storey, Dylan B; Paxinos, Ellen E; Ashby, Meredith; Clark, Tyson; Luong, Khai; Wiedmann, Martin; Weimer, Bart C

    2017-02-01

    which manifests as gastroenteritis, meningoencephalitis, and abortion. Among Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria-causing the most prevalent foodborne illnesses-infection by L. monocytogenes carries the highest mortality rate. The ability of L. monocytogenes to regulate its response to various harsh environments enables its persistence and transmission. Small-scale comparisons of L. monocytogenes focusing solely on genome contents reveal a highly syntenic genome yet fail to address the observed diversity in phenotypic regulation. This study provides a large-scale comparison of 302 L. monocytogenes isolates, revealing the importance of the epigenome and restriction-modification systems as major determinants of L. monocytogenes phylogenetic grouping and subsequent phenotypic expression. Further examination of virulence genes of select outbreak strains reveals an unprecedented diversity in methylation statuses despite high degrees of genome conservation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Perspectives on future Alzheimer therapies: amyloid-β protofibrils - a new target for immunotherapy with BAN2401 in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannfelt, Lars; Möller, Christer; Basun, Hans; Osswald, Gunilla; Sehlin, Dag; Satlin, Andrew; Logovinsky, Veronika; Gellerfors, Pär

    2014-01-01

    The symptomatic drugs currently on the market for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have no effect on disease progression, and this creates a large unmet medical need. The type of drug that has developed most rapidly in the last decade is immunotherapy: vaccines and, especially, passive vaccination with monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies are attractive drugs as they can be made highly specific for their target and often with few side effects. Data from recent clinical AD trials indicate that a treatment effect by immunotherapy is possible, providing hope for a new generation of drugs. The first anti-amyloid-beta (anti-Aβ) vaccine developed by Elan, AN1792, was halted in phase 2 because of aseptic meningoencephalitis. However, in a follow-up study, patients with antibody response to the vaccine demonstrated reduced cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis that Aβ immunotherapy may have clinically relevant effects. Bapineuzumab (Elan/Pfizer Inc./Johnson & Johnson), a monoclonal antibody targeting fibrillar Aβ, was stopped because the desired clinical effect was not seen. Solanezumab (Eli Lilly and Company) was developed to target soluble, monomeric Aβ. In two phase 3 studies, Solanezumab did not meet primary endpoints. When data from the two studies were pooled, a positive pattern emerged, revealing a significant slowing of cognitive decline in the subgroup of mild AD. The Arctic mutation has been shown to specifically increase the formation of soluble Aβ protofibrils, an Aβ species shown to be toxic to neurons and likely to be present in all cases of AD. A monoclonal antibody, mAb158, was developed to target Aβ protofibrils with high selectivity. It has at least a 1,000-fold higher selectivity for protofibrils as compared with monomers of Aβ, thus targeting the toxic species of the peptide. A humanized version of mAb158, BAN2401, has now entered a clinical phase 2b trial in a collaboration between BioArctic Neuroscience and Eisai without the safety concerns seen

  7. Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Mohamed O.; Gadelrab, Mohamed O.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included haemostatic assays, microbiological and serological tests. Neuroimaging included cranial CT, MRI magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan. Of the 104 Saudi children with stroke, seen during the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory systems were identified risk factors in 18 (17.3%). Five children had stroke following acute bacterial meningitis at ages ranging between 5-21 months. The causative organism was identified in 3 of them and consisted of Haemophilus influenza (in a 5-months-old girl), Streptococcus pneumonia (in a 21-months-old girl complicated by subdural empyema and sinovenous thrombosis), and Staphylococcus aureus in a 6-months-old boy who had an underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Unspecified meningitis/meningoencephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas 3 children had an underlying congenital infection as a cause for their stroke. Two of the latter 3 children were diagnosed to have congenital toxoplasmosis, and the third had congenital rubella syndrome. Two girls had stroke following septicemia at ages of one and 2 months. Neurobrucellosis caused stroke in 2 boys at the ages of 4 1/2 and 4 years. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed lacunar and other infects involving mainly the deep cerebral nuclei, secondary to occlusion of small penetrating end

  8. Elimination of Naegleria fowleri from bulk water and biofilm in an operational drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Morgan, Matthew J; Wylie, Jason T; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Global incidence of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis cases associated with domestic drinking water is increasing. The need for understanding disinfectant regimes capable of eliminating the causative microorganism, Naegleria fowleri, from bulk water and pipe wall biofilms is critical. This field study demonstrated the successful elimination of N. fowleri from the bulk water and pipe wall biofilm of a persistently colonised operational drinking water distribution system (DWDS), and the prevention of further re-colonisation. A new chlorination unit was installed along the pipe line to boost the free chlorine residual to combat the persistence of N. fowleri. Biofilm and bulk water were monitored prior to and after re-chlorination (RCl), pre-rechlorination (pre-RCl) and post-rechlorination (post-RCl), respectively, for one year. A constant free chlorine concentration of > 1 mg/L resulted in the elimination of N. fowleri from both the bulk water and biofilm at the post-RCl site. Other amoeba species were detected during the first two months of chlorination, but all amoebae were eliminated from both the bulk water and biofilm at post-RCl after 60 days of chlorination with free chlorine concentrations > 1 mg/L. In addition, a dynamic change in the biofilm community composition and a four log reduction in biofilm cell density occurred post-RCl. The pre-RCl site continued to be seasonally colonised by N. fowleri, but the constant free chlorine residual of > 1 mg/L prevented N. fowleri from recolonising the bulk and pipe wall biofilm at the post-RCl site. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate successful removal of N. fowleri from both the bulk and pipe wall biofilm and prevention of re-colonisation of N. fowleri in an operational DWDS. The findings of this study are of importance to water utilities in addressing the presence of N. fowleri and other amoeba in susceptible DWDSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela; of Catalonia Study Group, the Microbiological Reporting System

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 105 inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20–17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09–1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51–0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43–1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ≤ 2 y and 2–4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ≤ 2 y and ≥ 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ≥ 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting. PMID:23303166

  10. Factors associated with severe human Rift Valley fever in Sangailu, Garissa County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Desirée LaBeaud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV causes acute, often severe, disease in livestock and humans. To determine the exposure factors and range of symptoms associated with human RVF, we performed a population-based cross-sectional survey in six villages across a 40 km transect in northeastern Kenya.A systematic survey of the total populations of six Northeastern Kenyan villages was performed. Among 1082 residents tested via anti-RVFV IgG ELISA, seroprevalence was 15% (CI95%, 13-17%. Prevalence did not vary significantly among villages. Subject age was a significant factor, with 31% (154/498 of adults seropositive vs. only 2% of children ≤15 years (12/583. Seroprevalence was higher among men (18% than women (13%. Factors associated with seropositivity included a history of animal exposure, non-focal fever symptoms, symptoms related to meningoencephalitis, and eye symptoms. Using cluster analysis in RVFV positive participants, a more severe symptom phenotype was empirically defined as having somatic symptoms of acute fever plus eye symptoms, and possibly one or more meningoencephalitic or hemorrhagic symptoms. Associated with this more severe disease phenotype were older age, village, recent illness, and loss of a family member during the last outbreak. In multivariate analysis, sheltering livestock (aOR = 3.5 CI95% 0.93-13.61, P = 0.065, disposing of livestock abortus (aOR = 4.11, CI95% 0.63-26.79, P = 0.14, and village location (P = 0.009 were independently associated with the severe disease phenotype.Our results demonstrate that a significant proportion of the population in northeastern Kenya has been infected with RVFV. Village and certain animal husbandry activities were associated with more severe disease. Older age, male gender, herder occupation, killing and butchering livestock, and poor visual acuity were useful markers for increased RVFV infection. Formal vision testing may therefore prove to be a helpful, low-technology tool

  11. Characterization and pathogenesis of aerosolized eastern equine encephalitis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Aimee I; Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca A; Twenhafel, Nancy; Chance, Taylor; Yee, Steven B; Kern, Steven J; Norwood, David; Hartman, Laurie J; Parker, Michael D; Glass, Pamela J; DaSilva, Luis

    2017-02-07

    Licensed antiviral therapeutics and vaccines to protect against eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in humans currently do not exist. Animal models that faithfully recapitulate the clinical characteristics of human EEEV encephalitic disease, including fever, drowsiness, anorexia, and neurological signs such as seizures, are needed to satisfy requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical product licensing under the Animal Rule. In an effort to meet this requirement, we estimated the median lethal dose and described the pathogenesis of aerosolized EEEV in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Five marmosets were exposed to aerosolized EEEV FL93-939 in doses ranging from 2.4 × 10 1 PFU to 7.95 × 10 5 PFU. The median lethal dose was estimated to be 2.05 × 10 2 PFU. Lethality was observed as early as day 4 post-exposure in the highest-dosed marmoset but animals at lower inhaled doses had a protracted disease course where humane study endpoint was not met until as late as day 19 post-exposure. Clinical signs were observed as early as 3 to 4 days post-exposure, including fever, ruffled fur, decreased grooming, and leukocytosis. Clinical signs increased in severity as disease progressed to include decreased body weight, subdued behavior, tremors, and lack of balance. Fever was observed as early as day 2-3 post-exposure in the highest dose groups and hypothermia was observed in several cases as animals became moribund. Infectious virus was found in several key tissues, including brain, liver, kidney, and several lymph nodes. Clinical hematology results included early neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Key pathological changes included meningoencephalitis and retinitis. Immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen was positive in the brain, retina, and lymph nodes. More intense and widespread IHC labeling occurred with increased aerosol dose. We have estimated the medial lethal dose of aerosolized EEEV and

  12. Aplasia transitória da série vermelha na anemia falciforme Transient red cell aplasia in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. A. Veríssimo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença falciforme, devido à vida média encurtada das hemácias, pelo quadro de hemólise crônica, pode apresentar um quadro clínico grave de anemia quando ocorre supressão da eritropoese devida à infecção pelo Parvovírus humano B19. O quadro clínico apresenta-se com febre, que pode preceder a anemia grave, fraqueza e mal- estar, além de sinais laboratoriais como queda da hemoglobina e reticulocitopenia importante. Diagnóstico laboratorial pode ser por imunofluorescência ou ensaio enzimático. O tratamento é a transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Pode haver complicações associadas a esta infecção, tais como seqüestro esplênico, seqüestro hepático, síndrome torácica aguda, síndrome nefrótica, meningoencefalite e acidente vascular cerebral. Estratégias de prevenção poderão mudar a morbi-mortalidade desta condição no paciente portador de doença falciforme.Sickle cell disease due to shortened life span of red blood cells by hemolysis, may present with severe anemia when erythropoietic suppression occurs due to infection by the Human parvovirus B19. The clinical presentation presents with fever, which may precede transient red cell aplasia, as well as laboratorial signs such as a drop in hemoglobin and significant reticulo cytopenia. Laboratorial diagnosis may be by immunofluorescence or enzymatic assays. Treatment is achieved by transfusion of packed red blood cells. Complications may be associated to this infection, including splenic and hepatic sequestration, acute chest syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, meningoencephalitis and strokes. Strategies of prevention are able to change the morbidity and mortality of this condition in sickle cell disease patients.

  13. Pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in disseminated cryptococcosis and fungaemia: an unusual manifestation and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mayun; Wang, Xiaomi; Yu, Xianjuan; Dai, Caijun; Chen, Dunshun; Yu, Chang; Xu, Xiaomei; Yao, Dan; Yang, Li; Li, Yuping; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2015-09-22

    Cryptococcus neoformans infection usually presents as chronic meningitis and is increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. Presentation with pleural effusion is rare in cryptococcal disease; in fact, only 4 cases of pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in cryptococcosis have been reported in English-language literature to date. We report the first case of pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in a renal transplant recipient who was initially misdiagnosed with tuberculous pleuritis but who then developed fungaemia and disseminated cryptococcosis. The examination of this rare manifestation and the accompanying literature review will contribute to increased recognition of the disease and a reduction in misdiagnoses. We describe a 63-year-old male renal transplant recipient on an immunosuppressive regimen who was admitted for left pleural effusion and fever. Cytological examinations and pleural fluid culture were nonspecific and negative. Thoracoscopy only found chronic, nonspecific inflammation with fibrosis in the pleura. After empirical anti-tuberculous therapy, the patient developed an elevated temperature, a severe headache and vomiting and fainted in the ward. Cryptococci were specifically found in the cerebrospinal fluid following lumbar puncture. Blood cultures were twice positive for C. neoformans one week later. He was transferred to the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) immediately and was placed on non-invasive ventilation for respiratory failure for 2 days. He developed meningoencephalitis and fungaemia with C. neoformans during hospitalization. He was given amphotericin B liposome combined with 5-flucytosine and voriconazole for first 11 days, then amphotericin B liposome combined with 5-flucytosine sustained to 8 weeks, after that changed to fluconazole for maintenance. His condition improved after antifungal treatment, non-invasive ventilation and other support. Further pathological consultation

  14. Histomorfologia do gânglio de Gasser, da rete mirabile carotídea e da hipófise de bovinos: estudo de 199 casos Histomorphology of the Gasserian ganglion, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland in cattle: a study of 199 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Rech

    2006-06-01

    do número de células satélites ao redor dos neurônios do gânglio de Gasser e ocasional vacuolização e lipofuscinose neuronal. O exame histológico do complexo GRH é uma ferramenta importante e confiável no diagnóstico das principais encefalites em bovinos no Brasil.The complex of heterogenous tissues formed by the Gasserian ganglia, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland (GRH from 199 cattle were grossly and histologically evaluated. Twenty one of the GRH were from comfirmed cases of rabies, 19 were diagnosed as cases of meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5, 11 were confirmed cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, 7 had pituitary abscesses, 17 had lesions of hepatic encephalopathy (status spongiosus attributable to chronic liver failure due to Senecio sp poisoning; and the remaining 124 GRH were from cattle which did not present neurological signs and died or were euthanatized due to various causes. No significant histologic changes were observed in the GRH from the 124 cattle which did not present neurological signs, in the GRH of the 17 cattle that had hepatic encephalopathy neither in the GRH of the 19 cattle diagnosed with BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. Inflammatory changes were found in the Gasserian ganglia of 20 out of 21 cases of rabies and consisted of proliferation of sattelite cells, glial nodules and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate; degenerative changes included central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, and neuronal death with neuronophagia. Characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion (Negri bodies were found in 19 out of 21 cases of rabies, neuritis of the fifth nerve in 11, and neurohypophysitis in 4 cases. The GRH from nine of the eleven cases of MCF had characteristic necrotizing arteritis affecting the arteries of the carotid rete mirabile. In seven cases pituitary abscesses were found; they were characterized by large aggregates of neutrophils admixed with cellular debris and surrounded by mononuclear

  15. WAYS TO IMPROVE PREVENTION OF CHICKENPOX AT CHILDREN OF UKRAINE IN MODERN CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanova T.O.

    2015-05-01

    moderately severe and severe forms. Analysis of clinical data showed that almost all children with acute illness began with symptoms of intoxication, temperature up to 38,0-400C, headache, some children had vomiting. Rash appeared mostly often by the end of the second day. Items were rash as spots 1-3 mm in diameter, round, pink with sharp edges. Subsequently, they were transformed into papules, vesicles, crusts, which were located on noninfiltrated background skin, usually separately without a tendency to merge. New elements of rash appear after 1-2 days and accompanied by fever. Almost half part of children forming vesicles recorded in the mucous membranes of the mouth, genitals and conjunctiva during 4-5 days. In hemogramma of patients revealed leukopenia, lymphocytosis. A quarter of children with CP occurred complications that are most often developed for third-eighth day of the appearance of lesions regardless of severity of clinical manifestations of the disease. The structure dominated by non-specific complications of skin lesions with the development of inflammatory diseases streptococcal and staphylococcal etiology. The structure of specific complications observed CNS with the development of meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. Conclusions. Over the past five years in the Kharkiv region incidence of children with CP remains high with the major indices among children under 15 years. The most vulnerable are children with organized groups (especially closed children's institutions residing in the city. There has stable tendency to increasing number of complications, particularly specific. High incidence, frequency and severity of complications dictate the need for mandatory vaccination against CP in children. First of all, in our view, it is necessary to consider compulsory vaccination of children from child care centers closed, and may in the future enter into the National calendar of vaccination of healthy children Ukraine. The use of mandatory

  16. Rinossinusite em paciente com síndrome de Behçet Rhinosinusitis in a patient with Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro João Lobo Alcântara

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A condição conhecida como Síndrome de Behçet foi inicialmente descrita por H. Behçet, um dermatologista turco. O seu componente principal são lesões aftosas recorrentes em mucosa oral. Grupos como os asiáticos são mais propícios ao seu desenvolvimento. No continente americano, ela é relativamente rara. Além de lesões orais, os pacientes podem desenvolver ulcerações genitais, uveítes, vasculite pustular da pele, sinovites e meningoencefalites. O diagnóstico é baseado na pronunciação de critérios maiores e/ou menores internacionalmente propostos, e na combinação entre eles. O tratamento é desafiador, devendo dirigir-se ao principal órgão envolvido, exigindo terapias combinadas com freqüência. O quadro clínico do paciente deste caso não deixa dúvidas quanto ao diagnóstico da síndrome de Behçet. No presente trabalho, a vasculite é evidenciada pela ausência de sangramento ao manueseio de áreas potencialmente sangrantes. E a ela atribuiu-se tanto o desencadeamento quanto as complicações da rinossinusite (abscesso periorbitário, haja visto seus efeitos de má perfusão e drenagem no tecido em questão. A rinossinusite é uma manifestação potencial da síndrome de Behçet. Os profissionais médicos devem estar atentos à sua apresentação e prestar maiores cuidados para sua resolução, que é caracteristicamente difícil.The condition known as Behçet's syndrome was first described by H. Behçet, a dermatologist from Turkey. Its major component is recurrent aphthous-like lesions of the oral mucosa. Some groups of people such as the Japanese are more prone to develop the condition. Behçet's syndrome is relatively rare in the American continent. In addition to oral lesions, these patients may develop recurrent genital ulcerations, uveitis, and pustular vasculitis of the skin, synovitis, and meningoencephalitis. The diagnosis is based on occurrence of internationally proposed major or/and minor criteria and on

  17. Two Distinct Approaches for CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Cryptococcus neoformans and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2018-06-27

    Cryptococcus neoformans and related species are encapsulated basidiomycetous fungi that cause meningoencephalitis in individuals with immune deficiency. This pathogen has a tractable genetic system; however, gene disruption via electroporation remains difficult, while biolistic transformation is often limited by lack of multiple genetic markers and the high initial cost of equipment. The approach using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has become the technology of choice for gene editing in many organisms due to its simplicity, efficiency, and versatility. The technique has been successfully demonstrated in C. neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans in which two DNA plasmids expressing either the Streptococcus pyogenes CAS9 gene or the guide RNA (gRNA) were employed. However, potential adverse effects due to constitutive expression and the time-consuming process of constructing vectors to express each gRNA remain as a primary barrier for wide adaptation. This report describes the delivery of preassembled CRISPR-Cas9-gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) via electroporation that is able to generate edited mutant alleles. RNP-mediated CRISPR-Cas9 was used to replace the wild-type GIB2 gene encoding a Gβ-like/RACK1 Gib2 protein with a gib2 :: NAT allele via homologous recombination in both C. neoformans and C. deneoformans In addition, a DNA plasmid (pCnCas9:U6-gRNA) that expresses both Cas9 and gRNA, allowing for convenient yet low-cost DNA-mediated gene editing, is described. pCnCas9:U6-gRNA contains an endogenous U6 promoter for gRNA expression and restriction sites for one-step insertion of a gRNA. These approaches and resources provide new opportunities to accelerate genetic studies of Cryptococcus species. IMPORTANCE For genetic studies of the Cryptococcus genus, generation of mutant strains is often hampered by a limited number of selectable genetic markers, the tedious process of vector

  18. Estudo comparativo do LCR de pacientes com neurocriptococose sem AIDS e com AIDS Comparison between CSF samples from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista dos Reis-Filho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Até a década de 80, antes do surgimento da AIDS, a criptococose era relativamente rara. Verificou-se que esta doença afeta muito frequentemente os pacientes com AIDS e pode ser a primeira manifestação desta síndrome. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de comparar o resultado dos exames das amostras do LCR inicial na meningencefalite por criptococo entre pacientes com e sem AIDS. Este trabalho é baseado no estudo de 41 pacientes com neurocriptococose sem AIDS e de 23 pacientes com neurocriptococose e AIDS. Este estudo permitiu verificar que a reação inflamatória, no sistema nervoso, quando presente, foi de menor intensidade nos pacientes com AIDS; a reação inflamatória esteve presente em todos os pacientes sem AIDS e ausente em 21,7% dos pacientes com AIDS; o quadro inflamatório crônico, semelhante ao da meningencefalite tuberculosa, clássico nas meningencefalites por criptococo, ocorreu raramente nos pacientes com AIDS; em média, o número de criptococos no LCR foi maior nos pacientes com AIDS; pode ser feito diagnóstico presuntivo da AIDS quando o criptococo estiver presente no LCR que não apresenta alterações citológicas e bioquímicas.Neurocryptococcosis was a rare nervous system infection. With the rising number of patients with AIDS it became a very frequent disease. This infection is supposed to infect patients with some kind of immunodeficiency and the CSF alterations often simulate tuberculous meningitis. The purpose of this research was to compare the CSF changes in AIDS and non-AIDS patients with meningoencephalitis caused by Cr. neoformans. There were analysed 41 CSF samples from non-AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis and 23 CSF samples from AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis. The results of this research allowed to conclude that the inflammatory changes in the CSF from AIDS patients showed a lower intensity compared to those non-AIDS patients. These results showed as well, that the CSF samples from non

  19. Criptococose do sistema nervoso central: experiência atual do Serviço de Neurologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina Central nervous system cryptococcosis: experience of the Neurological Department of Escola Paulista de Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante R. Giorgi

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores ressaltam a importância da pesquisa de criptococo em todos os pacientes com quadro clínico de meningite, meningo-encefalite ou hipertensão intracraniana não identificados, associados a um quadro inflamatório no líquido cefalorraqueano. Procedendo sistematicamente esta pesquisa pelo exame a fresco, pelo método da tinta china, no líquido cefalorraqueano, os autores fizeram o diagnóstico em vida de 35 pacientes, durante o período 1953-1972. Além destes, foi observado um outro caso com a forma granulomatosa pura, o que perfaz 36 observações. A distribuição cronológica destes casos no correr destes 20 anos de observação foi relativamente uniforme, não se justificando a hipótese de um aumento de sua incidência. As idades dos pacientes estavam compreendidas entre 11 e 59 anos, a maioria entre 30 e 50; apenas 8 pertenciam ao sexo feminino. Dos primeiros 12 pacientes da época em que não se dispunha de meios terapêuticos, apenas um sobreviveu para se beneficiar ulteriormente. Com o advento da Anfotericina B tornou-se possível o tratamento de 24 destes pacientes que apresentavam a forma de meningite ou meningo-encefalite. Foi obtida a cura, com normalização clínica e do líquido cefalorraqueano, de 11 pacientes; 8 pacientes não completaram o tratamento, tendo se retirado do Hospital depois das primeiras melhorias, ignorando-se, por isso, a evolução final; 5 pacientes faleceram. A 5-fluorocitosina foi experimentada em um dos últimos pacientes desta série, em asso- ciação com a Anfotericina B, de modo que os autores não têm experiência sobre o valor real deste novo medicamento.The authors emphasize the importance of the search of cryptococcus in every patient with signs and symptoms of meningitis, meningo-encephalitis or intracranial hypertension and with inflammatory changes in the spinal fluid. With this idea in mind, they have performed the India ink test in the spinal fluid of every patient in the 1953

  20. Peritonite infecciosa felina: 13 casos Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    clinical signs included loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, jaundice, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, and neurological disturbances. Necropsy findings, in the wet form included excess of yellowish viscous tanslucent or slightly opaque fluid (50ml-1 liter in the peritoneal cavity and (in one case thoracic cavity. Fibrinous exudate covered the serosal surfaces of abdominal organs imparting a whitish, granular, frost-like appearance to them. In the dry form there were multiple granulomatous foci underneath the serosal surface, which extended into the parenchyma of abdominal organs; these findings were particularly prominent in the kidneys. Corneal opacity was observed in one cat. Histologically, there were variable degrees of disseminated piogranulomatous vasculitis and perivasculitis particularly in arterioles. Pyogranulomatous meningitis or meningoencephalitis were observed in three cats with the dry form of feline infectious peritonitis.

  1. Aspectos clínicos e evolutivos da hidrocefalia na neurocisticercose Clinical and evolutive aspects of hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de analisar os aspectos clínicos da hidrocefalia (HDC na neurocisticercose (NCC, realizou-se o estudo retrospectivo de 47 prontuários de pacientes com HDC e NCC. Verificou-se que 70,2% eram homens, entre 21 e 50 anos. A hipertensão intracraniana (HIC ocorreu em todos os pacientes, cefaléia (CEF em 89,4%, meningoencefalite (ME em 80,8% e distúrbios psíquicos (PSI em 74,5%. A síndrome liquórica da NCC foi detectada em 65,9% pacientes. Além da HDC, as tomografias computadorizadas de crânio (TC mostraram lesões císticas e edema cerebral difuso em 59,6% cada, calcificações em 55,3%. Dos 41 pacientes (87,2% com derivação ventriculoperitoneal (DVP, em 22 (53,7% deles foram necessárias uma a sete revisões/paciente (média=3. A evolução foi satisfatória em 51,1% e fatal em 31,9%. Conclui-se que a hidrocefalia é mais comum no sexo masculino em idade produtiva, tendo a HIC, CEF, MN e PSI como manifestações freqüentes e que, a necessidade de revisões de DVP, piora o prognóstico.With the purpose to verify clinical aspects of hydrocephalus (HC in patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, a retrospective study of 47 patients was performed. The majority of patients (70.2% were men aging 21-50 years. Intracranial hypertension (ICH occurred in all patients, headache (HA in 42 (89.4%, meningoencephalitis (ME in 38 (80.8% and psychiatric disorders (PD in 34 (72.3%. The cerebrospinal fluid syndrome of NCC was detected in 31 patients (65.9%. In addition to HC, computed tomography (CT scans showed cystic lesions in 28 (59.6% patients, diffuse brain edema also in 28 (59.6%, and calcifications in 26 (55.3%. Shunts were inserted in 41 (87.2% patients and 22 (53.7% of them were submitted to 1-7 surgical revision/patient (mean=3 that were higher (mean=4 in those who died than in survivors (mean=2. Evolution was satisfactory in 24 (51.1% patients and fatal in 15 (31.9%. It is possible to conclude that, in patients with NCC, HC occurs

  2. Raiva em bovino associada a intoxicação espontânea por Sida carpinifolia Rabies in bovine poisoned by Sida carpinifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois bovinos, fêmeas, mestiças, 6 anos (caso 1 e 18 meses (caso 2 de idade mantidos em pastagem com intensa invasão por S. carpinifolia apresentaram dificuldade locomotora com inicio nos membros pélvicos progredindo para decúbito esternal ou lateral, nistagmo, tremores e fasciculação de cabeça em um período de quatro a cinco dias. No exame histológico evidenciou-se meningoencefalite e ganglioneurite não supurativa com corpúsculos de Negri em neurônios do cerebelo, tronco encefálico, hipocampo, gânglio trigeminal e medula espinhal. Havia vacuolização citoplasmática nas células de Purkinje e nos neurônios do gânglio trigeminal. A imunofluorescência direta (IFD para raiva foi positiva nos dois bovinos e na imuno-histoquímica (IHQ houve marcação do antígeno rábico nos neurônios do córtex cerebelar e cerebral, hipocampo e gânglio trigeminal. A histoquímica com lectinas evidenciou que o citoplasma vacuolizado dos neurônios apresentaram marcação para Con-A, WGA e sWGA. De acordo com os achados morfológicos, os epidemiológicos, a IHQ e a IFD para raiva e o padrão histoquímico com lectinas conclui-se que o presente relato representa dois casos subclínicos de intoxicação por S. carpinifolia em bovinos com infecção pelo vírus da raiva.Two female bovine, crossbreed, 6-year-old (case 1 and 18-month-old (case 2 grazing in pasture infested by Sida carpinifolia showed gait difficulties, initially at the pelvic limbs, progressing to sternal or lateral decumbency, nystagmus, tremors, and fasciculation of the head for four to five days. Histologically was observed meningoencephalitis and ganglioneuritis nonsuppurative with Negri corpuscles in the neurons of the cerebellum, brain steam, hippocampus, trigeminal ganglion and spinal cord. Another histological finding was a cytoplasmic vacuolation of the Purkinje cells and in the trigeminal ganglion neurons. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF for rabies viral antigen was positive

  3. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil Leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva em pacientes com aids: estudo retrospectivo em um centro de referência de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Vidal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6% cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75% were men. Nine (75% patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%, speech disturbances (58%, visual disturbances (42%, cognitive dysfunction (42%, and impaired coordination (42%. The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/µL. Eight (67% of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33% were possible cases. Eleven (92% presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS-related PML. In four (33% patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25% died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75% were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.Existe informação limitada sobre a presença da leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva (LEMP em pacientes com aids no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram descrever as principais características dos pacientes com LEMP e estimar a freqüência desta doença em pacientes com aids e doen

  4. Increasing Risk Factors for Imported and Domestic Gnathostomiasis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases. Since the US now supports a zoonosis of Gnathostoma species with infective larvae encysted in imported and domestic fish and eels that may be consumed raw as exotic ethnic dishes, the objectives of this review were to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma nematodes and the behavioral risk factors for gnathostomiasis; and to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis. Since the eradication of gnathostomiasis is very unlikely given the global distribution of Gnathostoma nematodes and the increasingly exotic culinary tastes of US residents and travelers to endemic regions, the only effective strategies for gnathostomiasis include: (1) educating citizens in the US and travelers abroad in endemic areas that fish, eels, frogs, snakes, and chicken must be cooked thoroughly first and not eaten raw or marinated; and (2) seeking medical care immediately for evaluation of migratory subcutaneous swellings. The combination of international travel and increased immigration from Asia and Latin America to the US has resulted in greater popularity of exotic ethnic cuisine, especially raw seafood dishes. The ethnic cuisine industry is supported by domestic aquaculture that produces fish-farmed tilapia and trout, and by increased

  5. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; Liang, Jennifer L; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Yu, Patricia A; Painter, John; Moore, Matthew R; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting waterborne disease and outbreak (WBDO)-related data. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize WBDOs associated with recreational water that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and one previously unreported outbreak from 2002. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. During 2003-2004, a total 62 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 26 states and Guam. Illness occurred in 2,698 persons, resulting in 58 hospitalizations and one death. The median outbreak size was 14 persons (range: 1-617 persons). Of the 62 WBDOs, 30 (48.4%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents, chemicals, or toxins; 13 (21.0%) were outbreaks of dermatitis; and seven (11.3%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness (ARI). The remaining 12 WBDOs resulted in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), meningitis (n = one), leptospirosis (n = one), otitis externa (n = one), and mixed illnesses (n = eight). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 1,945 (72

  6. Doenças neurológicas de ovinos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in sheep from central Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2010-03-01

    mailed in samples from practitioners. Out of these, 69 experimental cases were excluded from this study. The remaining 517 cases were composed of 361 (69.8% cases with conclusive diagnoses and 156 (30.2% cases with inconclusive diagnoses. In 58 (16% occasions, sheep died in consequence of neurological disease. Most important diseases included coenurosis (15 cases or 25.8%, listeriosis (9 cases or 15.5%, tetanus (8 cases or 13.7%, vertebral abscesses (4 cases or 6.8%, and cerebral abscesses (3 cases or 5.1%. Poisoning by Erytroxylum argentinum, post-caudectomy suppurative myelitis, fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis, polioencephalomalacia, rabies (2 cases or 3.4% each were occasionally diagnosed. Spinal cord demyelinization, encephalic white matter edema, focal symmetrical encephalomalacia, hydranencephalia, cerebellar hypoplasia, poisoning by organophosphate, poisoning by Solanum pseudocapsicum, fibrinosuppurative myelitis, and presumptive closantel toxicity (1 case or 1.7% each were rarely seen.

  7. Developing novel immunogens for a safe and effective Alzheimer's disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemere, Cynthia A

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of neurodegeneration; however, therapies to prevent or treat AD are inadequate. Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein accrues in cortical senile plaques, one of the key neuropathological hallmarks of AD, and is elevated in brains of early onset AD patients in a small number of families that bear certain genetic mutations, further implicating its role in this devastating neurological disease. In addition, soluble Abeta oligomers have been shown to be detrimental to neuronal function. Therapeutic strategies aimed at lowering cerebral Abeta levels are currently under development. One strategy is to immunize AD patients with Abeta peptides so that they will generate antibodies that bind to Abeta protein and enhance its clearance. As of 1999, Abeta immunotherapy, either through active immunization with Abeta peptides or through passive transfer of Abeta-specific antibodies, has been shown to reduce cerebral Abeta levels and improve cognitive deficits in AD mouse models and lower plaque load in nonhuman primates. However, a Phase II clinical trial of active immunization using full-length human Abeta1-42 peptide and a strong Th1-biased adjuvant, QS-21, ended prematurely in 2002 because of the onset of meningoencephalitis in approximately 6% of the AD patients enrolled in the study. It is possible that T cell recognition of the human full-length Abeta peptide as a self-protein may have induced an adverse autoimmune response in these patients. Although only approximately 20% of immunized patients generated anti-Abeta titers, responders showed some general slowing of cognitive decline. Focal cortical regions devoid of Abeta plaques were observed in brain tissues of several immunized patients who have since come to autopsy. In order to avoid a deleterious immune response, passive Abeta immunotherapy is under investigation by administering monthly intravenous injections of humanized Abeta monoclonal antibodies to AD patients. However

  8. Abeta DNA vaccination for Alzheimer's disease: focus on disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbs, David H

    2010-04-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data suggest that the development of a safe and effective anti-amyloid-beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will require therapeutic levels of anti-Abeta antibodies, while avoiding proinflammatory adjuvants and autoreactive T cells which may increase the incidence of adverse events in the elderly population targeted to receive immunotherapy. The first active immunization clinical trial with AN1792 in AD patients was halted when a subset of patients developed meningoencephalitis. The first passive immunotherapy trial with bapineuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the end terminus of Abeta, also encountered some dose dependent adverse events during the Phase II portion of the study, vasogenic edema in 12 cases, which were significantly over represented in ApoE4 carriers. The proposed remedy is to treat future patients with lower doses, particularly in the ApoE4 carriers. Currently there are at least five ongoing anti-Abeta immunotherapy clinical trials. Three of the clinical trials use humanized monoclonal antibodies, which are expensive and require repeated dosing to maintain therapeutic levels of the antibodies in the patient. However in the event of an adverse response to the passive therapy antibody delivery can simply be halted, which may provide a resolution to the problem. Because at this point we cannot readily identify individuals in the preclinical or prodromal stages of AD pathogenesis, passive immunotherapy is reserved for those that already have clinical symptoms. Unfortunately those individuals have by that point accumulated substantial neuropathology in affected regions of the brain. Moreover, if Abeta pathology drives tau pathology as reported in several transgenic animal models, and once established if tau pathology can become self propagating, then early intervention with anti-Abeta immunotherapy may be critical for favorable clinical outcomes. On the other hand, active immunization has

  9. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Takahiro; Sakai, Fumihiko

    2008-01-01

    /forebrain. The target extracellular epitopes are not detectable by immunoblotting, and should not be confused with the linear epitopes of NR2B subunits (also known as ε2). The antibodies disappear with clinical improvement, suggesting their pathogenic role. Autopsies revealed IgG deposits in the hippocampus, extensive microgliosis, rare T-cell infiltrates, and neuronal degeneration predominantly involving, but not restricted to, the hippocampus. The nervous tissues of the tumors exhibit not only strong expression of the NR2B subunits but also reactivity with the patients' antibodies. The pathogenesis remains unknown; however, this disorder is considered to be an antibody-mediated encephalitis. Based on the current NMDAR hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, we speculate that the antibodies may cause inhibition rather than stimulation of NMDARs in presynaptic GABAergic interneurons, causing a reduction in gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release. This results in disinhibition of postsynaptic glutamatergic transmission, excessive release of glutamate in the prefrontal/subcortical structures, and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation that might contribute to development of schizophrenia-like psychosis and bizarre dyskinesias. The antibodies were initially found only in young women with teratoma in the ovaries. However, recent studies show that this disorder can occur even in the absence of teratoma in up to 35% of patients, and even boys and adult men had been affected. Although recovery occurs without the need for tumor removal, the severity and extended duration of symptoms support tumor removal. Combined therapy including tumor resection and immunotherapy is recommended. In this review, we also discuss the relationship between anti-NMDAR encephalitis and related disorders, including acute diffuse lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and acute juvenile female non-herpetic encephalitis (AJFNHE). (author)

  10. THE STRUCTURES OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT EFFICACY ASSESSMENT IN PATIENT WITH NEUROSYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Shatokhina

    2016-01-01

    microscopy. The control group comprised 24  patients from in-patient department of neurology and neurosurgery with serous meningitis (n=8, as well as with purulent meningitis and meningoencephalitis (n=16 of bacterial etiology. Results: The morphological sign of a destructive process in central nervous system of neurosyphilis patients was represented by amorphous ovals that were absent in normal CSF. In group 1 patients, the amorphous ovals were found in small numbers within basic anisomorphons  – dendrites. In group 2 patients, multiple separated amorphous ovals were detected as spheres, as well as basic anisomorphons  – dendrites, fully filled with spheres made of amorphous ovals. Based on these characteristics, in 2  patients from group  3, early asymptomatic neurosyphilis was diagnosed, and in 5  patients, late meningovascular syphilis. At follow-up of 22 patients from group 2, positive trend towards normalization of CSF anisomorphons were seen only after 6 months of additional specific treatment. Conclusion: Assessment of CSF anisomorphon contents in patients with neurosyphilis by means of marginal dehydratation may serve as an additional diagnostic criterion of an early or late phase of neurosyphilis, help decide on the sanitation of the central nervous system and assess the treatment efficacy. 

  11. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos da infecção natural em bovinos por Trypanosoma vivax na Paraíba Clinical, epidemiological and pathological signs of natural infection in cattle by Trypanosoma vivax in Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2008-01-01

    located in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the disease were studied from May 2005 to November 2006. T. vivax was identified morphologically and by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR. The affected cattle presented anorexia, depression, fever, anemia, weight loss, reduction in milk production, transitory blindness, abortion and some nervous signs as nystagmus, tetany and bruxism. All cattle that presented nervous signs died. Necropsy findings were enlarged lymph and spleen, serous atrophy of the fat depots, proeminence of the splenic white pulp, hydropericardium and pericardial petechiae and ecchymoses on the epicardium. Histologically there was meningoencephalitis. The treatment of the clinical cases with diminazena aceturate was efficient with clearance of the parasite from the blood or disappearance of clinical signs in up to 2 months after the beginning of the outbreak on the two farms studied. The epidemiologic factors favoring the occurrence of the outbreak were the abundance of mechanical vectors, as tabanids and Stomoxys sp., and the introduction into the herd of cattle from farms where the disease occurred. It is suggested that the semiarid of the Brazilian Northeast is an enzootic instability region for trypanosomiasis due to its prolonged periods of drought and high temperatures, constituting during most part of the year an unfavorable environment for the development of vectors.

  12. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Roberts, Virginia; Yu, Patricia A; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2008-09-12

    chemicals; 11 (14.1%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness; and 11 (14.1%) were outbreaks of dermatitis or other skin conditions. The remaining eight were outbreaks of leptospirosis (n = two), primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), and mixed or other illnesses (n = five). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 4,015 (91.0%) of 4,412 illnesses. Fifty-eight (74.4%) WBDOs occurred at treated water venues, resulting in 4,167 (94.4%) cases of illness. The etiologic agent was confirmed in 62 (79.5%) of the 78 WBDOs, suspected in 12 (15.4%), and unidentified in four (5.1%). Thirty-four (43.6%) WBDOs had a parasitic etiology; 22 (28.2%), bacterial; four (5.1%), viral; and two (2.6%), chemical or toxin. Among the 48 gastroenteritis outbreaks, Cryptosporidium was confirmed as the causal agent in 31 (64.6%), and all except two of these outbreaks occurred in treated water venues where Cryptosporidium caused 82.9% (29/35) of the gastroenteritis outbreaks. Case reports associated with recreational water exposure that were discussed and analyzed separately from outbreaks include three fatal Naegleria cases and 189 Vibrio illnesses reported to the Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance System. For Vibrio reporting, the most commonly reported species were Vibrio vulnificus, V. alginolyticus, and V. parahaemolyticus. V. vulnificus illnesses associated with recreational water exposure had the highest Vibrio illness hospitalization (77.6%) and mortality (22.4%) rates. In addition, 32 aquatic facility-related health events not associated with recreational water use (e.g., pool chemical mixing accidents) that occurred during 1983--2006 were received from New York. These events, which caused illness in 364 persons, are included in this report but analyzed separately. The number of WBDOs summarized in this report and the trends in recreational water-associated disease and outbreaks demonstrate a substantial increase in number of reports from previous years

  13. O vírus do Nilo Ocidental West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2009-04-01

    árias brasileiras da área humana e animal temem que a infecção seja introduzida no país, onde provavelmente encontraria condições ecológicas para a sua disseminação e manutenção. Este artigo apresenta uma breve revisão dos principais aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção pelo WNV, com ênfase na infecção de humanos, aves e eqüinos.West Nile virus (WNV is a Flavivirus maintained in nature through alternate cycles of infection in wild birds and haematophagus mosquitoes, mainly Culex sp. Natural infection by WNV has been demonstrated in more than 200 bird species, which present variable susceptibility to infection and disease. Corvids and passeriformes are particularly susceptible and develop high levels of viremia and mortality. Occasionally, the virus may be transmitted to mammals by mosquitoes feeding previously on viremic birds. Human and horses are highly susceptible to WNV infection and often develop fever, which may be followed by neurological infection and fatal meningoencephalitis. Originally identified in Uganda (1937, WNV infection remained for decades restricted to North Africa, East Asia, Middle East and Mediterranean Europe. In these areas, isolated cases of human and horse disease, or small outbreaks were occasionally reported. In 1999, the virus was introduced in New York, USA, where it caused mortality in thousands of wild and captive birds and infected hundreds of people, killing 21. Thereafter, the infection rapidly spread out over the US territory, causing thousands of human infections (more than 27.000 - around 1100 deaths and equine infections (more than 25.000 cases. WNV infection has also been detected in wild and domestic birds, horses and other mammals across Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and northern South America, indicating its dissemination southwards. In 2006, WNV was first identified as the agent of fatal neurological disease in three horses in Argentina, where it has been shown to be circulating in

  14. THE ROLE OF HERPESVIRUS IN THE PARADIGM OF INFECTIOUS MYOCARDITIS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremot S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the research of the last decade, there has been growth in the noncoronary disease infarction, increased their share among the causes temporary or persistent disability, disability and deaths. Among others myocarditis, which constitute 11% of all diseases of the cardiovascular system and is responsible for almost 20% of cases of sudden death in people physically safe. The disease is an inflammatory damage to cardiomyocytes, which is caused by direct action or indirectly through immune mechanisms of infectious agents of bacterial, viral, protozoan nature, as well as chemical and physical factors. The term "myocarditis" was first proposed I F Soberheim in 1837 and in 1900. A. Fiedler described the myocardial injury and justified the very concept of primary myocarditis. It is widely accepted that myocarditis - natural complications of infectious diseases in which etiological factor may be any infectious agent. However, at the present stage bacterial pathogens give way to viral. Those viruses according to numerous studies result in the development of myocarditis and consequently lead to the development of myocardial dysfunction. Until recently, most were considered cardiotropic ECHO viruses, Coxsackie group A, B, causing half of all cases of viral myocarditis. However recently reviewed the role of enteroviruses in favor of persistent virus and particularly the family Herpesviridae. The significance in the etiology of myocarditis herpes simplex virus, human herpes type 6, Epstein - Barr virus, cytomegalovirus. Published data indicate that the development of viral myocarditis patients after serous meningoencephalitis caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Widespread herpesvirus diseases their tropism for endothelial cells and myocardium, the capacity for long-term persistence in the body the opportunity to explain virus inducted inflammatory damage to cardiomyocytes. Increased attention to this issue recently linked with the present stage

  15. Neurosindrome minimo en la tripanosomiasis cruzi crónica: (Estudio de dos casos de encefalopatia chagástica crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Eduardo Jörg

    1967-01-01

    anatomophathological study of two cases of chronic encephalopaty due to Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed. Only initial symptom in both cases was severe, continous, headache. Progressively other symptoms, denouncing compromise of the central nervous system, appeared, integrating slowly a full picture of cerebral disease, in the first case with diffuse cortical symptomatology, in the second case with pseudotumoral syndrome. In both cases, signs of trypanosomic cardiopathy were presented, but in none of both, the prevalent characteristic elements assigned to Chagas Disease pancarditis were evident. Histopathologic study of the brains (first case died in a road accident, second case finished in encephalopathic coma, possibly aggravated by hypermedication showed in both cases a microfocal cortico-meningoencephalitis, extensive but superficial; many of the nodules being concentric to alterated blood vessels (primary vasculitis?. In the second case, aside from the true encephalitic lesions, arteriolar thrombotic alterations (due to emboly of mural thrombi generated in the usual apical pancarditic lesions of Chagas Disease were found. Irregular zones of demielinization, neuronolisis and satellitosis (neurophagia were present too. In the second case, scarse leishmanioids of T. cruzi were found in typical foci of inflammatory necrotizing lesions. As in both cases, a continous and persistent headache was the only initial symptom, it is believed that former clinical observations of junior author are confirmed, allowing to cosnider headache (in concomitancy with positive serologic complement deviation reaction for T. cruzi as a minimal neurosyndrome of trypanosomiasis cruzi. Pathogenic mechanisms, symptoms and evolution of the chronic encephalopathy found in those two cases are discussed, on base of former knowledge of neural forms of trypanosomiasis cruzi.

  16. Neurocisticercose: incidência, diagnóstico e formas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio M. Canelas

    1962-03-01

    parvinodular calcifications. The CFT for cysticercosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, performed in 271 patients, was positive in 240 (88.6 percent. The same test in the blood was positive in 70.2 percent of the cases. The correlation between these data was not significant. Intracranial mottling calcifications were found in only 19.2 percent of the cases. Therefore, in 240 cases the diagnosis was based on cerebrospinal fluid findings, confirmed by surgery and/or autopsy in 58 patients. In 13 cases, despite a normal cerebrospinal fluid, the diagnosis was made by a positive CFT for cysticercosis in the blood, associated to the finding of intracranial parvinodular calcifications. In the remaining 23 cases the parasite was recovered during surgery and/or autopsy. Regarding to its clinical features, the disease was manifested under three separate forms: acute (meningoencephalitis, cerebral edema, ventricular obstruction, ischemic softening secondary to endarteritis, subacute and chronic (specially the purely convulsive clinical pictures. The symptoms had been present for less than 1 month in 40 cases, from 1 to 12 months in 116 cases, and for more than 1 year in 115 cases; in 5 cases this information was not ascertained. Our cases were classified, regarding to the clinical symptomatology, in hypertensive, convulsive, with focal or diffuse neurologic manifestations, and psychic. These forms were found as single manifestations in the following rates: 46.6 percent of the convulsive, 35.9 percent of the hypertensive, 24.5 percent of the cases with focal or diffuse neurologic symptoms, and none of the psychic. There was association of intracranial hypertension and convulsive seizures in 69 cases (25.0 percent. In 26 cases (9.4 percent there were, in addition, psychic symptoms. In 24 cases (8.7% focal or diffuse neurologic manifestations were associated to intracranial hypertension and convulsions. In general, the hypertensive forms were more common than the convulsive forms. Hypertensive

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 12th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 19-22, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-10-01

    . Michelin, C. Lorenzetto, V. Rametta, L. Nai Fovino, S. RugolottoABS 46. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: FROM DIAGNOSIS TO PREVENTION • F. Ayari, T. Bensmail, A. Boussetta, I. Ksibi, M. Cheour, N. Ben Ameur, M. Ben Ammara, S. KacemABS 47. ANALYSIS OF CRP AND PCT IN NEONATAL SEPSIS: A REPORT OF 81 CASES • M. Aresti, R. Pintus, B. Pinna, F. Coghe, M. Pautasso, C. Pisu, A. DessìABS 48. DIAGNOSTIC AND PREDICTIVE VALUE OF SERUM CYSTATIN C IN CASE OF NEONATAL ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CRITICALLY ILL FULL-TERM INFANTS • Y. Hodovanets, A. BabintsevaABS 49. MENINGITIS AND MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN YOUNG INFANTS. DESCRIPTION OF TWO CASES • N. De Montis, T. PeltzABS 50. S. MARCESCENS INFECTION IN NICU: AGGRESSIVE EVOLUTION DESPITE APPROPRIATE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY • M.E. Scapillati, G. Fariello, M.C. Paolino, F. Boccanera, C. HaassABS 51. THE USE OF METALLOME IN THE STUDY OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS • S. Visentin, V. Di Marco, M. Roverso, M. Calanducci, E. Salviato, L. Falcone, E. CosmiABS 52. MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIAL CERVICAL LYMPHOADENITIS IN CHILDREN OF NORTH SARDINIA • M.G. Clemente, F. Azzena, P. Olmeo, R. AntonucciABS 53. ADRENAL FAILURE IN A 20 DAY-OLD INFANT AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE • C. Chiappe, M. Pautasso, M. Puddu, G. Locci, E. ObinuABS 54. DUPLEX COLLECTING SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH URETEROCELE: A CASE REPORT • C. Loddo, L. Chia, F. Esu, C. Fanni, M. Melis, G. MasnataABS 55. MATERNAL CARBAMAZEPINE THERAPY AND SHORT-TERM ADVERSE EFFECTS IN BREASTFED INFANTS: A CASE REPORT • C. Cherchi, A.M. Oggiano, A. Pippia, R. AntonucciABS 56. TUBULOINTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS AND UVEITIS: A CASE REPORT OF A RARE SYNDROME • E. Aru, M. Furno, D. Congiu, P. Moi, R.A. PoddaABS 57. URETEROCELE: THE PROLAPSE IS A RARE COMPLICATION. A CASE REPORT • M. Melis, C. Loddo, F. Esu, G. Ottonello, G. MasnataABS 58. NEONATAL LUPUS: A CASE REPORT • F. Ayari, A. Boussetta, T. Bensmail, I. Ksibi, M. Cheour, N. Ben Ameur, M. Ben Ammara, S. KacemABS 59. HEME

  18. The 12th Edition of the Scientific Days of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” and the 12th National Infectious Diseases Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Mihail Niculae

    2016-11-01

    Tălăpan A9 Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis presenting with normal CSF – case presentation Ramona Ștefania Popescu, Luminița Bradu, Dragoș Florea, Adrian Streinu-Cercel A10 Extrapulmonary manifestations of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae – study on 24 cases Daniela Anicuta Leca, Elena Bunea, Andra Teodor, Egidia Miftode A11 The molecular diagnosis of severe bacterial sepsis in pediatric population Mădălina Merișescu, Gheorghiță Jugulete, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Dragoș Florea, Monica Luminos A12 Acute Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with multiple septic complications in a patient with diabetes mellitus – case presentation Ramona Ștefania Popescu, Anamaria Dobrotă, Adina Ilie, Liliana Lucia Preoțescu A13 Is Streptococcus suis meningitis an under-diagnosed zoonosis? Adriana Hristea, Raluca Jipa, Nicoleta Irimescu, Irina Panait, Eliza Manea, Simona Merisor, Cristian Niculae, Daniela Tălăpan A14 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood. Antimicrobial resistance – past and present Liana Cătălina Gavriliu, Otilia Elisabeta Benea, Șerban Benea, Alexandru Rafila, Olga Dorobăț, Mona Popoiu A15 Antibiotics resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood cultures Livia Dragonu, Augustin Cupşa, Iulian Diaconescu, Irina Niculescu, Lucian Giubelan, Florentina Dumitrescu, Andreea Cristina Stoian, Camelia Guţă, Simona Puiu A16 Predominance of CTX-M enzymes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two hospitals of Quebec City Bunescu Irina, Marilyse Vallée, Ann Huletsky, Dominique K. Boudreau, Ève Bérubé, Richard Giroux, Jean Longtin, Yves Longtin, Michel G. Bergeron A17 Postoperative meningoencephalitis with Acinetobacter baumannii XDR – a therapeutic challenge - Case report Cleo Nicoleta Roșculeț, Dalila-Ana Toma, Catrinel Ciuca, Daniela Tălăpan, Cătălin Apostolescu, Andrei Rogoz, Andrei Stangaciu, Viorica Mitescu, Tudor Vladoiu, Doina Iovănescu A18 Septic arthritis with Burkholderia cepacia