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Sample records for meningitis bacteriana por

  1. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

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    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara; Lizzie Marie Castillo Solano

    2006-01-01

    En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es una inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia) y pleoc...

  2. Meningitis bacteriana aguda

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    D. Rodrigo Blamey, Dr.

    2014-01-01

    La Meningitis Bacteriana Aguda (MBA) de adquisición comunitaria es una enfermedad prevalente en todo el mundo; constituye siempre una emergencia médica y se asocia a una alta morbimortalidad. Su epidemiología es variable y los principales agentes en adultos son S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae y L. monocitogenes. En Chile existe un sistema de vigilancia recientemente implementado que permitirá un mejor diagnóstico epidemiológico. Las manifestaciones clínicas clásicas no siempre e...

  3. Meningitis bacteriana aguda

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    D. Rodrigo Blamey, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La Meningitis Bacteriana Aguda (MBA de adquisición comunitaria es una enfermedad prevalente en todo el mundo; constituye siempre una emergencia médica y se asocia a una alta morbimortalidad. Su epidemiología es variable y los principales agentes en adultos son S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae y L. monocitogenes. En Chile existe un sistema de vigilancia recientemente implementado que permitirá un mejor diagnóstico epidemiológico. Las manifestaciones clínicas clásicas no siempre están presentes principalmente en adultos mayores. El diagnóstico requiere del estudio de líquido cefalorraquídeo, y las técnicas de biología molecular han significado un aporte relevante en los últimos años. El tratamiento antibiótico debe ser instaurado rápidamente para mejorar el pronóstico, mientras que la terapia coadyuvante con corticoides en adultos tiene sólo beneficios en etiología neumocócica. Se requieren mejores estrategias de prevención frente a una entidad que no ha cambiado su mortalidad a pesar del progreso de la medicina moderna.

  4. Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos

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    Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%, 3 and 23F (10% each. When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01 and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046. The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica empírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%, 3 e 23F (10% cada. Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44% também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01 e o uso

  5. Cambios en el espectro de la meningitis bacteriana espontánea en el paciente adulto en un hospital de tercer nivel

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    Pomar Solchaga, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    La tesis titulada "Cambios en el espectro de la meningitis bacteriana espontánea en el paciente adulto en un hospital de tercer nivel" está formada por 3 artículos y tiene como objetivo global analizar los cambios observados en las meningitis bacterianas del adulto en las últimas décadas en un hospital de tercer nivel de Barcelona. En el primer artículo, se evalúan 635 meningitis bacterianas desde 1982 al 2010, y se analizan en 2 períodos: 1982-1995 y 1996-2010. En el segundo periodo la pobla...

  6. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

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    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera; Jorge Martín Rodríguez; Guillermo Farfán

    2016-01-01

    La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. S...

  7. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

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    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  8. Efectividad del uso empírico de vancomicina para tratar la meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Revisión sistemática de la literatura y metaanálisis.

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    Galeano Tapias, Adriana Catalina; Piedrahita Vargas, Cristian Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. Debido al aumento de la frecuencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en meningitis bacteriana aguda y de los casos de fracaso al tratamiento con betalactámicos, se recomienda el uso combinado de vancomicina con cefalosporinas de tercera generación como primera línea de tratamiento empírico. Sin embargo, la efectividad de dicho régimen y su relación con la resistencia antibiótica no se conoce con claridad. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de la administración em...

  9. Meningitis neonatal por Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available La meningitis meningocóccica es una infección poco frecuente en el período neonatal internacionalmente, y solo hay una publicación previa en la literatura médica cubana hace 25 años atrás, de recién nacidos con meningitis bacteriana causada por Neisseria meningitidis. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido febril, con manifestaciones de toxicidad, fontanela abombada, y cuando se realizó punción lumbar, se encontró pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo y se aisló N. meningitidis serogrupo B, por lo que se diagnostica meningitis meningocóccica neonatal. Tuvo evolución favorable. Se describen algunas características de la infección meningocócica, y se destaca el diagnóstico y tratamiento recomendado para este tipo de infección, así como se hace referencia a reportes de casos publicados en la literatura internacional.

  10. Manejo hospitalario de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana por S. Neumoniae

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    Roberto Álvarez Fumero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La actitud terapéutica ante la meningitis bacteriana (MEB es uno de los retos más importantes a los que se enfrenta el pediatra, pues de su oportuno y adecuado manejo depende el pronóstico. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos bacterianos observados en Cuba a partir del año 2000, promovieron la implementación de modificaciones al régimen terapéutico antibiótico convencional. En este artículo, sin olvidar que el tratamiento ideal es el preventivo, se expone una revisión actualizada del manejo hospitalario de las MEB por S.pneumoniae, que incluye: adopción de medidas generales, instauración temprana de acciones dirigidas a atenuar los efectos perjudiciales de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, conducta específica contra el agente (antibioticoterapia y finalmente la identificación precoz e inicio de la rehabilitación de secuelas. Se hace énfasis en las modificaciones al esquema antibiótico adoptadas recientemente por la Comisión Nacional de SNI. Se exponen consideraciones sobre la introducción de la vancomicina en esquema antimicrobiano de las MEB por S.pneumoniae.The therapeutic attitude to face bacterial meningitis (BME is one of the most important challenges for pediatricians, since the prognosis depends on its timely and adequate management The changes in the epidemiology of the bacterial infectious neurological syndromes ocurred in Cuba from 2000 on, promoted the implementation of modifications in the conventional therapeutical antibiotic regimen. In this article, without forgetting that the ideal treatment is the preventive one, it is exposed an updated review of the hospital management of BME due to S.Pneumoniae that includes: adoption of general measures, early establishment of actions directed to alleviate the harmful effects of the systemic inflammatory reponse, specific conduct against the agent (antibiotic therapy and, finally, the identification and beginning of the

  11. Categorías de riesgo de meningitis bacteriana y tratamiento con antibióticos en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: recientemente se desarrolló y validó el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo cual provee de una herramienta efectiva en la toma de decisiones médicas para la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: conocer cómo se procedió retrospectivamente con la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, antes de desarrollar el modelo mencionado, y fortalecer y fundamentar una estrategia del tratamiento antibiótico, basados en nuestro Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y aplicado, que incluyó 290 neonatos evaluados por probable infección, 44 con meningitis bacteriana y 246 con meningitis aséptica, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", entre febrero/1992 y diciembre/2009. Se verificó la efectividad del Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo que permitió clasificar los pacientes en alto o bajo riesgo de meningitis bacteriana. Se determinó retrospectivamente la indicación y los motivos de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, así como análisis de asociación para distintas circunstancias clínicas, entre ellas, la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Resultados: se precisó que el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal tuvo una sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo de 100 % para meningitis bacteriana. Hubo concordancia estadísticamente significativa entre la predicción por el modelo y la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Se comprobó un uso racional del tratamiento antibiótico, pues se utilizó de inmediato al diagnóstico de meningitis bacteriana en 100 % de los casos, y solo en

  12. Detección precoz de afectación neurosensorial en niños convalecientes de meningitis bacteriana

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    Eric Martínez Torres

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 100 pacientes entre 2 meses y 2 años de edad que sufrieron meningitis bacteriana aguda. Se les realizó examen neuropediátrico, pruebas psicométricas y potenciales evocados auditivos de tallo cerebral. Treinta y siete niños tuvieron resultados anormales. Se encontró pérdida auditiva sensorineural en 15, conductiva en 11 y otra afectación neurológica (retardo psicomotor, espasticidad, paresias en 11. La incidencia de exámenes anormales fue significativamente más allá en el grupo de convalecientes de meningitis, con respecto a otros egresados de terapia intensiva. La edad menor de 6 meses fue el factor (considerado en forma aislada que se asoció con mayor frecuencia a afectación residual. El germen causal, el sexo y las complicaciones durante la meningitis no fueron significativas. La combinación de métodos clínicos con métodos de laboratorio de neurofisiología permitió identificar a un grupo de niños en riesgo de secuela neurosensorial, mucho mayor que el obtenido por cada uno por separado.

  13. Displasia de Mondini asociada a meningitis bacteriana recurrente, correlación clínico-imagenológica

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    Julianis Loraine Quintero Noa

    Full Text Available Se describe la displasia de Mondini asociada a pérdida auditiva y meningitis bacteriana recurrente. La malformación de Mondini representa el 30 % de las anomalías congénitas del oído interno, puede ser unilateral o bilateral, y su principal característica consiste en el desarrollo coclear incompleto, causante de grados variables de hipoacusia neurosensorial. Se considera que la ocurrencia de esta malformación se produce por disrupción del desarrollo embrionario durante la séptima semana de gestación, en la cual se detiene el desarrollo coclear. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 12 años, atendida en los Servicios de Pediatría y Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "William Soler", por presentar 3 infecciones meningoencefálicas, en las cuales se aisló Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F, y se constató hipoacusia neurosensorial severa en el oído izquierdo. La tomografía axial computarizada de alta resolución del oído (cortes axiales y coronales, evidenció la malformación coclear y vestibular, con presencia de tejido en el oído medio que se comunicaba directamente con el oído interno del lado izquierdo a nivel de la ventana oval. Se destaca la importancia de la sospecha clínica de displasia de Mondini, y el impacto científico de la tomografía computarizada del hueso temporal, para el diagnóstico precoz de fístula congénita en el oído interno asociada a meningitis bacteriana recurrente.

  14. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic Impacto de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b sobre la meningitis bacteriana en la República Dominicana

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    Ellen H. Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de

  15. Meningites bacterianas

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    Pereira, Diana Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas A meningite é um processo inflamatório que envolve as meninges, o encéfalo e a medula espinal; pode ser causada por diversos microrganismos, como vírus, fungos e bactérias. A meningite bacteriana representa um problema de Saúde Pública devido à alta incidência principalmente em crianças, com elevadas taxas de letalidade e sequel...

  16. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

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    Orlando C. Mantese

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar o perfil etiológico e alguns aspectos epidemiológicos das crianças com meningite bacteriana, internadas em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: foram seguidas, prospectivamente, as crianças internadas com meningite bacteriana, diagnosticada segundo os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais habituais. Foram excluídos os casos de meningite pós-trauma, de meningite na vigência de derivação liquórica, ou de defeitos congênitos do tubo neural, e de meningite tuberculosa. Resultados: foram analisadas 415 crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana, no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de 01/01/1987 a 31/01/2001. O agente etiológico foi identificado em 315 pacientes (75,9%, sendo de modo definitivo em 289 (69,3% e presuntivo, por intermédio da bacterioscopia, em outros 26 (6,6%. Os agentes mais comumente identificados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b (54,2%, o meningococo (20,6% e o pneumococo (18,1% dos 315 pacientes. O tratamento antimicrobiano prévio, detectado em 47,2% dos casos, causou uma diminuição significante no rendimento das culturas de sangue (de 50,8% para 38,7% e de liquor (71,7% para 57,6%. Houve um predomínio do acometimento de crianças com idade até 48 meses pelo Haemophilus influenzae b, particularmente em relação ao meningococo. A letalidade geral foi de 10,1%, com diferença significante entre a letalidade do pneumococo, de 17,5%, e a do meningococo, de 4,6%. Conclusões: as crianças afetadas por Haemophilus influenzae b e por pneumococo foram mais jovens que aquelas com meningite por meningococo. A hemocultura e a cultura de liquor continuam sendo importantes recursos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico etiológico da meningite bacteriana, apesar do impacto negativo causado em seu rendimento pelo tratamento antibiótico prévio. Os agentes mais comumente isolados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b, o meningococo e o pneumococo. A

  17. Lactat en líquid cefaloraquidi i procalcitonina sèrica com a factors predictors de meningitis bacteriana.

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    Calvo Jiménez, Júlia

    2017-01-01

    El diagnòstic de sospita de meningitis aguda bacteriana recau actualment en l’anamnesi, la clínica compatible i sobretot en l’anàlisi directe de les característiques del líquid cefaloraquidi i en la tinció de Gram. Aquestes tècniques presenten una sensibilitat diagnòstica limitada, entre d’altres motius, per l’alt ús d’antibiòtics a la població. Atès que el pronòstic i l’estratègia terapèutica de la meningitis bacteriana i vírica són oposats,són necessaris nous marcadors bioquímics que puguin...

  18. Fatores de risco para meningite bacteriana no recém-nascido Risk factors for bacterial meningitis in the newborn

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    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é descrever os fatores de risco para meningite bacteriana em recém-nascidos e analisar a prevalência destes fatores, considerando-se a presença ou não de baixo peso ao nascimento. Foram analisados 50 recém-nascidos com meningite bacteriana, excluindo-se aqueles com meningomielocele ou infecção congênita. Na análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher, considerando-se significantes os valores de p The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors for bacterial meningitis in newborns, and to analyze the prevalence of these factors, considering or not the low birth weight presence. Fifty newborns with bacterial meningitis were analyzed, excluding the ones with meningomyelocele or congenital infection. In the statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test was used, considering significant the p < 0.05 values. This study has shown that prematurity, low birth weight and presence of previous infectious diseases in the newborn or in the mother were important risk factors for meningitis. Among low birth weight newborns, invasive procedures, especially tracheal intubation, use of central venous catheter and previous use of antibiotics, were significantly associated to the meningitis occurrence. These results indicate that the improvement in the prenatal care and in the hospital infection control are measures of high importance in the decrease of the incidence of neonatal bacterial meningitis.

  19. Detección precoz de afectación neurosensorial en niños convalecientes de meningitis bacteriana

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    Eric Martínez Torres; Bárbara Bertot Acosta; María Cecilia Pérez Avalos; Maritza Perera González; Martha Moroño Guerrero

    1995-01-01

    Se estudiaron 100 pacientes entre 2 meses y 2 años de edad que sufrieron meningitis bacteriana aguda. Se les realizó examen neuropediátrico, pruebas psicométricas y potenciales evocados auditivos de tallo cerebral. Treinta y siete niños tuvieron resultados anormales. Se encontró pérdida auditiva sensorineural en 15, conductiva en 11 y otra afectación neurológica (retardo psicomotor, espasticidad, paresias) en 11. La incidencia de exámenes anormales fue significativamente más allá en el grupo ...

  20. Un modelo de predicción de meningitis bacteriana en recién nacidos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: se han desarrollado herramientas de predicción de meningitis bacteriana (MB en pacientes pediátricos, pero ellas no incluyen el período neonatal. Objetivo: diseñar y validar un modelo de predicción de MB en pacientes neonatales quienes presentan pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR al ser evaluados por variables clínicas y de laboratorio. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo y analítico, que incluyó 320 pacientes neonatales evaluados por probable infección, en quienes se hizo el diagnóstico de meningitis, 45 con MB y 275 con meningitis aséptica, e ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan M. Márquez", entre Febrero de 1992 y Diciembre del 2009. Se creó un Modelo Predictivo de Meningitis Bacteriana, sobre la base de un conjunto de variables identificadas mediante procedimientos de análisis uni y multivariado. El modelo se diseñó a partir de una población «de derivación», y se contrastó en otro grupo, este "de validación". Resultados: las variables seleccionadas para integrar el modelo predictivo fueron: 1 Apariencia de estado tóxico-infeccioso, 2 Convulsiones en el transcurso de la enfermedad, 3 Tinción de Gram del LCR positiva, 4 Proporción de leucocitos polimorfonucleares en el LCR >80%, y 5 Glucorraquia <1.0 mMol/l. Con estas variables se alcanzaron sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo de 100.0%. Con el modelo propuesto, en el grupo de derivación no hubo ningún paciente malclasificado con predicción negativa de MB pero portador de este tipo de infección. En el grupo de validación, el modelo tuvo un desempeño similar, lo cual lo acredita como un modelo de predicción validado internamente. Conclusiones: el modelo de predicción diseñado descansa en variables de evaluación rutinarias, y permitió identificar inequívocamente la totalidad de los pacientes neonatales con MB. Su empleo podría ser una herramienta útil en la toma de

  1. Evolução do comportamento auditivo após meningite bacteriana: relato de caso Auditory behaviour monitoring after bacterial meningitis: case report

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    Ida Lichtig

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva adquirida tem nas meningites bacterianas a sua principal etiologia e pouco tem-se dito a respeito da evolução para melhora ou piora do comportamento auditivo após a alta hospitalar. O presente estudo descreve o caso de um menino que teve meningite por Haemophilus influenzae aos 5 meses de vida e que entre outras complicações apresentou diminuição da acuidade auditiva detectada na evolução imediata, com melhora significativa posteriormente, confirmada por testes qualitativos e quantitativos. Discute-se a importância e a necessidade do seguimento fonoaudiológico de tais indivíduos para estabelecer orientação adequada.Bacterial meningitis is the main cause for acquired hearing loss. Nevertheless very little has been written about the development of the auditory behaviour either for improvement or for deterioration, after hospital release. The present study describes the case of a five month old boy with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Amongst various complications, a decrement in the auditory acuity was detected in the immediate evolution, with significant improvement later on by qualitative and quantitative tests.

  2. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

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    Carmen Julia Rovira; Jennifer Orozco Páez; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar e...

  3. Acute bacterial meningitis in HIV, pacients in southern Brazil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Meningite bacteriana aguda em portadores de HIV, no sul do Brasil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Sérgio M. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute communitarian bacterial meningitis and AIDS are prevalent infectious disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acute communitarian bacterial meningitis in AIDS patients, the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF characteristics. It was reviewed the Health Department data from city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2002. During this period, 32 patients with AIDS fulfilled criteria for acute bacterial meningitis, representing 0.84% of the AIDS cases and 1.85% of the cases of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent bacteria isolated. The number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils were higher and CSF glucose was lower in the group with no HIV co-infection (p 0.12; 0.008; 0.04 respectively. Bacteria not so common causing meningitis can occur among HIV infected patients. The high mortality rate among pneumococcus meningitis patients makes pneumococcus vaccination important.A meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária e a AIDS são doenças prevalentes no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária entre os pacientes com AIDS e as características clínicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR. Foram revistos os dados da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, nos anos de 1996 a 2002. Nesse período, 32 pacientes com AIDS preencheram os critérios para meningite bacteriana aguda, representando 0,84% dos casos com AIDS e 1,85% dos casos com meningite bacteriana aguda. A bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada foi S. pneumoniae. A celularidade total e a porcentagem de neutrófilos no LCR foi mais elevada e a glicose foi mais baixa no grupo sem co-infecção (p 0,12; 0,008; 0,04 respectivamente. Bactérias menos freqüentes como agentes etiológicos de meningite podem ocorrer. A taxa de mortalidade elevada entre pacientes com meningite por pneumococo torna a vacinação importante.

  4. Meningitis neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes y revisión de la literatura de los últimos 50 años Neonatal meningitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and literature review of the last 50 years

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    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un recién nacido fallecido a causa de meningitis bacteriana por estreptococo del grupo A. Se revisó la literatura mediante la búsqueda en distintas bases de datos y otras fuentes de los últimos 50 años. Antes de la publicación de este caso, se han documentado casos de otros 20 neonatos con meningitis bacteriana por estreptococo del grupo A y se halla la descripción clínica de ellos desde el año 1957. En otros artículos al mostrar la casuística de sepsis o meningitis neonatal, en general, reportan casos de recién nacidos con esta infección ocasionada por estreptococos del grupo A, pero no se ofrece información detallada de los casos. Según las publicaciones citadas, se demuestra que, aunque en la actualidad el estreptococo del grupo A no es ya un azote en el período neonatal, puede considerarse entre los microorganismos causales de meningitis bacteriana neonatal.The case of a newborn infant who died of bacterial meningitis caused by streptococcus of the group A was described. The literature was reviewed by searching different databases and other sources of the last 50 years. Before publishing this case, cases of other 20 neonates with bacterial meningitis due to streptococcus of the group A have been documented and their clinical description has been made since 1957. Other articles show the casuistics of sepsis or neonatal meningitis in general by reporting cases of newborns with this infection produced by streptococcus of group A, but no detailed information of the cases is provided. According to the publications cited, it was proved that in spite of the fact that at present streptococcus is not a hazard in the neonatal period, it may be considered among the microorganisms causing neonatal bacterial meningitis.

  5. Revisão sistemática do uso da dexametasona como terapia adjuvante na meningite bacteriana em crianças Revisión sistemática del uso de la dexametasona como terapia adyuvante en la meningitis bacteriana en niños Systematic review of dexamethasone as an adjuvant therapy for bacterial meningitis in children

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    João Antonio G. G. Prats

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a melhor evidência disponível nos últimos 15 anos com relação aos benefícios da terapia adjuvante com dexametasona na meningite bacteriana em população pediátrica. FONTES DE DADOS: Das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, foram analisados ensaios clínicos randomizados de 1996 a 2011, os quais comparavam a dexametasona ao placebo e/ou a outra terapia adjuvante em pacientes com meningite bacteriana diagnosticada laboratorialmente por critérios quimiocitológicos e/ou bacteriológicos, na faixa etária de 29 dias aos 18 anos. Os desfechos avaliados foram mortalidade e ocorrência de sequelas neurológicas e/ou auditivas. Foram excluídos estudos relacionados à meningite tuberculosa. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Com os critérios utilizados, foram identificadas cinco publicações correspondentes a quatro protocolos de estudo. Nenhum dos estudos mostrou diferenças entre a dexametasona e o placebo para os desfechos avaliados. Os estudos analisados tiveram alta qualidade (escore de Jadad et al=5. CONCLUSÕES: As evidências encontradas na literatura são insuficientes para indicar de forma rotineira o uso da dexametasona como terapia adjuvante para redução de mortalidade, perda auditiva e sequelas neurológicas em pacientes pediátricos com meningite bacteriana não tuberculosa.OBJETIVO: El presente estudio tiene por objetivo el análisis de la mejor evidencia disponible los últimos 15 años respecto a los beneficios de la terapia adyuvante con dexametasona en la meningitis bacteriana en población pediátrica por medio de revisión sistemática. FUENTES DE DATOS: De las bases de datos Medline, Lilacs y ScieLO, se analizaron ensayos clínicos aleatorios de 1996 a 2011 que comparaban la dexametasona al placebo y/u otra terapia adyuvante, en pacientes con meningitis bacteriana diagnosticada laboratorialmente por criterios quimiocitológicos y/o bacteriológicos, en la franja de edad de 29 días a 18 años. Los desenlaces

  6. Etiologia e evolução das meningites bacterianas em centro de pediatria Etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis in a pediatric center

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    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a prevalência dos agentes etiológicos das meningites bacterianas em serviço de referência, no atendimento de doenças infecciosas para o estado de Minas Gerais, e verificar a resposta ao tratamento utilizado.Métodos: estudo descritivo em que foram incluídas todas as crianças com diagnóstico provável de meningite, admitidas na instituição no período de junho a novembro/99.Resultados: obteve-se 210 casos de meningite, sendo 111 casos de etiologia bacteriana (52,9%. Destes, 52 casos foram diagnósticos prováveis (por alteração do liquor rotina e 59 com diagnósticos de certeza (por cultura e/ou isolamento de antígeno. Os principais agentes isolados foram, em ordem decrescente, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis e S. pneumoniae. O tratamento inicial para a faixa etária de três meses a cinco anos foi ampicilina e cloranfenicol, sendo posteriormente restrito para penicilina em casos de meningococo e pneumococo, e para cloranfenicol nos casos de H. influenzae. A mudança para antimicrobiano de maior espectro foi realizada com base em dados clínicos ou laboratoriais, não havendo isolamento de microorganismo resistente.Conclusões: o acompanhamento do perfil epidemiológico das meningites deve ser contínuo, e cada serviço deve se basear em dados locais para direcionar a terapia antimicrobiana. A monitorização contínua dos agentes prevalentes em cada instituição e de sua resistência é fundamental para a escolha antimicrobiana, atuando com menor interferência na colonização individual, sem contribuir para a crescente resistência dos agentes responsáveis pelas infecções meníngeas.Objective: to establish the prevalence of the etiological agents of bacterial meningitis in a reference center for the treatment of infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais. Methods: descriptive study including all children with probable diagnosis of meningitis between June/1999 and November/1999.Results: there were 210

  7. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998 Epidemiologia de meningites bacterianas entre crianças no Brasil, 1997 a 1998

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    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age OBJETIVO: Documentar a incidência e a epidemiologia descritiva de meningites bacterianas entre pessoas com idade inferior a 20 anos em uma região geográfica definida do Brasil. O período foi de dois anos, imediatamente anterior à introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, no Programa Nacional de Imunização do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico populacional dos casos de meningites bacterianas notificados entre residentes em Campinas, SP, Brasil, com idade inferior a 20 anos (n=316.570, entre 1997 e 1998. Baseia-se em dados de notificação da vigilância epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, relatados entre casos provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados

  8. Aglutinación de partículas de látex vs. contrainmunoelectroforesis en meningitis bacteriana aguda Latex agglutination vs. counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

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    Carmen Tulia Zapata Muñoz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 57 pacientes con meningitis aguda, de etiología bacteriana comprobada; 47.4% (27 casos fueron causados por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b; 21.0% (12 casos por Streptococcus pneumoniae; 17.5% (10 casos por Neisseria meningitidis; 5.3% (3 casos por Staphylococcus aureus,. 5.3% (3 casos por enterobacterias y 3.5% (2 casos por gérmenes no Identificados por cultivos. Se comparó la aglutinación de partículas de látex (APL con la contralnmunoelectroforesis (CIE en los pacientes con cultivo positivo. La exactitud de ambas fue similar para el H. influenzae tipo b y el S. pneumoniae. Tres de los 10 casos con cultivo positivo para N. meningítidis fueron positivos en la APL pero ninguno lo fue en la CIE. Se presentó un falso positivo para H. ínfluenzae con la APL que correspondió a meningitis por Salmonella typhí, Las pruebas inmunológicas estuvieron plenamente justificadas en 12 de los 57 pacientes (21.0%, previamente tratados, en quienes la bacteriología tradicional fue negativa o se quería identificar el germen porque lo único positivo era el gram y se justificaba utilizar el antibiótico más especifico. Se sugiere el uso de la APL en el Hospital Infantil de Medellín, por ser una prueba confiable y más simple y rápida que la CIE.

    A comparison was made between latex particles agglutination (LPA and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE in the diagnosis of 57 children with acute bacterial meningitis; reagents were utllized to detect infection by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neísseria meningitídís. Results of both tests were similar for diagnosis of H. ínfluenzae and S. pneumoniae; in contrast only 30.0% of cases due to N. meningitidis gave a positive result with LP A and none was detected with CIE.in 12 patients (21.0% LPA and CIE were the only tests that allowed a precise determination ot the etiology of the disease. The authors

  9. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente: Reporte de un caso

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    Alirio R Bastidas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferenciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipifi cación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico defi nitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos.

  10. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente. Reporte de un caso

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    Alirio R. Bastidas, MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferenciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipificación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico definitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos.

  11. Prognosis of bacterial meningitis in children Prognóstico de meningite bacteriana em crianças

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    Irenio Gomes

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the incidence and prognosis of acute neurologic complications in 281 children under 13 years of age with a diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. All the patients were examined daily by the same group of neurologists, using a standardized neurological examination. Patients with signs of encephalic lesions, unsatisfactory response to antibiotics or decreased level of consciousness were submitted to brain computer tomography. The overall lethality rate was 20.3% and cases whose causative agent was identified presented a higher lethality rate (23.7% than those in which the agent was not found. The most important neurological abnormalities were meningeal signs (88.3% followed by decreased consciousness (47.7%, irritability (35.2%, seizures (22.4%, fontanel bulging (20.6% and cranial nerve palsy (14.2%. Seizures, cranial nerve palsy and the absence of meningeal signs were related to higher rates of lethality. Diminished consciousness, seizures, subdural effusion, abscess and hydrocephalus were the most important complications, respectively. We can conclude that acute bacterial meningitis continues to be an important health problem in developing countries and that public health measures will be necessary to minimize the impact of sequelae and reduce the mortality rate in children with that pathology.Para estudar os fatores prognósticos e incidência de complicações em meningite bacteriana, 281 crianças (idade abaixo de 13 anos com quadro clínico e do LCR compatíveis com esse diagnóstico foram acompanhadas, durante o internamente, através de ficha de avaliação padrão. Aquelas que apresentaram sinais de lesão encefálica, resposta inadequada ao tratamento ou diminuição do nível de consciência, com Glasgow < 7, foram submetidas a tomografia computadorizada de crânio. A taxa de letalidade global foi 20,3%, sendo maior quando o agente etiológico foi identificado (23,7%. As alterações neurológicas mais encontradas foram

  12. Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningitis - bacterial; Meningitis - viral; Meningitis - fungal; Meningitis - vaccine ... These infections usually get better without treatment. But, bacterial meningitis infections are very serious. They may result in ...

  13. Meningitis bacteriémica por Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis

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    R. Soloaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Pasteurella multocida en seres humanos habitualmente están relacionadas con mordeduras o arañazos de perros y gatos. Muchas de ellas se acompañan de otros microorganismos de la orofaringe de estos animales. Se presenta un caso de meningitis bacteriémica por P. multocida en una mujer de 86 años que convivía con siete gatos. Si bien no se documentó una infección de piel o de partes blandas, es posible que ésta haya pasado inadvertida inicialmente y que fuera la causa de la bacteriemia con impacto en meninges, o bien que la meningitis se haya producido luego de la colonización nasofaríngea (no demostrada. Los aislamientos de hemocultivos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron identificados como P. multocida por medio de API 20NE, API 20E y Vitek 1. La cepa aislada presentó sensibilidad a penicilina, cefotaxima, levofloxacina y tetraciclinas, en coincidencia con lo descrito en la literatura.Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living with seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated. The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines.

  14. Infecciones por bacterias poco comunes y oncogénesis bacteriana

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    Horacio A. Lopardo

    Full Text Available La recuperación de algunos microorganismos de aislamiento esporádico en el laboratorio de microbiología clínica podría significar la existencia de algún defecto inmunitarioespecial en el paciente. Por ejemplo, se ha descrito una importante correlación entre Clostridium septicum y carcinoma de colon, y se han visto relacionadas con leucemias y linfomas a especies que aparecen casi siempre como contaminantes (Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp. y a otras raramente aisladas en otros contextos (Capnocytophaga spp.. Hay bacterias que se aíslan casi exclusivamente de pacientes con sida (Rhodococcus equi. Se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de infecciones por Campylobacter spp., Aeromonas spp. y estreptococos del grupo G y del grupo mitis en individuos con algún tipo de cáncer que en el resto de los pacientes. También hay bacterias que son marcadoras de algún cáncer no detectado o que afectan más a pacientes neutropénicos que a individuos normoinmunes. La alteración de la reacción inflamatoria, la linfoproliferación mediada por antígenos bacterianos y la inducción de hormonas que aumentan la proliferación de las células epiteliales podrían ser causas de la oncogénesis bacteriana. Los ejemplos clásicos son el adenocarcinoma gástrico inducido por Helicobacter pylori, la asociación de la bacteriemia por estreptococos del grupo bovis y el cáncer de colon y los linfomas de tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas (MALT en vinculación con especies de Helicobacter (MALT gástricos y con Chlamydophila spp. (MALT oculares. El aislamiento de alguno de estos patógenos debería ser un llamado de atención para inducir al estudio de alguna enfermedad maligna.

  15. Vaginosis bacteriana por Gardnerella vaginalis: Nuevas enseñanzas desde la ecología molecular

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    Andrés Zúñiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana (VB, es la afección vaginal más frecuente en las mujeres en edad reproductiva generada por un desbalance en el ecosistema vaginal que ocasiona complicaciones severas para la salud reproductiva. Existen hipótesis de origen biológico que relacionan la presencia de organismos como Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella sp, Atopobium vaginae como la causa más frecuente relacionada con la vaginosis, los cuales logran desplazar poblacionalmente microorganismos con capacidad protectora del epitelio vaginal como Lactobacillus crispatus y Lactobacillus jensenii. En la actualidad y de acuerdo a la OMS, la vaginosis bacteriana estaría implicada en alteraciones durante el embarazo como parto pre termino, bajo peso al nacer, corioamnionitis, ruptura prematura de membranas (RPM, endometritis post parto, entre otras. En los últimos años, con base estudios apoyados en datos de patrones moleculares, así como tecnología de análisis de genomas, surge una visión mucho más completa de condiciones ecológicas y agentes participantes en la vaginosis bacteriana.

  16. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

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    Carmen Julia Rovira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar en muchos casos que se presente un exagerado aumento de volumen gingival. Se presenta un caso de agrandamiento gingival en paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, bajo tratamiento antiepiléptico con fenitoína. Al examen clínico se observó aumento del volumen gingival de forma generalizada, en maxilar superior e inferior, predominante en sector anterior, produciendo ardor y sangrado durante el cepillado y la ingestión de alimentos. Al sondaje presenta múltiples pseudobolsas en los diferentes cuadrantes. La radiografía panorámica reveló pérdida ósea moderada horizontal, predominante en el sector posterosuperior, posteroinferior y anteroinferior. El plan de tratamiento consistió en fase higiénica, instrucción y motivación en higiene oral a la madre, gingivectomía y gingivoplastía en ambos maxilares. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 226 - 231Abstract The importance of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete filling and sealing of the root canal to prevent the transport of contaminants to and from root canal, with materials compatible with the surrounding tissues. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement. This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures (orbital pain, inferior alveolar nerve injury, headache, etc., and infections

  17. Avaliação e acompanhamento audiológico após meningite bacteriana Audiological assessment and follow-up post bacterial meningitis

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    MARIA INÊS VIEIRA COUTO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva é uma das sequelas da meningite bacteriana que ocorre com maior frequência em crianças. Este estudo descreve o perfil audiológico (periférico e central de crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Nas 89 crianças que compareceram ao seguimento audiológico após a alta hospitalar e foram submetidas aos testes audiológicos, os resultados evidenciaram que 85,4% apresentaram acuidade auditiva normal em ambas orelhas, 10,1% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial bilateral e 4,5% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. Nos testes que avaliaram as habilidades de processamento auditivo, os resultados mostraram que 10% dessas crianças apresentaram alteração no desempenho de localização auditiva e de reconhecimento de sentenças com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral.Hearing loss is the more frequent sequel of bacterial meningitis in children. This study describes the audiological profile (peripheric and central of 89 children admitted to the hospital wards with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those children attended audiological follow up, after their hospital descharge, and were submitted to audiological tests. The results showed that 85.4% among them presented normal hearing in both ears 10.1% presented bilateral neurosensorial hearing loss and 4.5% presented unilateral neurosensorial hearing loss. The results from the auditory processing skills assessment showed that 10% of those children presented auditory localization and recognition of sentences with competitive messages (Paediatric Sentences Identification - ipsilateral disorders.

  18. Clinical and laboratorial characteristics of bacterial meningitis in children Características clínicas e laboratoriais de meningites bacterianas em crianças

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    Rita Lucena

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the records of 528 children under 15 years old with diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis, admitted at the Hospital Couto Maia between 1990 and 1992 were analyzed. Bacterial meningitis was more frequent in children under the age of 1 year (37.8%. The most common etiologic agent was H. influenzae (42.2%. The global letality was 20.9%. Individual predictors of poor outcome were: absence of the "classic triad", CSF cell count under 1000 /mm³, age under 2 years, presence of seizures, depressed sensorium, and S. pneumoniae as causal agent.Foram analisados dados de prontuário de 528 crianças com faixa etária entre 1 mês e 15 anos e diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana aguda, admitidas no Hospital Couto Maia entre 1990 e 1992. Meningite bacteriana foi mais frequente em crianças com idade inferior a 1 ano (37,8%. O agente etiológico mais comum foi H. influenzae (42,2%. A letalidade global foi 20,9% e os fatores preditivos de pior prognóstico foram: ausência da "tríade clássica" (febre, vômitos e rigidez de nuca, celularidade do líquido cefalorraquidiano inferior a 1000 /mm³, idade inferior a 2 anos, presença de convulsões, alteração do nível de consciência e S. pneumoniae como agente causal.

  19. Avaliação da resistência do eucalipto à murcha-bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O plantio de clones de eucalipto resistentes constitui a principal estratégia para o controle de doenças no campo. Assim, este trabalho objetivou testar métodos de inoculação de Ralstonia solanacearum visando selecionar eucalipto resistente à murcha-bacteriana. Os métodos de inoculação foram selecionados em função da facilidade operacional e testados na avaliação de quatro clones (híbridos E. urophylla x E. grandis: i aplicação de 5 mL de inóculo (10(8 ufc/mL na região do coleto de mudas; ii aplicação de 5 mL de inóculo (10(8 ufc/mL na região do coleto de mudas após o ferimento do sistema radicular; iii corte de 1/3 basal do sistema radicular e imersão das raízes por 1 min em suspensão de inóculo na mesma concentração; e iv condução de mudas transplantadas em infectário, constituído de canaletões com areia infestada quinzenalmente (taxa de 0,25 L/m³ com suspensão bacteriana (10(8 ufc/mL e submetidas a coletas de brotações, de forma similar ao que é feito em minijardins comerciais. A condução das mudas em infectário apresentou maiores incidências de doença (exsudação de pus bacteriano, variando de 81 a 100%. O segundo experimento objetivou avaliar a resistência de diferentes espécies de eucalipto, empregando-se o método de transplantio das mudas para o infectário. A avaliação da infecção pela presença de exsudação bacteriana apresentou resultados mais consistentes para comparação dos genótipos. A intensidade da murcha-bacteriana foi afetada pelas condições da planta e do ambiente. Todas as espécies exibiram sintomas da doença, porém E. tereticornis e E. grandis apresentaram, respectivamente, o menor (33,3% e o maior (91,7% percentual de genótipos infectados (suscetíveis. Os resultados deste trabalho são importantes ferramentas (método de inoculação e fontes (espécies de eucalipto de resistência para o controle da murcha-bacteriana do eucalipto.

  20. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about

  1. Epidemiological profile of acute bacterial meningitis in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Perfil epidemiológico da meningite bacteriana aguda no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Andrino da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM remains a public health problem in Brazil. To evaluate the epidemiology of ABM cases at Giselda Trigueiro Hospital, Rio Grande do Norte, a descriptive retrospective survey was conducted covering 2005 to 2008. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the epidemiology department of the hospital and analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 168 ABM cases, 24.4%, 10.7%, and 2.4% were, respectively, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenza b, and 5.4% by other bacteria. The mean age was 22.48 ± 18.7 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main causative pathogen in the young urban population.INTRODUÇÃO: Meningite bacteriana aguda (MBA permanece um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Para avaliar a epidemiologia da MBA atendida no Hospital Giselda Trigueiro, Rio Grande do Norte, um estudo retrospectivo-descritivo foi realizado de 2005 a 2008. MÉTODOS: Dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram coletados do departamento de epidemiologia hospitalar e analisados. RESULTADOS: Dos 168 casos de MBA, 24,4%, 10,7% e 2,4% foram, respectivamente, causados por Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis e Haemophilus influenzae b e 5,4% por outras bactérias. A média da idade foi 22,48 ± 18,7 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Streptococcus pneumoniae foi o principal patógeno causador na população urbana jovem.

  2. La persistencia bacteriana: una problemática ignorada por una ciencia sin respuestas

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    FORMENTINI E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ARTÍCULO DE OPINIÓN. En nuestra cultura occidental tenemos un concepto triunfalista y mesiánico de la ciencia, ya que se confía que tarde o temprano la misma hallará respuestas y soluciones a los problemas del hombre. Sin embargo, la ciencia tiende a negar sistemáti-camente todo aquello para lo cual no tiene explicación y condena al olvido a todo conocimiento para lo cual no tiene aplicación actual. Las bacterias persistentes son uno de esos problemas olvidados, que recientemente ha despertado interés en la comunidad científica, al tener que enfrentarse a la problemática creciente de la resistencia bacteriana. Este artículo trata dos temas disímiles pero que están estrechamente relacionados. El primero, consiste en explicar el ignorado y olvidado fenómeno de la persistencia bacteriana y su impli-cancia en la progresiva disminución de la vida útil de los antibióticos. El segundo, es un análisis epistémico-ético con el objetivo de dilucidar la responsabilidad de la ciencia respecto de la ignorancia y el olvido de esta problemática. Finalmente se propone una pos-tura epistemológica para la revalorización constante de los conocimientos olvidados. SUMMARY. Bacterial persistence: an ignored problem by a science without answers. In our western culture, we have a triumphalist and messianic conception of science, since it is confided that sooner or later it will find the answers and the solutions to the problems of humanity. However, science tends to systematically ignore everything for which it has no explanation, and condemns to oblivion all knowledge that has not practical application. Persister cells are one of those forgotten problems, although it has recently attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the growing problem of bacterial resistance. This article addresses two dissimilar but closely related topics. The first is to explain the forgotten and ignored phenomenon of persister cells

  3. Clinical outcome of neonatal bacterial meningitis according to birth weight Evolução clínica da meningite bacteriana neonatal de acordo com o peso de nascimento

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    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcome and the complications of bacterial meningitis according to birth weight of out born neonates admitted in intensive care unit during an 11 year-period. METHOD: Eighty-seven newborns were studied. Thirty-four infants were low birth weight newborn and 53 presented birth weight > " 2500 g. The clinical data were obtained through the analysis of patients’ files. Fisher’s exact test, the c² and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms were more common in infants weighed > " 2500 g (pOBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução clínica e as complicações da meningite bacteriana de acordo com o peso de nascimento em recém-nascidos admitidos em unidade de terapia intensiva externa durante o período de 11 anos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 87 neonatos, dos quais 34 foram recém-nascidos de baixo peso e 53 apresentaram peso > " 2500 g. Os dados clínicos foram obtidos por análise dos prontuários médicos. Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher, teste do c² e teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas neurológicos foram mais comuns em neonatos com peso > " 2500 g (p<0,05 . As complicações ocorreram na metade dos casos em ambos os grupos, com mortalidade global de 11.5%. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência de complicações foi alta em ambos os grupos, independentemente do peso de nascimento. Não houve associação entre óbito e peso de nascimento. Os neonatos com cultura de líquor positiva apresentaram pior prognóstico.

  4. Eficácia da associação de dexametasona à antibioticoterapia em pacientes pediátricos com meningite bacteriana Effectiveness of the association of dexamethasone with antibiotic therapy in pediatric patients with bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Marques Bernardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da associação de corticoide ao tratamento padrão da meningite bacteriana em pacientes pediátricos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão sistemática da literatura através da base de dados MEDLINE. Foram incluídos apenas ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados que comparassem a dexametasona ao placebo no tratamento de pacientes pediátricos com meningite bacteriana. RESULTADOS: Oito artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram selecionados para análise. Não houve diferença nas taxas de mortalidade (p = 0,86 ou de incidências de sequelas neurológicas (p = 0,41 e audiológicas (p = 0,48 entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Não existem benefícios na associação de corticoide ao tratamento da meningite bacteriana em pacientes pediátricos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the association of corticosteroids and the standard treatment of bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted through the MEDLINE database. Only randomized controlled trials comparing dexamethasone with placebo in the treatment of pediatric patients with bacterial meningitis were included. RESULTS: Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. There were no difference in mortality (p = 0.86, and incidence of neurological (p = 0.41 and auditory (p = 0.48 sequelae between the groups. CONCLUSION: There are no benefits in associating corticosteroids with the standard treatment of bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients.

  5. Encefalitis bacteriana e hidrocefalia

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1982-01-01

    Nueve imágenes de una encefalitis bacteriana en un niño con hidrocefalia por oclusión del acueducto de Silvio. Nine pictures of a bacterial encephalitis in a child with hydrocephalus caused by an occlusion of the Sylvian aqueduct.

  6. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente: Reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Alirio R Bastidas; Carlos A Vélez; Carol V Gutiérrez M; Nancy J Bahamón

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferenciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipifi cación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico de...

  7. Correlation between the neonatal EEG and the neurological examination in the first year of life in infants with bacterial meningitis Correlación entre el EEG neonatal y el examen neurológico en el primer año de vida en recién nacidos con meningitis bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG and its correlation with the neurological examination at age of 9 months in newborns with bacterial neonatal meningitis. METHOD: Twenty seven infants were studied with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture for bacteria. We used the worse EEG result during acute phase of meningitis, and performed neurologic follow-up after discharge from hospital. Background cerebral activity was classified as normal or mildly, moderately, or markedly abnormal. Neurologic examination outcomes was classified normal, mild abnormalities, moderate abnormalities and severe abnormalities. RESULTS: EEG performed in the neonatal period during acute bacterial meningitis predicts adverse outcome early at age of 9 months, and had a significant correlation with cephalic perimeter and active tone alterations. CONCLUSION: Neonatal EEG is useful for predicting abnormal outcomes, especially cephalic perimeter and active tone abnormalities at 9 months of age in infants with bacterial neonatal meningitis.OBJETIVO: Medir la contribución del electroencefalograma (EEG neonatal y su correlación con el examen neurológico a la edad de 9 meses en recién nacidos con meningitis neonatal bacteriana. MÉTODO: Se estudió a 27 neonatos con cultivos positivos de líquido cefalorraquídeo a bacterias. Se uso el peor resultado del EEG obtenido durante el periodo agudo de la meningitis. El seguimiento neurológico se efectuó tras el egreso hospitalario. La actividad de fondo del EEG se clasificó en normal y anormal leve, moderada y severa. El examen neurológico se clasificó en normal, y anormal leve moderado y severo. RESULTADOS: El EEG realizado durante el periodo neonatal durante la fase aguda de la meningitis bacteriana predice bien un resultado adverso a la edad de 9 meses, con correlaciones significativas con el perímetro cefálico y con las alteraciones del tono activo. CONCLUSION: El EEG neonatal es

  8. Criterios del protocolo de evaluación del recién nacido febril sin signos de focalización asociados a meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue precisar cuáles criterios clínicos o de laboratorio del método de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave permiten discriminar con mayor probabilidad aquellos recién nacidos (RN febriles sin signos de focalización que presentan una meningitis. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente 438 RN febriles sin signos de focalización ingresados en un período de 40 meses. Las variables de estudio fueron los criterios de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave y se evaluó la asociación de estas variables para el grupo de RN sin ningún tipo de infección bacteriana grave ni meningitis aséptica en comparación con aquellos con meningitis bacteriana y con meningitis aséptica, independientemente. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de meningitis bacteriana y meningitis aséptica fue del 2,5 % y 9,3 % respectivamente. Con excepción de la cituria positiva y de los antecedentes perinatales de sepsis positivos, el resto de las demás variables clínicas y de laboratorio que son utilizados como criterios para la evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave del RN febril sin signos de focalización se asociaron a la presencia de meningitis bacteriana. La fiebre ≥ 39 °C o fiebre persistente o recurrente estuvo asociada significativamente a una meningitis aséptica. CONCLUSIONES. El diagnóstico de meningitis (aséptica o bacteriana es común en los RN febriles sin signos de focalización y verificamos que la fiebre ≥ 39 °C y la fiebre persistente o recurrente son elementos que están asociados a la presencia de meningitis, por lo que, cuando están presentes debe verificarse la posibilidad de que exista alguna de estas infecciones. Por ser la meningitis bacteriana una infección de peor pronóstico también hay que prestar importancia a los otros criterios que están relacionados, particularmente a la presencia de un estado tóxico-infeccioso.

  9. Biotransformación de lixiviado de suelo impactado con roxarsona por comunidades bacterianas de aguas subterráneas en condiciones anaeróbicas

    OpenAIRE

    Mafla Andrade, Santiago Xavier

    2014-01-01

    La Roxarsona® se usa como un complemento nutricional y antiparasitario de manera frecuente en la industria agrícola. Las bacterias presentes en el estiércol, suelo y agua producen la transformación de la roxarsona en productos tóxicos, que pueden lixiviarse desde la superficie hacia las napas de agua produciendo una exposición crónica al arsénico inorgánico el cual es tóxico. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la transformación del lixiviado del suelo por las comunidades bacterianas pres...

  10. Optimitzación de la biosíntesis de nanocelulosa bacteriana por fermentación

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    La cel·lulosa bacteriana és un biopolímer obtingut per fermentació amb diversos microorganismes, dels quals l’espècie més eficient en la producció és la Gluconacetobacter xylinus sucrofermentans. La principal diferencia entre la cel·lulosa bacteriana y la resta de cel·luloses que existeixen és la seva puresa, per això, és un del biopolímer més atractius per les seves possibles aplicacions en diverses àrees com són l’alimentació, la farmàcia i la medicina. A més de la seva puresa, les seves...

  11. Meningitis y artritis por Haemophilus influenzae en un adulto

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    Javier Molina

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente el Haemophilus influenzae ha sido considerado un germen causante de infecciones en niños; en adultos se lo ha relacionado con Infecciones respiratorias, pero en los últimos tiempos se han descrito en ellos infecciones severas cuando hay algunos factores predisponentes. Se describe un paciente drogadicto de 30 años con cuadro de meningitis y artritis y prueba de látex y cultivo de LCR positivos para HaemophiIus influenzae, quien recibió tratamiento con ampicilina, 2 gramos Intravenosos cada 4 horas y evolucionó a la mejoría sin secuelas. Se plantea la necesidad de tener en cuenta al Haemophilus influenzae como patógeno del adulto y más en aquellas personas con factores predisponentes.

    Haemophilus influenzae has traditionally been considered as an infectious agent that predominantly affects children; instead, in adults It has been Linked either to respiratory infections or to gevere infections occurring when predisposing factors are present. We describe a 30 year-old drug adict patient that presented with meningitis and arthritis; both latex test and cerebrospinal fluid culture were positive for Haemophilus influenzae. He was treated with ampicilin 2 gm, I. V. every four hours and improved without sequelae. This microorganism must be considered among those affecting adult patients specially when predisposing factors for infection are present.

  12. Pautas de profilaxis antibiótica de Endocarditis Bacteriana, recomendadas por los odontólogos en España

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Carmona, Inmaculada; Diz Dios, Pedro; Limeres Posse, Jacobo; Outumuno Rial, Mercedes; Caamaño Durán, Flor

    2004-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio fue conocer las pautas de profilaxis antibiótica de Endocarditis Bacteriana (EB) recomendadas por los odontólogos en España. Se preguntó a través de una llamada telefónica, cuál era el régimen profiláctico que se debía administrar a un paciente de riesgo de EB antes de someterse a una exodoncia. La información se obtuvo de 400 odontólogos seleccionados aleatoriamente y distribuidos por todo el territorio español. A 200 se les preguntó ...

  13. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

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    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  14. Meningitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-24

    This podcast gives a general overview of meningitis, including what it is, the five types, and the causes.  Created: 10/24/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/24/2012.

  15. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Echeverri; María de los Ángeles Vargas; Lorena Matta; Fernando Rosso; Janier Daniel Segura

    2015-01-01

    Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e in...

  16. Elaboración del video educativo sobre la identificación bacteriana por el método de gram

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Jose.

    2009-01-01

    El presente video fue creado y diseñado con la finalidad de proporcionar un instrumento didáctico para aprender de una manera eficaz sobre la identificación bacteriana empleando el método de tinción de Gram. La tinción de Gram es uno de los métodos más utilizados en el laboratorio bacteriológico, por lo cual es necesario llegar a un dominio adecuado de su manipulación. Este video tiene una duración de 8 minutos, durante los cuales se podrá adquirir el conocimiento suficiente para entender el ...

  17. Criterios del protocolo de evaluación del recién nacido febril sin signos de focalización asociados a meningitis Assessment protocol criteria of the febrile newborn without signs of meningitis-associated focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue precisar cuáles criterios clínicos o de laboratorio del método de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave permiten discriminar con mayor probabilidad aquellos recién nacidos (RN febriles sin signos de focalización que presentan una meningitis. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente 438 RN febriles sin signos de focalización ingresados en un período de 40 meses. Las variables de estudio fueron los criterios de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave y se evaluó la asociación de estas variables para el grupo de RN sin ningún tipo de infección bacteriana grave ni meningitis aséptica en comparación con aquellos con meningitis bacteriana y con meningitis aséptica, independientemente. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de meningitis bacteriana y meningitis aséptica fue del 2,5 % y 9,3 % respectivamente. Con excepción de la cituria positiva y de los antecedentes perinatales de sepsis positivos, el resto de las demás variables clínicas y de laboratorio que son utilizados como criterios para la evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave del RN febril sin signos de focalización se asociaron a la presencia de meningitis bacteriana. La fiebre ≥ 39 °C o fiebre persistente o recurrente estuvo asociada significativamente a una meningitis aséptica. CONCLUSIONES. El diagnóstico de meningitis (aséptica o bacteriana es común en los RN febriles sin signos de focalización y verificamos que la fiebre ≥ 39 °C y la fiebre persistente o recurrente son elementos que están asociados a la presencia de meningitis, por lo que, cuando están presentes debe verificarse la posibilidad de que exista alguna de estas infecciones. Por ser la meningitis bacteriana una infección de peor pronóstico también hay que prestar importancia a los otros criterios que están relacionados, particularmente a la presencia de un estado tóxico-infeccioso.INTRODUCTION. The aim of

  18. Estudio de los efectos causados por la introducción de sistemas de rizorremediación en las poblaciones bacterianas nativas de un suelo contaminado por PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Los diferentes análisis llevados a cabo en este estudio sostienen que la comunidad bacteriana de la rizosfera, que evolucionó de la población nativa de un suelo con un historial de contaminación por bifenilos policlorados, durante el desarrollo de las raíces de Salix vimminalis, fue diferente de la comunidad parental tanto a niveles funcionales como estructurales. La rizosfera estuvo enriquecida en especies de Proteobacteria, y en genes de ISP altamente relacionados con el grupo de las bacte...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in children: a review of 30 community-acquired cases Meningite por Staphylococcus aureus na criança: revisão de 30 casos adquiridos na comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO MASRUHA RODRIGUES

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the steady increase in the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections, it remains a relatively uncommon cause of meningitis. To our knowledge, no series of community-acquired S. aureus meningitis (CASAM restricted to children has been published. So far in this retrospective study we report our experience with CASAM in children, hospitalized from 1983 to 1998 at Nossa Senhora da Glória Children's Hospital (HINSG. During the sixteen-year study period, 2,319 new cases of acute pyogenic meningitis were diagnosed at HINSG. Community-acquired S. aureus was identified as the causative agent in 30 patients (1.3 percent. The predominantly spinal localization of the agent is stressed. In contrast with publications which analyze adults, it has a better prognosis.Apesar da incidência das infecções por Staphylococcus aureus ter aumentado, este permanece como uma causa relativamente incomum de meningite. Até o presente momento, nenhum estudo sobre meningite comunitária causada por S. aureus (CASAM restrito a infância foi publicado. Neste estudo retrospectivo nós relatamos nossa experiência com crianças internadas no período de 1983 a 1998 no Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória (HINSG. Durante este período de 16 anos, 2.319 novos casos de meningites bacterianas agudas foram diagnosticados neste hospital. O S. aureus adquirido na comunidade foi identificado como agente etiológico em 30 pacientes (1,3%. Um provável tropismo deste agente pelas meninges espinhais foi enfatizado. Em contraste com publicações que analisaram adultos, a meningite comunitária por S. aureus em crianças teve um prognóstico melhor.

  20. Endocarditis bacteriana causada por Corynebacterium diphtheriae, biotipo gravís, no toxigénico: informe de un caso

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    Nélida Muñoz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un niño de 9 años, atendido en el Hospital Erazmo Meoz de Cúcuta, entre el 22 de noviembre de 1995 y el 18 de diciembre del mismo año, con diagnóstico de anemia, síndrome mielodisplásico y endocarditis bacteriana. En los hemocultivos, se aisló un bacilo grampositivo, identificado inicialmente como Listeria monocytogenes. El aislamiento fue enviado al Laboratorio de Referencia de Microbiología del INS para confirmación, en donde se identificó la bacteria como Corynebacterium diphtheriae, biotipo gravis, no toxigénico. No fue posible realizar el seguimiento del paciente debido a que los padres solicitaron su salida voluntaria de la institución.

  1. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of potato cultivars evaluated through PCR-DGGE profiles Comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata avaliadas por perfis de PCR-DGGE

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    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira

    2008-05-01

    ês períodos amostrais e cinco repetições. As amostras de rizosfera foram coletadas em três diferentes épocas durante o desenvolvimento das plantas. O DNA dos microrganismos associados à rizosfera foi extraído, amplificado por PCR com uso de iniciadores universais para bactérias e analisados por DGGE. Foram observadas alterações, relacionadas à cultivar e à idade da planta, nos perfis das comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera das diferentes cultivares. As diferenças entre as comunidades bacterianas foram maiores na fase inicial do crescimento das plantas, com tendência a diminuir no estágio final de desenvolvimento. Essa variação foi detectada na comunidade bacteriana das cinco cultivares estudadas. A caracterização da microbiota do solo pode ser parte de programas de melhoramento de plantas a ser utilizada em estudos de avaliação de risco ambiental de batatas geneticamente modificadas.

  2. Epidemiología descriptiva de meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas de la provincia de Zaragoza (1999-2004: evaluación de su sistema de vigilancia Descriptive epidemiology of non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis in the province of Saragossa [Spain] from 1999 to 2004: evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System

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    Carmen Varela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas (MnMB y evaluar el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SVE en la provincia de Zaragoza entre 1999 y 2004. Métodos: Se utilizó el registro de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO y el conjunto mínimo básico de datos (CMBD. Se evaluó el SVE utilizando criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, estimando la exhaustividad mediante captura-recaptura. Resultados: Se notificaron 111 casos de MnMB (62,2% en hombres. La edad media fue de 40,7 años. La mayor proporción de casos (16,5% fue en niños menores de 2 años. La forma clínica en el 81,1% de los casos fue la meningitis; el 70,3% fue diagnosticada por cultivo. Aparecieron Streptococcus en el 54% de los casos (el 82% por S. pneumoniae, enterobacterias en el 5,4%, Lysteria y Staphylococcus en el 4,5%, Pseudomona aeruginosa en el 1,8%, y Haemophilus influenzae en el 0,9%. La incidencia por 100.000 habitantes fue entre 1,6 en 2004 y 2,6 en 2001. La letalidad fue del 7,3%. La exhaustividad del sistema EDO fue máxima en el año 2001 (del 84,4%. La exhaustividad conjunta con CMBD fue superior al 85% y la oportunidad fue de 2 días. La aceptabilidad del sistema fue buena, ya que el 75% de las variables estaban cumplimentadas en el 97% de las encuestas. Conclusiones: Se destaca la relevancia de la evaluación del SVE en función de sus resultados. Las MnMB debidas a S. pneumoniae representan un grupo significativo y su letalidad es elevada. La exhaustividad del SVE en Zaragoza supera el 80%, al considerar EDO y CMBD. La incorporación del CMBD en la vigilancia facilitaría una aproximación a la incidencia real de algunas EDO.Objectives: To describe non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis (nMM and to evaluate the Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS in the province of Saragossa (Spain between 1999 and 2004. Methods: Information was obtained from the register of diseases subject to mandatory reporting

  3. Controle biológico da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro, por Pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes Biological control of bacterial wilt of tomato by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp

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    Ana Rosa Peixoto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão bibliográfica teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de espécies de Pseudomonas fluorescentes a Pseudomonas solanacearum, agente causal da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro. Devido a dificuldade encontrada nas estratégias utilizadas para o controle da Murcha Bacteriana por meio de métodos convencionais, alguns outros tem sido estudados, como o uso de microrganismos benéficos. As rizobactérias vem proporcionando solução viável a algumas doenças consideradas de difícil manejo. Dentre os mecanismos que tem sido sugeridos para o controle microbiano de patógenos de plantas, através do uso de rizobactérias fluorescentes, citamse produção de antibióticos, bactericinas, enzimas titicas, competição por espaço e nutrientes. Possuem uma alta capacidade de colonização e sobrevivência no hospedeiro, falares que são importantes no estabelecimento e introdução de microrganismos na rizosfera. Estas bactérias podem também incitar um aumento no desenvolvimento e na produção do hospedeiro, sendo denominadas de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas.This literature review has the objetive of evaluating the antagonism potential of species of florescem Pseudomonas to Pseudomonas solanacearum which is the causal agent of bacterial wilt on the tomato crop. Due to serious limitation in the ejficiency of conventional methods of contrai, other strategies have been siudied, such as the use o/beneficiai microrganisms. Rhizobacteria have shown to be a viable alternative in the contrai of some diseases of difficult managmenl. Among the mechanisms which have been suggestedfor microbian control of plantpathogens with fluorescent rhizobacteria, can be used antibiotic production, bacteriocin, uric emimes and competition for colonization and survival capacity on the host. The survival capacity is very important in the introduction and stablishment ofthe microrganisms in the rhizosphere. These bacteria can aiso

  4. Análise da microbiota bacteriana colonizadora de lesões provocadas por queimaduras nas primeiras 24 horas

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    Hamilton Aleardo Gonella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A ferida da queimadura, a princípio, é estéril. Esse período varia de 24 a 72 horas. Pela análise microbiológica, o Staphylococcus aureus é o germe mais frequentemente encontrado, seguido de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli. Objetivo: Analisar qualitativamente a microbiota colonizadora das lesões por queimaduras, nas primeiras 24 horas do ocorrido, em 25 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Tratamento de Queimados (CTQ do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba (CHS. Método: Foram estudadas as amostras da margem e da área central da ferida pela técnica de coleta com uso de swab estéril. Resultados: Das 50 amostras analisadas, 15 (60% pacientes possuíam positividade para colonização de microrganismos tanto na região central quanto na margem destas. Nas amostras obtidas da região central da lesão, pudemos encontrar seis colonizadas pelo microrganismo Staphylococcus sp e oito por Staphylococcus aureus, com valores semelhantes às amostras retiradas da região marginal, com oito colonizadas pelo Staphylococcus sp e sete pelo Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusão: As lesões por queimaduras nas primeiras 24 horas são colonizadas por microrganismos. A microbiota possui correlação com o descrito na literatura consultada. A análise microbiológica precoce de queimaduras demonstra-se pertinente para a constatação de colonização e subsequente manejo para prevenção de invasão e de infecção dessas lesões, dessa forma contribuindo indiretamente para a queda na morbidade e mortalidade associada às queimaduras.

  5. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

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    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  6. Síndrome de Ramsay Hunt y meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zoster en una paciente anciana

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    Pablo Ruiz Sada; Alfonso Gutiérrez Macías; Itziar Garmendia Antía; Miriam López Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de una paciente anciana con un síndrome de Ramsay Hunt (SRH) (herpes zóster ótico) con afectación de múltiples pares craneales (VII, VIII y V) que presentó simultáneamente una meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zóster, que evolucionó favorablemente con esteroides y aciclovir. Se revisan las principales características del SRH, haciendo énfasis en la rareza de la coexistencia simultánea de afectación de múltiples pares craneales y meningitis linfocitaria en una paci...

  7. Síndrome de Ramsay Hunt y meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zoster en una paciente anciana

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    Pablo Ruiz Sada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de una paciente anciana con un síndrome de Ramsay Hunt (SRH (herpes zóster ótico con afectación de múltiples pares craneales (VII, VIII y V que presentó simultáneamente una meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zóster, que evolucionó favorablemente con esteroides y aciclovir. Se revisan las principales características del SRH, haciendo énfasis en la rareza de la coexistencia simultánea de afectación de múltiples pares craneales y meningitis linfocitaria en una paciente inmunocompetente.

  8. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

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    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da idade da amostra sobre a contagem bacteriana total de amostras de leite conservadas com azidiol para verificar a possibilidade de utilização de uma única amostra nas análises previstas na Instrução Normativa 51 (IN-51. Utilizaram-se 320 alíquotas de leite coletado de um tanque de expansão para avaliação de três temperaturas de armazenamento - a 0 ºC (congelada, 7 ºC (refrigerada e 24 ºC (à temperatura ambiente -, três tipos de conservação (bronopol, azidiol e sem conservante e quatro idades da amostra (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias. Para contagem bacteriana total, foram consideradas controle amostras refrigeradas, com azidiol e amostras de um dia e, para composição e contagem de células somáticas (CCS, os controles foram amostras refrigeradas, com bronopol e de um dia. Nas amostras conservadas com bronopol, a contagem bacteriana total foi menor que na controle, independentemente da idade e da temperatura. O mesmo foi observado nas amostras com azidiol e congeladas. Amostras com azidiol apresentaram aumento da contagem bacteriana total, independentemente da idade, enquanto, naquelas que não receberam azidiol, a contagem bacteriana total foi superior à das amostras refrigeradas, conservadas com azidiol e de um dia. As amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas tiveram aumento linear na contagem bacteriana total de 0,0058 log por dia, o que pode ser considerado sem importância prática. Amostras conservadas com azidiol e refrigeradas apresentaram CCS menor, em todas as idades, em relação a amostras refrigeradas e conservadas com bronopol. Os teores de gordura e lactose reduziram após o quinto dia. Foi necessária a coleta de duas amostras: uma destinada à determinação de CCS e da composição contendo bronopol e outra para contagem bacteriana total contendo azidiol. Amostras para contagem bacteriana total podem ser analisadas em até sete dias, se mantidas a 7 ºC e

  9. Meningitis por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B en lactantes Meningitis in breast-fed infants caused by Group B ß-hemolytic streptococcus

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    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B es causa frecuente de sepsis y muerte neonatal. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento de la meningitis por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B en Cuba. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional (descriptivo y analítico de 57 casos de meningitis por ß-hemolítico del grupo B, con inicio de los síntomas entre el 1ro de enero de 1998 y 31 de diciembre de 2010. Se estimó el riesgo según el año de ocurrencia, la edad, el sexo, la provincia y el municipio, así como la letalidad y la asociación de la demora en la consulta médica y el ingreso hospitalario, con la muerte. Resultados: la incidencia de todo el período fue 0,03/1 000 nacidos vivos y la letalidad alcanzó 31,58 %. La proporción de casos en el sexo masculino (50,9 % fue muy similar al femenino (49,1 %. Los menores de 2 meses fueron más afectados por la enfermedad (38 casos y aportaron el 100 % de los fallecidos (18. Las provincias con mayor riesgo fueron Pinar del Río (0,09/1 000 nacidos vivos y Santiago de Cuba (0,08/1 000 nacidos vivos. El municipio con mayor riesgo fue San Luis, en Santiago de Cuba (0,31/1 000 nacidos vivos. La media de tiempo para la consulta médica fue alrededor de 17 horas, y para el ingreso fue aproximadamente 5 horas. No hubo asociación de la demora para la consulta (RR= 0,66 y el ingreso (RR= 1,22 con la muerte. Conclusiones: la meningitis por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B constituye una causa importante y prevenible de meningitis y muerte neonatal en Cuba.Introduction: group B ß-hemolytic streptococcus is a common cause of sepsis and neonatal death, Objective: to characterize the behavior of the Group B ß-hemolytic streptococcus meningitis in Cuba. Methods: an observational, descriptive and analytical study was performed on 57 patients suffering meningitis caused by Group B ß-hemolytic streptococcus, with the onset of symptoms ranging from January 1st 1998 to December

  10. Importância do exame do liquor de controle em meningite bacteriana como critério de alta Importance of cerebrospinal fluid control tests in bacterial meningitis cases as a discharge criterion

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    Diogo Buarque Cordeiro Cabral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsias sobre indicação do exame do liquor de controle em pacientes recuperados clinicamente de meningite bacteriana como critério de cura. Alguns autores defendem alta hospitalar após normalização clínica e liqüórica, outros que a análise do liquor não se justifica em todos os pacientes. Esta série de casos com comparação de grupos investiga alterações no exame liqüórico de controle e avalia a importância do exame na decisão da alta. De 297 pacientes estudados, em 89,9%, o liquor de controle não mudou a intenção de alta (liquor resolutivo, já em 10,1% a alta foi suspensa (liquor não-resolutivo. Destes, o esquema antibiótico foi trocado em 30%. Entre as variáveis que pudessem ser preditivas de liquor não-resolutivo, à admissão, proteinorraquia maior que 100mg/dL (p=0,04 e glicorraquia menor ou igual a 20mg/dL (p=0,03 associaram-se a chance 2,5 vezes maior, podendo ser úteis como critérios para indicar exame do liquor como controle de cura para alta.There is controversy regarding indications for cerebrospinal fluid control tests on patients who have clinically recovered from bacterial meningitis, as a cure criterion. Some authors advocate discharge after confirmation of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid normalization, while others maintain that cerebrospinal fluid analysis is not justified in all cases. This case series with group comparisons investigated changes seen in cerebrospinal fluid control tests and evaluated the importance of this for the discharge decision. Out of 297 patients studied, the cerebrospinal fluid control test did not change the discharge intention in 89.9% of the cases (healed cerebrospinal fluid, while in 10.1%, the discharge was suspended (non-healed cerebrospinal fluid. Of these, the antibiotic scheme was changed in 30%. Among the variables that might predict the presence of non-healed cerebrospinal fluid on admission, cerebrospinal fluid protein levels higher than 100mg/dl (p

  11. Meningite bacteriana neonatal: estudo prospectivo da evolução a longo prazo de 55 crianças Neonatal bacterial meningitis: prospective study of the long term outcome of 55 children

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    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas prospectivamente 55 crianças que apresentaram meningite bacteriana no período neonatal, com o objetivo da analisar a frequência e o tipo de sequelas neurológicas. Todas as crianças nasceram a termo, sendo 38 do sexo masculino e 17 do feminino; a idade de início da doença variou de 3 a 28 dias. Os principais agentes etiológicos foram as enterobactérias. O tempo médio de seguimento foi 5 anos. A frequência de sequelas neurológicas foi 67,3%, representadas principalmente pelo atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (58,2%, hidrocefalia (45,5% e convulsões (34,5%. As alterações motoras graves ocorreram em 23,6% dos pacientes (tetraplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia e ataxia. As convulsões na fase aguda da doença e a cultura positiva do líquido cefalorraqueano estiveram associadas significativamente com a presença de sequelas. Na avaliação do desempenho escolar, realizada em 25 crianças, observaram-se dificuldades na aprendizagem em 48% dos casos, associadas significativamente à deficiência mental.Fifty-five infants who presented bacterial neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied to analyze the frequency and the type of sequelae. All the infants were full term newborns.There were 38 boys and 17 girls; the age of disease onset varied from 3 to 28 days. The causative organism was represented mainly by enterobacteriae. The median time of follow-up was 5 years. The frequency of neurologic sequelae was 63.7%, represented mainly by neuropsychomotor development delay (58.2%, hydrocephaly (45.5% and convulsions (34.5%. Severe motor abnormalities ocurred in 23.6% of children (quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia and ataxia. Convulsions in the acute phase of the disease and the positive cerebrospinal fluid culture were highly associated to sequelae. The school performance, obtained in 25 children, showed presence of disabilities in 48% of cases, which were significantly associated to mental retardation.

  12. Ependimoma celular parcialmente resecado complicado con meningoependimocoroiditis bacteriana por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e infección sistémica por citomegalovirus

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    Francisco Javier Otero-Mendoza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Niño de 1 año 10 meses de edad, originario de Irapuato, Guanajuato, sin antecedentes de importancia para el padecimiento actual. Inició dos meses previos a su ingreso con crisis convulsivas tónico-clónicas generalizadas de 15 segundos de duración durante el sueño. Se realizó electroencefalograma que reportó actividad epileptiforme, por lo que se dio tratamiento con ácido valproico. Una semana previa al ingreso se agregó ataxia troncal impidiendo la marcha, por lo que se realizó una tomografía axial computarizada de cráneo en la que se observó un tumor en fosa posterior con densidad heterogénea y áreas de necrosis central que obliteraba el cuarto ventrículo, ocasionando efecto de masa y desplazamiento ventral del tallo cerebral. Por tal motivo, fue referido a nuestra institución.

  13. Relación entre la estructura de la comunidad bacteriana y la supresión al ahogamiento causado por Rhizoctonia solani en sustratos para plántulas de tomate

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    O. Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el objetivo fue estudiar la relación entre la supresión del ahogamiento causado por Rhizoctonia solani y la estructura de la comunidad bacteriana en sustratos orgánicos (con base en vermicomposta y composta, para el crecimiento de plántulas de tomate. Dicha estructura comunitaria se determinó mediante T-RFLP (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms del gen ARNr 16S, con la enzima Hin6I. Análisis de componentes principales (PCA a partir de las abundancias relativas de los T-RFs (Fragmentos de Restricción Terminales predominantes, mostraron que los sustratos con tendencia supresiva al patógeno poseen comunidades bacterianas similares, indicando la existencia de una relación entre la estructura de la comunidad y la supresividad. Los T-RFs predominantes se relacionaron con secuencias obtenidas de una librería genómica del gen ribosomal ARNr 16S de un sustrato con tendencia supresiva. Dicho análisis de PCA reveló que entre los TRFs que contribuyen a la diferenciación de los sustratos con tendencias supresivas, se encuentran tres (64, 205 y 211 que corresponden a secuencias 16S de los siguientes géneros: Burkholderia, Duganella, Telluria, Janthinobacterium, Pseudmomonas, Stenotrophomonas y Xanthomonas. Tales géneros presentan especies con capacidad biocontroladora específica sobre el patógeno, por lo que estos resultados sugieren que los T-RFs (Hin6I 64, 205, 211 y otros, podrían ser utilizados como indicadores a priori de la capacidad supresiva de un sustrato al ahogamiento causado por Rhizoctonia solani.

  14. In vitro bacterial plaque suppression and recolonization by S. mutans and S. sobrinus Supressão e recolonização de placa bacteriana por S. mutans e S. sobrinus in vitro

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    Cássio Vicente Pereira

    2006-03-01

    que foram previamente padronizadas foram incubadas em meio de cultura contendo diferentes carboidratos fermentáveis. Em intervalos de tempo determinados, amostras de S. mutans e S. sobrinus foram coletadas a partir de culturas mistas, diluídas e semeadas em placas com meio BHI-ágar contendo rifampicina ou estreptomicina para determinação do número de células viáveis de cada espécie por contagem de unidades formadoras de colônia. Para a avaliação da colonização bacteriana e recolonização da placa bacteriana in vitro, três experimentos foram realizados: I - co-cultivo de S. mutans e S. sobrinus; II - inoculação de S. mutans em placa bacteriana pré-formada por S. sobrinus; e III - placa bacteriana pré-formada por S. mutans dispersada e plaqueada em meio BHI-ágar contendo estreptomicina ou rifampicina para determinação do número de células viáveis para cada espécie. Os resultados indicaram uma predominância de S. mutans em relação ao S. sobrinus, demonstrando a capacidade do S. mutans em inibir a formação de placa por S. sobrinus e recolonizar a superfície dentária.

  15. Caracterização da comunidade bacteriana endofítica de citros por isolamento, PCR específico e DGGE Characterization of the endophytic bacterial community from citrus by isolation, specific PCR and DGGE

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    Paulo Teixeira Lacava

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade bacteriana endofítica de plantas assintomáticas (escapes e afetadas pela clorose variegada dos citros (CVC por meio de isolamento em meio de cultura, técnica de gradiente desnaturante em gel de eletroforese (DGGE e detecção de Methylobacterium mesophilicum e Xyllela fastidiosa por meio de PCR específico, para estudar esta comunidade e sua relação com a ocorrência da CVC. A análise da comunidade bacteriana via DGGE permitiu a detecção de X. fastidiosa, bem como Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp. como endófitos de citros. Foram observados também Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Bacillus spp. Utilizando primers específicos, Methylobacterium mesophilicum e X. fastidiosa também foram observadas, reforçando hipóteses de que estas bactérias podem estar interagindo no interior da planta hospedeira.The aim of this work was to characterize endophytic bacterial community of assintomatic (escape and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC-affected citrus plants using isolation in culture medium, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE technique and Methylobacterium mesophilicum as well as Xylella fastidiosa specific PCR, allowing to assess this community and its interactions with CVC. The study of bacterial community by DGGE analysis allowed the detection of X. fastidiosa, as well as Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp., which were not detected previously. Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus spp. were also observed as endophyte in citrus plants. Using specific primers Methylobacterium mesophilicum and X. fastidiosa were observed, reinforcing that these bacteria could interact inside the host plant.

  16. Monitoramento da atividade bacteriana de um sistema de lodos ativados Bardenpho por meio da respirometria Control of reaction sludg's system bacterian activity - Bardenpho through respirometry

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    Adriana Guimarães Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas aeróbios de tratamento de águas residuárias, o oxigênio é um elemento fundamental para que a massa bacteriana possa metabolizar o material orgânico e oxidar compostos como a amônia. Para o acompanhamento desse processo pode ser utilizada a respirometria. Nesta pesquisa, os objetivos são: (1 avaliar a influência da interrupção da aeração sob a atividade das bactérias de sistemas do tipo Bardenpho; (2 estudar a influência do pH na capacidade oxidativa das bactérias nitrificantes; (3 conhecer a faixa de pH ideal para o desenvolvimento das bactérias nitrificantes; e (4 observar a confiabilidade da respirometria no monitoramento da atividade bacteriana. Pôde-se concluir que (1 a capacidade metabólica sofre uma redução gradual na medida em que se aplica um período mais longo sem aeração, (2 o pH influenciou diretamente a atividade das nitrificantes, de forma distinta para a oxidação a nitrito e na oxidação a nitrato, e (3 a respirometria foi uma ferramenta muito útil para avaliar a atividade bacteriana e os sistemas de lodo ativado.In the sewage water treatment aerobic systems oxygen is a fundamental element for the bacterial mass to be able to metabolize organic matter and oxidize compounds such as ammonia. Respirometry can be used in the follow-up of such process. The goals of this research are: (1 to assess the influence of interrupting aeration under Bardenpho-type systems bacterial activity; (2 to study on the influence of pH in the oxidative capacity of nitrifying bacteria; (3 to establish the ideal pH rate for developing nitrifying bacteria; (4 to observe the reliability of respirometry in monitoring the bacterial activity. The conclusions achieved were that (1 the metabolic capacity is gradually reduced as a longer period without aeration is applied, (2 the pH directly influenced the activity of nitrifying bacteria in a distinct manner for both nitrite and nitrate oxidation, and (3 respirometry was a

  17. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Magalis Zabala; Yrma Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la re...

  18. Bacterial diversity of soil under eucalyptus assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis Diversidade bacteriana de solo sob eucaliptos obtida por seqüenciamento do 16S rDNA

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    Érico Leandro da Silveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the impact of Eucalyptus spp. on Brazilian soils have focused on soil chemical properties and isolating interesting microbial organisms. Few studies have focused on microbial diversity and ecology in Brazil due to limited coverage of traditional cultivation and isolation methods. Molecular microbial ecology methods based on PCR amplified 16S rDNA have enriched the knowledge of soils microbial biodiversity. The objective of this work was to compare and estimate the bacterial diversity of sympatric communities within soils from two areas, a native forest (NFA and an eucalyptus arboretum (EAA. PCR primers, whose target soil metagenomic 16S rDNA were used to amplify soil DNA, were cloned using pGEM-T and sequenced to determine bacterial diversity. From the NFA soil 134 clones were analyzed, while 116 clones were analyzed from the EAA soil samples. The sequences were compared with those online at the GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses revealed differences between the soil types and high diversity in both communities. Soil from the Eucalyptus spp. arboretum was found to have a greater bacterial diversity than the soil investigated from the native forest area.Estudos sobre impacto do Eucalyptus spp. em solos brasileiros têm focalizado propriedades químicas do solo e isolamento de microrganismos de interesse. No Brasil há pouco enfoque em ecologia e diversidade microbiana, devido às limitações dos métodos tradicionais de cultivo e isolamento. A utilização de métodos moleculares no estudo da ecologia microbiana baseados na amplificação por PCR do 16S rDNA têm enriquecido o conhecimento da biodiversidade microbiana dos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar e estimar a diversidade bacteriana de comunidades simpátricas em solos de duas áreas: uma floresta nativa (NFA e outra adjacente com arboreto de eucaliptos (EAA. Oligonucleotídeos iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar o 16S rDNA metagenômico do solo, o qual foi

  19. Incidência de meningite por Haemophilus influenzae no RS 1999-2010: impacto da cobertura vacinal Incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul 1999-2010: impact of vaccination campaign

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    Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e verificar a situação epidemiológica das meningites causadas pelo agente Haemophilus influenzae tipo b nos últimos 10 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, utilizando o sistema de dados de notificação de meningites, e cobertura vacinal, armazenados em base on line Tabnet - Tabulação de dados Epidemiológicos - CEVS/SES/RS, abrangendo o período de 1999 a 2010. Foram utilizados casos notificados e confirmados, tendo como critério de seleção o ano de inicio dos sintomas, idade, diagnostico e evolução. Foi analisado o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, representado por 19 coordenadorias de saúde. Comparações entre proporções foram avaliadas pelo teste de z. No RS foram notificados 3043 casos confirmados de meningite bacteriana, sendo 6,77% dos casos causados por H. influenzae. O coeficiente de incidência da meningite por H. influenzae, sem considerar faixa etária, caiu significativamente (95,6% após 1999, assim como a mortalidade. Crianças menores de um ano continuam sendo as mais acometidas (52%, não havendo alteração na letalidade. Os resultados apresentados revelaram um impacto positivo das estratégias de vacinação contra Hib no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos últimos dez anos.This article seeks to analyze and update the epidemiological situation of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the past 10 years in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. It is a retrospective, descriptive study, which used the data notification system of meningitis and vaccination campaign coverage, stored in the Epidemiological TABNET online database, for the period from 1999 to 2010. Cases notified and confirmed were used and the selection criteria were the year when the symptoms were detected, age, diagnosis, and evolution. Nineteen health centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. The z-test was used to evaluate comparisons between the proportions. In the

  20. Etiology of bacterial meningitis among children aged 2-59 months in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, before and after routine use of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Etiologia da meningite bacteriana em crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, antes e depois do uso rotineiro da vacina para Haemophilus influenzae tipo b

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    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of etiologic agents of bacterial meningitis (BM among children aged 2-59 months in a sample of patients in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, with emphasis on the frequency of BM of unknown etiology (BMUE, just before, during and after the implementation of routine immunization of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF information was collected from the chart of every patient, aged 2-59 months, whose CSF exam was performed at the CSF Lab - José Silveira Foundation, between January 1989 and December 2001. Every CSF exam was completely performed according to standard methods. The etiologic diagnosis was based on either culture and/or latex-agglutination test. When the agent was only seen on Gram stained smear, the diagnosis was descriptive. BMUE was defined as: glucose 100 mg / dl, white blood cell count > 20 cells / mm³, percentage of neutrophils > 80%. RESULTS: Of 1519 patients, 894 (58.9% had normal exams and BM was diagnosed in 95 (6.2%. Etiologic agents were: Hib (44.2%, meningococcus (13.7%, Gram-negative bacilli (11.6%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.3%, pneumococcus (4.2%, other agents (4.2%; BMUE was diagnosed in 15.8% of cases with BM. By analysing the frequency of BMUE and Hib among all exams performed yearly, the peaks were recorded in 1989 (5.3% and 1990 (16.9%, respectively, decreasing to 0.7% and 0% in 2001. CONCLUSION: It is possible that the implementation of the conjugate Hib vaccine during the 1990's has been decreasing not only the occurrence of Hib meningitis but also of BMUE.OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência dos agentes etiológicos de meningite bacteriana (MB em amostra das crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses, em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, com ênfase na freqüência de MB de etiologia indeterminada (MBEI, antes, durante e após a implementação da imunização rotineira de lactentes com vacina para

  1. Incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomate para processamento industrial sob irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão Incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomato under drip and sprinkle irrigation

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    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF, com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomateiro para processamento industrial irrigado por gotejamento e por aspersão, cultivado em solo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar I de Ralstonia solanacearum, nas condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado brasileiro. Para gotejamento foram também avaliados os regimes hídricos com turnos de rega de 0,5; 1; 2; 4 e 8 dias. A irrigação por gotejamento favoreceu significativamente a ocorrência da doença, apresentando em média, aos 65 dias após o transplante de mudas, 42,5% de plantas com sintoma contra 5% de casos ocorridos na irrigação por aspersão. A incidência da doença no gotejamento não foi afetada (p>0,05 pelo regime hídrico adotado.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasilia, Brazil, with the objective of assessing the incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomatoes irrigated by drip and sprinkle systems, under soil and climate conditions of the Brazilian "Cerrado". The trial was performed in a field naturally infested with race 1, biovar I of Ralstonia solanacearum. Different irrigation frequencies (0.5; 1; 2; 4; and 8 days were further evaluated for drip irrigation. Disease incidence was significantly higher when the crop was drip irrigated, with an average of 42.5% of wilted plants in comparison with 5.0% incidence for sprinkle irrigation, 65 days after transplanting. Frequencies of drip irrigation did not affect (p>0.05 bacterial wilt incidence.

  2. Meningites bacterianas recidivantes

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    Maria Valeriana L. Moura-Ribeiro

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo das fístulas liquóricas, envolvendo anormalidades otorrinolaringológicas, deve se basear na procura da causa fundamental que leva às meningites recidivantes. As malformações congênitas, as anormalidades pós-traumáticas e pós-operatórias ou, ainda, associadas a doenças que envolvem ossos cranianos, constituem as causas básicas a serem pesquisadas. Os traumas cranianos podem resultar em fístula liquórica com possibilidade de meningites bacterianas de repetição.

  3. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal meningitis; Pneumococcus - meningitis ... Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae ). This type of bacteria is the ...

  4. Meningococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Meningococcal meningitis Fact sheet Reviewed January 2018 Key facts Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious ...

  5. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica

    OpenAIRE

    Hassem Sobrinho, Sirio; Marchi, Carlos Henrique de; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Souza, Cristiane Girotto de; Silva, Érico Vinícius Campos Moreira da; Godoy, Moacir Fernandes de

    2010-01-01

    A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicaç...

  6. Valor pronóstico y discriminatorio de la interleucina-6 y la proteína C-reactiva en la meningitis Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and its prognosis and differentiation value in meningitis

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    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La meningitis se caracteriza por una marcada respuesta inflamatoria en el espacio subaracnoideo, que se acompaña de la producción intratecal de múltiples mediadores entre los que se hallan citocinas como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa, la interleucina-1-beta y la interleucina-6. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la concentración de interleucina-6 (IL-6 y proteína C-reactiva en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y el suero de pacientes con meningitis; determinar la posible relación entre estas concentraciones y la etiología de la meningitis; y precisar si existe asociación entre estas variables y la estadía hospitalaria. MÉTODOS. Se seleccionó una muestra de 18 pacientes con meningitis: 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de meningitis de etiología bacteriana y 12 pacientes con diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica. A ambos grupos se les realizó cuantificación de IL-6 y proteína C-reactiva en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR y el suero, además, citología y proteínas en LCR. RESULTADOS. Las concentraciones de IL-6 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo en la meningitis bacteriana resultaron superiores a las del suero de estos pacientes y a las del LCR y suero de pacientes con meningitis aséptica. La proteína C-reactiva alcanzó cifras superiores en el suero de la meningitis bacteriana. La concentración de IL-6 en líquido se correlacionó directamente con la estadía hospitalaria. CONCLUSIONES. La concentración de IL-6 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y de la proteína C-reactiva en el suero puede contribuir a la precisión del diagnóstico diferencial entre meningitis aséptica y bacteriana. La concentración de IL-6 en el LCR permite valorar la envergadura del proceso inflamatorio que tiene lugar en el sistema nervioso central en la meningitis. La concentración de IL-6 selectivamente elevada en el LCR es un marcador de la compartimentalización de la respuesta inflamatoria y un potencial indicador del daño en el

  7. Neonatal Listeria-meningitis in San Luis, Argentina: a three-case report Meningitis neonatal por Listeria monocytogenes en San Luis, Argentina: análisis de tres casos

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    Analía L. Laciar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Between November 1996 and December 2006, two cases of early-onset and one case of late-onset neonatal listeriosis were reported in San Luis, Argentina. This article describes clinical and laboratory findings as well as treatment and outcome for newborns treated for Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or septicaemia. In one of the newborns with early-onset listeriosis, meningitis led to important complications including hydrocephalus. The two other newborns showed complete recovery following adequate treatment. The L. monocytogenes isolates from two patients belonged to PCR group IVb (including serovar 4b strains and to PCR group IIb (including serovar 1/2b strains in the third patient. Listeriosis, especially the maternal-fetal presentation, is still rare in Argentina for unknown reasons. Our data can be used in the future as an epidemiological survey.En el presente estudio se describen tres casos de infección neonatal por Listeria monocytogenes, dos de inicio temprano y uno tardío, diagnosticados en San Luis, Argentina, entre noviembre de 1996 y diciembre de 2006. En uno de los pacientes afectados por listeriosis temprana, la meningitis condujo a la hidrocefalia secundaria. En los otros recién nacidos, la evolución clínica fue favorable después de la administración de un rápido y adecuado tratamiento. Los aislamientos de L. monocytogenes de dos pacientes pertenecieron al grupo IVb (serovar 4b y el del tercer paciente al grupo IIB (serovar 1/2b según la técnica de PCR. La listeriosis es, por razones que se desconocen, una enfermedad rara en Argentina, especialmente la presentación materno-fetal. Los resultados presentados aquí podrán ser utilizados en un futuro con fines epidemiológicos.

  8. ENDOCARDITIS BACTERIANA: REPORTE DE CASO

    OpenAIRE

    Dávila F., Roberto; Marroquín A., Miguel

    2014-01-01

    La endocarditis bacteriana es una inflamación del endocardio donde hay colonización bacteriana que genera vegetaciones en alguna válvula del corazón, las cuales alteran la función cardiaca generando regurgitaciones y alteraciones hemodinámicas. Además, puede producir cuadros propios de la infección como trombo embolismo séptico y alteraciones inflamatorias como complejos inmunes. En el presente estudio se describe el caso de un canino hembra de 2.5 años, que presentó fiebre, decaimiento, anor...

  9. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis resistant to penicillin clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigilancia de las Infecciones Neumocócicas, durante el lapso 1994-1998. Los datos clínicos y de laboratorio se colectaron de cada expediente. RESULTADOS: Del total de niños, 63% era menor de dos años de edad, 28.9% mostró cepas insensibles a la penicilina, 18.4% tenía resistencia intermedia, y 10.5% tenía resistencia elevada. El 2.6% mostró también resistencia a la cefotaxima. La única característica (por la prueba exacta de Fisher asociada con la resistencia fue: enfermedad de base previa al proceso (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. To describe and compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome among children infected with strains either susceptible or resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 children with pneumococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled in the Institutional Surveillance Program for Pneumococcal Infections during 1994-1998. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by chart review. RESULTS: Of the 38 children, 24 (63% were less than 2 years of age, 11 (28.9% had drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, 18.4% had intermediate resistance, 10.5% high level resistance and 2.6% also showed high level resistance to cefotaxime. The only associated factors (by Fisher’s exact test associated to resistance were: previous use of antibiotics (p=0

  10. Lagochilascariasis leading to severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges Infecção humana por Lagochilascaris minor com envolvimento ocular, auditivo e das meninges

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    Renata T.R. Aquino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 31 year-old woman from Paraíba State (North-Eastern Brazil that presented severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges. Diagnosis was established after enucleation of her left eye, when adult worms were seen in the midst of a granulomatous inflammatory process. Her response to the initial treatment with levamisole and cambendazole was good, but there was a relapse after the fifth month of treatment even with maintenance doses of both medications. She later received ivermectin and albendazol and responded well.Paciente do sexo feminino, com 31 anos, procedente da Paraíba, apresentava envolvimento severo de ambos os globos oculares, com perda da visão à esquerda, comprometimento da audição e das meninges. Após enucleação do olho esquerdo fragmento de helminto identificado como Lagochilascaris minor foi observado em processo inflamatório granulomatoso. Inicialmente a paciente foi tratada com levamisol e cambendazol, com bom resultado. Verificou-se, todavia, piora do quadro após cinco meses, com eliminação de larvas do ascarídeo em lesão presente na órbita esquerda, embora a medicação fosse mantida com administração periódica. Houve boa resposta terapêutica, com regressão do quadro, após substituição dos anti-helmínticos anteriores pela associação ivermectina e albendazol.

  11. Meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes e trombose de seio sagital: relato de caso Neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis and sagittal sinus thrombosis: case report

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    VERA LÚCIA JORNADA KREBS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de meningite por Streptococcus pyogenes em menina de 18 dias de vida, com evolução complicada por trombose de seio sagital. São discutidos alguns aspectos da patogênese, tratamento e seguimento da doença. Frente ao aumento mundial das infecções estreptocócicas graves nos últimos 10 anos, é provável que a meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes se torne mais frequente no futuro, sendo importante estar alerta para o diagnóstico precoce e as possíveis complicações dessa infecção potencialmente letal.We report a case of Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in a 18 days year-old-girl with clinical course complicated by sagittal sinus thrombosis. Some aspects of the pathogenesis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed. The world increase of serious streptococcal infections in the last 10 years, probably will become neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis more frequent in the future and it is important to be alert for the precocious diagnosis and the possible complications of that potentially lethal infection.

  12. Meningitis - meningococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal meningitis; Gram negative - meningococcus ... Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus). Meningococcus is the most common cause ...

  13. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barreto Demóstenes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigilancia de las Infecciones Neumocócicas, durante el lapso 1994-1998. Los datos clínicos y de laboratorio se colectaron de cada expediente. RESULTADOS: Del total de niños, 63% era menor de dos años de edad, 28.9% mostró cepas insensibles a la penicilina, 18.4% tenía resistencia intermedia, y 10.5% tenía resistencia elevada. El 2.6% mostró también resistencia a la cefotaxima. La única característica (por la prueba exacta de Fisher asociada con la resistencia fue: enfermedad de base previa al proceso (p<0.001, y condiciones de gravedad al ingreso como convulsiones, choque tóxico y coma (p<0.07. El curso de la enfermedad y la evolución clínica fue similar para los niños infectados con cepas sensibles a la penicilina o a la cefotaxima vs. las cepas no susceptibles. CONCLUSIONES: El perfil actual de resistencia del S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y la cefalosporina no se encontró asociado con un aumento en la mortalidad de niños con meningitis neumocócica.

  14. Brote epidémico de meningitis viral causado por echovirus tipo 4 en la provincia de Misiones Outbreak of viral meningitis caused by echovirus type 4 in Misiones province

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    S. L. Grenón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a fin de describir un brote epidémico de meningitis causado por enterovirus, que comprometió a 143 niños de 1 mes a 14 años internados en el Hospital Pediátrico de Posadas (Misiones con diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica, entre agosto y diciembre de 2005. Se observó un aumento de casos entre las semanas 33 a 50, con un pico máximo entre las semanas 47 y 48, lo que confirmó el brote. La mediana de edad de los niños afectados fue de 8 años y el 55,2% fueron varones. El 80% de los casos se observó entre escolares (5 a 14 años. El promedio del tiempo de internación fue de 4,5 ± 1,7 días, y no se registraron fallecidos. Los LCR se estudiaron mediante examen citoquímico y estudios bacteriológicos y virológicos (aislamiento viral, RT- PCR anidada e identificación molecular mediante secuenciación génica. Los recuentos de células en LCR variaron entre 6 y 5040 células /mm3, el 92% fueron inferiores a 500 células/mm3 y el 43,5% mostró predominio linfocitario. El 56% presentó concentraciones de glucosa normal, con proteínas ligeramente elevadas. El 28% de las muestras estudiadas por cultivo (17/60 mostró efecto citopático, compatible con enterovirus. La RT-PCR anidada permitió detectar enterovirus en un 73% de las muestras (43/59, con 6 casos que se tipificaron como echovirus tipo 4. El índice de positividad al combinar ambas técnicas alcanzó el 83%.A descriptive retrospective study was carried out to describe an epidemic outbreak of enteroviral meningitis in Misiones. We reviewed records of 143 children from 1 month to 14 years of age who were hospitalized with aseptic meningitis in the Pediatric Hospital of Posadas from August to December 2005. Increased number of cases was observed between weeks 33 to 50 which reached a maximum peak in weeks 47 and 48, confirming an outbreak. The median of age was 8 years old, 55.2% were males. Eighty percent of cases were in 5 to 14 years old

  15. Dermatopatías bacterianas de importancia en medicina equina.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Tuemmers; Angélica Saldivia

    2016-01-01

    La dermatología representa una parte importante en la práctica equina. Las dermatopatías bacterianas comúnmente son causadas por patógenos oportunistas que son parte de la flora normal de la piel, que ingresan mediante disrupciones de la piel provocando el desarrollo de enfermedades; existen también patógenos que pueden provocar enfermedad sistémica que tienen manifestaciones cutáneas. Para el diagnóstico de las patologías cutáneas provocadas por bacterias es necesario realizar el examen clín...

  16. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Sirio Hassem Sobrinho; Carlos Henrique de Marchi; Ulisses Alexandre Croti; Cristiane Girotto de Souza; Érico Vinícius Campos Moreira da Silva; Moacir Fernandes de Godoy

    2010-01-01

    A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicaç...

  17. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  18. Antibióticos vs. resistencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial que se encuentra en constante evolución. De manera frecuente se reportan nuevos mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, tanto en bacterias gram negativas como en gram positivas. La presencia de resistencia en una bacteria causante de infección disminuye las posibilidades de obtener la curación clínica y la erradicación bacteriológica e incrementa los costos del tratamiento, la morbilidad y la mortalidad; por lo que es importante seleccionar el tratamiento adecuado. Uno de los aspectos que más preocupa a los médicos en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de una infección es la llamada resistencia adquirida, la cual ocurre en una bacteria inicialmente sensible a los antibióticos, por cambios, mutaciones o la adquisición de genes de resistencia durante el fenómeno de transferencia genética lateral, proceso por medio del cual un organismo transfiere material genético a otra célula que no es descendiente. La resistencia bacteriana adquirida a los antibióticos puede ser de distintos tipos, dependiendo de la presión selectiva, las mutaciones o la transferencia de genes de resistencia. Las definiciones de resistencia se clasifican según el número y clase de antibióticos afectados. La multirresistencia (Multiple Drug Resistance, MDR se define como la ausencia de sensibilidad a, por lo menos, un fármaco en tres o más de las categorías de antibióticos; la resistencia extrema (Extensively Drug-Resistant, XDR se refiere a la ausencia de sensibilidad a, por lo menos, un agente en todas las categorías de antimicrobianos, excepto en dos de ellas o menos, y la resistencia a todos los antimicrobianos se define como resistencia a todas las categorías de antibióticos. (1 Los mecanismos de resistencia dependen del tipo de bacteria que los desarrollen. Las bacterias gram positivas que producen con más frecuencias infecciones en humanos y que por

  19. Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis y neumonía en niños guatemaltecos: importancia de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b y de Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J. Asturias

    2003-12-01

    meningitis and help estimate the burden of bacterial meningitis in Guatemala and other developing countries.OBJETIVO: Determinar las características epidemiológicas de las infecciones invasoras por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib y Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños hospitalizados en Guatemala. La importancia de este tema radica en que la vacunación contra Hib no ha sido incorporada a los programas de inmunización establecidos en Guatemala y en que los registros hospitalarios de 1995 indicaban una baja incidencia de meningitis e infecciones invasoras causadas por Hib y S. pneumoniae. MÉTODOS: Los niños hospitalizados en la Ciudad de Guatemala con signos clínicos de infección bacteriana se estudiaron en busca de indicios de infección por Hib o S. pneumoniae. Se cultivaron líquidos corporales normalmente estériles y se hicieron pruebas de detección de antígenos en líquidos cefalorraquídeo (LCR y pleural. RESULTADOS: De los 1 203 niños de 1 a 59 meses de edad hospitalizados en un período de 28 meses, 725 (60,3% tenían un diagnóstico primario de neumonía, 357 (29,7% de meningitis, 60 (5,0% de celulitis y 61 (5,1% de sepsis u otras afecciones. En 20,0% de los niños con meningitis se detectó Hib y en 12,9% S. pneumoniae. La incidencia media anual de meningitis por Hib fue de 13,8 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años de edad; 32,4% de los casos de meningitis causados por Hib y 58,7% de los causados por S. pneumoniae ocurrieron en niños menores de 6 meses de edad. La tasa de letalidad fue de 14,1%, 37,0% y 18,0%, respectivamente, para los casos de meningitis por Hib, por S. pneumoniae y con resultados negativos tanto en el cultivo como en las pruebas de detección de antígeno. El tratamiento previo con antibióticos fue frecuente y se vio asociado con una reducción significativa de resultados positivos en el cultivo de LCR en los niños que presentaban otros signos de meningitis por Hib o S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONES: El perfeccionamiento de la

  20. Valor preditivo da ultra-sonografia do cérebro em recém-natos com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana neonatal: seguimento de 12 anos Predictive value of cerebral ultrasound with respect to clinical outcome in infants diagnoses on neonatal meningitis: a focus 12 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Vieira Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor preditivo da ultra-sonografia do cérebro, para o dano cerebral, em crianças com diagnóstico de meningite neonatal. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Instituto Fernandes Figueira (FIOCRUZ-RJ em 16 crianças que realizaram ultra-sonografia do cérebro por diagnóstico de meningite no período neonatal e tiveram seguimento neurológico até 12 anos. Foram calculados: valores preditivos positivo e negativo, sensibilidade e especificidade. RESULTADOS: 56,25% eram do sexo masculino e 81,25% prematuros. Hidrocefalia foi o achado mais freqüente (56,25%, seguido pelo exame normal (43,75%. Achados de hidrocefalia (9, somente em um havendo evolução favorável e achados normais (7, em 4 (57,14% não havendo déficit neurológico. Achados de ventriculite (4 e abscesso cerebral (2: todos evoluíram com dano cerebral. Diagnóstico de encefalomalácia (2; em 50% havendo desenvolvimento cognitivo satisfatório. Diagnostico de atrofia (2, todos com dano cerebral severo. CONCLUSÃO: Valor preditivo positivo de 88,89%, negativo de 57,14%, sensibilidade de 72,73% e especificidade de 80%.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of cerebral ultrasound in infants diagnoses on meningitis neonatal to the neurological outcome. METHOD: A retrospective study of 16 children admitted at Institute Fernandes Figueira RJ - Brazil, who had neonatal meningitis and were examined by cerebral ultrasound. The neurologic outcome was evaluated until 12 years of age. Positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: 56.25% were male and 81.25% premature. Hydrocephalus was the most frequent finding (56.25% followed by normal exam (43.75%. Findings of hydrocephalus (9 only one had good neurologic outcome; and normal exam (7: only 57.14% without brain damage. Findings of ventriculitis (4 and brain abscesses (2 all had neurologic damage. Diagnosis of encephalomalacia (2: only one had good cognitive

  1. Iatrogenic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Genaro Mutarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic meningitis can be caused by a number of mechanisms. The recent case reports of fungal meningitis after application of epidural methylprednisolone caused warning in the medical community. Cases were caused by contaminated lots of methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Several medications can cause meninigitis by probable hypersensitivity mechanism. Neurologists should be alert to the recent description of the use of lamotrigine and development of aseptic meningitis.

  2. Parasitic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis ... and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Various parasites can cause meningitis or can affect the brain or nervous ...

  3. Costos económicos de neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por Streptococcus pneumoniae en una población adulta que requirió hospitalización en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae en adultos se relacionan con neumonía, meningitis y bacteriemia. El costo de la atención en personas adultas no está bien documentado en Colombia, pero puede ser significativo. Objetivo. Analizar los costos asociados con la neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por S. pneumoniae en adultos hospitalizados en Colombia y estimar el costo de la atención ambulatoria de esta neumonía. Servir de base para futuras evaluaciones económicas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de costos directos asociados a neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por S. pneumoniae confirmado por cultivos. Se tomó una muestra de conveniencia de adultos hospitalizados entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2011 en tres hospitales de tercer nivel de Bogotá. Se analizaron 107 registros y se obtuvieron 60 facturas cobradas al pagador. La información se clasificó por costos de atención y tratamiento. Para los casos ambulatorios de neumonía, el estimativo de costos se hizo utilizando metodología Delphi con expertos clínicos. Resultados. El promedio de los costos directos totales asociados con neumonía fue de Col$ 12’178.949, Col$ 7’533.187 para meningitis y Col$ 9’242.806 para bacteriemia. La neumonía se presentó en 70 % de los hombres y 30 % de las mujeres; la meningitis se distribuyó igual en ambos sexos (50 % y la bacteriemia se presentó en 67 % de los hombres y 33 % de las mujeres. El costo por adulto de la atención ambulatoria de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad se estimó en Col$ 106.174. Para casos especiales se incrementó a Col$ 164.695. Conclusión. La enfermedad neumocócica en adultos, especialmente mayores de 45 años, representa un alto costo por el empleo de medicamentos y la estancia hospitalaria, que causan un impacto en los recursos del sistema. La prevención y el tratamiento temprano de las neumonías pueden disminuir costos y

  4. Recurrent Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jon; Galen, Benjamin T

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent meningitis is a rare clinical scenario that can be self-limiting or life threatening depending on the underlying etiology. This review describes the causes, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis for recurrent meningitis. As a general overview of a broad topic, the aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive differential diagnosis to aide in the evaluation and management of a patient with recurrent meningitis. New developments related to understanding the pathophysiology of recurrent meningitis are as scarce as studies evaluating the treatment and prevention of this rare disorder. A trial evaluating oral valacyclovir suppression after HSV-2 meningitis did not demonstrate a benefit in preventing recurrences. The data on prophylactic antibiotics after basilar skull fractures do not support their use. Intrathecal trastuzumab has shown promise in treating leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from HER-2 positive breast cancer. Monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases are new potential causes of drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Despite their potential for causing recurrent meningitis, the clinical entities reviewed herein are not frequently discussed together given that they are a heterogeneous collection of unrelated, rare diseases. Epidemiologic data on recurrent meningitis are lacking. The syndrome of recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis described by Mollaret in 1944 was later found to be closely related to HSV-2 reactivation, but HSV-2 is by no means the only etiology of recurrent aseptic meningitis. While the mainstay of treatment for recurrent meningitis is supportive care, it is paramount to ensure that reversible and treatable causes have been addressed for further prevention.

  5. Impacto de la vacuna conjugada en la incidencia de meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae en el Distrito Federal de Brasil: resultados de tres años de seguimiento Impact of anti-Hib conjugate vaccine on the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Brazil's Federal District: results of a three-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Selma de Abreu Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Haemophilus influenzae del serotipo b (Hib es todavía un importante agente causal de procesos infecciosos. Su variante encapsulada es la causa de formas invasoras de enfermedad. En algunas poblaciones aborígenes, la incidencia de enfermedades causadas por Hib es mayor de 400 por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años. En los decenios de 1970 y 1980, tras la identificación de anticuerpos protectores contra la cápsula de Hib, se desarrollaron vacunas contra este microorganismo. OBJETIVO: Estimar el impacto que ha tenido desde su introducción, en marzo de 1998, la vacunación contra Hib en el Distrito Federal de Brasil. MÉTODO: Con los datos de base poblacional del Sistema de Vigilancia de la Secretaría de Salud del Distrito Federal de Brasil, se compararon las tasas de incidencia de meningitis correspondientes a los tres años anteriores y posteriores a la introducción de la vacuna. Se compararon también los cambios en su tendencia. RESULTADOS: Al comparar los dos períodos se advierte una reducción de aproximadamente 90% en la incidencia de meningitis por Hib, cambio que no ocurre en el caso de las meningitis ocasionadas por otros agentes bacterianos. Se registró un aumento proporcional de los casos entre los niños de 6 meses de edad y menores, debido a la reducción de la incidencia entre los mayores de esa edad. CONCLUSIÓN: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada en el Distrito Federal de Brasil redujo de 168 por 100 000 (1995-1997 a 15 por 100 000 (1999-2001 la incidencia de meningitis por Hib entre niños de 7 a 35 meses. Esto representa una reducción de 91,1%.INTRODUCTION: Type b Haemophilus influenzae (Hib continues to be an important causative agent of various infectious processes, and its encapsulated strains cause invasive disease. In some aboriginal populations, the incidence of Hib infections in children under five is greater than 400 per 100 000. In the seventies and eighties, vaccines against Hib were

  6. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningitis - syphilitic; Neurosyphilis - syphilitic meningitis ... Syphilitic meningitis is a form of neurosyphilis . This condition is a life-threatening complication of syphilis infection. Syphilis is ...

  7. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis resistant to penicillin clinical and microbiological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto; Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes; Romeo S. Rodríguez; Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros; Maricruz Juárez

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigi...

  8. Meningitis neonatal e infección puerperal por Streptococcus pneumoniae: Presentación de un caso

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    Cecilia Ortiz Rodríguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones neonatales causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae constituyen un fenómeno raro, poco reportado en la literatura médica; en el presente trabajo se describe el caso de una meningoencefalitis purulenta de aparición precoz, en un neonato nacido por parto eutócico, a termino y de buen peso. Se aisló el microorganismo en la sangre y en el líquido cefalorraquídeo del recién nacido, así como en los loquios de la madre. Las 3 antibiotipias fueron idénticas. La evolución del niño fue desfavorable, el cual falleció a las 81 horas de vida, en un cuadro de fallo multiorgánico. La necropsia corroboró el diagnóstico. La madre desarrolló una endometritis puerperal a los 4 días, con buena evolución.Neonatal infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare phenomenon that is barely reported in the medical literature. The present paper describes a case of early purulent meningoencephalitis occurred in an adequate birthweight neonate born to term eutocic delivery. The microorganism was isolated in the newborn's blood and cerebrospinal fluid as well as in his mother's lochia. The three antibiotypes were identical. The newborn did not recover and died after 81 hours due to a multiple organ failure. Necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. The mother developed puerperal endometritis after 4 days but did recover.

  9. Comparison of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid with Bacterial Meningitis Score in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Frederico Ribeiro; Franco, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2017-01-01

    To measure the role of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid compared with the Bacterial Meningitis Score in children with meningitis. A retrospective cohort based on analysis of medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed as meningitis, seen at a private and tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Excluded were patients with critical illness, purpura, ventricular shunt or recent neurosurgery, immunosuppression, concomitant bacterial infection requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy, and those who received antibiotics 72 hours before lumbar puncture. The study included 503 patients. Sixty-four patients were excluded and 94 were not submitted to all tests for analysis. Of the remaining 345 patients, 7 were in the Bacterial Meningitis Group and 338 in the Aseptic Meningitis Group. There was no statistical difference between the groups. In the Bacterial Meningitis Score analysis, of the 338 patients with possible aseptic meningitis (negative cultures), 121 of them had one or more points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 64.2%, and negative predictive value of 100%. Of the 121 patients with positive Bacterial Meningitis Score, 71% (86 patients) had a positive enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid was effective to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. When the test was analyzed together with the Bacterial Meningitis Score, specificity was higher when compared to Bacterial Meningitis Score alone. Avaliar o papel da pesquisa de enterovírus no líquido cefalorraquidiano em comparação com o Escore de Meningite Bacteriana em crianças com meningite. Coorte retrospectiva, realizada pela análise de prontuários, incluindo pacientes pediátricos, com diagnóstico de meningite e atendidos em um hospital privado e terciário, localizado em São Paulo, entre 2011 e 2014. Foram excluídos os pacientes com doença crítica, púrpura, deriva

  10. Diversidade e estrutura da comunidade bacteriana associada às armadilhas da planta carnívora Utricularia gibba (Lentibulariaceae) e ao ambiente aquático.

    OpenAIRE

    Almir José Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    A diversidade microbiana em ambientes aquáticos e sua associação com plantas carnívoras ainda é pouco estudada. Assim, a comunidade bacteriana da planta carnívora Utricularia gibba e do seu meio aquático foi avaliada por meio do seqüenciamento em larga escala (454 Roche) de uma biblioteca do gene 16S rRNA. Os resultados indicaram que a comunidade bacteriana na água é significativamente diferente da comunidade dos utrículos. Além disso, a comunidade bacteriana da água é composta principalmente...

  11. Antibióticos vs. resistencia bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-01-01

    La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial que se encuentra en constante evolución. De manera frecuente se reportan nuevos mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, tanto en bacterias gram negativas como en gram positivas. La presencia de resistencia en una bacteria causante de infección disminuye las posibilidades de obtener la curación clínica y la erradicación bacteriológica e incrementa los costos del tratamiento, la morbilidad y la mortali...

  12. HELICOBACTER PYLORI EN LA FLORA BACTERIANA ORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Departamento Académico Ciencias Básicas Estomatológicas. Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    No hay duda de la relación existente entre enfermedades orales con otras enfermedades sistémicas. En tal contexto, las bacterias de la flora bacteriana oral, que alcanzan alrededor de 350 especies, para la mayoría de tales bacterias no se ha demostrado un rol específico, conociéndose sí una clara relación entre los Estreptococos orales (Streptococcus sanguis, Strecoccus mutans, Streptococcus sobri nus) y Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans, entre otros, con la endocarditis bacteriana; así co...

  13. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain places, such as: The meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly during the dry season Mecca during the ... a serious Hib infection Your doctor or local health department will tell you if you or someone ...

  14. Meningitis - cryptococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated April 15, 2016. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/fungal.html . Accessed December 5, 2016. Review Date 11/27/2016 Updated by: Arnold Lentnek, MD, Infectious Diseases Medical Practice of NY and Clinical Research Centers ...

  15. [Cryptococcal meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spil, W E Erwin; Nooijen, Suzan; de Jong, Peter Y P; Aliredjo, Riena P; de Sévaux, Ruud G L; Verhave, Jacobien C

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of disseminated cryptococcal infection, often presenting as a primary respiratory infection with yeast cells originating from bird excreta. Because Cryptococcus neoformans has a tropism for cerebrospinal fluid, most patients suffer from meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Symptoms of cryptococcal meningitis are non-specific: headache, fever, nausea, or altered mental state and behaviour. Case descriptions of a renal transplant recipient and an HIV patient illustrate the non-specific presentation of cryptococcal meningitis. Lumbar puncture seemed to be critical in establishing the diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid, blood and other tissues were tested for C. neoformans by microscopy, culture and antigen tests. The patients were successfully treated with amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B intravenously and flucytosine intravenously or orally, followed by long-term fluconazole. The mortality rate for cryptococcal meningitis is 41% among renal transplant recipients and 20% in HIV patients.

  16. [Cryptococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, W.E. van; Nooijen, S.; Jong, P.Y. de; Aliredjo, R.P.; Sevaux, R.G.L. de; Verhave, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of disseminated cryptococcal infection, often presenting as a primary respiratory infection with yeast cells originating from bird excreta. Because Cryptococcus neoformans has a tropism for cerebrospinal fluid, most patients suffer from meningitis or

  17. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same as the flu ( influenza ), ...

  18. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis: a case report Sepse e meningite neonatal por Neisseria meningitidis: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Cícero Falcão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a full-term newborn infant that developed a sepsis associated to meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C on the 14th day of life. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a term female infant, born to a mother with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, with birth weight of 2,610g, Apgar Score 1, 4 and 8, who needed mechanical ventilation for 24 hours. On the 7th day of life, the neonate was discharged from the hospital with good overall condition. On the 15th day of life, the newborn infant presented fever and respiratory failure. The cerebrospinal fluid showed 1042 cells/mm³, with neutrophilic predominance, protein of 435 mg/dL, and glucose OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um recém-nascido de termo que apresentou no 14º dia de vida sepse associada à meningite, cujo agente etiológico foi a Neisseria meningitidis sorotipo C. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: recém-nascido de termo, cuja mãe é portadora de lupus eritematoso sistêmico, feminino, peso de nascimento de 2610g, Escala de Apgar 1, 4 e 8, sendo intubado e ventilado por 24 horas. Recebeu alta no 7º dia de vida em boas condições. No 15º dia de vida apresentou febre e desconforto respiratório. O líquido cefalorraquidiano mostrou 1042 células/mm³, com predomínio de neutrófilos, proteinorraquia de 435 mg/dL e glicorraquia < 10 mg/dL; a bacterioscopia revelou a presença de diplococos. Foi internado na Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, necessitou de ventilação mecânica e de drogas vasoativas. A hemocultura e a cultura do líquido cefalorraquidiano foram positivas para Neisseria meningitidis C. O recém-nascido foi tratado por 21 dias com penicilina cristalina. Recebeu alta hospitalar em boas condições, em aleitamento materno exclusivo e sem seqüelas neurológicas. O caso descrito apresenta como peculiaridades: etiologia incomum de meningite neonatal e evolução favorável, apesar dos relatos em literatura mostrarem seqüelas neurológicas. Destaca-se ainda, a

  19. Meningitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meningitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Meningitis What's in this article? ... the Doctor? Print en español Meningitis What Is Meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the ...

  20. La evolución de la resistencia bacteriana en México, 1973-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial. Las investigaciones relacionadas con este problema emergente son indispensables para reconocer y desarrollar programas para su vigilancia y control. Objetivo. Revisar y comentar las contribuciones de los investigadores mexicanos en el área de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura científica relacionada con la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos producida por investigadores mexicanos y registrada en Medline-PubMed entre 1973 y julio de 2013. Resultados. En 66 publicaciones, las contribuciones de investigadores mexicanos incluyeron datos sobre la resistencia de agentes patógenos entéricos como Salmonella Typhi, múltiples contribuciones sobre la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido, de metalobetalactamasas y de carbapenemasas, los mecanismos de resistencia en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y la evolución de la resistencia en cocos Gram positivos como Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus y Enterococcus spp., entre otros. Conclusiones. Los datos publicados en los últimos 40 años son fuente adecuada para entender la evolución de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos y desarrollar programas para su control.

  1. Infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio estuvo dirigido a conocer la frecuencia de infección bacteriana severa, entre recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización inicial, e identificar los datos clínicos y de laboratorio que se relacionan con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa. Se estudió un grupo de 211 recién nacidos febriles ingresados y que no hubieran mostrado signos de focalización en la evaluación inicial. La incidencia de infección bacteriana severa fue de 17,5 %, del cual hubo 22 sepsis urinaria (10,4 %, 6 bacteriemias aisladas (2,8 % y 5 meningoencefalitis bacteriana (2,3 %. De los 37 recién nacidos con infección bacteriana severa se aisló germen causal en 36 (97,3 % de los cuales 26 fueron bacterias gramnegativa y 10 grampositiva. Por tipo de infección bacteriana severa se observó que predominó en la sepsis urinaria la Escherichia coli en 15/22 de los pacientes, en la meningoencefalitis el Streptococcus grupo B en 3/5 de los enfermos y en la bacteriemia aislada el Staphylococcus aureus en 3/6. Se encontró relación significativa con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa de los siguientes datos clínicos y de laboratorio: fiebre ³ 39 &oC, fiebre persistente o recurrente, impresión médica de niño con estado tóxico-infeccioso, antecedentes patológicos, sexo masculino, conteo de leucocitos sanguíneos ³ 20 000/mm3, eritrosedimentación ³ 20 mm/h y leucocituria 10 000/L en la orina no centrifugada.

  2. Anestesia em gestante com hipertensão intracraniana por meningite tuberculosa: relato de caso Anestesia en gestante con hipertensión intracraneal por meningitis tísica: relato de caso Anesthesia in pregnant patient with intracranial hypertension due to tuberculous meningitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Breitenbach

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Está bem estabelecido que a técnica anestésica de escolha para cesariana eletiva é a anestesia regional. Porém, em gestantes com hipertensão intracraniana e infecção do sistema nervoso central esta técnica deve ser evitada. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o manejo anestésico de uma gestante, com hipertensão intracraniana secundária à meningite tuberculosa, que foi submetida à cesariana eletiva. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente branca, 32 anos, 60 kg, 1,62 m de estatura, na 36ªsemana de idade gestacional, agendada para interrupção cirúrgica da gestação por apresentar-se tetraparética, com hidrocefalia decorrente de meningite tuberculosa. Escolheu-se a anestesia geral para a cesariana com indução em seqüência rápida e manobra de Sellick para a intubação traqueal. As drogas utilizadas foram tiopental (250 mg, rocurônio (50 mg, fentanil (100 µg e lidocaína (60 mg por via venosa. A indução anestésica foi suave e mantida com isoflurano até o início do fechamento da pele da paciente, com mínimas alterações de seus sinais vitais e do recém-nascido, que recebeu índice de Apgar 8 e 9, no 1º e 5º minutos, respectivamente. A paciente despertou precocemente, sem deficits neurológicos adicionais. CONCLUSÕES: A anestesia geral ainda é a técnica anestésica preferida para cesariana em gestantes com hipertensão intracraniana, utilizando-se drogas de meia-vida curta e que tenham mínima interferência na pressão intracraniana e no recém-nascido.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Está bien establecido que la técnica anestésica de elección para cesárea electiva es la anestesia regional. Sin embargo, en gestantes con hipertensión intracraneal e infección del sistema nervioso central esta técnica debe ser evitada. El objetivo de este artículo es relatar el manejo anestésico de una gestante, con hipertensión intracraneal secundaria a la meningitis tísica, que fue sometida a la ces

  3. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Hassem Sobrinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso.La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso.Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the economic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

  4. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Barreto Demóstenes; Calderón-Jaimes Ernesto; Rodríguez Romeo S.; Espinosa de los Monteros Luz Elena; Juárez Maricruz

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigi...

  5. Peritonite bacteriana espontânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauss Edna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A peritonite bacteriana espontânea ocorre em 30% dos cirróticos com ascite e, neste grupo, apresenta altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Os fatores predisponentes incluem a diminuição da defesa imunológica encontrada no homem nas fases avançadas da cirrose, o supercrescimento da flora intestinal e a translocação bacteriana da luz dos intestinos aos linfonodos mesentéricos. As manifestações clínicas variam de graves a leves ou ausentes, sendo sempre necessária a análise do líquido ascítico. O diagnóstico de peritonite bacteriana espontânea se faz pela contagem de neutrófilos > 250/mm³ no líquido ascítico associado ou não ao crescimento de bactéria na cultura. As enterobactérias predominam como causa da infecção, sendo a Echerichia coli a bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada. O diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado provocaram a queda das taxas de mortalidade nas duas últimas décadas. O uso endovenoso de cefalosporinas de terceira geração mostra-se eficaz em 70% a 95% dos casos. A recorrência de peritonite bacteriana espontânea é comum e pode ser prevenida com norfloxacina oral, de uso contínuo. O surgimento de resistência bacteriana tem estimulado a procura de novas opções para a profilaxia da peritonite bacteriana espontânea; os probióticos constituem nova abordagem promissora, mas que necessita melhor avaliação. Recomenda-se a profilaxia primária de curta duração aos cirróticos com ascite que apresentem episódio de hemorragia digestiva alta.

  6. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  7. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities. The germs that cause bacterial meningitis can also be associated with another serious illness, sepsis . Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to infection that can cause tissue ...

  8. Cryptococcal Meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-16

    Mar 16, 1974 ... Cryptococcal meningitis occurred in an elderly Coloured woman in the Northern Cape. She presented with symp- toms and signs suggestive of encephalitis 4 weeks after a cholecystectomy. After the administration of cortisone, cryptococcal organisms were isolated in her cerebrospinal fluid. She was first ...

  9. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Echeverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e insuficiencia mitral grave asociada a cuatro vegetaciones sobre la cara auricular de la valva posterior, con ruptura y prolapso de su festón central posterior. Se aisló S. pneumoniae, serotipo 18C, en líquido cefalorraquídeo y en dos hemocultivos. El paciente recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y fue sometido a reemplazo valvular temprano con un resultado clínico satisfactorio. El principal factor pronóstico de esta condición lo determina el daño valvular subsecuente, sobre todo en pacientes con compromiso de la válvula aórtica, por lo que es necesario identificar tempranamente la extensión del compromiso valvular y definir oportunamente el tratamiento quirúrgico y antibiótico del paciente. En casos menos frecuentes, en los que solo hay compromiso de la válvula mitral, la evolución clínica es menos aguda y, por lo general, el tratamiento antibiótico dirigido y las medidas de soporte avanzado suelen ser suficientes para su control.

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    DING Wen-ting; ZOU Yue-li; BU Hui; HE Jun-ying; WANG Yun-can

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a kind of encapsulated fungal organism that widely exists in the nature. Because of its neurotropic nature, the central nervous system becomes its major target organ. Cryptococcus neoformans can use "transcellular pathway", "paracellular pathway" and "Trojan horse approach" to cross blood-brain barrier, and then make the devastating diffusion. Despite antifungal therapy, the mortality rate remains between 10% and 25% in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and...

  11. [Carcinomatous meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserni, Gábor; Vágó, Tibor; Török, Norbert; Gaál, Zoltán; Velkei, Tamás; Serényi, Péter; Göczo, Katalin; Tusa, Magdolna; Kovács, Katalin; Szucs, Miklós

    2007-10-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis is a serious complication of advanced stage solid tumours, which may become more common with improved survival. A 53-year-old woman with a recent history of breast cancer (pT2pN2M0) had been treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She presented with weakness, diplopia and vertigo raising the possibility of vertebrobasilar ischaemia or an intracranial mass. In another patient, a 62-year-old man with hypertension, a stenotic common bile duct had been diagnosed when examined for abdominal complaints. When he presented with a high blood pressure value accompanied by intensive headache, vomiting and bilateral hearing loss, he was thought to have a hypertensive crisis. The rapidly progressive neurological symptoms and the history of breast cancer and findings suggesting pancreatic head tumour, respectively, led to the clinical diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis in both cases, despite any evidence on CT scans or a negative MR scan, though of limited value, in the first case. This diagnosis was confirmed by the laboratory and cytological findings of the cerebrospinal fluid, and also by the post mortem examination, since both patients died within a month after the onset of the symptoms. The primary tumour in the second patient proved to be a widely metastasizing diffuse type gastric cancer. Carcinomatous meningitis has a varying but characteristic presentation which generally makes it easy to diagnose, but it can sometimes present differential diagnostic problems. What we can learn from these two cases may help in recognizing this complication.

  12. Dermatopatías bacterianas de importancia en medicina equina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tuemmers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La dermatología representa una parte importante en la práctica equina. Las dermatopatías bacterianas comúnmente son causadas por patógenos oportunistas que son parte de la flora normal de la piel, que ingresan mediante disrupciones de la piel provocando el desarrollo de enfermedades; existen también patógenos que pueden provocar enfermedad sistémica que tienen manifestaciones cutáneas. Para el diagnóstico de las patologías cutáneas provocadas por bacterias es necesario realizar el examen clínico general y luego hacer un examen específico de la piel describiendo las características de la piel y las lesiones que se presentan. Hay numerosos métodos complementarios que ayudan a la identificación del agente etiológico; con el fin de instaurar el tratamiento adecuado. En nuestro país se han realizado pocos reportes y publicaciones respecto de las patologías cutáneas que afectan a los equinos, a su vez también es poca la variedad de antimicrobianos de uso en la clínica equina lo que impide el correcto tratamiento de las diferentes dermatopatías.

  13. Resistencia bacteriana a los antimicrobianos ocasionada por bombas de eflujo

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, María Laura; Errecalde, Jorge Oscar; Mestorino, Olga Nora

    2011-01-01

    La resistencia a los antimicrobianos representa un severo problema a nivel mundial. Se han descripto variados mecanismos de resistencia, entre los cuales se encuentran las bombas de eflujo. Estas son proteínas transportadoras de membrana, organizadas en superfamilias y distribuidas ubicuamente entre organismos procariotas y eucariotas. Los genes que codifican para las bombas de eflujo pueden estar localizados en el cromosoma bacteriano o bien en elementos genéticos transmisibles como los plás...

  14. Microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea de antiangiogênico por degeneração macular relacionada à idade comparada com a de cirurgia de catarata Preoperative conjunctival bacterial microbiota of antiangiogenic intravitreous injection for age-related macular degeneration compared to cataract surgery preoperative microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Diniz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva e perfil de antibiograma no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea de antiangiogênico por degeneração macular relacionada à idade, comparando com a de pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo transversal, observacional, tipo série de casos. Foram constituídos dois grupos: grupo I (degeneração macular com 26 olhos de 26 pacientes (12 homens/14 mulheres com média de idades de 69,2 ± 11,5 anos; grupo II (catarata com 27 olhos de 27 pacientes (9 homens/18 mulheres com média de idades de 67,6 ± 7,9 anos. Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação à idade (p=0,538 e ao sexo (p=0,787. Foi realizada coleta de secreção do fundo de saco inferior da conjuntiva, através de "swab", e imediatamente colocado em tubo contendo meio líquido BHI ("brain heart infusion". As amostras foram processadas conforme técnicas laboratoriais padrão e realizado antibiograma de cada colônia isolada. Resultados: Houve crescimento de 26 colônias bacterianas no grupo I, com 2 olhos não apresentando crescimento e 30 colônias no grupo II. Houve maior frequência de bactérias Gram positivas nos dois grupos: 23/26 colônias (88,4% no grupo I e 29/30 colônias (96,7% no grupo II, com predomínio de Staphylococcus aureus em ambos os grupos, com 16 amostras (61,5% e 17 (56,7%, respectivamente. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi a segunda bactéria mais identificada, com 19,2% no grupo I e 20,0% no grupo II. Nenhuma diferença de frequência entre os grupos alcançou significância estatística. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante nas sensibilidades das bactérias aos antibióticos testados entre os dois grupos. Conclusões: Não houve diferença na distribuição das bactérias e no perfil de antibiograma da microbiota conjuntival de pacientes no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea por degeneração macular, comparada a de

  15. Estudo da incidência de vaginose bacteriana em parturientes pré-termo ou gestantes com amniorrexe prematura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel G. A. Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: relacionar a incidência de vaginose bacteriana entre parturientes com diagnóstico de trabalho de parto prematuro ou gestantes com amniorexe prematura em Sorocaba/SP. Metodologia: estudamos, de setembro/2003 a junho/2004, 30 pacientes internadas com diagnóstico clínico de trabalho de parto prematuro e/ou amniorexe prematura com idade gestacional inferior a 37 semanas. Como grupo controle tivemos 30 gestantes internadas para tratamento de outras intercorrências clínicas e/ou obstétricas, pareadas com o grupo de estudo pela idade cronológica e idade gestacional. A vaginose bacteriana foi diagnosticada pelo pH vaginal superior a 4.5, liberação de odor de “peixe podre” ao adicionar KOH (10% ao conteúdo vaginal, presença de “clue-cell” nesse material, e a caracterização de esfregaço sugestivo de vaginose bacteriana pelo método de Gram. Resultados: a vaginose bacteriana foi encontrada em 10.0% das pacientes do grupo de estudo e em 13.3% das pacientes do grupo controle. Encontramos também a presença de processos infecciosos vaginais, especialmente causados por leveduras, ambos achados não apresentaram significância estatística. Conclusão: a vaginose bacteriana não se associou de maneira significante com a ocorrência de trabalho de parto prematuro e/ou amniorexe prematura. Trabalho subsidiado por bolsa PIBIC-CNPq.

  16. Meningitis neumocócica del adulto, 1977-1989: Impacto de la resistencia antibiótica. Estudio de los factores pronósticos y de nuevos aspectos terapéuticos

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiol i Munté, Francesc

    1991-01-01

    En 1977 iniciamos un proyecto de investigación clínica en torno a las infecciones del SNC, parte del cual consistió en la elaboración de un protocolo de estudio de las meningitis bacterianas. Trece años después, a finales de 1989, habían sido incluidos definitivamente en el protocolo 797 episodios de meningitis, entre los cuales se hallaban 132 episodios de meningitis neumocócica, objeto del presente estudio.La meningitis neumocócica del adulto despertó desde el principio nuestro interés debi...

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Wen-ting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a kind of encapsulated fungal organism that widely exists in the nature. Because of its neurotropic nature, the central nervous system becomes its major target organ. Cryptococcus neoformans can use "transcellular pathway", "paracellular pathway" and "Trojan horse approach" to cross blood-brain barrier, and then make the devastating diffusion. Despite antifungal therapy, the mortality rate remains between 10% and 25% in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, and at least one-third of patients have experienced failure of antifungal therapy. Consequently, it is very important for us to understand the pathogenesis of CM, to diagnose as soon as possible and to explore more reasonable treatment.

  18. Método para prevenir y/o controlar infecciones bacterianas

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, María José; Nogales, Joaquina; Olivares Pascual, José; Sanjuán, Juan

    2012-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un método para prevenir y/o controlar infecciones bacterianas en una planta y/o cultivo, así como en productos (alimentos crudos, soluciones de lavado, material de uso hospitalario) e instalaciones susceptibles de contaminación por bacterias, mediante aplicación de metilcetonas alifáticas de cadena larga, fundamentalmente 2-tridecanona pero también 2- undecanona, 2-dodecanona, y 2-pentadecanona, en formas y concentraciones del orde...

  19. Validación del método LAL para determinar endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable heparina sódica

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Burguet; Lázaro César Brito

    2012-01-01

    Dentro del control de la calidad de los productos farmacéuticos, la United State Pharmacopeia establece la cuantificación de endotoxinas bacterianas por el método de lisado de amebocito de Limulus , como monitor de pirógenos para más del 90% de los parenterales que regula. Este método se aplicó de forma específica a vacunas bacterianas y virales, agentes antineoplásicos, radiofármacos y parenterales que se producen en la industria médico farmacéutica. En el presente trabajo se mostró la metod...

  20. Tratamiento sin antibióticos en recién nacidos febriles con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo y presunta meningitis viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue presentar la experiencia en antibioticoterapia en recién nacidos (RN febriles con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR y presunción médica de meningitis viral. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con 310 RN con diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre 1992 y 2009. Se determinó, utilizando estadística descriptiva, la indicación o no de tratamiento antibiótico, momento y motivos de la indicación. RESULTADOS. Hubo 204 RN (65,8 % con meningitis aséptica que egresaron favorablemente sin haber recibido tratamiento antibiótico. En 106 RN (34,2 % se indicaron antibióticos (en 76 inmediatamente al diagnóstico de meningitis y en 30 casos, mediatamente por diversos motivos. Los motivos para tratamiento inmediato fueron principalmente los resultados del examen citoquímico del LCR muy semejantes a los de una meningitis de causa bacteriana y los antecedentes de fiebre elevada o persistente. En la indicación mediata el principal motivo fue la concurrencia de infección del tracto urinario. En los pacientes que nunca recibieron tratamiento antibiótico, la mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue de 4 días (intervalo intercuartil 3-5 días y para los que sí lo recibieron fue de 5 días (intervalo intercuartil 4-7 días (p < 0,0001. CONCLUSIONES. Es aconsejable revisar el enfoque de utilizar tratamiento antibiótico ante todo RN proveniente de la comunidad cuando se encuentra pleocitosis del LCR y se presume la existencia de una meningitis viral, siempre y cuando existan condiciones de vigilancia profesional calificada y continua, y un laboratorio de microbiología con recursos suficientes para respaldar una estrategia de tratamiento con uso racional de la antibioticoterapia.

  1. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  2. Situação epidemiológica das meningites por haemophilus influenzae b na Direção Regional de Piracicaba - São Paulo Situación epidemiológica de las meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae b en la Dirección Regional de Piracicaba - São Paulo - Brasil Epidemiological profile of Haemophilus influenzae b meningitis in Regional Health Board of Piracicaba - São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Elisa Cruz Perecin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a população acometida por meningites por Hib em relação às variáveis demográficas e relativas ao processo saúde-doença, no período de 1992 a 2001, na DIR de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados a partir de fichas de notificação compulsória, sendo sistematizados através do Programa SINAN. Observou-se que ocorreu um pico de incidência da doença em 1994, e um pico de óbitos em 1999, anteriores à introdução da vacina. Os mais acometidos foram crianças menores de 5 anos, do sexo masculino, confirmando dados de literatura. A maioria dos pacientes foi atendida em unidades hospitalares públicas de Piracicaba e Limeira, referências para as comunidades desses municípios, concretizando um dos princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: a regionalização. A introdução da vacina promoveu redução dos casos em cerca de 73%, o que corrobora a sua importância e impele à necessidade de estimular a adesão à vacinação.El presente estudio objetivó caracterizar la población afectada por meningitis causada por Hib en relación a las variables demográficas y relativas al proceso salud-enfermedad, en el período de 1992 a 2001 en la DIR de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de notificación obligatorias, las cuales fueron sistematizadas a través del programa SINAN. Se observó que ocurrió un pico de incidencia de la enfermedad en 1994 y un pico de fallecimientos en 1999, con antelación a la introducción de la vacuna. Los más afectados fueron niños menores de 5 años, de sexo masculino, confirmando datos de la bibliografía. La mayoría de los pacientes fue atendida en unidades hospitalarias públicas de Piracicaba y Limeira, referenciales para las comunidades de tales municipios, concretando uno de los principios del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS: su regionalización. La introducción de la vacuna promovió la reducción de casos en

  3. Toothpick meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhou, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old male with a history of hypertension, back pain, diverticulosis and anal fistula presents with acute onset syncopal episodes, worsening back pain, and altered mental status. The patient exhibited considerable leukocytosis but was hemodynamically stable. CT imaging of the head revealed a gas pattern in the posterior fossa and velum interpositum. CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a needle-like foreign body traversing the left sacrum to the sigmoid colon. A lumbar puncture revealed meningitis. Flexible sigmoidoscopies were performed without successful visualization of the foreign body. An explorative laparoscopy was successfully performed, enabling retrieval of what was determined to be a wooden toothpick. The patient remained hemodynamically stable with persistent altered mental status and was eventually discharged after completion of antibiotics on day 47 of hospitalization. This case illustrates a rare complication of ingesting a sharp foreign body that was identified by CT of the brain and abdomen/pelvis with successful surgical repair.

  4. Medicininduceret aseptisk meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina Podlekareva; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a rare adverse effect of some drugs. We report a patient with four episodes of meningitis caused by ibuprofen. In all episodes the patient had taken ibuprofen for pain, and subsequently developed fever and cerebrovascular symptoms. Drug-induced meningitis cannot...

  5. Eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites purulentas causadas por Haemophilus infuenzae e Neisseria meningitidis Efficacy of moxalactam in the treatment of purulent meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagamenon R. da Silva

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites em crianças, causadas por H. influenzae (27 casos e N.meningitidis (6 casos. Dos 33 doentes tratados na dose de 100mg/Kg de peso (dose de ataque e 50mg de 12/12 horas por via venosa, 32 curaram-se. A tolerância ao produto foi muito boa, havendo alterações transitórias de transaminases e fosfatase alcalina; em um caso, houve hematoma posapendectomia, provavelmente relacionado ao uso deste antibiotico. Os níveis séricos e liquóricos do produto foram elevados; as concentrações no liquor excederam de muito a concentração bactericida mínima dos germes infectantes. O moxalactam se mostrou seguro e eficaz como terapia primária da meningite causada por H. influenzae e N.meningitidis em crianças.The clinical efficacy and safety of Moxalactam in purulent bacterial meningitis in children caused by H. influenzae (27 patients and N. meningitidis (6 patients was tested in a randon uncontrolled study. Clinical response was considered excelent, with cure of 32 of 33 patients. High levels of Moxalactam were achieved in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid, with concentrations largely exceeding the minimum bacterial concentration (MIC for the infecting organisms. Tolerance was considered good, with only transient increases of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in some patients; also, one patient developed a wound hematoma possibly related to Moxalactam therapy.

  6. EFECTO DE LA VITAMINA C Y DE FACTORES LIBERADOS POR LAS MENINGES EN LA DIFERENCIACION IN VITRO DE LA GLIA RADIAL.

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA ALVAREZ, CARMEN INES; SILVA ALVAREZ, CARMEN INES

    2009-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo embrionario, las células troncales neurales dan origen a todas las neuronas del sistema nervioso central (SNC) de mamíferos. Usualmente, se consideran dos criterios para definir a una célula troncal, la auto-renovación, idealmente por un número ilimitado de divisiones celulares y la multi-potencialidad, es decir, la capacidad de originar a distintos tipos de células diferenciadas. Previo a la neurogénesis, la placa neural y el tubo neural se componen por sólo una c...

  7. Tratamiento sin antibióticos en recién nacidos febriles con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo y presunta meningitis viral Treatment without antibiotics in febrile infants presenting with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and supposed viral meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue presentar la experiencia en antibioticoterapia en recién nacidos (RN febriles con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR y presunción médica de meningitis viral. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con 310 RN con diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre 1992 y 2009. Se determinó, utilizando estadística descriptiva, la indicación o no de tratamiento antibiótico, momento y motivos de la indicación. RESULTADOS. Hubo 204 RN (65,8 % con meningitis aséptica que egresaron favorablemente sin haber recibido tratamiento antibiótico. En 106 RN (34,2 % se indicaron antibióticos (en 76 inmediatamente al diagnóstico de meningitis y en 30 casos, mediatamente por diversos motivos. Los motivos para tratamiento inmediato fueron principalmente los resultados del examen citoquímico del LCR muy semejantes a los de una meningitis de causa bacteriana y los antecedentes de fiebre elevada o persistente. En la indicación mediata el principal motivo fue la concurrencia de infección del tracto urinario. En los pacientes que nunca recibieron tratamiento antibiótico, la mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue de 4 días (intervalo intercuartil 3-5 días y para los que sí lo recibieron fue de 5 días (intervalo intercuartil 4-7 días (p INTRODUCTION. The aim of present research was to present the antibiotic-therapy experience in febrile newborn (NB presenting with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (CSFP and supposed viral meningitis. METHODS. A retrospective study was conducted in 310 NB diagnosed with aseptic meningitis admitted in the Neonatology Service of the "Juan Manuel Márquez" Children University Hospital between 1992 and 2009. Using the descriptive statistic method the indication or not of antibiotic treatment, moment and indication reasons were determined. RESULTS. There

  8. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

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    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  9. A orbifloxacina no tratamento das cistites bacterianas em gatos domésticos

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    Reche Junior Archivaldo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos, avaliar o uso da orbifloxacina nas cistites bacterianas de felinos, e seus possíveis efeitos colaterais, mormente a nefro e/ou hepatotoxicidade. Para tanto, foram colhidas amostras de urina de 53 gatos com históricos variados, mas com predisposição à infecção urinária. A cistite bacteriana foi comprovada, através de exame microbiológico, em 13 pacientes. No entanto, apenas 10 apresentaram infecção por agentes sensíveis a orbifloxacina. Esses 10 pacientes foram então submetidos ao tratamento com orbifloxacina na dose de 2,5mg kg-1 a cada 24 horas por 10 dias. Não houve crescimento bacteriano nas amostras de urina submetidas à cultura, 72 horas após a interrupção do tratamento. Não foram observados sinais de nefro e/ou hepatotoxicidade nesses pacientes, uma vez que os níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA, albumina, uréia e creatinina não tiveram variação significativa após o uso do fármaco. Portanto, os resultados apresentados sugerem que a orbifloxacina pode ser usada como agente antimicrobiano nas infecções urinárias de felinos.

  10. Medicininduceret aseptisk meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina Podlekareva; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a rare adverse effect of some drugs. We report a patient with four episodes of meningitis caused by ibuprofen. In all episodes the patient had taken ibuprofen for pain, and subsequently developed fever and cerebrovascular symptoms. Drug-induced meningitis cannot...... be distinguished from meningitis caused by other agents. Diagnosis is therefore based on close association between drug administration and onset of symptoms, as well as negative microbiology tests results, especially if previous episodes of drug-induced meningitis have occurred....

  11. Resistencia bacteriana Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents

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    Jesualdo Fuentes

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta un panorama de la resistencia bacteriana incluyendo su fisiopatogenia y formas de presentación y se establecen algunas consideraciones generales de tipo clínico como auxiliares para racionalizar el uso de los antimicrobianos y evitar o retardar el problema de la resistencia; éste plantea la necesidad de un reordenamiento definitivo en la prescripción de antimicrobianos. No será tanto la creación o descubrimiento de nuevos antibióticos sino la racionalización del manejo de los existentes lo que permitirá alcanzar victorias sobre estos microorganismos. Es Importante mantener educación continua sobre el uso adecuado de los antimicrobianos desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico, farmacocinético y fisiopatogénico.

    An overview on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is presented. It includes the different genetic mechanisms for Its development and the biochemical phenomena that explain It. Some clinical considerations are proposed in order to rationalize the use of these drugs and to avoid or delay the appearance of resistance.

  12. Diagnóstico das meningites através de fitas reagentes Diagnosis of meningitis with reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a utilidade de fitas reagentes para a avaliação liquórica de pleocitose, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia no diagnóstico precoce e rápido de meningites em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo amostras de líquor provenientes de 164 crianças admitidas no ambulatório de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Centro Geral de Pediatria (CGP-FHEMIG, com suspeita clínica de meningite, no período diurno de Maio/97 à Maio/99. A faixa etária dos pacientes variou de um mês a 12 anos (mediana de 12 meses, sendo obtidos resultados da citobioquímica liquórica (celularidade, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia de 154 desses pacientes. Esses achados foram comparados com reações do líquor em fitas reagentes. RESULTADOS: Através da citobioquímica líquórica foram identificados 43 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, 19 provavelmente viróticas e 83 amostras sem alterações. Pelas fitas reagentes, detectaram-se 41 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, dois casos de infecção meníngea provavelmente virótica, e em 71 exames não se verificaram alterações. Comparando os resultados obtidos por meio das fitas reagentes com a citobioquímica convencional, observou-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e acurácia (90,7; 98,1; 95,1; 96,4; 96,1%, respectivamente. Ademais, a análise estatística pelo teste de Mc Nemar não evidenciou discordância significativa no diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana obtido através de ambos os métodos (p=0,68 e, pela estatística Kappa, verificou-se elevado grau de concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: to determine the usefulness of reagent strips in the evaluation of pleocytosis, cerebrospinal fluid glucose and protein levels for early and rapid diagnosis of meningitis in children. METHODS: We included cerebrospinal fluid samples of 164 children admitted to the outpatient clinic of Communicable Diseases of the General Pediatric Center (Funda

  13. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhard, Sonja E.; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. Methods: We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. Results: When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30?48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis. Only...

  14. Bacterial meningitis in Nottingham.

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, P.

    1983-01-01

    Records of 171 cases of bacterial meningitis admitted to Nottingham hospitals from January 1974 to June 1980 were reviewed. The distribution of organisms producing meningitis and the factors influencing mortality in different age groups were assessed. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 69% of all proven cases. The overall mortality was 26% being lowest in patients with meningococcal meningitis (0%) and highest in those with pneumococcal m...

  15. [Meningitis carcinomatosa (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhäusl, H

    1979-06-20

    On the basis of a case report the clinical picture of meningitis carcinomatosa is discussed. The cerebrospinal fluid is the most important criterion for the diagnosis. All other examinations (EEG, brain-scan, X-ray) yield only imperfect information. The clinical picture of meningitis carcinomatosa is similar above all to meningitis tuberculosa. If cerebrospinal fluid shows inflammatory signs and there is a breakdown of cerebral nerves (blindness, deafness) meningitis carcinomatosa always should be considered, even if thorough examination does not succeed in proving a primary tumour.

  16. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil Impacto do programa de vacinação contra meningites causadas por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002, using regression forecasting (RF by dividing the time series into two periods: (a historical (1983-1998 and (b validation (1999-2002. Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (HIB no Brasil sobre a morbi-mortalidade e a letalidade das meningites por HIB, a partir de base de dados fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde e as estimativas populacionais provenientes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para a avaliação do impacto utilizou-se análise de tendência temporal (1983-2002, aplicando-se a técnica RF (regression forecasting, dividindo-se a série em dois períodos: (a período histórico (1983-1998 e (b período de estimação (1999-2002. O impacto da vacinação foi positivo, embora tenha se revelado mais expressivo sobre a morbi-mortalidade que sobre a letalidade.

  17. Meningites bacterianas no lactente aspectos neurológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valeriana L. de Moura-Ribeiro

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e laboratoriais das meningites bacterianas agudas no lactente são criticamente analisados em função da experiência da autora. São apresentadas considerações fisiopatológicas sobre os eventos que ocorrem na fase aguda desses processos.

  18. Programa preventivo da cárie dentária baseado no controle mecânico da placa bacteriana em crianças, por meio da profilaxia profissional periódica: Resultados após 25 anos de acompanhamento Dental caries prevention program based on the mechanical control of the bacterial plaque in children, through the periodic professional prophylaxis: Results after 25 years of attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Oliveira Lima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de cárie dentária em um programa de prevenção aplicado durante 25 anos em clínica particular. METODOLOGIA: participaram desse programa 640 crianças de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 3 a 15 anos de idade. O programa foi baseado no controle mecânico da placa bacteriana dentária por meio da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio com uma periodicidade mensal. A incidência de cárie foi verificada por meio de exames clínicos durante as sessões de atendimento e radiográficos anualmente. A média de idade das crianças ao ingressarem no programa foi de 7,8 anos. RESULTADOS: antes de ingressar no programa, as crianças apresentaram, em média, 5,3 faces cariadas, enquanto após o programa a média foi de 0,18. A incidência de cáries por ano antes do programa foi de 0,9 faces cariadas e durante o programa de 0,03. O tempo de permanência das crianças no programa foi, em média, de 52,6 meses, e a média de faltas foi de 0,5 falta por ano. Esses resultados demonstram o sucesso do programa, principalmente por ter uma filosofia que procura o equilíbrio da biodiversidade da cavidade bucal, sem o risco de produzir efeitos colaterais indesejáveis. CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se, assim, que esse parece ser o caminho mais curto para resolver o problema da cárie dentária, ou seja, o controle mecânico da placa bacteriana dentária através da profilaxia profissional mensal, pois é um método de prevenção possível de ser aplicado em qualquer criança, independentemente de suas condições psicomotoras e sociais, e que proporciona a melhor relação custo-benefício, além de estar de acordo com os conceitos mais atuais de cárie e de seus fatores etiológicos. Em função da faixa etária das crianças, o programa é de suma importância para clínicas de Odontopediatria e Ortodontia.AIM: This study investigated the incidence of dental caries in a prevention

  19. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  20. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  1. ANDISCRIMINATED ASEPTIC MENINGITIS CASE BETWEEN RICKETTSIA AND LEPTOSPIRAL MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Davut; Sencan, İrfan; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Güçlü, Ertuğrul; Yavuz, Tevfik; Karabay, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsial meningitis and leptospiral meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis in patients exposed to endemic areas. In this report we describe a case of aseptic meningitis in which neither a rickettsial nor leptospiral etiology could be established

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonhard, Sonja E.; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found

  3. Bacterial Meningitis Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1995-01-01

    The neurologic, psychological, and educational outcomes of bacterial meningitis in 130 children evaluated at a mean age of 8 years, and 6 years after their meningitis, are reported from the Department of Paediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, University of Melbourne, and the Royal Children’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

  4. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  5. Celulosa bacteriana en gluconacetobacter xylinum: biosíntesis y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Chávez- Pacheco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La celulosa es la molécula orgánica más abundante en la naturaleza y posee gran importancia a nivel industrial; es sintetizada por una variedad de organismos, incluyendo plantas, algas, hongos, bacterias y animales. Gluconacetobacter xylinum es la bacteria con mayor capacidad productora de celulosa y es el organismo modelo en la investigación sobre los procesos que regulan la biosíntesis del polímero. El presente documento ofrece una revisión de los progresos en la comprensión del proceso de síntesis de celulosa, las características particulares de la celulosa bacteriana como fuente alterna a la celulosa vegetal y sus aplicaciones biotecnológicas

  6. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  7. Avaliação da efetividade de um programa de controle de placa dento bacteriana em pacientes autistas

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Guimarães Dias

    2009-01-01

    O autismo surge nos estágios precoces do desenvolvimento e é caracterizado por déficit social, de linguagem e comportamento, sendo freqüente a ocorrência de retardo no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. A saúde oral pode ser precária nessa população, pois a higiene é ineficaz; comprometendo principalmente a saúde periodontal. A prevenção de doenças bucais através do controle da placa bacteriana pode ser a melhor alternativa para promover e manter a saúde bucal, contribuindo para diminuir custos...

  8. 103. Reparación valvular mitral en un caso de endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, R.; Bernabeu, E.; García-Valentín, A.; Llamas, P.

    2012-01-01

    Presentar un caso de reparación valvular mitral como alternativa a la cirugía de sustitución valvular en una paciente con endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana (Libman-Sacks). Material y métodos: Mujer de 17 años que presenta un brote agudo de lupus eritematoso sistémico. En este contexto presenta cuadro de insuficiencia cardíaca izquierda aguda refractaria a tratamiento médico. En la ecocardiografía se evidenció insuficiencia mitral masiva por déficit de coaptación de ambos velos. De form...

  9. Validación del método LAL para determinar endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable heparina sódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Burguet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del control de la calidad de los productos farmacéuticos, la United State Pharmacopeia establece la cuantificación de endotoxinas bacterianas por el método de lisado de amebocito de Limulus , como monitor de pirógenos para más del 90% de los parenterales que regula. Este método se aplicó de forma específica a vacunas bacterianas y virales, agentes antineoplásicos, radiofármacos y parenterales que se producen en la industria médico farmacéutica. En el presente trabajo se mostró la metodología a seguir para realizar la validación de la técnica de determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas por el método de gelificación. Para ello se confirmó la sensibilidad del reactivo utilizado (0,03125 UE/mL y la validez de los analistas para poder obtener resultados confiables. Las pruebas preliminares para el producto ensayado, heparina sódica 5000 UI/mL, demostraron que este producto no potencia ni inhibe la reacción del reactivo. Se escogió la dilución de trabajo (1/128 para la validación del método. De esta manera quedaron estandarizadas las condiciones para la validación del test de lisado de amebocito de Limulus por gelificación en este producto parenteral, método que se hace extensivo a la determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas en vacunas y en otros medicamentos por vía de administración intravenosa.

  10. Nuevos métodos bacteriológicos para detectar y evitar la resistencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ordoñez-Smith de Danies

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    DEFINICIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA

    De acuerdo al COC (Centro de Control de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos, la resistencia se da cuando un medicamento deja de inhibir el crecimiento o matar un microorganismo. 

    Hay dos tipos de resistencia la adquirida y la clínica. La adquirida se realiza en el laboratorio a través de las mutaciones o por transferencia de genes, sistemas de conjugación, transducción y transformación.

    La resistencia clínica es la observada en la práctica médica, donde no todos los organismos son igualmente sensibles o resistentes a cierto antibiótico y que requiere la ayuda de técnicas de laboratorio para medir cuantitativamente o cualitativamente dicho proceso.

    MECANISMOS DE LA RESISTENCIA BACTERIANA

    En la detección de la Resistencia Bacteriana se han identificado diferentes mecanismos utilizados por las bacterias: destrucción o inactivación enzimática, cambios en la permeabilidad de la membrana interna, alteraciones de los precursores de la pared celular, de la membrana y de los ribosomas.

    Para los años 90 se dispuso de una serie de antimicrobianos como betalactámicos, aminoglucósidos, macrólidos, sulfonamidas, trimetoprim, cloranfenicol, glicopéptidos, rifampicina, quinolonas, tetraciclinas....

     

  11. Suero autólogo al 50 % en las queratitis bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelys Ariocha Cambas Andreu

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el comportamiento de las queratitis bacterianas con el tratamiento coadyuvante de suero autólogo tópico al 50 %. Métodos: estudio comparativo, longitudinal y prospectivo. La muestra estuvo constituida por 60 pacientes, divididos de forma aleatoria en dos grupos: A utilizó tratamiento antibiótico convencional y suero autólogo y B utilizó solo tratamiento antibiótico convencional (cefazolina y amikacina. Los datos almacenados se procesaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 15. Las variables se expresaron según sus respectivas medidas de resumen y para la comparación de las terapias se aplicaron pruebas de hipótesis, con un nivel de confianza del 95 % y de error inferior al 0,05 %. Resultados: predominaron en los aislamientos microbiológicos Staphylococcus y Pseudomonas; seguidas por los Streptococcus, gonococos y enterobacterias. En cuanto al tiempo de aparición de los signos que favorecen la cicatrización corneal y la respuesta terapéutica, encontramos que con la aplicación tópica del suero autólogo, en casi dos tercios de los pacientes, estos se manifestaron a partir de la segunda semana de tratamiento y se obtuvo una respuesta terapéutica favorable. Conclusiones: El suero autólogo al 50 % resulta ser un complemento terapéutico efectivo en el manejo de las queratitis infecciosas de etiología bacteriana.

  12. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la meningitis aséptica en recién nacidos Clinical and epidemiological features of aseptic meningitis in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: exponer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la meningitis aséptica, probablemente enteroviral, en recién nacidos atendidos en nuestro servicio de neonatología. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo de 291 pacientes recién nacidos ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan M. Márquez", entre los años 1992-2009, con el diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica. La información se obtuvo de una base de datos creada para una investigación sobre meningitis neonatal. Se analizaron diversas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas de presentación de esta enfermedad. Resultados: ocurrieron picos de incremento de la incidencia de la meningitis aséptica, con una tendencia estadísticamente significativa a disminuir en el transcurso de los 18 años (p= 0,00027. La frecuencia de presentación mostró una agrupación de casos hacia los meses de junio a noviembre. La fiebre estuvo presente en todos los pacientes, seguida por la irritabilidad y la presencia de diversas manifestaciones del aparato respiratorio. La apariencia de niño enfermo y las convulsiones fueron manifestaciones poco frecuentes. Exceptuando la pleocitosis, los indicadores convencionales en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y la relación glucosa líquido cefalorraquídeo/sangre tuvieron una mediana dentro de los límites normales para el período neonatal, sin embargo, los rangos fueron amplios. Hubo pacientes con pleocitosis importante, otros con predominio de los polimorfonucleares en una proporción mayor del 50 % y también con relación glucosa líquido cefalorraquídeo/sangre baja. La evolución clínica de todos los pacientes fue favorable sin secuelas neurológicas inmediatas aparentes. Conclusiones: los episodios de meningitis aséptica ocurridos siguen un patrón característico de las infecciones enterovirales con agrupación de casos estacional y picos epidémicos periódicos. La expresión clínica de la infecci

  13. Meningencefalites bacterianas agudas em crianças: complicações e sequelas neurológicas Acute bacterial meningoencephalitis in children: complications and neurologic sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WLADIMIR NATALINO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 271 crianças com idade inferior a 15 anos, com diagnóstico de meningencefalite bacteriana aguda (MBA, no período 1980 -- 1990. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, conforme não tivessem recebido tratamento prévio (STP, 153 casos, e os que receberam tratamento prévio (CTP, 118 casos. Ocorreram diferenças significativas em relação a identificação do agente etiológico, que foi maior no grupo STP, e em relação a ocorrência de ventriculite, maior no grupo CTP. Ocorreu óbito em 19,5% dos 271 casos, com predomínio em crianças de idade abaixo de 12 meses (29,7% e nos pacientes com MBA por Streptococcus pneumoniae. As manifestações epilépticas e as paresias na fase aguda da MBA predominaram em crianças de idade abaixo de 1 ano. Foram identificados e tratados do ponto de vista neurocirúrgico as ventriculites, higroma subdural, hidrocefalia, empiema subdural e abscesso cerebral.We studied 271 children under age of 15 with diagnosis of acute bacterial meningencephalitis treated at Medical School in Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, between 1980 and 1990. The patients were divided in two groups: 1 those who had not received previous antibiotics treatment (NTP, with 153 cases; and 2, those who had received previous antibiotics treatment (PT, with 118 cases. The etiological agent was more frequently identified in NPT group, while ventriculitis was more frequent in PT group. Mortality rate accounted for 19,5% of all cases, and 29.7% of children under 12 months of age. Acute meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was frequently followed by increased mortality. Convulsive disorders and hemiparesis predominante among children under 12 months of age. On the neurosurgical point of view, ventriculitis, subdural hygroma, hydrocephalus, subdural empyema and brain abscess were identified and treated

  14. Pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldhoff, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infectious disease, involving the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space. In the Netherlands most common causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae (72%) and Neisseria meningitidis (11%). The incidence of pneumococcal

  15. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, people may have problems with speech or hearing, vision problems, and hallucinations. Symptoms that might require emergency treatment include loss of consciousness, seizures, muscle weakness, or sudden severe dementia. Symptoms of meningitis, which may appear ...

  16. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This Page Causes and How it Spreads Signs and Symptoms Causes ...

  17. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  18. Factitious Bacterial Meningitis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.; Thrupp, L.; Uchiyama, N.; Hawkins, B.; Wolvin, B.; Greene, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nonviable gram-negative bacilli were seen in smears of cerebrospinal fluid from eight infants in whom bacterial meningitis was ruled out. Tubes from commercial kits were the source of the factitious organisms. PMID:7153328

  19. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by

  20. Bacterial meningitis antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Raymond, J; Hees, L; Pinquier, D; Grimprel, E; Levy, C

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13 ®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0.5mg/L. For meningococcal meningitis, nearly 20% of strains have decreased susceptibility to penicillin and amoxicillin, but all remain susceptible to 3GC. The National Pediatric Meningitis Network is a valuable tool because it has been sufficiently exhaustive and sustainable over 15 years. Maintaining this epidemiologic surveillance will allow us to adapt, if necessary, new regimens for subsequent changes that could be induced by vaccination and/or antibiotic uses. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  1. Evidencia in vitro de la utilidad de cloranfenicol y rifampicina para el tratamiento de infecciones sistémicas y meningitis causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados deniños menores de 5 años en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz Hernández

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina es un patógeno común en infecciones pediátricas, lo cual plantea dificultades en el tratamiento. La rifampicina y el cloranfenicol se han recomendado como antibióticos útiles y como alternativas en estos casos, pues son menos costosos y más accesibles a las comunidades de recursos limitados. Su uso, sin embargo, puede estar limitado por los niveles de resistencia encontrados en diferentes poblaciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM a la rifampicina y al cloranfenicol en aislamientos de S. pneumoniae pertenecientes a un grupo recolectado entre 1994 a 1996 de niños menores de 5 años con infección sistémica y meningitis. Se estudiaron 107 aislamientos, 60 de ellos resistentes a penicilina y 47 sensibles, 53 de los cuales fueron aislamientos de LCR. La CIM y la CBM se realizaron de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la NCCLS; se utilizó S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 como control. Se consideraron como sensibles al cloranfenicol los aislamientos con CIM=4 ?g/ml y resistentes, con CIM=8 ?g/ml; sensibles a rifampicina con CIM=1 ?g/ml y resistentes con CIM=4 ?g/ml. La CBM se determinó con la menor concentración del antibiótico que inhibió el crecimiento del 99,9% del inóculo. Se encontró resistencia al cloranfenicol en 20,5% de los 107 aislamientos estudiados. En el grupo resistente a la penicilina, 28% fue resistente al cloranfenicol y 11% en el grupo sensible a la penicilina. La CBM para el cloranfenicol fue >4 ?g/ml en 28% de los aislamientos sensibles a la penicilina y en 60% de los resistentes. No se encontraron aislamientos resistentes a la rifampicina; sin embargo, 2 aislamientos mostraron CBM>1 ?g/ml y una CBM=16 ?g/ml. Los aislamientos de LCR presentaron la CIM y la CBM más altas que el grupo total de aislamientos. Los datos sugieren que en Colombia el cloranfenicol no

  2. Comparison of Scrub Typhus Meningitis with Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Tuberculous Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarlapudi, Svas Raju; Chacko, Anila; Samuel, Prasanna; Verghese, Valsan Philip; Rose, Winsley

    2018-01-15

    To compare scrub typhus meningitis with bacterial and tuberculous meningitis. Children aged <15 years admitted with meningitis were screened and those who fit criteria for diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis (n=48), bacterial meningitis (n=44) and tuberculous meningitis (n=31) were included for analysis. Clinical features, investigations and outcomes were compared between the three types of meningitis. Mean age, duration of fever at presentation, presence of headache and, altered sensorium and presence of hepatomegaly/splenomegaly were statistically significantly different between the groups. Scrub typhus had statistically significant thrombocytopenia, shorter hospital stay and a better neurological and mortality outcome. Sub-acute presentation of meningitis in older age group children, and good outcome is associated with scrub typhus when compared to bacterial and tuberculous meningitis.

  3. Flora intermediária em mulheres em idade reprodutiva: aspectos inflamatórios, atividade de sialidases e carga bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Greatti, Mariana Morena de Vieira Santos [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Espécies de lactobacilos são os principais componentes da microbiota vaginal e a manutenção do predomínio lactobacilar é importante para proteção desse ambiente contra possíveis patógenos. A vaginose bacteriana é uma condição em que se observa a perda de lactobacilos e substituição desses microrganismos por espécies bacterianas, anaeróbias em sua maioria. Tal condição pode acarretar inúmeras complicações ginecológicas e obstétricas, como o aumento do risco de aquisição de infecções sexualment...

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Sonja E; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30-48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis. Only 16 of 40 patients (40%) received immunomodulating therapy at the time of diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed in 17 of 40 patients (43%), mainly because of the initial suspicion of neurosarcoidosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated white blood cell count (range 23-129/mm). Twenty-nine of 32 cases (91%) had a positive CSF culture for Cryptococcus neoformans and 25 of 27 cases (93%) had a positive CSF C neoformans antigen test. CD4 counts were low in all patients in whom counts were performed (84-228/mL). Twelve patients had an unfavorable outcome (32%), of which 7 died (19%) and 24 patients (65%) had a favorable outcome. The rate of unfavorable outcome in patients with a delayed diagnosis was 7 of 17 (41%) compared to 5 of 28 (21%) in patients in whom diagnosis was not delayed. Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of sarcoidosis. Patients were often initially misdiagnosed as neurosarcoidosis, which resulted in considerable treatment delay and worse outcome. CSF cryptococcal antigen tests are advised in patients with sarcoidosis and meningitis.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of cryptococcal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Perlin, David; Xue, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Fungal meningitis is a serious disease caused by a fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly in individuals with immune system deficiencies. Fungal meningitis is often fatal without proper treatment, and the mortality rate remains unacceptably high even with antifungal drug interventions. Currently, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis in HIV-1/AIDS, and its disease mechanism has been extensively studied. The key steps for fungi to infect brain and ca...

  6. VALORACIÓN DE ENDOTOXINAS BACTERIANAS EN RANITIDINA Y PENICILINA G SÓDICA INYECTABLE MEDIANTE LA PRUEBA DE LISADO DEL AMEBOCITO DE Limulus

    OpenAIRE

    C. Carrillo; J. Ospina; D. Aldana; J. Arias; C. Echeverri

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó la estandarización y valoración de endotoxinas bacterianas por la técnica de Lisado del Amebocito de Limulus (LAL) para dos productos farmacéuticos: penicilina G sódica y ranitidina inyectable por el método de gelificación. Para ello se tomaron tres muestras de tres lotes diferentes; las muestras fueron escogidas al azar y se tomó una muestra del principio, una de la mitad y otra del final de la producción para cada lote muestreado. Con las muestras de cada lote se realizó un pool,...

  7. Cuatro métodos de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave en recién nacidos febriles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; Heidy González Trujillo; Humberto Martínez Canalejo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue contrastar la efectividad de 4 métodos de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave (IBG) en recién nacidos (RN) febriles, uno de los cuales fue desarrollado por los autores del trabajo y los otros son los utilizados en la práctica internacional. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y aplicado de 1358 RN febriles sin signos de focalización evaluados y clasificados por riesgo de IBG. Fue aplicado el método propue...

  8. Bacterial meningitis in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K.E.B.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an acute infection of the meninges, in The Netherlands most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitides. Risk factors for acquiring bacterial meningitis include a decreased function of the immune system. The aim of this thesis was to study

  9. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  10. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  11. Primary Meningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Riedel, Richard F.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Cummings, Thomas J.; Green, Scott; Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13). Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) systemic therapy. PMID:21772793

  12. Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Failace

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using standard methods; in 14 of these patients, the etiologic agent was identified by PCR (N. meningitidis=12; H. influenzae=1; Streptococcus sp.=1. The sensitivity of PCR was 88.1%; specificity, 99.0%; positive predictive value, 98.7%; and negative predictive, 90.1%. PCR is a useful complementary diagnostic technique, especially when Gram stain, culture, or antigenic detection are negative or inconclusive.Avaliamos o desempenho da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas e sua aplicabilidade na rotina diagnóstica. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 182 crianças apresentando suspeita de meningite bacteriana. Em 84, havia alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de meningite bacteriana. Destas, 65 tiveram o agente etiológico identificado pelos métodos laboratoriais de rotina e 19 ficaram sem diagnóstico etiológico. Em 98 pacientes foi excluído o diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Analisando o desempenho da PCR encontramos sensibilidade de 88,1%, especificidade de 99,0% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 98,7% e 90,1% respectivamente. Nos 19 pacientes com meningite bacteriana mas sem diagnóstico etiológico a PCR detectou microrganismos em 14, sendo 12 N

  13. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  14. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Una nueva ultraestructura de ópalo CT en silcretas. Posible indicador de influencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustillo, Mª A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscope observations of opaline silcretes found in the playa of a Miocene shallow lake reveal new opal CT microstructures. These microstructures are made up of fibres, filaments or rods, which are formed, in tum by coalesced microspheres or microhemispheres (0,1-0,2 µ diameter. They are up to 10 µ in length although larger ones could exist. They are straight, bent, wavy or even hairpin shaped. These microstructures comprise part of the opaline mass of the silcretes and are very similar to both neogenic opaline structures which are formed by bacterial intluence and to silicified biofilms. Therefore microbial mediation could exist in the genesis of this opal CT, although a possible inorganic origin by silicification of sepiolite is also considered.Un estudio mediante MEB de silcretas miocenas opalinas formadas por silicificación de playas en un ambiente de «playa-lake» pone de manifiesto la existencia de una nueva microestructura de ópalo CT. Esta microestructura denominada en general fibrosa, se manifiesta por la presencia de multitud de fibras, filamentos o varillas formadas por la alineación de microesferas o microhemisferas que presentan un diámetro entre 0,1 y 0,2 µ. Las fibras, filamentos o varillas tienen formas variables: rectas, curvadas, onduladas y «en horquilla», y presentan longitudes de hasta 10 µ, aunque podrían existir longitudes mayores. La disposición organizada de las microesferas en filamentos o fibras, constituyendo la masa general del ópalo, y su parecido con microestructuras opalinas que han sido formadas por influencia bacteriana, hacen considerar esta hipótesis, aunque no se puede descartar totalmente un origen inorgánico por silicificación de sepiolita.

  16. Criterios del protocolo de evaluación del recién nacido febril sin signos de focalización asociados a meningitis Assessment protocol criteria of the febrile newborn without signs of meningitis-associated focalization

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; María Isabel Arango Arias

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue precisar cuáles criterios clínicos o de laboratorio del método de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave permiten discriminar con mayor probabilidad aquellos recién nacidos (RN) febriles sin signos de focalización que presentan una meningitis. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente 438 RN febriles sin signos de focalización ingresados en un período de 40 meses. Las variables de estudio fueron los criterios de evaluación de rie...

  17. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  18. Stroke? Localized, otogenic meningitis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Harpa Maria; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient admitted with aphasia, treated for a stroke. Subsequently, it was revealed that the symptoms were caused by complicated otitis media with localized meningitis. This case draws attention to the possible intracranial spread of infection when neurological symptoms occur...

  19. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  20. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  1. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la meningitis aséptica en recién nacidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: exponer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la meningitis aséptica, probablemente enteroviral, en recién nacidos atendidos en nuestro servicio de neonatología. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo de 291 pacientes recién nacidos ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan M. Márquez", entre los años 1992-2009, con el diagnóstico de meningitis aséptica. La información se obtuvo de una base de datos creada para una investigación sobre meningitis neonatal. Se analizaron diversas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas de presentación de esta enfermedad. Resultados: ocurrieron picos de incremento de la incidencia de la meningitis aséptica, con una tendencia estadísticamente significativa a disminuir en el transcurso de los 18 años (p= 0,00027. La frecuencia de presentación mostró una agrupación de casos hacia los meses de junio a noviembre. La fiebre estuvo presente en todos los pacientes, seguida por la irritabilidad y la presencia de diversas manifestaciones del aparato respiratorio. La apariencia de niño enfermo y las convulsiones fueron manifestaciones poco frecuentes. Exceptuando la pleocitosis, los indicadores convencionales en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y la relación glucosa líquido cefalorraquídeo/sangre tuvieron una mediana dentro de los límites normales para el período neonatal, sin embargo, los rangos fueron amplios. Hubo pacientes con pleocitosis importante, otros con predominio de los polimorfonucleares en una proporción mayor del 50 % y también con relación glucosa líquido cefalorraquídeo/sangre baja. La evolución clínica de todos los pacientes fue favorable sin secuelas neurológicas inmediatas aparentes. Conclusiones: los episodios de meningitis aséptica ocurridos siguen un patrón característico de las infecciones enterovirales con agrupación de casos estacional y picos epidémicos periódicos. La expresión clínica de la infecci

  2. Endocarditis in adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Endocarditis may precede or complicate bacterial meningitis, but the incidence and impact of endocarditis in bacterial meningitis are unknown. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with meningitis and endocarditis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with

  3. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, Jan; van de Beek, Diederik

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mortality and morbidity rates are high among adults with acute bacterial meningitis, especially those with pneumococcal meningitis. In studies of bacterial meningitis in animals, adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids has beneficial effects. Methods: We conducted a prospective,

  4. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, Martine; van de Beek, Diederik; Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; Schmand, Ben

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy

  5. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy

  6. Molecular mechanisms of cryptococcal meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Perlin, David; Xue, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Fungal meningitis is a serious disease caused by a fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly in individuals with immune system deficiencies. Fungal meningitis is often fatal without proper treatment, and the mortality rate remains unacceptably high even with antifungal drug interventions. Currently, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis in HIV-1/AIDS, and its disease mechanism has been extensively studied. The key steps for fungi to infect brain and cause meningitis after establishment of local infection are the dissemination of fungal cells to the bloodstream and invasion through the blood brain barrier to reach the CNS. In this review, we use cryptococcal CNS infection as an example to describe the current molecular understanding of fungal meningitis, including the establishment of the infection, dissemination, and brain invasion. Host and microbial factors that contribute to these infection steps are also discussed. PMID:22460646

  7. Pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, R L; Katz, R L; Fainstein, V

    1982-01-01

    A pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis was caused by the use of contaminated albumin solution used in the preparation of Papanicolaou-stained slides of cerebrospinal fluid. Organisms were seen in cytocentrifuge preparations, but not in India ink preparations of cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Cryptococcal antigen tests were positive and Cryptococcus neoformans was cultured from the albumin-treated cerebrospinal fluid specimens and from the albumin solution.

  8. Pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, R L; Katz, R L; Fainstein, V

    1982-01-01

    A pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis was caused by the use of contaminated albumin solution used in the preparation of Papanicolaou-stained slides of cerebrospinal fluid. Organisms were seen in cytocentrifuge preparations, but not in India ink preparations of cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Cryptococcal antigen tests were positive and Cryptococcus neoformans was cultured from the albumin-treated cerebrospinal fluid specimens and from the albumin solution. Images PMID:7050150

  9. CT scanning in meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Stephan; Carty, Helen (Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Department of Radiology)

    12 pediatric cases of acute meningitis were reviewed retrospectively. Findings on CT scan were compared with the clinical course and resulting neurological sequelae. Complications detected by CT scanning include subdural effusion, empyema, hydrocephalus, cerebral atrophy, oedema and infarction. The CT scan results adequately correlated with neurological signs in most cases. Infarction was a reliable indicator of neurological sequelae. Cerebral atrophy alone, however, did not correlate well with the clinical sequelae. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs.

  10. Mondini dysplasia with recurrent meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M Y; Lee, P I; Lee, C Y; Hsu, C J

    1996-01-01

    Mondini dysplasia is a congenital malformation of the inner ear, commonly associated with hearing impairment, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea/rhinorrhea and recurrent meningitis. Two such cases are described, with hearing impairment, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and several episodes of meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography. After surgical correction of the malformation, there was no recurrent episode of meningitis at subsequent follow-up. To avoid the suffering and the sequelae of recurrent meningitis, an early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention are crucial for such patients.

  11. Infecções bacterianas tratadas com Ro 6-2580

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. A. Lopes

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available Nova combinação medicamentosa composta de sulfametoxazól e trimetoprim ("Bactrim", com efeito bactericida sobre germes Gram negativos e Gram positivos, foi ensaiada no tratamento de 15 casos de salmonelose e 9 casos de infecções bacterianas. Os resultados foram favoráveis, tanto nas salmoneloses, como em infecções por estafilococos, shigelas, pneumococos e coliformes. A remissão do estado tóxico nos casos de febre tifóide foi observada dentro de 48 horas, e o tempo médio para desaparecimento da febre e demais sintomas, nessa infecção, foi de 3 dias. Foram constatados efeitos secundários em alguns pacientes, tais como hipertermia medicamentosa, farmacodermia, vômitos, linfomonocitose e eosinofilia, possivelmente relacionados a posologia excessiva, e todos remissíveis. Os autores concluem pela utilidade do novo medicamento na terapêutica de salmoneloses, estafilococcias e outras infecções.

  12. A RIFAMPICINA NA DESCONTAMINAÇÃO BACTERIANA DE EXPLANTES DE MAMOEIRO PROVENIENTES DO CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI RODRIGUES VIANNA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se alta contaminação bacteriana nos explantes de mamoeiro introduzidos in vitro, a partir de plantas matrizes desenvolvidas no campo, independentemente da época do ano em que se realizaram as coletas. O uso de desinfestantes superficiais, como álcool e hipoclorito de sódio, garantiram níveis aceitáveis de controle apenas para fungos, não para bactérias. A rifampicina, por tratamento de imersão ou introdução em meio de cultura, controlou satisfatoriamente as contaminações de caráter endofítico, obtendo-se 70% de explantes sadios, sem sinais de fitotoxicidade.High contamination by bacteria was observed in papaya tissue cuttings introduced in vitro from plants grown in the field, independent of the period of the year that samples were collected. The use of alcohol and sodium hypoclorite did not guarantee good bacteria control. Rifampicin, added as an immersion solution treatment or in the culture media, controlled the internal contamination of explants, without damaging the cuttings. Up to 70% of healthy tissue explants were obtained by the use of rifampicin.

  13. Management of neoplastic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Patrick; Weller, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most common in patients affected by lung cancer, breast carcinoma, melanoma or hematologic neoplasms such as lymphoma and leukemia. Controlled clinical trials are largely lacking which results in various non-standardized treatment regimens. The presence of solid tumor manifestations in the CNS as well as the extracranial tumor load defines the most appropriate treatment approach. Radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal treatment must be considered. For each patient, the individual situation needs to be carefully evaluated to determine the potential benefit as well as putative side effects associated with any therapy. A moderate survival benefit and particularly relief from pain and neurological deficits are the main treatment goals. Here, we summarize the management of patients with neoplastic meningitis and review the available treatment options.

  14. Eficacia de cinco desinfectantes para la reducción bacteriana doméstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Stambullian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso adecuado de hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán ha demostrado ser eficaz para eliminar gérmenes dentro del hogar. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia inmediata, a la semana y al mes del uso controlado de cinco productos con estos componentes, comparados con otros productos de uso habitual. Se incluyeron 32 hogares de clase media de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la periferia en un estudio con intervención, abierto, aleatorizado, y de grupos paralelos, durante 6 meses. La mitad de los hogares fue seleccionada para usar hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán en la cocina y el baño durante un mes. El grupo control mantuvo prácticas habituales de limpieza doméstica. Se tomaron muestras para recuento y tipificación bacteriana de los sitios estudiados: muestras basales (sin discriminación de grupo en cocina, que presentaron recuento bacteriano promedio de 66.0 UFC/cm²; baño: 40.1 UFC/cm². Las muestras inmediatas a la limpieza (sin discriminación de grupo: en cocina: 0.8 UFC/cm²; baño: <1 UFC/cm². A la semana (grupo intervenido vs. grupo control: cocina 18.0 vs. 32.5 UFC/cm²; baño 12.7 vs. 7.7 UFC/cm². Al mes (intervenido vs. control: cocina: 60.1 vs. 62.1 UFC/cm²; baño: 37.0 vs. 42.0 UFC/cm². Se observó una notable disminución de la carga bacteriana en ambos grupos, lo que sugiere que no sólo la calidad de los productos sino también la educación en el uso desempeñan un papel clave en la desinfección del hogar. Este enfoque podría ser una herramienta importante para prevenir infecciones transmitidas por alimentos, dado que los coliformes fecales predominaron ampliamente en todas las muestras tipificadas.

  15. Actividad sialidasa en mujeres con vaginosis bacteriana Sialidase activity in women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Ombrella

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana (VB es un síndrome caracterizado por el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano de flora endógena Gram negativa, que desplaza a la flora lactobacilar normal. Dentro de las enzimas bacterianas, las sialidasas han sido consideradas factores de virulencia de muchos microorganismos patógenos que colonizan las distintas mucosas. Su presencia en fluidos vaginales puede estar correlacionada con VB. El propósito de este estudio fue comprobar la actividad de dicha enzima en mujeres con este síndrome y sin evidencia clínica de infección genital. Se estudiaron 112 mujeres (51 fueron pacientes con VB y 61 mujeres con flora colonizante habitual. Para la cuantificación de la actividad sialidasa se empleó la técnica basada en la hidrólisis enzimática de un derivado ácido del ácido metoxifenil acetil murámico. En la población estudiada se encontró que ambos grupos mostraron valores comprendidos entre 0.5 a 5.1 nmoles de metoxifenol, mientras que 11 de 52 pacientes con VB (21.17%, registraron valores superiores a 5.1 nmoles. La presencia de actividad sialidasa solamente no es índice de VB, excepto para valores mayores de 5.5 nmoles de metoxifenol, producidos en la reacción enzimática.Bacterial vaginosis (VB is a syndrome characterized by overgrowth of endogenous Gram negative bacterial flora and the lack of the normal flora. Within bacterial enzymes, sialidases have been considered a virulence factor of many pathogenic microorganisms colonizing the different mucous membranes. Their presence in vaginal discharges can be correlated with VB. The aim of this study was to detect the activity of this enzyme in women with this syndrome and without clinical evidence of genital infection. Out of a total 112 women studied, 51 were patients with VB and the other 61 women presented normal vaginal flora. For the quantification of enzyme activity, the technique based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of a derivative acid of the acetyl metoxifenil

  16. Mecanismos de resistencia a antibióticos: biología estructural de proteínas del reciclaje de la pared bacteriana de "P. aeruginosa"

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez-Gil Velasco, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    En el año 2014 la organización mundial de la salud publicó un informe confirmando que la resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos ha alcanzado niveles alarmantes en muchas partes del mundo. Las infecciones causadas por bacterias resistentes son cada vez más frecuentes e invasivas debido al mal uso de los antibióticos y a que las bacterias han desarrollado diversos mecanismos de resistencia para sobrevivir a la acción de los antibióticos. La pared bacteriana presenta la doble caracterís...

  17. Epidemiología de las infecciones bacterianas en pacientes con cirrosis hepática, experiencia de un centro español de atención terciaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Klímová

    2016-03-01

    Discusión. Los resultados del estudio confirmaron que el espectro microbiológico de las infecciones bacterianas en pacientes con cirrosis ha sufrido importantes cambios. Las infecciones por gérmenes multirresistentes causan infecciones con gran morbimortalidad y el fracaso del tratamiento antibiótico habitual. Para controlarlas de forma eficaz, es imprescindible detectar precozmente a aquellos pacientes con factores de riesgo.

  18. Culture- and antigen-negative meningitis in Guatemalan children Meningitis negativa a pruebas antigénicas y de cultivo en niños guatemaltecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Dueger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare children with confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM and those with culture- and latex-negative meningitis (CLN. METHODS: Children 1 to 59 months of age admitted to three major referral hospitals in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were evaluated prospectively between 1 October 1996 and 31 December 2005. Bacterial cultures and latex agglutination antigen testing were performed on samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. RESULTS: The case-fatality rate was significantly higher in the 493 children with CBM than in the 528 children with CLN (27.6% and 14.9%, respectively; P OBJETIVO: Comparar los casos infantiles de meningitis bacteriana confirmada (MBC y meningitis negativa a pruebas de látex y de cultivo (MNLC. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron los niños de 1 a 59 meses de edad ingresados en tres grandes hospitales de referencia de la Ciudad de Guatemala entre el 1 de octubre de 1996 y el 31 de diciembre de 2005 con signos clínicos de infección bacteriana. Se realizaron cultivos bacterianos y pruebas de aglutinación antigénica con látex en muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR. RESULTADOS: La tasa de letalidad fue significativamente mayor en los 493 niños con MBC que en los 528 niños con MNLC (27,6% y 14,9%, respectivamente; P < 0,001. Los niños con MBC tuvieron menor probabilidad de recibir antibióticos y mayor de sufrir convulsiones, choques o entrar en coma al ser ingresados que los niños con MNLC. Se observó un mayor porcentaje de manifestaciones clínicas de secuelas al alta hospitalaria en los 182 niños sobrevivientes con MBC que en los 205 sobrevivientes con MNLC estudiados entre octubre de 2000 y diciembre de 2005 (78,6% y 46,8%, respectivamente; P < 0,0001. Los factores de riesgo de muerte en los niños con MBC fueron: glucosa en LCR < 10 mg/dL, neutrófilos periféricos < 2 000 células/mm³, coma o choque al ingreso, y sepsis o neumonía concurrentes; solo el coma y el

  19. Prevalencia de meningitis neumocócica en la provincia de Salamanca Prevalence of pneumococcal meningitis in the province of Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Cuscó Fernández; S. Sabín Carreño; S. Kanaan Leis; V. Murga Herrera; O. Serrano Ayestarán; J.M. Sánchez Granados

    2010-01-01

    La incidencia de meningitis neumocócica de forma global ha disminuido tras la introducción de la vacuna heptavalente. Sin embargo, los casos producidos por serotipos no vacunales probablemente han aumentado. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de meningitis neumocócica en nuestra provincia y su evolución en los últimos años. Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo de las meningitis neumocócicas ingresadas en el Hospital Universitario de Salamanca en los años 2003 a 2008. Resultados: Se registrar...

  20. Primera detección en España de necrosis bacteriana de la dipladenia y caracterización fenotípica de su agente causal (Pseudomonas savastanoi)

    OpenAIRE

    Caballo-Ponce, ELoy; Ramos, Cayo

    2017-01-01

    La dipladenia (género Mandevilla) es una planta nativa de Suramérica con un creciente interés en el sector ornamental, cuyo mercado anual está estimado en 300-400 millones de euros. Las infecciones causadas por Pseudomonas savastanoi, una de las diez especies integrantes del complejo Pseudomonas syringae, suponen una importante amenaza para este mercado. La necrosis bacteriana de la dipladenia, provocada por P. savastanoi, se caracteriza por la aparición de manchas necróticas r...

  1. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván O Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the

  2. Bacteriële meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease which affects 35.000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20%. During the past 25 years the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed significantly due to the implementation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria

  3. Do not forget tuberculous meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is relatively uncommon compared with other types of meningitis and so it is easy to forget to consider it as an explanation for a patient's presenting problem. If untreated TBM is fatal in most cases. Who is at risk? Children under aged 5 years,. •. The elderly,. •. HIV infected patients (in these ...

  4. Chemical meningitis in metrizamide myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Hesselberg, J.P.; Anda, S.; Dale, L.; Hellum, K.

    1986-01-01

    Seven patients with acute chemcial meningitis after metrizamide myelography are described. Five of the cases occurred within a time span of two months. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings in the acute stage of the illness were similar to findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Possible causes of this complication are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Valoración de endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable ácido zoledrónico mediante la prueba de lisado del amebocito de Limulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Burguet Lago

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar las endotoxinas bacterianas por la técnica del lisado del amebocito de Limulus para el producto inyectable ácido zoledrónico, por el método de gelificación. Métodos: el ensayo se realizó mediante dos pruebas: 1 confirmación de la sensibilidad del lisado etiquetado, para lo cual se preparó una curva estándar con diluciones seriadas dobles de endotoxina por cuadruplicado; y 2 el ensayo del producto de inhibición, en el que se prepararon diluciones seriadas dobles de endotoxina con agua apirogénica y con las muestras de los lotes a ensayar sin sobrepasar la máxima dilución válida. Se determinó el punto final y se calculó la media geométrica. Se definió la dilución de trabajo, la cual se validó por cuadruplicado en tres lotes consecutivos. Resultados: la sensibilidad del lisado resultó 0,03125 UE/mL. La máxima dilución válida fue de 112 UE/mL y la dilución de trabajo 1/100. La cantidad de endotoxinas bacterianas presentes en tres lotes del producto inyectable no sobrepasó el límite establecido, por lo que cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad establecidas para el ensayo. Conclusión: la estandarización de las condiciones del método por gelificación, hace que este resulte eficaz, confiable, rápido y de fácil ejecución, por lo que puede emplearse como ensayo de rutina en el control de la calidad del inyectable analizado.

  6. Changes in bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, P E; Barclay, S M; Galloway, W H; Cole, G F

    1990-01-01

    In 1964, one of us (WHG) undertook a retrospective study of bacterial meningitis in childhood in the north east of Scotland during the period 1946-61. We have recently carried out a similar review of cases occurring during 1971-86, to compare the incidence, mortality, and bacteriological patterns. During the earlier period 285 cases occurred, a total incidence of 16.9/100,000 children per year. In the later period 274 children were affected, an annual incidence of 17.8/100,000. The overall mo...

  7. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID LACTATE IN MENINGITIS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Krishnan Padma; Deepa Kunju Krishnan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meningitis is an inflammation of meninges and subarachnoid space and is often associated with cerebritis. Acute bacterial meningitis is one of the most common serious infections in children. Viral meningitis has a much more favourable prognosis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis has got an important role in the diagnosis of neurological disorders. CSF lactate can be elevated in disorders like subarachnoid haemorrhage, bacterial meningitis, status epilepticus and inborn error...

  8. Criterios del protocolo de evaluación del recién nacido febril sin signos de focalización asociados a meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; María Isabel Arango Arias

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue precisar cuáles criterios clínicos o de laboratorio del método de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave permiten discriminar con mayor probabilidad aquellos recién nacidos (RN) febriles sin signos de focalización que presentan una meningitis. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente 438 RN febriles sin signos de focalización ingresados en un período de 40 meses. Las variables de estudio fueron los criterios de evaluación de rie...

  9. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  10. Concurrent meningitis and vivax malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Santra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in India. It is often associated with other infective conditions but concomitant infection of malaria and meningitis are uncommon. We present a case of meningitis with vivax malaria infection in a 24-year-old lady. This case emphasizes the importance of high index of clinical suspicion to detect other infective conditions like meningitis when fever does not improve even after anti-malarial treatment in a patient of malaria before switching therapy suspecting drug resistance, which is quite common in this part of world.

  11. Cerebral Vasculitis Complicating Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khedher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral vasculitis is an uncommon life-threatening complication of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Patient and methods: We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with pneumococcal meningitis who developed parainfectious vasculitis causing ischaemic brain damage. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical and radiological recovery after delayed addition of corticosteroid was achieved. Discussion: This report shows that the onset of neurological deficits following pneumococcal meningitis can be caused by cerebral vasculitis. Underdosing with antibiotics and delayed adjunctive dexamethasone seem to favour this complication. There are no guidelines for treatment but high doses of steroids led to resolution in this case.

  12. Trombose séptica de seios cavernosos, transverso e sigmóide e de veia jugular, associada à meningite, secundária a furúnculo nasal: Relato de Caso Septic thrombosis of cavernous, transverse, sigmoid sinuses and jugular vein, associated with meningitis, secondary to nasal furuncle: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Utida

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de furúnculo nasal que evoluiu com trombose séptica de seio cavernoso, bilateral e assimétrica, e de seios transverso e sigmóide e de veia jugular interna a esquerda, associada à meningite bacteriana, em um paciente previamente hígido. Apesar da trombose séptica extensa de seios venosos, o paciente apresentou boa evolução, após tratamento clínico agressivo com antibióticos, corticosteróides e anticoagulantes. Porém, manteve como seqüela: paresia de VI nervo à esquerda e lesão parcial de nervo óptico homolateral.The authors report a case of nasal furuncle that progressed to septic bilateral and asymmetric thrombosis of cavernous, transverse, sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein, associated with bacterial meningitis, in a previously healthy patient. In spite of the extensive thrombosis, the patient presented a good evolution, after an aggressive clinical treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids and anticoagulants. However, there remained paresis of the VI nerve on the left and partial lesion of the homolateral optic nerve.

  13. Meningite após técnica combinada para analgesia de parto: relato de caso Meningitis después de técnica combinada para analgesia de parto: relato de caso Meningitis after combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar Vásquez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Meningite é uma complicação grave em anestesia regional, embora rara de ocorrer. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar um caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com meningite após realização de analgesia de parto pela técnica combinada (raqui-peridural com dupla punção. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente com 25 anos, segunda gestação e cesariana anterior, em trabalho de parto. Foi realizada analgesia de parto pela técnica combinada (raqui-peridural com dupla punção. Após 24 horas apresentou cefaléia em repouso, picos de hipertermia, calafrios discretos, que regrediram com medicação sintomática. No 5º dia a cefaléia piorou. No 10º dia surgiram vômitos e dor na nuca. No 13º dia os sintomas tornaram-se mais intensos. Foi realizada punção lombar. A história clínica e o exame do líquor foram compatíveis com meningite bacteriana. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica combinada (raqui-peridural para analgesia do parto está próxima do ideal. Cuidados com a técnica de anti-sepsia são necessários para realização de bloqueios espinhais. A complicação apresentada ocorreu sem a aparente falha na realização da técnica, sendo uma questão que é inerente ao risco-benefício que a técnica proporciona.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Meningitis es una complicación grave en anestesia regional, no obstante, rara de ocurrir. El objetivo de este relato es mostrar un caso de una paciente que evolucionó con meningitis después de realización de analgesia de parto por la técnica combinada (raqui-peridural con dupla punción. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente con 25 anos, segunda gestación y cesariana anterior, en trabajo de parto. Fue realizada analgesia de parto por la técnica combinada (raqui-peridural con dupla punción. Después de 24 horas presentó cefalea en reposo, picos de hipertermia, calofríos discretos, que mejoraron con medicación sintomática. En el 5º día la cefalea peoró. En el 10º día surgieron vómitos y dolor en la

  14. Acumulación de antibioticos y su efecto sobre la comunidad bacteriana presente en sedimentos de piscinas camaroneras

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Nelson; Uyaguari, Miguel; Sotomayor, Mariuxi

    2003-01-01

    ACUMULACION DE ANTIBIOTICOS Y SU EFECTO SOBRE LA COMUNIDAD BACTERIANA PRESENTE EN SEDIMENTOS DE PISCINAS CAMARONERAS La mayor preocupación que ha surgido al considerar el uso de agentes antibacteriales en acuicultura, es la posibilidad de que sus residuos puedan estimular la presencia de resistencia bacteriana.

  15. CT in meningitis purulenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akira; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Iino, Shigeru; Ochi, Masaharu; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Twenty nine infants with meningitis purulenta were classified into 5 groups according to CT findings in the acute stage: cerebral infarction group, subdural hygroma group, ventricular enlargement group, and a group of other diseases. In each group, clinical findings, surgical procedures and prognosis were evaluated. In the cerebral infarction group, although 3 of 4 patients underwent V-P shunt or subdural drainage, remarkable sequelae were found in all the cases. Of 4 subdural hygroma patients, 2 had subdural drainage, and 4 of 8 patients with ventricular enlargement underwent V-P shunt. All the patients of the two groups had favorable prognosis without any sequela. A patient with cerebral herniation in the group of other diseases died in its acute stage. Eleven infants without abnormal CT findings showed normal psychomotor development. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Subdural Empyema in Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, evaluated the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of subdural empyema as a complication of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in 28 (2.7% adults.

  17. Eficacia del tratamiento quimioterápico tópico versus oral en vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes atendidas en servicio de Ginecología y Colposcopia de la Cruz Roja Ecuatoriana de Tungurahua octubre 2011 a mayo del 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano Gordillo, Xavier Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Muestra: Se estudió un total de 146 pacientes con diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana por examen clínico y confirmado por laboratorio mediante examen fresco, que no tengan alergia al metronidazol, sin factores de riesgo como infecciones por tricomoniasis vaginal o candidiasis, que acudían para atención ginecológica. La asignación muestral que se utilizó fue intencional ya que se tomó solo a pacientes con diagnóstico de cérvico vaginitis por examen clínico y confirmado por laboratorio, obtenie...

  18. Cuatro métodos de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave en recién nacidos febriles Four methods to predict the severe bacterial infection risk in the febrile newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; Heidy González Trujillo; Humberto Martínez Canalejo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue contrastar la efectividad de 4 métodos de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave (IBG) en recién nacidos (RN) febriles, uno de los cuales fue desarrollado por los autores del trabajo y los otros son los utilizados en la práctica internacional. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y aplicado de 1358 RN febriles sin signos de focalización evaluados y clasificados por riesgo de IBG. Fue aplicado el método propue...

  19. Overview: treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, A M; Stern, J J; Dupont, B

    1990-01-01

    Infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans cause significant morbidity and high mortality, particularly among immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is an important cause of central nervous system disease and death in patients with AIDS. Although the introduction of amphotericin B has greatly improved the prognosis of patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 30 years of experience have revealed important clinical limitations, including modest efficacy, nephrotoxicity, other clinically significant toxicities, and the inconvenience of intravenous dosing. The discovery of the additive effects of amphotericin B and flucytosine in cryptococcosis resulted in some improvement in efficacy and reduction in amphotericin B-related toxicity. However, approximately 30% of patients with cryptococcal meningitis still fail to respond to therapy. Ketoconazole has not proved useful in treating cryptococcal meningitis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the antifungal triazoles fluconazole, itraconazole, and SCH 39304 represent an advance in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, particularly in AIDS patients. Preliminary clinical trials in patients with and without AIDS have indicated that fluconazole and intraconazole are effective and well tolerated as either initial or maintenance therapy. Two large comparative trials of fluconazole and amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (mostly those with AIDS) are under way.

  20. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto

    1982-01-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  1. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis.

  2. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  3. Tendência das meningites por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil, em menores de 5 anos, no período de 1983 a 2002 Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Brazil in children under five years of age from 1983 through 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, tipo série histórica (1983-2002, onde foram calculados os coeficientes de incidência, mortalidade e letalidade de meningites por Haemophilus influenzae , tipo b, no Brasil, e avaliou-se a tendência da morbi-mortalidade em menores de 5 anos. Para a análise de tendência dos coeficientes construíram-se modelos de regressão polinomial para as faixas etárias de The study was based on an ecological design using a historical time series (1983-2002, related to Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Brazil. Incidence, mortality and case-fatality rates, as well as trends in incidence and morbidity-mortality were estimated in children less than 5 years of age. Polynomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends, adopting a significance level of 0.05. 43.9% of confirmed cases occurred in infants less than 1 year old and 38.7% in children 1-4 years old. The observed rates were also highest in these two age strata. The incidence and mortality rates showed an increasing trend, until approximately 1999, when a quick decline was observed. The study results reinforce the effectiveness of the Vaccination Program against HIB in Brazil, which benefited age ranges that did not receive the vaccine (Herd Immunity.

  4. Seca de ponteiros de Eucalyptus spp. causada por Erwinia psidii no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Arriel, Daniele Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    A partir de 2009 vem sendo observada uma nova doença em eucalipto de etiologia bacteriana desconhecida, caracterizada por seca de ponteiros, murcha, lesões em ramos, pecíolo e nervura central, acompanhado de exsudação bacteriana macroscópica e microscópica. Até o presente a enfermidade já foi constatada em plantios clonais de híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, E. grandis e em plantios seminais de E. dunnii nos estados de São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. Devido à importância econômic...

  5. La evolución de la resistencia bacteriana en México, 1973-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega; Gerardo León-Garnica; Santiago Petersen-Morfín; Héctor Raúl Pérez-Gómez; Esteban González-Díaz; Rayo Morfín-Otero

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial. Las investigaciones relacionadas con este problema emergente son indispensables para reconocer y desarrollar programas para su vigilancia y control. Objetivo. Revisar y comentar las contribuciones de los investigadores mexicanos en el área de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura científica relacionada con la resistencia bac...

  6. La placa bacteriana: conceptos básicos para el higienista bucodental

    OpenAIRE

    Poyato Ferrera, Manuel María; Segura-Egea, Juan J; Ríos-Santos, J.V.; Bullon, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    La placa bacteriana es el factor etiológico principal de las dos enfermedades bucodentales de mayor prevalencia, la caries y la enfermedad periodontal. El higienista bucodental y colaborador del odontoestomatólogo en la aplicación del programa de control de placa, debe conocer en profundidad la microbiología de la placa bacteriana dental, así como los mecanismos implicados en su patogenicidad cariogénica y periodontal, aspectos que se revisan a continuación. Dental plaque is the main etiol...

  7. Experimental studies of pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian T

    2010-01-01

    This thesis summarizes experimental meningitis research conducted at Statens Serum Institut in collaboration with the Copenhagen HIV programme and the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance between 2001 and 2007. Previous experimental studies had shown that the host inflammatory response in invasive infections contributed significantly to an extremely poor outcome despite initiation of efficient antimicrobial chemotherapy. Consequently, we aimed to investigate and clarify how the course of disease in pneumococcal meningitis was modulated by local meningeal inflammation and concomitant systemic infection and inflammation. Experimental studies were based on the development of a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis, refined and optimized to closely resemble the human disease, mimicking disease severity, outcome, focal- and global brain injury and brain pathophysiology. These endpoints were evaluated by the development of a clinical score system, definition of outcomes and measurement of hearing loss by otoacoustic emission. The investigation of in-vitro and in-vivo brain pathology with histology and MRI revealed an injury pattern similar to that found clinically. Additionally, MRI enabled the study of parameters closely related to the cerebral pathophysiology of meningitis (brain oedema, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, focal brain injury and hydrocephalus). Modulation of the inflammatory host response was achieved by initiation of treatment prior to infection: 1) G-CSF treatment increased the peripheral availability of leukocytes, 2) Selectin blocker fucoidin attenuated meningeal leukocyte accumulation and 3) A serotype specific Ab augmented systemic pneumococcal phagocytosis. The studies revealed a dual role of the inflammatory response in pneumococcal meningitis. Whilst focal brain injury appeared to result from local meningeal infectious processes, clinical disease severity and outcome appeared determined by systemic infection. Furthermore systemic

  8. Bacterial Meningitis in Newborn Babies

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, MT; Serelha, M; Leal, F; Videira-Amaral, J

    1999-01-01

    Objectivo — Conhecer a epidemiologia da meningite bacteriana em recém-nascidos admitidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Hospital de Dona Estefânia. Doentes e métodos — Foi feita a revisão dos processos de recém-nascidos admitidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Hospital de Dona Estefânia de Janeiro de 1985 a Dezembro de 1996 — 12 anos, provenientes da maternidade do Hospital ou do exterior. Foram excluídas as infecções congénitas e as crianças com id...

  9. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating remote skull fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, F T

    1978-01-01

    A patient in whom cryptococcal meningitis complicated a nine year old depressed frontal skull fracture, an association which has not been reported previously, is recorded. This is also the first case of cryptococcal meningitis recognised in Ethiopia. PMID:690646

  10. Adjunctive Corticosteroids in Adults with Bacterial Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a complex disorder in which neurologic injury is caused, in part, by the causative organism and, in part, by the host's own inflammatory response. In studies of experimental bacterial meningitis, adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids, specifically dexamethasone, has

  11. Cerebrovascular injury in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Arvind, Vanjare Harshad; Muliyil, Divya; Kuriakose, Cijoy K; George, Anu Anna; Karuppusami, Reka; Benton Carey, Ronald Albert; Mani, Sunithi; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2018-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis continues to be one of the common causes of chronic central nervous system infection worldwide. Individuals with cryptococcal meningitis can occasionally present with small vessel vasculitis causing infarcts primarily in the basal ganglia, internal capsule, and thalamus. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury among patients with cryptococcal meningitis is scanty, and outcome following these vascular involvements is unknown. Aim To study the clinical profile, imaging findings, and details of vascular territory involved among patients admitted with cryptococcal meningitis and central nervous system infarct in a tertiary care center from India. And to compare the outcomes of patients of cryptococcal meningitis with or without central nervous system infarcts in terms of mortality and morbidity, Methodology A total of 151 patients with microbiologically proven cryptococcal meningitis over a time span of 11 years were retrospectively enrolled into the study. Of these, 66 patients met the inclusion criteria of having appropriate imaging of the brain. The presence of infarct in the imaging was analyzed by two independent radiologists. Patterns of central nervous system involvement and types of vascular injury were ascertained based on radiological parameters. Clinical parameters and outcomes of patients with and without infarcts were compared. Results Twenty (13%) of these patients had evidence of central nervous system infarcts on imaging. The mean age of patients with and without infarcts was 41 years and 38 years, respectively. Male predominance was present among both the groups. The presence of fever, neck stiffness, positive blood culture, and hydrocephalus in central nervous system imaging was similar among patients with or without infarct. Longer duration of illness, low sensorium at the time of presentation, low Glasgow Coma Scale score, presence of meningeal inflammation, cryptococcomas, and basal exudates in

  12. Dynamic CT of tuberculous meningeal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinkins, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of intravenous dynamic cranial computed tomography has been applied to the patient population at this location in Saudi Arabia with meningeal tuberculosis. The various manifestations and sequelae including meningitis, arteritis, infarct, and true meningeal tuberculomata all have characteristic if not specific appearances. The dynamic study enhances an otherwise static examination and reveals a great deal about the pathophysiology of tuberculosis involving the cerebral meningeal surfaces. (orig.)

  13. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0387 TITLE: Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mikhail Papisov, PhD...SUBTITLE Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...for neoplastic meningitis ( meningeal metastasis of breast cancer). The proposed therapy will be based on direct (intrathecal) administration of

  14. Dynamic CT of tuberculous meningeal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinkins, J.R.

    1987-07-01

    The technique of intravenous dynamic cranial computed tomography has been applied to the patient population at this location in Saudi Arabia with meningeal tuberculosis. The various manifestations and sequelae including meningitis, arteritis, infarct, and true meningeal tuberculomata all have characteristic if not specific appearances. The dynamic study enhances an otherwise static examination and reveals a great deal about the pathophysiology of tuberculosis involving the cerebral meningeal surfaces.

  15. Recubrimientos antibacterianos sobre las superficies de silicona: Prevención de infecciones oculares por el uso de Lentes de Contacto

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Fossas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Las lentes de contacto, en especial las de uso prolongado, tienen grandes riesgos a desarrollar colonias bacterianas en su superficie, lo que puede provocar grandes infecciones al usuario, como por ejemplo queratitis microbiana (MK), ojo rojo agudo inducido por lente de contacto (CLARE) , úlcera periférica ...

  16. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bijlsma, Merijn W; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and is associated with a high disease burden. We reviewed recent progress in the management of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The worldwide burden of disease of bacterial meningitis remains high, despite the decreasing incidence following introduction of routine vaccination campaigns. Delay in diagnosis and treatment remain major concerns in the management of acute bacterial meningitis. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines strive for a door-to-antibiotic-time less than 1 h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool to identify the causative organism. Point-of-care tests using fast multiplex PCR have been developed, but additional value has not been proven. Although anecdotal observations advocate pressure-based management, a randomized controlled trial will need to be performed first to determine efficacy and safety of such an aggressive treatment approach. Adjunctive dexamethasone remains the only adjunctive therapy with proven efficacy. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has been decreasing after the implementation of effective vaccines. Treatment should be administered as soon as possible and time to treatment should not exceed 1 h.

  17. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  18. Estrategia más costo-efectiva para el diagnóstico de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes con síndrome febril sin foco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Antonio Buendía

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. A pesar de los avances en la vacunación, la infección bacteriana grave en menores de dos años con fiebre sin foco sigue siendo un motivo de preocupación para médicos y padres. Por ello, resulta relevante contar con información sobre el costo-efectividad de su diagnóstico para la adopción de las decisiones pertinentes. Objetivo. Evaluar el costo-efectividad de cuatro estrategias para la detección en Argentina de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes con fiebre sin foco. Materiales y métodos. En una cohorte hipotética de 10.000 pacientes se evaluó mediante la técnica del árbol de decisiones la costo-efectividad de cuatro estrategias para la detección de la infección bacteriana grave: criterios de Rochester más prueba de proteína C reactiva, criterios de Rochester más prueba de procalcitonina, criterios de Rochester y conducta expectante. Resultados. La estrategia de aplicación de los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de proteína C reactiva resultó ser la más costo-efectiva, con una razón de costo-efectividad de USD$ 784 por caso correctamente diagnosticado frente a USD$ 839 para los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de procalcitonina, USD$ 1.116 para la conducta expectante y USD$ 1.193 para los criterios de Rochester. En el análisis de sensibilidad se determinó que, ante una probabilidad de infección bacteriana grave igual o menor de 14 %, la estrategia de elección era la conducta expectante. Conclusiones. La utilización combinada de los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de la proteína C reactiva constituyó la estrategia más costo-efectiva para la detección de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes de uno a tres meses con fiebre sin foco. Sin embargo, en casos de bajo riesgo de dicha infección, la conducta expectante constituyó la estrategia de elección.

  19. Prevención de la endocarditis bacteriana en odontología infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Boj Quesada, Juan Ramón; Molina Morales, V.; Jiménez Ruiz, Alfonso

    1994-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de la prevención de la endocarditis bacteriana en odontología infantil. Consideramos que se trata de una patología grave que no se tiene en cuenta todo lo que desearíamos.

  20. Caracterización de pacientes con bronconeumonía bacteriana asociada a la ventilación artificial mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Eranio Utra Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: las neumonías nosocomiales constituyen hoy en día un problema de salud a nivel mundial. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos de las instituciones hospitalarias ingresa un elevado número de pacientes que requieren ventilación artificial mecánica, factor de riesgo asociado a este tipo de infecciones. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con neumonías bacterianas asociadas a la ventilación artificial mecánica, ingresados en la sala de cuidados intensivos del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, Las Tunas, Cuba; durante el año 2012. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en los pacientes (262 ingresados en esa unidad, en el período de enero a diciembre de 2012. La muestra quedó conformada por los 173 pacientes complicados por neumonías bacterianas. Los datos fueron tomados de los expedientes clínicos. Se midieron las variables: grupos de edad, manifestaciones radiológicas, gérmenes más frecuentes y modalidades ventilatorias empleadas. Resultados: predominaron los pacientes mayores de 60 años, para un 41 %, seguido por el grupo de 50 a 59 años con 26,5 %. El germen más frecuente fue el bacilo no fermentador para el 76,6 %; la modalidad ventilatoria de volumen control fue la más utilizada, en 75 pacientes (43,6 %; el trastorno hidromineral se presentó en el 41 % de los casos, todos con tendencia a la hipokaliemia, que dio lugar a un difícil destete; los síntomas radiológicos anatomoclínicos fueron los relacionados con las neumonías a focos diseminados con 95 pacientes para 54,9 %. Conclusiones: se logró caracterizar a los pacientes con neumonías bacterianas asociadas a la ventilación artificial mecánica.

  1. Correlación entre la tipificación capsular de aislamientos colombianos de Haemophilus influenzae por el método de aglutinación en lámina y la técnica de PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Hidalgo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 se inició en Colombia la inmunización de niños menores de un año de edad con la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b. En el 2000, el programa de vigilancia del Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud informó una disminución de 40% de los casos de meningitis por este microorganismo, la cual se atribuyó a la vacunación. En este programa de vigilancia se utiliza de rutina la técnica estandarizada de aglutinación en lámina para la tipificación capsular de H. influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la concordancia entre la prueba de aglutinación en lámina y la técnica de PCR. Se estudiaron con ambas técnicas 146 aislamientos clínicos invasores de H. influenzae, obtenidos de niños menores de 5 años, recolectados a partir de 1999 hasta 2002, identificados y serotipificados por el laboratorio de referencia como parte de la vigilancia de la meningitis bacteriana aguda y la infección respiratoria aguda. Nuestros resultados mostraron una correlación de 93% en la tipificación capsular de H. influenzae, serotipo b, y de 92% con respecto al resto de serotipos. La técnica de aglutinación en lámina realizada con un estricto control de calidad continúa siendo una herramienta sensible y específica para la serotipificación de H. influenzae.

  2. Enfermedades de origen bacteriano transmitidas por vectores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva López, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Las enfermedades bacterianas transmitidas por vectores son un problema creciente en nuestra sociedad. En los últimos años se ha observado un aumento de la población tanto de garrapatas como de pulgas y mosquitos que, unido a la globalización y viajes internacionales, está llevando a la expansión de enfermedades a nuevas áreas geográficas. La dificultad de diagnóstico de estas enfermedades junto con la falta de recursos para tratarlas en países en desarrollo dan lugar a un elevado número de...

  3. Infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez; María Teresa Fernández de la Paz; Olimpo Moreno Vázquez; Rubén Piloto Sendín; María Isabel Arango; Jorge Díaz Alvarez

    1995-01-01

    Este estudio estuvo dirigido a conocer la frecuencia de infección bacteriana severa, entre recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización inicial, e identificar los datos clínicos y de laboratorio que se relacionan con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa. Se estudió un grupo de 211 recién nacidos febriles ingresados y que no hubieran mostrado signos de focalización en la evaluación inicial. La incidencia de infección bacteriana severa fue de 17,5 %, del cual hubo 22 sepsis urinari...

  4. Meningitis, Clinical Presentation of Tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moniuszko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease.

  5. [Etiologic diagnosis in meningitis and encephalitis molecular biology techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conca, Natalia; Santolaya, María Elena; Farfan, Mauricio J; Cofré, Fernanda; Vergara, Alejandra; Salazar, Liliana; Torres, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aetiological study of infections of the central nervous system has traditionally been performed using bacterial cultures and, more recently, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus (HSV). Bacterial cultures may not have good performance, especially in the context of patients who have received antibiotics prior to sampling, and a request for HSV only by PCR reduces the information to only one aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to determine the infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis, using traditional microbiology and molecular biology to improve the aetiological diagnosis of these diseases. A prospective study was conducted on 19 patients with suspected meningitis, admitted to the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago, Chile, from March 1, 2011 to March 30, 2012. After obtaining informed consent, the CSF samples underwent cytochemical study, conventional culture, multiplex PCR for the major producing bacterial meningitis (N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae), real-time single PCR for HSV-1 and 2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6 and enterovirus. Clinical and epidemiological data were also collected from the clinical records. Of the 19 patients analysed, 2 were diagnosed by conventional methods and 7 by adding molecular biology (increase to 37%). Three patients had meningitis due to S. pneumoniae, one due to Enterobacter cloacae, 2 patients meningoencephalitis HSV-1, and one VZV meningitis. The addition of PCR to conventional diagnostic methods in CNS infections increases the probability of finding the causal agent. This allows a more adequate, timely and rational management of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role. (author)

  7. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of the 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role.

  8. Bacteriana en el suelo en ecosistemas oligotróficos: una revisión crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Tapia Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un elemento esencial para la vida, por lo cual entender los mecanismos que permiten su disponibilidad en el suelo es prioritario. Debido a la complejidad de la dinámica de este nutriente, aún existen varios procesos que no están claramente entendidos, principalmente en los ecosistemas oligotróficos. En la presente revisión se analiza literatura relacionada con procesos involucrados en la disponibilidad del P, dándole énfasis al papel de las bacterias. La forma química disponible del P es el ortofosfato, pero por su alta reactividad y demanda de la biota, esta forma es rápidamente disminuida de la solución del suelo. Por lo que es necesario que la biota adquiera este elemento de otras formas químicas. Entre ellas, las formas orgánicas representan la principal fuente de este nutriente mediante la mineralización bioquímica producto principalmente de la comunidad bacteriana del suelo. Entre los compuestos organofosforados, los ésteres de fosfatos son los más fáciles de mineralizar, por la poca demanda energética en la producción de las enzimas involucradas en dicho proceso. Por otro lado, la mineralización de los fosfonatos puede representar una fuente alternativa de P disponible, a pesar de que se había considerado que esta forma química no era accesible por la complejidad de sus moléculas. En general, una estrategia exitosa para la adquisición de P en ecosistemas donde dicho elemento es limitado, depende de la presencia de una maquinaria genética capaz de sintetizar las diferentes enzimas que mineralizan compuestos orgánicos con demandas energéticas diferentes (fosfohidrolasas, fosfonatasas y C-P liasas, además de la presencia de transportadores específicos de membrana y la disponibilidad de C como fuente de energía. Aún faltan estudios integrados que permitan elucidar el movimiento del P en los ecosistemas y cómo esto puede ser controlado y llevado a cabo por las bacterias que habitan en el suelo.

  9. Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en la población infantil cubana: 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas (MEB en Cuba entre 1998 y el año 2000, según los datos de la Vigilancia Nacional de las MEB (VNMEB disponibles. Se reportaron un total de 530 casos en menores de 15 años en todo el país durante el período. El grupo de edad más afectado resultó el de menos de 5 años. Los agentes más frecuentemente identificados fueron Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn y Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. La incidencia de Hib disminuyó 4 veces por el efecto de la vacunación masiva, especialmente en los menores de 5 años, a partir del año 2000 Spn es el principal agente causante de MEB y el más letal en Cuba. La letalidad general se incrementó de 10,6 a 20,4 %, y fue el grupo de los de menos de 1 año uno de los más afectados. Futuros estudios permitirán profundizar en la epidemiología de estas infecciones y monitorear los cambios que ocurran como consecuencia de intervenciones.Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from 1998-2000 are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of 530 cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time. The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year 2000 on. Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from 10.6 to 20.4% and the under one-year old age group was the most affected. Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a

  10. Sobre la resistencia bacteriana hacia antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoana P. Romero L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se formula un modelo matemático simple que describe la interacción entre bacterias sensibles y resistentes a múltiples antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática de forma simultánea, en el supuesto de que la adquisición de resistencia bacteriana se da a través de mutaciones espontáneas y adquiridas por la exposición a diferentes antibióticos. El análisis cualitativo revela la existencia de un equilibrio libre de bacterias, un equilibrio solo con bacterias resistentes y un equilibrio endémico donde coexisten ambas poblaciones de bacterias. Abstract. In this work we formulate a simple mathematical model that describes the population dynamics of bacteria exposed simultaneously to multiple bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics, assuming that resistance is acquired through mutations due to antibiotic exposure. Qualitative analysis reveals the existence of a free-bacteria equilibrium, resistant-bacteria equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium where both bacteria coexist.

  11. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    OpenAIRE

    C Godoy; C Melej; N Silva

    2010-01-01

    Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival) y bajo este (subgingival) tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por l...

  12. Evaluación del método cromogénico cinético para la determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable succinilcolina infantil 100 mg.

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Burguet-Lago; Aylid Suárez-Castillo; Yamilka Herrera-Ledesma

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el método de lisado de amebocitos del Limulus (LAL) en su variante cromogénica cinética para la determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable succinilcolina infantil 100 mg. Esta variante moni torea el desarrollo de color a través del tiempo y emplea una curva estándar representada por el tiempo de reacción en función de la concentración conocida de endotoxinas, en un rango de 0,005 a 50 UE/mL...

  13. Caracterización funcional de la comunidad bacteriana cultivable aislada del suelo de la zona de descarga de la fosa petrolera Bare-9. San Tomé. Edo. Anzoátegui

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Mediante el presente estudio enmarcado dentro del proyecto Misión Ciencia “Desarrollo y Validación de Nuevas Tecnologías para el Saneamiento Ambiental de Pasivos Generados por la Actividad Petrolera”, dentro del subprefecto “Caracterización del Medio Físico Natural en Áreas Impactadas con Hidrocarburos” se pretende caracterizar funcionalmente la comunidad bacteriana del suelo de la zona de descarga de la fosa petrolera (Bare-9) y así determinar la estructura funcional de la comunidad y grupos...

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, S P; Bendig, J; Hakim, J; Kinnear, P E; Azadian, B S; Clifford-Rose, F

    1988-01-01

    A patient presented with a posterior uveitis. An inferior plaque of retinal exudation was seen. Full investigation failed to establish a cause until six weeks later, when cryptococcal meningitis developed. The patient was immunocompetent. Exudation in relation to retinal vessels is unusual in idiopathic posterior uveitis, and cryptococcosis should be considered in the differential. Diagnosis is by lumbar puncture or vitreous aspiration.

  15. Pituitary apoplexy masquerading as meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pituitary apoplexy masquerading as meningitis. BJ Merwitzab*, JM Zamparinib and FJ Raalab. aCarbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. bCharlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  16. Meningitis as cochlear implant complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović Rade

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, cochlear implantation has been fully proven as the treatment for profound hearing losses. The direct electrical stimulation of the spiral ganglion hair cells through the electrode inserted in the cochlear scala tympani is the essence of the cochlear implant (CI functioning. Modern technological development has introduced unexpected technical quality possibilities of the device itself, as well as coding strategies, which further enable improved patients' rehabilitation results. Nevertheless, in spite of cochlear implantation becoming a routine surgical procedure, which has been changing lives of thousands of profoundly deaf adults and children, it has possible complications. Though rare, these complications could lead to severe, even fatal consequences. Bacterial meningitis represents one of the most severe postoperative complications. In this article, our five-year experience with cochlear implantation is shown, compared to other, much bigger, experiences. Despite severity and a potentially fatal outcome of meningitis, it has rarely been seen, and the precise connection between surgical procedure and this complication is not yet clear. Do cochlear implants increase the risk of bacterial meningitis? Are deafness-associated factors predisposing the bacterial meningitis occurrence, independently from the implant? These are the questions that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the CI surgeons have been facing, as well as manufacturers and patients with their families.

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanjie, Zhu; Jianghan, Chen; Nan, Xu; Xiaojun, Wang; Hai, Wen; Wanqing, Liao; Julin, Gu

    2012-03-01

    To describe clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children. Immunocompetent children with cryptococcal meningitis who attended Changzheng Hospital between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. During the 10 years reviewed, 11 children with cryptococcal meningitis were admitted to Changzheng hospital and identified as immunocompetent. The 11 children had a median age of 7.25 years. Headache (100%), fever (81.8%), nausea or vomiting (63.6%) and visual or hearing damage or loss (36.4%) were the most common symptoms before treatment. There is no evidence for other site infection of cryptococcus although all the cryptococcal antigen titre is high in blood. All the patients received amphotericin B or AmB liposome with 5-flucytosine for at least 6 weeks followed by fluconazole or itraconazole as consolidation treatment for at least 12 weeks. Nine patients were cured mycologically; however, sequela of visual damage was showed in one patient. Cryptococcal meningitis seems to be uncharacteristic of symptoms, and central nervous system may be the only common site for infection. Amphotericin B with 5-flucytosine should be the choice of induction treatment in this group of patients. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cochlear implant after bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, Jesper; Ovesen, Therese

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective case study at a tertiary referral center was to investigate the outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with sensorineural hearing loss due to meningitis compared to CI in children with deafness due to other reasons. This post-meningial group (PMG) consisted of 22 children undergoing CI due to deafness induced by meningitis, between December 1996 and January 2012. Five children had bilateral simultaneous implantation. None was excluded and the children were followed for at least 3 years. Operations were carried out by one of two surgeons using similar techniques in all cases. Each patient from the PMG was matched 2:1 with children having implantation for other reasons according to age and follow up (control group). Overall, the median category of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) score were not statistically significantly different between the two groups. The presence of additional central nervous system (CNS) disorders (post-meningeal sequelae), however, correlated significantly with poorer outcome CI was a safe procedure without surgical complications in the present study. It is possible to restore auditory capacity and speech performance to a degree comparable to children undergoing implantation for other reasons. A statistically important variable is secondary CNS involvement. The rehabilitation program after CI should be adjusted according to these additional handicaps. It is recommended to screen meningitis patients as fast as possible to identify those with hearing loss and initiate treatment with hearing aids or CI. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. VALORACIÓN DE ENDOTOXINAS BACTERIANAS EN RANITIDINA Y PENICILINA G SÓDICA INYECTABLE MEDIANTE LA PRUEBA DE LISADO DEL AMEBOCITO DE Limulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carrillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la estandarización y valoración de endotoxinas bacterianas por la técnica de Lisado del Amebocito de Limulus (LAL para dos productos farmacéuticos: penicilina G sódica y ranitidina inyectable por el método de gelificación. Para ello se tomaron tres muestras de tres lotes diferentes; las muestras fueron escogidas al azar y se tomó una muestra del principio, una de la mitad y otra del final de la producción para cada lote muestreado. Con las muestras de cada lote se realizó un pool, quedando así tres sublotes para analizar, dándole mayor confiabilidad al método. Se comprobó la sensibilidad del reactivo de LAL(0.25 UE/ml y se calificó al operario con el fin de obtener resultados confiables. Se consultó en la USP XXVI el límite de endotoxina para penicilina G sódica, 0.01 UE/100 UI y ranitidina 7 UE/mg. Se calculó la máxima dilución válida (MDV que fue de 1:400 y 1:700 respectivamente; se practicaron los ensayos preliminares (Unspike y Spike con los cuales se determinó la Dilución de trabajo para penicilina 1:100 y ranitidina 1:200. Con el ensayo final se valoró la presencia de endotoxinas bacterianas en los dos productos inyectables.

  20. Fermentation Tecniques and Applications of Bacterial Cellulose: a Review Técnicas de fermentación y aplicaciones de la celulosa bacteriana: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dary Carreño Pineda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganismsfrom Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Sarcina genera. Amongthem, Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient specie. This polymer hasthe same chemical composition of plant cellulose, but its conformation andphysicochemical properties are different, making it attractive for several applications, especially in the areas of food, separation processes, catalysis andhealth, due to its biocompatibility. However, the main problem is the production in mass that is constrained by low yield. It is therefore necessaryto develop some alternatives. This paper presents a review about synthesis,production, properties and principal applications of bacterial cellulose, as wellas some alternatives to reduce the difficulties for process scaling.La celulosa bacteriana es un polímero obtenido por fermentación con microrganismosde los géneros Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium y Sarcina, delas cuales la especie más eficiente es la Acetobacter Xylinum. Este polímero presenta la misma estructura química de la celulosa de origen vegetal, pero difiereen su conformación y propiedades fisicoquímicas, lo que lo hace atractivo para diversas aplicaciones, especialmente en las áreas de alimentos, procesosde separación, catálisis y en medicina, gracias a su biocompatibilidad. Sin embargo, el principal problema es la producción a gran escala limitada por losbajos rendimientos, lo que genera la necesidad de desarrollar alternativas que permitan disminuir o eliminar las causas de esta limitación. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la síntesis, producción, propiedades y principales aplicaciones de la celulosa bacteriana, así como de algunas alternativas estudiadas para disminuir los inconvenientes en el escalamiento del proceso.

  1. Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaviratananich, Sikawat; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Ngamjarus, Chetta

    2015-02-17

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the major cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis. Dead larvae of this parasite cause inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of meningitis. Corticosteroids are drugs used to reduce the inflammation caused by this parasite. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), Scopus (1960 to December 2014), Web of Science (1955 to December 2014), LILACS (1982 to December 2014) and CINAHL (1981 to December 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids versus placebo for eosinophilic meningitis. Two review authors (SiT, SaT) independently collected and extracted study data. We graded the methodological quality of the RCTs. We identified and analysed outcomes and adverse effects. We did not identifiy any new trials for inclusion or exclusion in this 2014 update. One study involving 110 participants (55 participants in each group) met our inclusion criteria. The corticosteroid (prednisolone) showed a benefit in shortening the median time to resolution of headaches (five days in the treatment group versus 13 days in the control group, P value treatment (9.1% versus 45.5%, P value treatment group (12.7% versus 40%, P value = 0.002). There was a reduction in the median time of analgesic use in participants receiving corticosteroids (10.5 versus 25.0, P value = 0.038). There were no reported adverse effects from prednisolone in the treatment group. Corticosteroids significantly help relieve headache in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, who have a pain score of four or more on a visual analogue scale. However, there is only one RCT supporting this benefit and this trial did not clearly mention allocation concealment and stratification. Therefore, we agreed to grade our included study as a moderate quality trial. Future well-designed RCTs are necessary.

  2. Plaque removal by manual and electric toothbrushing among children Remoção de placa bacteriana pela escovação elétrica e manual em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Covolo da COSTA

    2001-12-01

    procedimentos foram realizados. De acordo com os resultados, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na remoção de placa bacteriana quando as escovas foram usadas por crianças em fase de dentição mista. No entanto, a escova elétrica removeu significativamente mais placa bacteriana nas faces linguais das crianças com dentição decídua.

  3. Associação da Vaginose Bacteriana com o Parto Prematuro Espontâneo Association of Bacterial Vaginosis with Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Burlacchini de Carvalho

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: relacionar a presença de vaginose bacteriana em gestantes com a ocorrência de parto prematuro espontâneo. Método: foram estudadas 611 gestantes do serviço pré-natal da Clínica Obstétrica do HCFMUSP. Foram incluídas gestantes com idade gestacional confirmada por ultra-sonografia no primeiro trimestre de gestação ou duas ultra-sonografias até a 20ª semana quando havia discordância da idade gestacional no primeiro exame. Os partos prematuros eletivos foram excluídos. A pesquisa da vaginose foi realizada na 23ª ou 24ª semana de gestação por meio da técnica de coloração de Gram. O pH vaginal foi pesquisado utilizando-se fita de pH Universal 0-14 produzida pela Merck. O conteúdo vaginal foi coletado com a paciente em posição ginecológica, utilizando-se espéculo não-lubrificado. O pH foi medido na parede lateral da vagina e o conteúdo para Gram foi coletado do fundo de saco vaginal utilizando-se de cotonete estéril. Resultado: das 611 gestantes envolvidas inicialmente no estudo, foram obtidos os resultados do parto em 541. A vaginose bacteriana foi diagnosticada por bacterioscopia em 19% dos casos. No grupo de gestantes com vaginose, 9,7% (10/103 evoluíram com parto prematuro, contra apenas 3,2% (14/438 no grupo negativo (p=0,008. A sensibilidade da bacterioscopia positiva para vaginose bacteriana para predição do parto prematuro foi de 41,7%, a especificidade de 82%, a acurácia de 80,2%, com taxa de falso-positivos de 18% e risco relativo de 1,8. Conclusão: a vaginose bacteriana diagnosticada pelo Gram do conteúdo vaginal representa fator de risco para o parto prematuro, com risco relativo de 1,8.Purpose: to evaluate the relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV and spontaneous preterm delivery. Method: a total of 611 pregnant women from the general antenatal clinic of the "Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo" were enrolled in this study. All pregnancies were

  4. Meningitis tras anestesia espinal Meningitis after a spinal anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Vázquez-Martínez; F. Castro; G. Illodo; E. Freiré; M. A. Camba

    2008-01-01

    La meningitis post-punción es una importante complicación de la anestesia espinal. Describimos el caso de un varón de cuarenta y seis años que ingresó para tratamiento quirúrgico de una hernia umbilical, la cirugía se realizó bajo anestesia intradural. Tras la intervención el paciente comenzó con un cuadro clínico compatible con meningitis, que se confirmó tras examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se trató con antibióticos a pesar de la no identificación de gérmenes, siendo la evolución favora...

  5. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Nath, Kavindra [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Malik, Gyanendra K.; Gupta, Amit [King George' s Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Prasad, Kashi N. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Lucknow (India); Purwar, Ankur; Rathore, Divya; Rathore, Ram K.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Kanpur (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)

  6. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Nath, Kavindra; Malik, Gyanendra K.; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Kashi N.; Purwar, Ankur; Rathore, Divya; Rathore, Ram K.S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)

  7. Resistencia bacteriana de cultivos de orina en un hospital oncológico:seguimiento a diez años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir los patrones de resistencia bacteriana en cultivos de orina de pacientes de un hospital oncológico en la Ciudad de México, de 2004 a 2013. Material y métodos. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de susceptibilidad para diferentes antibióticos, describiendo por separado las bacterias multidrogorresistentes (MDR. Se analizaron por separado las cepas obtenidas de pacientes hospitalizados de las de la comunidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 51 202 cultivos, de los cuales se identificaron 14 480 bacterias (28.3%. De éstas, se reportaron 11 427 Gram negativos (78.9%; 2 080 Gram positivos (14.4%; y 973 (6.6% levaduras. Escherichia coli fue el principal microorganismo aislado (56.1%; 24% de las cepas de la comunidad y 66% de las nosocomiales fueron productoras de beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Klebsiella pneumoniae se identificó en 705 cultivos (4.8%, 115 de los cuales fueron BLEE (16%: 13.1% de la comunidad y 29.8% nosocomiales. Pseudomonas aeruginosa se identificó en 593 cultivos (4.1%: 9% de la comunidad y 51% nosocomiales. Conclusiones. Las cepas MDR son mucho más frecuentes en muestras de origen nosocomial. Es prioritario intensificar el uso racional de antibióticos en la comunidad y el programa de desescalamiento de antimicrobianos en el hospital.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i4.8025

  8. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jørgensen, P E; Nexø, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published articles on the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests with cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. The literature from 1980 and onwards was searched using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, and we used summary...... measured in serum, and 4 in which it had been measured in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The odds ratio for bacterial meningitis versus aseptic meningitis for a positive CRP test with cerebrospinal fluid was estimated at 241 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-980), and the central tendencies.......06-0.08, respectively, the post-test probability of not having bacterial meningitis given a negative test is very high (> or = 97%), in the range of a pre-test probability (prevalence of bacterial meningitis) from 10 to 30%, whereas the post-test probability of bacterial meningitis given a positive test is considerably...

  9. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured ...

  10. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adriani, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and occurs when bacteria invade the subarachnoid space. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease because the proximity of the infection to the brain and still has a high mortality. Bacterial meningitis is described as early as the 5th century B.C. in Hippocratic writings. Organisms causing meningitis were identified in the late 19th century. ...

  11. Pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, N; Sicard, S; Cuadro-Alvarez, E; Long, L; Njuieyon, F; Martin, E; Kom-Tchameni, R; Balcaen, J; Moreau, B; Boukhari, R

    2015-01-01

    Controlling vaccine-preventable infectious diseases is a public health priority in French Guiana but there is currently no epidemiological data on pediatric bacterial meningitis in this overseas department. Our aim was to describe data related to pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana and compare it with that of metropolitan France. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study from 2000 to 2010 to describe the clinical picture, biological data, epidemiology, and outcome of pediatric bacterial meningitis case patients in French Guiana. The median age of bacterial meningitis patients was 6months [0-15] and the sex ratio 1.06. We observed a total of 60 bacterial meningitis case patients. Most presented with pneumococcal meningitis (24 patients; 40%); 11 with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis (23%), five with group B streptococcal meningitis (8.5%), and five others (8.5%) with staphylococcal meningitis (three patients presented with coagulase-negative staphylococci and two with Staphylococcus aureus). Only one patient presented with group B meningococcal meningitis, an 18-month-old infant. We recorded 14 deaths (overall case fatality: 23%); eight were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (case fatality: 33%). The overall sequelae rate was 28%. It was 32% for patients presenting with pneumococcal meningitis. We observed that 38% of children who had never been vaccinated were infected by a vaccine-preventable bacterium. We observed many differences in the distribution of the bacteria and in the patients' prognosis when comparing the French Guiana data with that of metropolitan France. Improving vaccination coverage would decrease the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Gallium-67 uptake in meningeal sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.G.; Hicks, B.H.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    A case of sarcoidosis limited to the central nervous system is described in which the diagnosis was suggested by high Ga-67 uptake in the cranial and spinal meninges. The diagnosis was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. Treatment with oral corticosteroids resulted in clinical improvement and marked reduction in Ga-67 uptake in the meninges. This is the first reported case of the central nervous system sarcoid diagnosed by Ga-67 imaging

  13. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-09-12

    In experimental studies, the outcome of bacterial meningitis has been related to the severity of inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Corticosteroids reduce this inflammatory response. To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 4, 2015), EMBASE (1974 to February 2015), Web of Science (2010 to February 2015), CINAHL (2010 to February 2015) and LILACS (2010 to February 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. We scored RCTs for methodological quality. We collected outcomes and adverse effects. We performed subgroup analyses for children and adults, causative organisms, low-income versus high-income countries, time of steroid administration and study quality. We included 25 studies involving 4121 participants (2511 children and 1517 adults; 93 mixed population). Four studies were of high quality with no risk of bias, 14 of medium quality and seven of low quality, indicating a moderate risk of bias for the total analysis. Nine studies were performed in low-income countries and 16 in high-income countries.Corticosteroids were associated with a non-significant reduction in mortality (17.8% versus 19.9%; risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.01, P value = 0.07). A similar non-significant reduction in mortality was observed in adults receiving corticosteroids (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05, P value = 0.09). Corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of severe hearing loss (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.88), any hearing loss (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87) and neurological sequelae (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00).Subgroup analyses for causative organisms showed that corticosteroids reduced mortality in Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98), but not in

  14. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    êcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudar

  15. Aerobic bacterial microbiota in stomoxys calcitrans: preliminary studies in Brazil Microbiota bacteriana aeróbica em Stomoxys calcitrans: estudos preliminares no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, has a great importance in medical and veterinary health due to its feeding and reproductive habits, which can disseminate some pathogenic agents among hosts even at long distances. This study aimed to describe, for the first time in Brazil, the bacterial microbiota in segments of the stable fly. Bacterial species were isolated from three different segments (cuticle, mouth parts and abdominal alimentary tract of the stable fly. Twenty dairy farms were visited in four municipalities: Barra Mansa, Quatis, Resende and Rio Claro in the State of Rio de Janeiro in order to collect 20 flies in each site. Dissection of the flies and procedures of isolation and identification of bacterial species were performed. A total of 161 colonies of 33 distinct species were isolated, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. intermedius. Stomoxys calcitrans may harbor bacterial agents on their cuticle, mouth parts and abdominal alimentary tract and these bacteria may be pathogenic to their hosts.A mosca dos estábulos, Stomoxys calcitrans, possui grande importância médica e veterinária devido a seus hábitos alimentares e reprodutivos, visto que pode disseminar agentes patogênicos para hospedeiros, mesmo a longas distâncias. Esse estudo teve por objetivo, pela primeira vez no Brasil, descrever a microbiota bacteriana de segmentos da mosca dos estábulos. As espécies bacterianas foram isoladas de três diferentes segmentos (superfície externa, aparelho bucal e trato digestivo abdominal de S. calcitrans. Foram visitadas 20 fazendas leiteiras em quatro municípios: Barra Mansa, Quatis, Resende e Rio Claro no Estado do Rio de Janeiro para coletar 20 moscas em cada uma delas. A dissecção das moscas e os procedimentos de isolamento e identificação bacteriana foram realizados. Um total de 161 colônias de 33 espécies distintas foi isolado, dentre elas Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e S. intermedius

  16. Vigilancia de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, resistencia bacteriana y consumo de antibióticos en hospitales de alta complejidad, Colombia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Patricia Villalobos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Prevenir las infecciones adquiridas en los hospitales, en especial las causadas por microorganismos resistentes, es una prioridad. Por esta razón, Colombia inició la vigilancia nacional de estos eventos realizando una prueba piloto. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de las infecciones asociadas a dispositivos, resistencia bacteriana y consumo de antibióticos en instituciones con unidades de cuidados intensivos durante el 2011. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional descriptivo en 10 instituciones de salud de Antioquia, Valle del Cauca y Bogotá. Se diseñaron protocolos de vigilancia para cada evento, implementados por profesionales de salud entrenados. Se diseñó una herramienta en línea para la notificación y análisis de tasas de infección, porcentajes de utilización de dispositivos y dosis diarias definidas de antibióticos. Mediante el software Whonet 5.6 se reportaron y analizaron los perfiles y fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana. Resultados. La infección del torrente sanguíneo fue la más frecuente (tasa mayor de 4,8 por 1.000 días-catéter, seguida de la neumonía asociada al respirador e infección urinaria asociada a catéter, con amplia variación entre instituciones. Se observó un mayor consumo de meropenem en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (dosis diarias definidas, 22,5 por 100 camas-día, resistencia elevada a carbapenémicos (>11,6 % y cefalosporinas de tercera generación (>25,6 % en enterobacterias en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y en otras áreas de hospitalización. El porcentaje de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue mayor en otras áreas de hospitalización (34,3 %. Conclusiones. Se trata de la primera aproximación integral a la problemática de estos eventos en Colombia. Es necesario implementar la vigilancia nacional que permita orientar acciones gubernamentales e institucionales para la prevención y control de infecciones, contenci

  17. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology. Udgivels......A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  18. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  19. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana (Libman-Sacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Valentín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujer de 47 años ingresada en 2002 por ictus. Se diagnosticó masa valvular aórtica. Se intervino realizándose exéresis de trombo no bacteriano (Fig 1a, b. Durante el estudio de trombofilia fue diagnosticada de síndrome antifosfolípido primario (SAP, inciándose anticoagulación. Hasta la fecha, ha padecido múltiples accidentes cerebrovasculares, isquémicos y hemorrágicos. Está en diálisis peritoneal con probable origen en SAP. SAP es un trastorno autoinmune caracterizado por fenómenos trombóticos iterativos y alargamiento de tiempos de coagulación. La cirugía cardiaca conlleva morbimortalidad por tromboembolias, suponiendo un reto en el manejo de la circulación extracorpórea. Las complicaciones tromboembólicas son frecuentes durante el seguimiento.

  20. Post spinal meningitis and asepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rogerio L R; Ruiz-Neto, P P; Brandao Neto, M

    2002-07-01

    Post spinal meningitis (PSM) is a complication still currently being reported. After two PSM cases in our hospital an epidemiological study was initiated, which included a survey of techniques for asepsis that are applied in our department. Cases defined as PSM comprised meningitis within a week after spinal anesthesia. Anesthesia records, anesthesia complication files and the records of the Hospital Commission for Infection Control from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed. Asepsis techniques applied were surveyed by a questionnaire answered by all our department's anesthesiologists. The equipment and procedures for spinal anesthesia were listed. Current anesthesia textbooks were reviewed for recommendations regarding asepsis techniques in conjunction with spinal anesthesia. Three cases of PSM were identified following 38,128 spinal anesthesias whereas none was observed in 12,822 patients subjected to other types of regional or general anesthesia (P>0.05). Culture of cerebrospinal fluid yielded Streptococcus in two patients and was negative in the other patient. The asepsis technique applied by the anesthesiologists varied considerably. The literature review showed that aspects on asepsis for spinal anesthesia are poorly covered. The incidence of meningitis was similar in patients subjected to spinal anesthesia and in those subjected to other anesthetic techniques. Asepsis techniques were found to differ considerably among our staff members, reflecting the lack of well-defined published standards for this procedure. We recommend that asepsis for spinal anesthesia should not be less rigorous than for surgical asepsis.

  1. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Fiona; Heyderman, Robert S; Panagiotou, Stavros; Tunkel, Allan R; Solomon, Tom

    2016-12-17

    Over the past several decades, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children has decreased but there remains a significant burden of disease in adults, with a mortality of up to 30%. Although the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is not completely understood, knowledge of bacterial invasion and entry into the CNS is improving. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether meningitis is present and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is essential for diagnosis. Newer technologies, such as multiplex PCR, and novel diagnostic platforms that incorporate proteomics and genetic sequencing, might help provide a quicker and more accurate diagnosis. Even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, mortality is high and so attention has focused on adjunctive therapies; adjunctive corticosteroids are beneficial in certain circumstances. Any further improvements in outcome are likely to come from either modulation of the host response or novel approaches to therapy, rather than new antibiotics. Ultimately, the best hope to reduce the disease burden is with broadly protective vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. USO DE PATRONES DE DIFRACCIÓN DE LUZ LÁSER Y ANÁLISIS DE IMAGENES PARA DIFERENCIACIÓN DE TRES TIPOS DE COLONIAS BACTERIANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA ARANGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La diferenciación rápida de colonias bacterianas es esencial en muchos campos industriales, científicos y de salud humana y animal. Generalmente esa diferenciación se logra por técnicas microscópicas, bioquímicas o genéticas muy elaboradas que requieren tiempo y entrenamiento. En este estudio se utilizaron técnicas de análisis de imágenes sobre patrones de difracción de luz láser para evaluar su sensibilidad en la diferenciación de colonias bacterianas. Adicionalmente se estudió el efecto del tiempo de crecimiento de las colonias en la generación de estos patrones y se determinó la influencia de la cantidad de medio de cultivo en la difracción de luz láser. Los patrones de difracción del láser se obtuvieron sobre cultivos puros de cinco aislamientos bacterianos B1, B2, B3, B2Ca y B2Cb. En la primera prueba de diferenciación se utilizaron colonias de B2, B3, B2Ca. En el estudio del efecto del tiempo de crecimiento sobre patrones de difracción, las bacterias B1 y B2Cb con uno o dos días de crecimiento. Finalmente, el efecto de la cantidad de medio de cultivo en la difracción de la luz, se evaluó en una prueba en cajas petri con 10, 15 o 20 ml de medio de cultivo estéril sin colonias de bacterias. Mediante un análisis de escalado multidimensional realizado con los parámetros de textura extraídos de las imágenes de los patrones, se obtuvo un agrupamiento adecuado de los patrones asociados a las colonias de cada bacteria evaluada, lo cual indicó que las colonias bacterianas se pueden diferenciar por sus patrones de difracción. Adicionalmente se encontró que no hay variaciones significativas en los patrones de difracción obtenidos de dos aislamientos bacterianos en dos tiempos de crecimiento. El espesor del medio de cultivo afectó la difracción del haz de luz pues patrones obtenidos de cajas petri con 10 ml se separan completamente de los patrones obtenidos con 15 y 20 ml, aunque no hay diferencias entre los dos

  3. Diversidad específica bacteriana en murciélagos de distintos gremios alimenticios en la sierra sur de Oaxaca, México

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    Mónica Marcela Galicia J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre ecología bacteriana de la micro- biota en los murciélagos son limitados, dicha información es importante para determinar la importancia de esta interacción entre microbiota y hospedero, por tal motivo el objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la composición y diversidad bacteriana en las regiones orales y anales de 10 especies de quirópteros con relación al gremio alimenticio a través de medios selectivos, cromogénicos y pruebas bio- químicas. Se muestrearon 502 murciélagos frugívoros, 29 hematófagos y 11 nectívoros, fueron encontradas un total de 26 especies bacterianas, siendo predominantes el filo proteobacterias y la familia Enterobacteriaceae. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el microhabitat oral y anal [frugívoros (t=-3.516, g.l=14.761, p=0.003, hematófagos (t=-3.320, g.l=19.262, p=0.003, y nectívoros (t=-2.497, g.l=11.933, p=0.026, así como en algunos gremios (frugívoros e nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.274, g.l=29.660, p=0.030, hematófago y nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.077, g.l=29.904, p=0.049]. También se mostró que existe especificidad de bacterias en algunos gremios como: Bacillus cereus, B. spp. X. spp. en nectívoros y frugívoros, así como, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Aeromonas hydrophyla en hematófagos que podría deberse al tipo de dieta que llevan o por transferencia de bacterias al contacto con sus presas. Los murciélagos han sido relacionados con varias zoonosis, sin embargo poco se conoce sobre la relación que existe entre el murciélago, su micro- biota y la dieta que llevan. Estas bacterias pudieran ser autóctonas de los murciélagos y jugar un papel de mutuo beneficio, proveyéndole al hospedero condiciones estables de crecimiento y nutrientes complementarios, mientras que la microbiota contribuye en la nutrición del hospedero, desarrollo del sistema inmune, estabilizando la

  4. Validation of the bacterial meningitis score in adults presenting to the ED with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Robert; Edlow, Jonathan A; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2016-07-01

    The Bacterial Meningitis Score classifies children with meningitis and none of the following high-risk predictors at very low risk for bacterial meningitis: positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein ≥80mg/dL, CSF absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1000 cells/mm(3), peripheral ANC ≥10,000 cells/mm(3), and seizure at or prior to presentation. Although extensively validated in children, the Bacterial Meningitis Score has not been rigorously evaluated in adults. We performed a single-center cross-sectional retrospective study of adults presenting to the emergency department between 2003 and 2013 with meningitis (defined by CSF white blood cell count ≥10 cells/mm(3)). We defined a case of bacterial meningitis with either a positive CSF or blood culture. We report the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score in the study population. We identified 441 eligible patients of which, 4 (1%) had bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score had a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 40%-100%], specificity 51% (95% CI, 46%-56%) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98%-100%). None of the low risk adults had bacterial meningitis. If Bacterial Meningitis Score had been applied prospectively, the hospital admission rate would have dropped from 84% to 49% without missing any patients with bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score accurately identified patients at low risk for bacterial meningitis and could assist clinical decision-making for adults with meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Meningeal metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Pablo; Cuadra, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Raul

    Brain metastases are the most commonly seen intracranial lesions in adults. What is more, meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumours after gliomas and their imaging characteristics are well known in both CT and MRI scans. However, there are lesions that can mimic meningiomas in imaging studies, including metastases of extracranial tumours, confronting us with a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a patient with meningeal metastasis of a uterine leiomyosarcoma that was not known at the time of the surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Infecções bacterianas pioram o prognóstico da hepatite alcoólica Alcoholic hepatitis: bad prognosis due to concomitant bacterial infections

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    Edna Strauss

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As infecções bacterianas cursam com altos índices de morbilidade e mortalidade na cirrose hepática. O objetivo do nosso trabalho foi avaliar se também na hepatite alcoólica as infecções bacterianas são fatores de mau prognóstico. Na avaliação retrospectiva de 681 pacientes hospitalizados em um único centro, por período de 6 anos, foram bem documentados 52 (7,5% casos de hepatite alcoólica, sendo 73,1% com biópsia hepática para análise histopatológica e os restantes por diagnóstico clínico-bioquímico. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (relação 3,3:1,0, com idade média de 40 anos e ingestão média de etanol puro de 193g/dia por mais de 3 anos. As principais complicações foram: encefalopatia hepática (n=5, insuficiência renal (n=4 e hemorragia digestiva alta (n=3. Houve infecção bacteriana em 11 (21,1% pacientes, sendo pulmonar (n=5, peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PBE (n=2, urinária (n=3 e dermatológica (n=1. Óbito precoce, durante o período de internação ocorreu em 8 (15,4% casos e a análise comparativa entre eles e os sobreviventes mostrou serem fatores de mau prognóstico a presença de encefalopatia hepática (p=0,012, bilirrubinas > 20mg% (p=0,012 e associação com infecções graves (pulmonar/PBE, com p=0,004. Em conclusão, demonstramos que as infecções bacterianas são fatores de mau prognóstico na hepatite alcoólica. Recomendamos, portanto, que a profilaxia com antibióticos que se faz durante hemorragia digestiva alta na cirrose e em casos de insuficiência hepática fulminante, seja estendida para a hepatite alcoólica, em sua forma grave, com finalidade de evitar infecções bacterianas e mortalidade precoce.Bacterial infections increase morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Our aim was to investigate whether in alcoholic hepatitis the development of bacterial infections was also a poor prognostic factor. In the retrospective evaluation of 681 hospitalized patients with liver disease

  7. Pituitary apoplexy initially mistaken for bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sui Hsien; Das, Kumar; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    We presented a case of a 62-year-old man whose initial clinical picture was suggestive of bacterial meningitis, but instead had pituitary apoplexy. We highlighted how pituitary apoplexy can mimic bacterial meningitis, learning points on how clinical assessment can aid earlier diagnosis and the importance of considering this differential diagnosis, particularly with the associated morbidity and mortality if missed.

  8. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  9. Endocarditis in adults with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-05-21

    Endocarditis may precede or complicate bacterial meningitis, but the incidence and impact of endocarditis in bacterial meningitis are unknown. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with meningitis and endocarditis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2012. Endocarditis was identified in 24 of 1025 episodes (2%) of bacterial meningitis. Cultures yielded Streptococcus pneumoniae in 13 patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients, and Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus salivarius in 1 patient each. Clues leading to the diagnosis of endocarditis were cardiac murmurs, persistent or recurrent fever, a history of heart valve disease, and S aureus as the causative pathogen of bacterial meningitis. Treatment consisted of prolonged antibiotic therapy in all patients and surgical valve replacement in 10 patients (42%). Two patients were treated with oral anticoagulants, and both developed life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhage. Systemic (70%) and neurological (54%) complications occurred frequently, leading to a high proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome (63%). Seven of 24 patients (29%) with meningitis and endocarditis died. Endocarditis is an uncommon coexisting condition in bacterial meningitis but is associated with a high rate of unfavorable outcome.

  10. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis in patients infected with HIV has increased worldwide mainly because of the increased awareness by both the physicians and clinical microbiologists. We report here three cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients treated at the Port-of Spain General Hospital in ...

  12. Effect of vaccines on bacterial meningitis worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Peter B.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Greenwood, Brian; van de Beek, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    Three bacteria-Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis-account for most acute bacterial meningitis. Measurement of the effect of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is most reliable for H influenzae meningitis because one serotype and one age group account

  13. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

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    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  14. MRI of intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, A.; Ochi, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hirata, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yasunaga, A.; Shibata, S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the CT and MRI findings in a patient with primary intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). CT delineated the anatomical relations and MRI aided in tissue characterisation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings in primary intracranial meningeal MFH. (orig.). With 1 fig

  15. Epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-02-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial meningitis epidemiology. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Western countries (Finland, Netherlands, and the United States) gradually declined by 3-4% per year to 0.7-0.9 per 100 000 per year in the past 10-20 years. In African countries (Burkina Faso and Malawi), incidence rates are still substantially higher at 10-40 per 100 000 persons per year. Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have not consistently decreased overall pneumococcal meningitis incidence because of serotype replacement. Following the introduction of serogroup A and C meningococcal vaccines, the incidence of meningococcal meningitis because of these serogroups strongly decreased. Novel outbreaks in the African meningitis belt by serogroup C and increased incidence of serogroup W in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands were observed recently. Bacterial meningitis remains an important infectious disease, despite a gradual decline in incidence after large-scale vaccination campaigns. Further development of vaccines with broader coverage is important, as is continuous surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases.

  16. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. DIARRÉIA NEONATAL DE ORIGEM BACTERIANA EM BOVINOS

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    Celso Pianta

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarréia neonatal em bovinos é um quadro complexo, normalmente responsável por altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Os prejuízos são observados não somente nos gastos com a medicação, mas também na perda do animal em caso de morte e na redução do desenvolvimento e do desempenho do futuro animal adulto, comprometendo os índices de ganho de peso ou produção leiteira. A etiologia múltipla da enfermidade envolve a interação de diversas variáveis dos agentes, hospedeiro e meio ambiente. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos clínicos da colibacilose sanitário, a prevenção e o tratamento são também abordados.

  18. Carcinomatose das meninges: dados clínico-patológicos de 3 casos Carcinomatosis of the meninges: a report of three cases

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    Aristides Cheto de Queiroz

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 3 casos de carcinomatose das meninges, autopsiados no serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital Prof. Edgard Santos. O quadro neurológico apresentado era proeminente e representado por sinto- matologia decorrente do envolvimento meníngeo e encefálico, razão pela qual foram considerados como portadores de meningite tuberculosa e encefalomielite. O aspecto de maior interesse neste estudo foi a discrepância entre o quadro clínico e os dados anátomo-patológicos do exame do encéfalo. A sintomatologia clínica foi proeminente, enquanto as lesões anatômicas foram apenas discretas ou moderadas e representadas por espessamento e granulosidade das meninges, com infiltração difusa do espaço subaracnoideano pela neoplasia. Nos casos 1 e 3 a neoplasia estava representada por adenocarcinoma, cujos focos primitivos foram localizados no pulmão e vesícula biliar, respectivamente. O caso 2 era um carcinoma indiferenciado do estômago, com envolvimento difuso do espaço subaracnoideano e subdural, havendo neste último extensa hemorragia recente. Os critérios diagnósticos e a maneira de disseminação desta condição são discutidos.A diffuse involvement of the meninges by carcinoma is described in three cases characterizing the so called "meningeal carcinomatosis". The neurologic symptoms were those of the chronic meningitis or encephalomyelitis, with changes in the spinal fluid. The morphologic features were identical in the three cases and represented by slight to moderate thickening of the meninges by diffuse infiltration of tumor cells and few foci of inflamatory reaction. The cases 1 and 3 were represented by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with primary site in the lung and gallbladder, respectively. In case 2 the tumor was a poorly differentiated carcinoma of stomach with diffuse involvement of the arachnoid and dura mater associated with recent hemorrhage. An interesting point was the lack of correlation between

  19. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  20. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  1. Cryptococcal Meningitis: Diagnosis and Management Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassi, Mahsa; Boulware, David R; Rhein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis are promising and have been improving long-term survival. Point of care testing has made diagnosing cryptococcal meningitis rapid, practical, and affordable. Targeted screening and treatment programs for cryptococcal antigenemia are a cost effective method for reducing early mortality on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Optimal initial management with amphotericin and flucytosine improves survival against alternative therapies, although amphotericin is difficult to administer and flucytosine is not available in middle or low income countries, where cryptococcal meningitis is most prevalent. Controlling increased intracranial pressure with serial therapeutic lumbar punctures has a proven survival benefit. Delaying ART initiation for 4 weeks after the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis is associated with improved survival. Fortunately, new approaches have been leading the way toward improving care for cryptococcal meningitis patients. New trials utilizing different combinations of antifungal therapy are reviewed, and we summarize the efficacy of different regimens. PMID:26279970

  2. Iatrogenic streptococcus salivarius meningitis: a case report

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    Kristina Praper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 28-year-old patient who underwent spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section, and developed meningitis, Streptococcus salivarius was isolated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The Viridans streptococci are a part of a normal human mouth flora, therefore the patient most likely developed iatrogenic meningitis due to droplet transmission of bacteria intrathecally. We discuss etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, treatment and prognosis of meningitis afer intrathecal procedures and we emphasize the importance of strict aseptic technique while performing neuraxial procedures. Iatrogenic meningitis should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in patients who present with symptoms and signs of meningitis after neuraxial blockade.

  3. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  4. Molecular characterization of bacterial populations of different soils Caracterização molecular de populações bacterianas de diferentes solos

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    Rodrigo Matheus Pereira

    2006-12-01

    por PCR, amplicons foram clonados e 139 clones de duas bibliotecas foram seqüenciados. O uso da técnica de 16S rRNA, gerou a identificação de diferentes populações de bactérias de solo pertencentes aos filos Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Bacteroidetes Firmicutes Proteobacteria Verrucomicrobia, Archaea, além das não classificadas. Diferenças entre as bibliotecas FS e CS foram observadas no tamanho dos filos. Um grande número de filos e, consequentemente, uma grande diversidade bacteriana foi observada no solo sob floresta. Estes dados foram confirmados pela análise de diversidade genética realizada. A caracterização de comunidades do solo apresentada neste trabalho contribuiu fornecendo dados para estudos posteriores sobre a dinâmica das populações bacterianas em solos de diferentes condições no Brasil.

  5. Meningitis due to Xanthomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girijaratnakumari T

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available During 1st week of post-operative period, a 28 year old female patient operated for left cerebellopontine angle tumor, continued to get fever. Lumbar puncture did not reveal any organisms. She responded to ciprofloxacin. Two months later, she was readmitted with signs and symptoms of meningitis. The CSF tapped on lumbar puncture grew Xanthomonas maltophilia, Gram negative bacilli, sensitive to various antibiotics, ciprofloxacin being one of them. The patient was given ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks. On follow up, a year later she was found to be asymptomatic.

  6. MR of childhood tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeman, J.; Donald, P.; Hewlett, R.

    1988-12-01

    MR imaging was performed on 27 children with stage II-III tuberculous meningitis for the specific purpose of examining the brainstem, as well as comparison with other CT features of the disease. In addition to defining the ischemic disturbances of basal ganglia and diencephalon more clearly, MR also demonstrates the frequent occurrence of parenchymal signal abnormalities in the brainstem and adjacent temporal lobes, which are invisible or uncertain on CT. Although the presence of brainstem abnormalities on MR correlated well with clinical findings of brainstem dysfunction, clinical staging on admission remains the best prognostic indicator in advanced TBM. We also review the MR features of basal exudation, hydrochephalus and tuberculoma.

  7. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and occurs when bacteria invade the subarachnoid space. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease because the proximity of the infection to the

  8. Validación de la prueba de Papanicolaou en el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana. Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Vásquez Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive cross sectional study was carry out in 423 women in seven rural communities of the municipality of Amagá, Antioquia. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the sensibility and specificity and predictive values of the test of Papanicolaou in relation to the Gram exam, for the diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV. In the 423 studied women the results showed a prevalence of BV for the bacteriological exam Gram of 20.8 % (88 cases and for Papanicolaou of 21% (89 cases. The sensitivity was 87.5%, the specificity was 96.4%. The value predictive positive was 86,5% and the value predictive negative was 96.7%. The high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Papanicolaou test reported in this study make it a good screening method, since it is an exam that is carried out commonly and no additional testa are required. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte en 423 mujeres de la población rural del municipio de Amagá, Antioquia, cuyas edades estaban comprendidas entre los 15 y 65 años, a quienes se les tomó muestras cérvicovaginales para estudio citológico de Papanicolau y coloración de Gram. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou frente al Gram, para el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana (vb. La prevalencia de vb por el Gram, en las 423 mujeres estudiadas, fue de 20.8% (88 casos y la prevalencia de vb por Papanicolaou, fue del 21 % (89 casos. La sensibilidad fue 87.5%, la especificidad 96.4%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP 86,5% y valor predictivo negativo (VPN 96.7%. La alta sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou, reportados en este estudio hacen de ésta un buen método de tamizaje, dado que es un examen que se realiza de rutina y no se requiere una prueba adicional para hacer el diagnóstico; lo que a su vez permite disminuir costos porque se omite el estudio de la flora vaginal

  9. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Tânia Berbert Ferreira; Eurides,Duvaldo; Rezende,Renata Junqueira; Milken,Vanessa Martins Fayad; Silva,Luiz Antonio Franco da; Fioravanti,Maria Clorinda Soares

    2004-01-01

    A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05) entre a utilização da escova dental e ...

  10. Pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria: aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, radiológicos e terapêutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria, e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos.

  11. Reversible hearing loss following cryptococcal meningitis: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, W L; Durisala, N; Ho, E C

    2016-07-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a recognised complication of cryptococcal meningitis. The mechanism of hearing loss in patients with cryptococcal meningitis is different from that in bacterial meningitis. An immune-competent man with cryptococcal meningitis presented with sudden onset, bilateral, severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. He was initially evaluated for cochlear implantation. However, he had a significant recovery; he no longer required surgery and was able to cope without a hearing aid. Typically, cochlear implantation is performed with some urgency in patients with hearing loss post-bacterial meningitis, because of the risk of labyrinthitis ossificans. However, this process has not been described in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Furthermore, patients with hearing loss associated with cryptococcal meningitis have shown varying degrees of reversibility. In this case report, hearing loss from cryptococcal meningitis is compared with that from bacterial meningitis, and the need for cochlear implantation in patients with cryptococcal meningitis is discussed.

  12. Estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em solo de cerrado sob diferentes manejos

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    Leandro Moraes de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em Latossolo de cerrado sob vegetação nativa ou cultivado em sistema de rotação soja/milho sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram utilizadas microplacas EcoPlate para determinar o perfil e a diversidade metabólica das comunidades bacterianas, e eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE para avaliar a estrutura genética. O teste estatístico de Mantel foi utilizado para avaliar a relação entre a estrutura metabólica e a genética. A comunidade bacteriana sob vegetação nativa apresentou perfil metabólico diferente do encontrado em solos cultivados. No solo cultivado com soja sob preparo convencional, o padrão de utilização das fontes de carbono diferenciou-se dos demais tratamentos. Com base nos resultados de DGGE, a comunidade bacteriana sob vegetação nativa apresentou 35% de similaridade com as de áreas cultivadas. Foram formados grupos distintos de comunidades bacterianas do solo entre as áreas sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. Houve correlação significativa de 62% entre as matrizes geradas pelas microplacas EcoPlate e pela DGGE. Variações no perfil metabólico estão relacionadas às variações na estrutura genética das comunidades bacterianas do solo.

  13. A resistência bacteriana no contexto da infecção hospitalar

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Neusa de Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo aborda alguns aspectos do impacto da resistência bacteriana no contexto da infecção hospitalar. Alerta sobre o importante papel dos profissionais de saúde no controle da infecção hospitalar e do grave problema do uso indiscriminado de antibióticos que tem provocado uma pressão seletiva sobre as bactérias do ambiente hospitalar tornando-as multiresistentes This article lays out some aspects of the impact of bacterial resistence in the context of hospital infection. It alerts to ...

  14. Absceso paravalvular en la endocarditis bacteriana: influencia en el pronóstico postoperatorio

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Barca, Laura; López Menéndez, Jose; Martín García, Miren; Redondo Palacios, Ana; Centella Hernández, Tomasa; Miguelena Hycka, Javier; Muñoz Pérez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Roda Stuart, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: El absceso paravalvular (AbP) aumenta la mortalidad, la complejidad y las complicaciones asociadas a la cirugía de endocarditis infecciosa (EI). Analizamos la influencia del AbP en las distintas formas de presentación de endocarditis bacteriana. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, incluyendo a todos los pacientes intervenidos de EI entre 2002 y 2015, y realizando seguimiento clínico tras el alta. Resultados: Se intervino a 169 pacientes, presentando AbP el 33% de lo...

  15. Meningite Bacteriana no Recém-Nascido. Casuística de 12 Anos

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Maria Teresa; Serelha, Micaela; Leal, Frederico; Amaral, João Videira

    2014-01-01

    Objectivo — Conhecer a epidemiologia da meningite bacteriana em recém-nascidos admitidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Hospital de Dona Estefânia.Doentes e métodos — Foi feita a revisão dos processos de recém-nascidos admitidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Hospital de Dona Estefânia de Janeiro de 1985 a Dezembro de 1996 — 12 anos, provenientes da maternidade do Hospital ou do exterior. Foram excluídas as infecções congénitas e as crianças com idade superior ...

  16. CT finding of cryptococcal meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, H.; Ueda, M.; Ito, K.; Matsuoka, T. (Ohkawara Neurosurgical Hospital, Muroran (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    We have experienced 14 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in the last 6 years. Their neurological signs, CT findings, and prognoses were studied. They fall into three types: the brain-stem-encephalitis type, the cortical-encephalitis type, and the meningitis type, according to the clinical course. The first type (6 cases) revealed mainly cerebellar signs, eye-movement damage, and so forth. The second type (5 cases) demonstrated ''Personality'' changes, chiefly aphasia. The third type (5 cases) did not show any focal signs. Prognosis of the brain-stem-encephalitis type was very poor, with a 50% mortality rate. In the survivors, also, clinical signs did not disappear for a long time. Repeated CT was performed in 13 among the 14 cases; abnormal CT findings were revealed in 5 cases because of cryptococcal infection. Granuloma shadow and ventriculitis shadow were observed in 3 cases each. These abnormal findings disappeared upon treatment except in one case. The clinical signs are not completely related with the CT finding, but it is useful that the site which has been infiltrated by the cryptococcus can be observed. Abnormal CT findings were observed in the 4 cases of the brain-stem-encephalitis type among the 5 abnormal cases. It is very useful to know the severity of the condition.

  17. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  18. Two cases of rheumatoid meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaki, Shino; Chang, Edward; Hammond, Robert R; Yang, Isaac; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Chou, Benedict T; Choi, Soo I; Jen, Joanna C; Pope, Whitney B; Bell, David A; Vinters, Harry V

    2016-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the form of rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is rare and most commonly occurs in the setting of longstanding severe RA. Due to a wide range of clinical presentations and nonspecific laboratory findings, it presents a diagnostic challenge often requiring brain biopsy. Only a few histopathologically confirmed cases have been described in the literature. Our aim is to describe two cases of RM and review the literature. The first case is of a previously healthy 37-year-old man who presented with severe headaches and focal neurologic deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement in the left frontal and parietal sulci. The second case is of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild chronic joint pain who presented with confusion, personality changes and seizures. Both patients ultimately underwent brain biopsy which demonstrated RM on pathologic examination. Administration of corticosteroids resulted in significant clinical improvement in both cases. To our knowledge, our unusual case of RM in the young man is the fifth reported case of rheumatoid meningitis in a patient with no prior history of RA. Such an atypical presentation makes diagnosis even more difficult and highlights the need for awareness of this entity in the diagnostic consideration of a patient presenting with unexplained neurologic symptoms. Our literature review underscores the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity of CNS involvement in RA. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  19. Administração endovenosa de antibióticos e resistência bacteriana: responsabilidade da enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel; Liana Lautert

    2006-01-01

    O sucesso da terapêutica com antibióticos e o desenvolvimento da resistência bacteriana dependem de diversos fatores, sendo que os relacionados ao cuidado de enfermagem são o seu preparo e a sua administração. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre falhas na administração de antibióticos analisando sua possível influência na resistência bacteriana. Delineamento: realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica das fontes do LILACS e Medline. Métodos: realizada revisão bibliográfica sistematiz...

  20. Administração endovenosa de antibióticos e resistência bacteriana : responsabilidade da enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefel, Heloisa Helena Karnas; Lautert, Liana

    2006-01-01

    O sucesso da terapêutica com antibióticos e o desenvolvimento da resistência bacteriana dependem de diversos fatores, sendo que os relacionados ao cuidado de enfermagem são o seu preparo e a sua administração. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre falhas na administração de antibióticos analisando sua possível influência na resistência bacteriana. Delineamento: realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica das fontes do LILACS e Medline. Métodos: realizada revisão bibliográfica sistematiz...

  1. Evaluation of tomato rootstocks and its use to control bacterial wilt diseaseAvaliação de porta-enxertos de tomateiro e o uso da enxertia no controle da murcha bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira

    2012-05-01

    ção da resistência a R. solanacearum, utilizaram-se quatro genótipos de tomateiro silvestres coletados em diferentes regiões da Bahia, a cv. Santa Clara como testemunha suscetível e o Hawaii 7996 (H7996 como testemunha resistente. Para a avaliação da enxertia no controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro, utilizou-se como porta-enxerto o H7996 e como enxerto as cultivares Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada e Débora Plus. Os dois experimentos foram avaliados em infectário de R. solanacearum, por um período de 65 dias, para a seleção de porta-enxertos e 45 dias para a avaliação da enxertia, observando-se o sintoma de murcha bacteriana. Apenas o H7996 pode ser recomendado como porta-enxerto resistente a R. solanacearum. Os demais genótipos apresentaram suscetibilidade ao patógeno. A enxertia com esse híbrido não apresentou incompatibilidade com as cultivares avaliadas e promoveu 100 % de controle da murcha bacteriana, em todos os tratamentos, sugerindo que essa técnica pode ser utilizada como método alternativo de controle da murcha bacteriana, permitindo a produção de cultivares comerciais de tomateiro, suscetíveis à doença, em áreas infestadas com R. solanacearum.

  2. The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Remzie A; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat

    2014-07-14

    The purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis in the developing country of Kosovo. Data were collected from active surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases treated at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2000 (first post-war year) and 2010. Meningitis cases in 2000 compared with 2010 showed a 35.5% decline in incidence (from 4.8 to 3.1 cases per 100,000 population) and a decrease in the case fatality rate from 10% to 5%. In children, there was a lower mortality rate (5% versus 2%) and a lower incidence of neurological complications (13% versus 16%) as compared to adults (32% versus 10% and 16% versus 35%, respectively). Neisseria meningitidis was the most common pathogen of bacterial meningitis in both study periods. Bacterial meningitis was most prevalent in the pediatric population, and showed an increase in the median age, from three years in 2000 to seven years in 2010. A steady number of bacterial meningitis cases in adults throughout last decade (around 20 cases per year) was recorded. During the last decade, gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis that are unrelated to the introduction of new vaccines, but are partly due to the improvement of living conditions.

  3. Meninges-derived cues control axon guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tracey A C S; DeLoughery, Zachary J; Jaworski, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The axons of developing neurons travel long distances along stereotyped pathways under the direction of extracellular cues sensed by the axonal growth cone. Guidance cues are either secreted proteins that diffuse freely or bind the extracellular matrix, or membrane-anchored proteins. Different populations of axons express distinct sets of receptors for guidance cues, which results in differential responses to specific ligands. The full repertoire of axon guidance cues and receptors and the identity of the tissues producing these cues remain to be elucidated. The meninges are connective tissue layers enveloping the vertebrate brain and spinal cord that serve to protect the central nervous system (CNS). The meninges also instruct nervous system development by regulating the generation and migration of neural progenitors, but it has not been determined whether they help guide axons to their targets. Here, we investigate a possible role for the meninges in neuronal wiring. Using mouse neural tissue explants, we show that developing spinal cord meninges produce secreted attractive and repulsive cues that can guide multiple types of axons in vitro. We find that motor and sensory neurons, which project axons across the CNS-peripheral nervous system (PNS) boundary, are attracted by meninges. Conversely, axons of both ipsi- and contralaterally projecting dorsal spinal cord interneurons are repelled by meninges. The responses of these axonal populations to the meninges are consistent with their trajectories relative to meninges in vivo, suggesting that meningeal guidance factors contribute to nervous system wiring and control which axons are able to traverse the CNS-PNS boundary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Flora bacteriana aeróbica del tracto digestivo del vampiro común, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriana Chaverri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la flora bacteriana del vampiro común (Desmodus rotundus primordialmente debido a que los datos al respecto están desactualizados, y además por la gran importancia económica de esta especie de murciélago. Veintiún murciélagos fueron recolectados y su flora bacteriana identificada separadamente a nivel de estómago e intestino. Las bacterias fueron identificadas con el Analytical Profile Index (API, y los resultados analizados con el paquete APILAB. Un total de treinta especies fueron aisladas en 16 hembras y cinco machos. Las especies más comunes fueron Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, aunque otras especies, como Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus y S. xylosus también se aislaron con frecuencia. El número de especies identificadas en el estómago y el intestino fue significativamente diferente, siendo el intestino más diverso. Esto ha sido encontrado anteriormente en otros mamíferos, y se atribuye probablemente a la reducción en acidez. Asimismo, la mayoría de las especies identificadas en este estudio forman parte de la flora bacteriana normal del tracto digestivo de mamíferos, aunque también se encontraron otras bacterias comunes en la piel de mamíferos y en ambientes acuáticos Las bacterias de la piel podrían estar colonizando el estómago y/o intestino del vampiro cuando éste tiene contacto con sus presas, lo que sugiere que el hábito alimentario de esta especie facilita su colonización por microorganismos que no se encontrarían comúnmente en su tracto digestivo. Ya que también se identificaron bacterias comunes en ambientes acuáticos, es probable que D. rotundus consuma agua cuando esté disponible, lo que respalda los resultados de otros investigadores, y sugiere que esta podría ser una fuente adicional de invasión microbiana.Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat

  5. Human Meningitis-Associated Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, KWANG SIK

    2016-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis...

  6. The role of ICP monitoring in meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Areej; Aguilar-Salinas, Pedro; Hanel, Ricardo A; Naval, Neeraj; Chmayssani, Mohamad

    2017-11-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use in other pathologies that affect ICP has not been advocated as strongly, especially in CNS infections. Despite the most aggressive and novel antimicrobial therapies for meningitis, the mortality rate associated with this disease is far from satisfactory. Although intracranial hypertension and subsequent death have long been known to complicate meningitis, no specific guidelines targeting ICP monitoring are available. A review of the literature was performed to understand the pathophysiology of elevated ICP in meningitis, diagnostic challenges, and clinical outcomes in the use of ICP monitoring.

  7. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  8. Bacterial meningitis Meningitis bacateriana aguda en niños: estudio clínico y bacteriológico en el Hospital Infantil de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hoyos

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Between aprl13, 1984 and march 31,1986,95  children with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM were admitted to Hospital lnfantil, Medellín, Colombia. 68 (71.6% were under two years old. Haemophifus influenza  type B was the predominant microorganism (41%, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.4%, enterobacteriaceae (15.8%, Neisseria meningitidis (4.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% and betahemolytlc streptococci (2.1%. One case produced by Streptococcus agalactiae was the first one in our Hospital and another one due to Shigella was the first one in Colombia. Bacterial origin was confirmed in 93.7% of the cases, employing direct examination, cultures and counter immuno electrophoresis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were: fever, vomit, irritability, meningeai irritation and seizures; the younger the patient the most severe the clinical picture. Those with persistent focal seizures showed cerebral infarction, subdural effusion, ventricular dilatation or a combination of them. Mortality was 19%; sequelae were observed in 26% (seizure, motor deficit and deafness; Haemophilus influenzae resistance to ampicilin was observed for the first time in this institution. We suggest modifications in the initial therapeutic approach and recommend the suppression of the routine pre-discharge lumbar puncture.

    Entre abril 3 de 1984 y marzo 31 de 1986, se estudiaron 95 niños que ingresaron al Hospital Infantil de Medellín con el diagnóstico de meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA; 68 de ellos fueron menores de 2 años (71.6%; el HaemophiIus influenzae tipo e fue el germen predominante (41.0%; le

  9. Resposta humoral, recuperação bacteriana e lesões histológicas em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para bons e maus produtores de anticorpos e Balb/c, frente à infecção por Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae Humoral immune response, bacterial recovery and time lesions in mice geneticaly selected for high and low antibody production and in outbreed Balb/c mice face to Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marinho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por finalidade associar a cinética da resposta humoral à recuperação de leptospiras viáveis e à intensidade das lesões teciduais em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para bons (High e maus (Low produtores de anticorpos (seleção IV-A, além de camundongos outbreed, Balb/c, inoculados com amostra patogênica de Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae. As linhagens High e Low (seleção IV-A apresentam modificações em alguns compartimentos da resposta imune, principalmente em relação à atividade macrofágica, representando fenótipos extremos encontrados em populações naturais heterogêneas. Os camundongos foram sacrificados em oito momentos após a infecção. A análise dos resultados revelou que a partir do 7º dia após a infecção, os camundongos da linhagem High apresentaram elevação nos títulos de anticorpos estatisticamente significantes quando comparados aos camundongos da linhagem Low, mantendo assim o efeito multiespecífico. Os camundongos Balb/c apresentaram resultados intermediários entre as duas linhagens. A produção de anticorpos colaborou como fator limitante à infecção, pois quando obteve-se maior recuperação de leptospiras, na fase inicial da infecção, os títulos de anticorpos encontravam-se em elevação. As lesões observadas nos órgãos de camundongos infectados consistiram basicamente nos mesmos processos inflamatórios e degenerativos, que não se alteraram, variando apenas o grau de comprometimento tecidual, de acordo com a linhagem. A linhagem high apresentou lesões mais extensas que as apresentadas pelas linhagens low e Balb/c, sendo que nesta última as lesões foram moderadas. De forma geral a linhagem High e Balb/c apresentaram um perfil de resposta Th2, com o maior índice de produção de anticorpos e gravidade das lesões, enquanto a linhagem Low apresentou um perfil de resposta Th1.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association

  10. Principais patógenos e susceptibilidade in vitro antimicrobiana em ceratites bacterianas: Revisão de cinco anos, 2005 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Andrade do Nascimento Rocha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os principais patógenos envolvidos na etiologia das ceratites bacterianas no Hospital Oftalmológico de Sorocaba/SP e a susceptibilidade in vitro dos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento desta afecção ocular. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de todos os prontuários submetidos a exame microbiológico por suspeita de ceratite infecciosa, atendidos no Hospital Oftalmológico de Sorocaba/SP, entre 2005 e 2009. Para testar a susceptibilidade dos antimicrobianos, foram realizados antibiogramas através do método padrão de difusão em discos e a interpretação da sensibilidade foi realizada seguindo-se a padronização do National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, Villanova, PA, USA. RESULTADOS: De 963 coletas, 278 (28,86% foram positivas para algum patógeno. Dentre as coletas positivas para bactérias, os principais patógenos identificados foram: Staphylococcus aureus (30.56%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (30,56%, Streptococcus sp (9,43% e Pseudomonas sp (9,43%. No total, 191 (72,08% dos patógenos identificados eram Gram-positivos e 74 (27,92% eram Gram-negativos. O exame laboratorial evidenciou altos índices de sensibilidade para a maioria dos antimicrobianos (acima de 85%, com exceção da cefalotina (53,13%. Os maiores índices de resistência foram observados com a cefalotina (33,47% e a ciprofloxacina (11,36%. CONCLUSÕES: Bactérias Gram-positivas foram as principais isoladas nos exames microbiológicos neste estudo, com número expressivo de estafilococos, apesar de um crescente número de bactérias Gram-negativas como principais patógenos isolados, principalmente representado por Pseudomonas, relacionado ao uso disseminado de lentes de contato. O exame laboratorial evidenciou altos índices de sensibilidade para a maioria dos antimicrobianos (acima de 85%, com exceção da cefalotina (53,13%. Os maiores índices de resistência foram observados com a cefalotina (33,47% e a

  11. Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness back stiffness eye pain when exposed to light nausea, or being sick to the stomach vomiting , ... and whenever your hands are dirty. It's also smart to cover your mouth and nose when you ...

  12. Onkologisk behandling af meningeal carcinomatose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulim, S.; Høyer, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) occurs in 5-8% of cancer patients. In the       majority of cases, MC appears in patients with advanced disease. The       increase in incidence is probably caused by improved survival due to       improvements in systemic therapy and an increased awareness of MC among......       clinicians. Diagnosis is based on CSF cytology and neuroimaging. MC is a       devastating condition that is associated with a poor prognosis, with a       median survival time of 4-11 weeks. The treatment is in most cases       palliative and involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  13. Lymphocytic Meningitis in Patients with Sympathetic Ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, Mathilde; Groh, Matthieu; Salah, Sawsen; Monnet, Dominique; Blanche, Philippe; Brézin, Antoine P

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at reporting lymphocytic meningitis in patients diagnosed with sympathetic ophthalmia (SO). In this single-center retrospective observational case series, we reviewed cases diagnosed with SO. We analyzed the patients' inciting injuries, the characteristics of uveitis and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses. Nine patients were diagnosed with SO and CSF analyses were available in all cases. Four cases had lymphocytic pleocytosis, 3 of which showed marked CSF inflammation with more than 300 lymphocytes/mm 3 . The inciting event in these 3 patients was a globe perforation injury, whereas 4 patients without meningitis had SO following a surgical intervention. In this case series of patients with SO, lymphocytic meningitis was a common finding. The prevalence of meningitis in patients with SO and its value for the diagnosis of the disease needs to be further studied.

  14. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis...... is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  15. Clinical research progress of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-yun MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis is an infectious disease of central nervous system caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly invades into brain meninges and parenchyma, and may spread to the spinal cord and spinal meninges. The disability rate and mortality rate of this disease are very high. In recent years, incidence of tuberculosis increased significantly due to the increase of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, population mobility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS epidemic and other factors. Tuberculosis is still a worldwide serious threat to human life and health, especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries. China is the world's largest developing country with large population, so tuberculosis prevention and control is still a quite severe problem. In this paper, the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment progress of tuberculous meningitis were reviewed systematically. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.004

  16. Sertraline for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, Anette; van der Elst, Kim C. M.; Day, Jeremy N.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2016-01-01

    Joshua Rhein and colleagues1 used measurements of sertraline plasma concentrations and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for sertraline to determine the probability of achieving therapeutic sertraline concentrations in the brains of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. As mentioned by

  17. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A Practical Approach to Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan B; Josephson, S Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Meningitis is an inflammatory syndrome involving the meninges that classically manifests with headache and nuchal rigidity and is diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination. In contrast, encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma itself and often results in focal neurologic deficits or seizures. In this article, the authors review the differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, with an emphasis on infectious etiologies. The recommended practical clinical approach focuses on early high-yield diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial administration, given the high morbidity associated with these diseases and the time-sensitive nature of treatment initiation. If the initial workup does not yield a diagnosis, further etiology-specific testing based upon risk factors and clinical characteristics should be pursued. Effective treatment is available for many causes of meningitis and encephalitis, and when possible should address both the primary disease process as well as potential complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P

    1998-01-01

    The majority of nerve fibers in the middle meningeal artery and branching arterioles are sympathetic, storing norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). A sparse supply of fibers contain acetylcholinesterase activity and immunoreactivity toward vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptidine histidi...

  20. MRI enhancing patterns of non-meningioma meningeal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Xiaofeng; Ding Juan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Shi Zengru; Yu Hong; Gu Qian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI appearances of meningeal diseases and to study MRI diagnostic value of enhancing patterns in different meningeal processes. Methods: Sixty-one patients with integrated clinical data, including 27 infectious meningitis, 4 inflammatory meningitis (2 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 Wegener granuloma, and 1 unknown etiological factor), 12 meningeal metastasis, 2 meningeal lymphoma, 8 cerebrovascular disease, and 8 postoperative changes, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were examined on MRI before and after contrast administration. Results: (1) MR plain scan: positive findings of plain scan were revealed in only 3 cases, including 1 linear meningeal thickening pattern and 2 nodular pattern. (2) MR enhancement: All cases showed 3 kinds of enhancing patterns: 19 dural-arachnoid pattern, 32 pia-arachnoid pattern, and 10 total meninges pattern, respectively. Conclusion: Different meningeal diseases have different MR imaging manifestations. Creating the enhancement patterns of various diseases can have great clinical significance. (authors)

  1. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Prasad, Sreeram; Maurya, Pradeep K.; Misra, Usha K. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)), Email: drukmisra@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Sunil (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  2. Anaerobic bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Jun; Lien, Chia-Yi; Chien, Chun-Chih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2018-01-22

    Anaerobic infection is a very uncommon condition in adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), and its clinical characteristics have yet to be clarified. We enrolled 540 patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis during a study period of 30 years (1986-2015), of whom 13 (2.4%) had anaerobic infections. These 13 patients were eight men and five women, aged 22-77 years. Among them, 53.8% (7/13) had a postneurosurgical state as the preceding event, and 79.6% (10/13) had underlying medical conditions including diabetes mellitus, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, cerebral infarct and alcoholism. Nosocomial and mixed infections were found in 15.5% (2/13) and 46.1% (6/13) of the patients, respectively. A total of 14 anaerobic strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid specimens, including nine Gram-negative (G(-)) strains: Fusobacterium nucleatum (3), Prevotella species (3) and Bacteroides fragilis (3), and five Gram-positive (G(+)) strains: Propionibacterium acnes (3) and Peptostreptococcus micros (also known as Parvimonas micra) (2). All of the implicated G(+) anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to penicillin, and no multiple drug-resistant strains were found among the implicated G(-) anaerobic bacteria. Despite treatment, 30.8% (4/13) of the patients died. Of the nine survivors, 22.2% (2/9) had a full recovery, while the other 77.8% (7/9) had varying degrees of neurological deficits. Compared with the good outcome group (n = 6, modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores: 0-2), the poor outcome group (n = 7, mRS scores ≧3) had higher incidence of seizure. These results may offer a preliminary view of the clinical characteristics of anaerobic ABM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  4. Mondini Dysplasia Presenting as Otorrhea without Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Yu Lin; Hung-Ching Lin; Chun-Chih Peng; Kuo-Sheng Lee; Nan-Chang Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Mondini dysplasia is a rare inner ear malformation that is usually only diagnosed after recurrent meningitis. Surgical intervention is mandatory. This report highlights the case of a patient with Mondini dysplasia who presented with hearing impairment and otorrhea and was diagnosed and treated before the occurrence of meningitis, thus preventing morbidity and neurologic sequelae. Hearing impairment may be the only manifestation of Mondini dysplasia, and the benefit of hearing screening is emp...

  5. 103. Reparación valvular mitral en un caso de endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manrique

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La reparación valvular mitral es un procedimiento eficaz y seguro en la insuficiencia mitral aguda en pacientes con endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana. Permite evitar un riesgo adicional asociado al uso de prótesis mecánicas en pacientes con riesgo tromboembólico elevado.

  6. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  7. Group A Streptococcal meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bovenkerk, Sandra; Man, Wing Kit; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-07-01

    We report on the incidence, clinical characteristics, and bacterial genotype of group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis in the Netherlands. We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with GAS meningitis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2013. GAS was identified in 26 of 1322 patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis (2%); 9 cases (35%) occurred in the first four months of 2013. GAS meningitis was often preceded by otitis or sinusitis (24 of 26 [92%]) and a high proportion of patients developed complications during clinical course (19 of 26 [73%]). Subdural empyema occurred in 8 of 26 patients (35%). Nine patients underwent mastoidectomy and in 5 patients neurosurgical evacuation of the subdural empyema was performed. Five of 26 patients (19%) died and 11 of 21 surviving patient had neurologic sequelae (52%). Infection with the emm1 and cc28 GAS genotype was associated with subdural empyema (both 4 of 6 [67%] vs. 2 of 14 [14%]; P = 0.037). GAS meningitis is an uncommon but severe disease. Patients are at risk for empyema, which is associated with infection with the emm1 and cc28 genotype. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infeções alimentares por Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Carlota Duarte Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Após o isolamento bem-sucedido em fezes na década de setenta do século passado (1972), Campylobacter tornou-se rapidamente a espécie bacteriana mais comumente associada a doenças diarreicas em todo o mundo. A infeção por Campylobacter provoca um espectro de doenças, incluindo enterite aguda, infeções extra-gastrointestinais e complicações pós-infeciosas. A doença gastrointestinal autolimita...

  9. Identification of potential metabolic biomarkers of cerebrospinal fluids that differentiate tuberculous meningitis from other types of meningitis by a metabolomics study

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Yi-Ning; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Wen-Yuan; Tong, Yong-Xi; Yang, Dan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Ren, Ze-Ze; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is caused by tuberculosis infection of of the meninges, which are the membrane systems that encircle the brain, with a high morbidity and mortality rate. It is challenging to diagnose TBM among other types of meningitis, such as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. We aimed to identify metabolites that are differentially expressed between TBM and the other types of meningitis by a global metabolomics analysis. The cerebrospinal fluid...

  10. Estudio de 312 niños con meningitis atendidos en un Hospital Universitario en el Sur de Brasil Study of 312 children with meningitis treated at a University Hospital in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio A. Antoniuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los aspectos clínicos, análisis de laboratorio, el perfil etiológico y las características evolutivas de los distintos tipos de meningitis aguda atendidos en un Servicio de Pediatría de un Hospital Público Universitario. Fueron evaluados a partir de un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de niños atendidos en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad Federal del Paraná, durante el periodo entre enero 2003 a enero 2007, con el diagnóstico probable de meningitis basado en manifestaciones clínicas y en alteraciones citológicas y bioquímicas del LCR. Se diagnosticó meningitis viral (MV en 140 niños (45%, meningitis bacteriana (MB en 58 (19% y en 114 la etiología fue indeterminada (36%. Entre las MB el agente etiológico más frecuente fue Neisseria meningitidis (25 casos. Lo datos clínicos predominantes fueron fiebre, vómitos y cefalea. En el LCR de la MB hubo predominio de polimorfonucleares, proteína elevada y glucosa baja. En la MV predominaron los mononucleares. Las complicaciones neurológicas fueron más frecuentes en la MB, siendo la convulsión el hallazgo más común (6/58 pacientes. El óbito ocurrió en un caso en la MV y tres en la MB. Se llegó a la conclusión de que la clásica tríada fue la manifestación clínica más común, las anormalidades citológicas y bioquímicas fueron típicas auxiliando en la diferenciación entre las MB y MV, aunque un gran número de casos haya quedado sin definición etiológica; las complicaciones neurológicas inmediatas y los óbitos han sido pocos frecuentes en esta muestra.The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and laboratorial aspects, as well as the etiological profile and the evolution characteristics, of the diverse types of severe meningitis treated at a Pediatric Clinic of a public university hospital. From a descriptive and retrospective study, 312 children at the Pediatric Clinic of the

  11. Kriptokokal meningitis: Aspek klinis dan diagnosis laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Kriptokokosis merupakan infeksi yang disebabkan oleh jamur Cryptococcus neoformans, infeksi ini secara luas ditemukan di dunia dan umumya dialami oleh penderita dengan sistem imun yang rendah. Munculan klinis terutama adalah meningitis dan meningoensefalitis yang dikenal dengan kriptokokal meningitis. Sejalan dengan infeksi HIV yang menjadi pandemi, kriptokokosis sebagai infeksi oportunistik juga semakin berkembang di dunia. Kriptokokal meningitis merupakan infeksi oportunistik kedua paling umum yang terkait dengan AIDS di Afrika dan Asia Selatan dengan kejadian kriptokokosis 15%-30% ditemukan pada pasien dengan AIDS. Tanpa pengobatan dengan antifungal yang spesifik, mortalitas dilaporkan 100% dalam dua minggu setelah munculan klinis kriptokokosis dengan meningoensefalitis pada populasi terinfeksi HIV. Di Indonesia, sebelum pandemi AIDS kasus kriptokokosis jarang dilaporkan. Sejak tahun 2004, seiring dengan pertambahan pasien terinfeksi HIV, Departemen Parasitologi FKUI mencatat peningkatan insidensi kriptokokal meningitis pada penderita AIDS yaitu sebesar 21,9%. Faktor yang terkait dengan virulensi Cryptococcus neoformans adalah adanya kapsul polisakarida, produksi melanin dan sifat thermotolerance. Imunitas yang dimediasi oleh sel memiliki peranan penting dalam pertahanan pejamu terhadap Cryptococcus. Pemeriksaan laboratorium penunjang untuk diagnosis adalah pemeriksaan mikroskopis langsung menggunakan tinta India, deteksi antigen, metode enzyme immunoassay, kultur, dan metode molekular. Kata kunci: kriptokokal meningitis, Cryptococcus neoformans,infeksi oportunistik Abstract Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, that is widely found worldwide and generally experienced by patients with immunodeficiency. Meningitis and meningoencephalitis is the major clinical symptoms in cryptococcal meningitis. Coincide with the pandemic of HIV infection, cryptococcosis as an opportunistic infection is also growing in the

  12. Placa bacteriana dentária em cães Dental bacterial plaque in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a incidência de placa bacteriana dentária, foram utilizados 30 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos em três grupos iguais, de acordo com a faixa etária, sendo o grupo I de 0 a 2 anos, o grupo II de 3 a 5 anos e o grupo III acima de 6 anos. Os animais foram submetidos a anestesia geral e sobre os dentes foi aplicado cloreto de metilrosanilina, para evidenciar acúmulos bacterianos. As placas encontravam-se distribuídas em 80,99% no grupo I, 71,45% no grupo II e 83,96% no grupo III. Os grupos dentários foram considerados separadamente, apresentando índices de 64,84% nos dentes incisivos, 84,80% nos caninos, 87,23% nos pré-molares e 78,34% nos molares. Nos três grupos de cães observou-se índices semelhantes de placa bacteriana nos diferentes grupos dentários. Os animais do grupo II e o grupo de dentes incisivos apresentaram menores índices de placa bacteriana.To avaliate the incidence of bacterial plaque 30 mogreal dogs were utilizated, distributed among three equal groups. According to age, group I was composed of 0 to 2 years-old dogs, group II was 3 to 5 years-old, and group III over 6 years-old. The animals underwent a general anesthesia and metilrosanilin cloret was applied over the tooth, to evidence the bacterial mass. The plaques were distributed to 80.99% in group I, 71.42% in group II and 83.96% in group III. The dental groups were considerated apart, showing index of 64.84% on the incisar tooth, 84.80% on the canine tooth, 87.23% on the premolar tooth, and 78.34% on the molar tooth. At the dogs groups, similar Índex of bacterial plaque were observed on the diffèrent dental groups. The dogs from group II and the incisive tooth group showed minar bacterial plaque index.

  13. Valor pronóstico y discriminatorio de la interleucina-6 y la proteína C-reactiva en la meningitis Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and its prognosis and differentiation value in meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Noda Albelo; Manuel Araña Rosains; Arturo Vidal Tallet; Xiomara Casal Menéndez

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. La meningitis se caracteriza por una marcada respuesta inflamatoria en el espacio subaracnoideo, que se acompaña de la producción intratecal de múltiples mediadores entre los que se hallan citocinas como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa, la interleucina-1-beta y la interleucina-6. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la concentración de interleucina-6 (IL-6) y proteína C-reactiva en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y el suero de pacientes con meningitis; determinar la posibl...

  14. Meningitis and Climate: From Science to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Thomson, Madeleine C.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Hopson, Thomas; Pandya, Rajul; Miller, Ron L.; Hugonnet, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a climate sensitive infectious disease. The regional extent of the Meningitis Belt in Africa, where the majority of epidemics occur, was originally defined by Lapeysonnie in the 1960s. A combination of climatic and environmental conditions and biological and social factors have been associated to the spatial and temporal patterns of epidemics observed since the disease first emerged in West Africa over a century ago. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and data that would allow disentangling the relative effects of the diverse risk factors upon epidemics. The Meningitis Environmental Risk Information Technologies Initiative (MERIT), a collaborative research-to-practice consortium, seeks to inform national and regional prevention and control strategies across the African Meningitis Belt through the provision of new data and tools that better determine risk factors. In particular MERIT seeks to consolidate a body of knowledge that provides evidence of the contribution of climatic and environmental factors to seasonal and year-to-year variations in meningococcal meningitis incidence at both district and national scales. Here we review recent research and practice seeking to provide useful information for the epidemic response strategy of National Ministries of Health in the Meningitis Belt of Africa. In particular the research and derived tools described in this paper have focused at "getting science into policy and practice" by engaging with practitioner communities under the umbrella of MERIT to ensure the relevance of their work to operational decision-making. We limit our focus to that of reactive vaccination for meningococcal meningitis. Important but external to our discussion is the development and implementation of the new conjugate vaccine, which specifically targets meningococcus A

  15. Does antimicrobial usage before meningitis lead to a higher risk of adult postsurgical Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis than that of Enterobacteriaceae meningitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiraslan, Hayati; Ulutabanca, Halil; Ercal, Baris Derya; Metan, Gokhan; Alp, Emine

    2016-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae are two pathogens responsible for postneurosurgical meningitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the factors that influenced the outcomes in patients with postneurosurgical meningitis caused by A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with post-surgical meningitis were identified from infection control committee charts between 2007 and 2015. Subjects over 16 years old who had positive cerebral spinal fluid cultures for A. baumannii or Enterobacteriaceae were enrolled in the study. Clinical and laboratory data for 30 patients with A. baumannii meningitis were compared with those of 12 patients with Enterobacteriaceae meningitis. The mean age of patients was 51.9 years and 57.1% were male. Eleven patients had comorbidities, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients were due to intracranial haemorrhage (78.6%). The rate of the patients who received an appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 35.7%, and the crude mortality rate was 64.3%. In univariate analysis, previous antibiotic use, an infection before meningitis and mechanical ventilation had an increased risk of A. baumannii meningitis. Moreover, intrathecal antimicrobial use, inappropriate empirical antimicrobial use, antimicrobial resistance and alanine aminotransferase elevation were significantly higher in patients with A. baumannii meningitis than in those with Enterobacteriaceae meningitis. Antimicrobial use before meningitis (8.84 times) and mechanical ventilation (7.28 times) resulted in an increased risk of A. baumannii meningitis. None of the results affected 30-day mortality. Avoidance of unnecessarily prolonged antimicrobial usage may help to prevent a selection of A. baumannii.

  16. Translocação bacteriana para o rim na icterícia obstrutiva experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Aldo da Cunha; Ramos,Ana Maria de Oliveira; Carvalho,Maria Goretti Freire de; Silva,Marli Pinheiro da; Dantas Filho,Antônio Medeiros; Dantas Júnior,José Hipólito; Freitas,Fernando César M

    1997-01-01

    Estudo com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade de ocorrência de translocação bacteriana para os rins de ratos, após ligadura de colédoco. Foram utilizados 29 ratos Wistar com peso médio de 171 ± 12,6g. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo I (n=14) e grupo II (n=15). Com técnica asséptica, nos ratos no grupo I foi feita ligadura de colédoco com fio de seda nº 3 zeros e no grupo II foi simulada a ligadura com a simples manipulação do colédoco com pinça de Adson ("sham operatio...

  17. Cholinesterase modulations in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Ofek, Keren; Qvist, Tavs

    2011-01-01

    The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis.......The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis....

  18. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tunkel, Allan R.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the

  19. Pattern of the meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Northern Nigeria, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Enya Bassey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The testing of CSF samples during meningitis outbreaks is recommended in order to monitor the occurrence of the multiple meningitis serotypes during these outbreaks and to direct serotype-specific vaccination response activities.

  20. Children with meningeal signs: predicting who needs empiric antibiotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); K.G.M. Moons (Karel); M.J. Twijnstra; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Since delayed diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis worsens patient prognosis, clinicians have a low threshold to perform a lumbar puncture or to start empiric antibiotic treatment in patients suspected of having meningitis. OBJECTIVE: To develop a

  1. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants Language: English (US) ... Compartir 2002 Study of the Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants Many people have ...

  2. Bacterial Meningitis in Adults After Splenectomy and Hyposplenic States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, Kirsten S.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, disease course, prognosis, and vaccination status of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis with a history of splenectomy or functional hyposplenia. Patients and Methods: Patients with bacterial meningitis proven by cerebrospinal fluid culture

  3. Cerebral tryptophan metabolism and outcome of tuberculous meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, van Arjan; Dian, Sofiati; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl; Avila-Pacheco, Julian; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Ruesen, Carolien; Annisa, Jessi; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M.; Chaidir, Lidya; Li, Yang; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Notebaart, Richard A.; Ruslami, Rovina; Netea, Mihai G.; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Kumar, Vinod; Clish, Clary B.; Ganiem, A.R.; Crevel, van Reinout

    2018-01-01

    Background: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous

  4. Receptor desencadeador expresso nas células mielóides Tipo 1 (TREM-1) no diagnóstico e prognóstico na meningite bacteriana em crianças

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Félix Torres

    2015-01-01

    Base teórica: A meningite bacteriana é uma causa importante de morbidade e mortalidade na infância. Análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) continua a ser a ferramenta de diagnóstico padrão ouro, porém novos biomarcadores para o diagnóstico e prognóstico ainda são necessários. Receptor Desencadeador Expresso nas Células Mielóides Tipo 1 (TREM-1) é um receptor transmembrana expresso em neutrófilos e monócitos, que desempenha um papel importante na modulação da resposta inflamatória. A sua f...

  5. Translocação bacteriana para o pulmão na icterícia obstrutiva experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Tem sido demonstrado que a icterícia obstrutiva provoca depressão do sistema imunológico, mudança no padrão de colonização bacteriana dos intestinos e passagem de bactérias da luz intestinal para a circulação porta e sistêmica. Estudo experimental em ratos procurou observar a possibilidade de translocação bacteriana para os pulmões após a ligadura do colédoco. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar pesando de 178 a 215g, separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais. Nos ratos do grupo I foi feita a ligadura do colédoco e nos do grupo II apenas a manipulação do colédoco com pinça atraumática (sham operation. No sétimo dia de observação os animais foram mortos com superdose de anestésico, sangue foi colhido para dosagem de bilirrubinas e os pulmões ressecados sob condições assépticas. Metade de cada pulmão foi homogeneizada e semeada em meios de cultura ágar McConkey e ágar sangue. A outra metade serviu para exame histopatológico -coloração hematoxilina e eosina. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t, com significância 0,05. RESULTADOS: revelaram bilirrubina total em média 18,7±3,6 no grupo I e 0,7±0,2 no grupo II. No grupo I foram isoladas colônias de Klebsiela sp nos pulmões de 30% dos animais e E. coli em 20%, e os escores histopatológicos atingiram a média 6,2±2,08. No grupo II não foram detectadas bactérias nos pulmões e os escores do exame histopatológico atingiram 1,8±1,16. A diferença dos dados analisados mostrou-se significativa (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a icterícia obstrutiva por ligadura do colédoco em ratos provocou translocação de germes Gram-negativos para os pulmões e resultou em alterações histopatológicas significativas.

  6. Utilidad de Streptotest en la farmacia comunitaria para la discriminación rápida de faringitis bacteriana y vírica en pacientes adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonafonte Jimeno MA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN La faringoamigdalitis es la patología infecciosa más frecuente en consultas médicas, tanto en población infantil como adulta. Los signos y síntomas de la faringitis viral o bacteriana son inespecíficos, dificultando su diagnóstico. OBJETIVO Determinar la utilidad en la farmacia comunitaria del Streptotest para la discriminación rápida de los dos tipos de faringitis en pacientes adultos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS Diseño observacional no postautorización (No-EPA, prospectivo, multicéntrico y de ámbito nacional en 133 farmacias comunitarias. Criterios de selección: pacientes con edad igual o superior a 18 años, que acuden a la farmacia solicitando un remedio para un proceso de afectación faringoamigdalar agudo, que no hayan tomado antibiótico en los ultimos tres días y que hayan otorgado su consentimiento informado por escrito. RESULTADOS Se registraron un total de 1.039 casos válidos. El 33% de los pacientes solicitó un antibiótico en la farmacia para el tratamiento de la afectación faringoamigdalar. Un 54% presentó síntomas inespecíficos tanto de infección bacteriana o vírica. El resultado del test fue positivo en un 12% de los pacientes. El 93% de los pacientes con Streptotest positivo fue derivado al médico. El 97% de los pacientes con resultado positivo recibió tratamiento antibiótico, cumpliéndolo correctamente el 94%. El 96% de los pacientes tuvo una evolución positiva. El Streptotest puede ser una herramienta de gran ayuda para el farmacéutico comunitario que, en colaboración con el médico de atención primaria, puede contribuir a una reducción significativa del consumo inadecuado de antibióticos en el tratamiento de las faringoamigdalitis de origen vírico.

  7. Assessing the diversity of bacterial communities associated with plants Avaliação da diversidade de comunidades bacterianas associadas às plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria interactions result from reciprocal recognition between both species. These interactions are responsible for essential biological processes in plant development and health status. Here, we present a review of the methodologies applied to investigate shifts in bacterial communities associated with plants. A description of techniques is made from initial isolations to culture-independent approaches focusing on quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in real time (qPCR, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, clone library construction and analysis, the application of multivariate analyses to microbial ecology data and the upcoming high throughput methodologies such as microarrays and pyrosequencing. This review supplies information about the development of traditional methods and a general overview about the new insights into bacterial communities associated with plants.As interações planta-bactéria resultam de um reconhecimento recíproco de ambas espécies. Estas interações são responsáveis por processos biológicos essenciais para o desenvolvimento e a proteção das plantas. Este trabalho revisa as metodologias aplicadas na investigação de alterações nas comunidades bacterianas associadas às plantas. Uma descrição das técnicas é feita, desde o isolamento até a aplicação de técnicas independentes de cultivo, destacando as técnicas de qPCR, Gel de Eletroforese em Gradiente Desnaturante (DGGE, construção e análise de bibliotecas de clones, a aplicação de análise multivariada em dados de ecologia microbiana, e as novas metodologias de alto processamento de amostras como microarranjos e pirosequenciamento. Em resumo, esta revisão fornece informações sobre o desenvolvimento das técnicas tradicionais e uma visão geral sobre as novas tendências dos estudos de comunidades bacterianas associadas às plantas.

  8. “VALORACIÓN DE PLACA BACTERIANA Y GINGIVITIS, MEDIANTE EL ÍNDICE DE PLACA DE O ́LEARY E ÍNDICE GINGIVAL DE LOE-SILNESS, POSTERIOR AL USO DE CLORHEXIDINA AL 0.12%, EN PACIENTES CON APARATOLOGIA FIJA”

    OpenAIRE

    Bucio Hernández, María Sugey

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: La búsqueda de agentes para el control de la placa bacteriana ha sido amplia, más teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido la enfermedad periodontal en los últimos años; esto ha llevado a diversas industrias farmaceuticas a investigar en este campo. En el presente estudio se utilizo el índice Gingival de Löe y Silness (1963), por ser sencillo y valorar todas las áreas del diente, el más utilizado actualmente para medir el estado de inflamación y de salud...

  9. Microbiota bacteriana de ovos de jacaré-do-pantanal incubados naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pulcherio

    Full Text Available RESUMO A cadeia produtiva do Caiman yacare tem-se destacado no Mato Grosso com a exportação de 143.386 peles em 2015, cujo sistema de manejo (ranching implica a incubação artificial dos ovos. Nesse processo, a contaminação bacteriana de ovos influencia a taxa de eclosão. O conhecimento da microbiota de ovos incubados naturalmente orienta o manejo sanitário adequado no incubatório. No presente estudo, são apresentadas informações sobre essa microbiota e sua correlação com a de outros crocodilianos, apontando-se as espécies com potencial patogênico. Amostras de 20 ninhos de C. yacare foram coletadas e semeadas em ágar sangue e ágar Mac Conckey. A colônia condizente com Salmonella sp. foi confirmada pela técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase. Das 22 espécies bacterianas isoladas, 59% pertencem à família Enterobacteriaceae e 41% a outros táxons bacterianos. A semelhança dos achados com as bactérias isoladas na microbiota oral e/ou intestinal/cloacal de crocodilianos foi de 77,27%. As bactérias mais e menos frequentes foram, respectivamente, Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium multivorum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia hermannii, Hafnia alvei, Morganella, morganni, Salmonella sp., Serratia marcescens e Shigella sonnei. Das bactérias isoladas, 86,36% têm potencial patogênico para crocodilianos. A origem materna e a ambiental da microbiota de ovos incubados naturalmente são, respectivamente, de 77,27% e 27,27%.

  10. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  11. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina

  12. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hsien Wang; Kwang Sik Kim

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a bacterial virulence factor associ...

  13. Meningeal enhancement on MRI after craniotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Motohiro; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Yamashita, Junkoh; Suzuki, Masayuki (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-08-01

    Gd-DPTA-enhanced MR images in 94 patients who had undergone craniotomy were studied, with particular attention paid to the meningeal enhancement. Such enhancement was noted in 26 of the 94 (27.6%) in the portion surrounding the craniotomy site. Meningeal enhancement, presumably of the subdural neomembrane, was apparent as a third line of a high signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted MR images. The outer two high-intensity lines were derived from fat in the subcutaneous tissues of the scalp and fat in the bone marrow of the calvaria. We designated this characteristic enhancement as a 'triple white line'. Of the 26 patients with meningeal enhancement, 22 cases (23.4%) showed such a 'triple white line', 11 cases (11.7%) showed falx enhancement, and 12 cases (12.8%) showed tentorial enhancement. The intervals between surgery and the appearance of the meningeal enhancement ranged from 4 days to 88 weeks. A small amount of bleeding into the dura-arachnoid interface induced by surgery might result in the subdural neomembrane, as has previously been reported. This neomembrane might be enhanced by the leakage of Gd-DTPA through the proliferating capillaries. As meningeal enhancement occurs in approximately a third of the cases following craniotomy, much care should be taken in the differential diagnosis of the infection, inflammation, and metastasis or dissemination of malignant brain tumors. (author).

  14. Human Meningitis-Associated Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, KWANG SIK

    2016-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis follows a high-degree of bacteremia and invasion of the blood-brain barrier. E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier, the essentials step in the development of E. coli meningitis, requires specific microbial and host factors as well as microbe- and host-specific signaling molecules. Blockade of such microbial and host factors contributing to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is shown to be efficient in preventing E. coli penetration into the brain. The basis for requiring a high-degree of bacteremia for E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, however, remains unclear. Continued investigation on the microbial and host factors contributing to a high-degree of bacteremia and E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is likely to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. PMID:27223820

  15. Meningeal enhancement on MRI after craniotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Motohiro; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Yamashita, Junkoh; Suzuki, Masayuki

    1991-01-01

    Gd-DPTA-enhanced MR images in 94 patients who had undergone craniotomy were studied, with particular attention paid to the meningeal enhancement. Such enhancement was noted in 26 of the 94 (27.6%) in the portion surrounding the craniotomy site. Meningeal enhancement, presumably of the subdural neomembrane, was apparent as a third line of a high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted MR images. The outer two high-intensity lines were derived from fat in the subcutaneous tissues of the scalp and fat in the bone marrow of the calvaria. We designated this characteristic enhancement as a 'triple white line'. Of the 26 patients with meningeal enhancement, 22 cases (23.4%) showed such a 'triple white line', 11 cases (11.7%) showed falx enhancement, and 12 cases (12.8%) showed tentorial enhancement. The intervals between surgery and the appearance of the meningeal enhancement ranged from 4 days to 88 weeks. A small amount of bleeding into the dura-arachnoid interface induced by surgery might result in the subdural neomembrane, as has previously been reported. This neomembrane might be enhanced by the leakage of Gd-DTPA through the proliferating capillaries. As meningeal enhancement occurs in approximately a third of the cases following craniotomy, much care should be taken in the differential diagnosis of the infection, inflammation, and metastasis or dissemination of malignant brain tumors. (author)

  16. Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure in Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreitere, Bart; Bruyninckx, Dominike; Güiza, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The literature on intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in meningitis is limited to case reports and a handful of descriptive series. The aim of this study is to investigate relationships among ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and outcome in meningitis and to identify whether ICP affected clinical decisions. Between 1999 and 2011, a total of 17 patients with meningitis underwent ICP monitoring at the University Hospitals Leuven. Charts were reviewed for clinical history, ICP/CPP data, imaging findings, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Univariate correlations were computed for outcome and ICP/CPP variables, computed tomography characteristics, and Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury outcome model variables. Treatment decisions were assessed regarding whether or not they were based on ICP. At drain placement, Glasgow Coma Scale scores showed a median of 8 (range 3-12). Six of 17 patients had either one or two nonreactive pupils. Significant correlations with outcome were found for the highest documented ICP value (r = -0.70), the number of episodes when CPP meningitis high ICP and low CPP represent secondary insults. The poor condition of the patients illustrates that the level of suspicion for increased ICP in meningitis may not be high enough.

  17. Implicaciones clínicas asociadas a las infecciones provocadas por helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesta López, María de los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori fue redescubierta en 1983 por los patólogos Warren y Marshall, tras demostrar su presencia en la mucosa gástrica inflamada, úlcera duodenal y gástrica. Es una bacteria Gram negativa, helicoidal y con flagelos en uno de sus extremos, lo que le confiere movilidad. La infección por H. pylori constituye una de las infecciones bacterianas del tracto gastroduodenal más prevalentes, afectando a casi el 50% de la población mundial. La transmisión se produce fundamentalmente d...

  18. cryptococcus meningitis in a cohort of hiv positive kenyan patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cryptococcus meningitis is the most lethal meningitis in patients with. HIV/AIDS. It is invariably fatal if not treated appropriately and promptly. In sub-. Saharan Africa with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS, response to treatment of cryptococcal meningitis has seldom been assessed. Objective: To describe the ...

  19. Update on bacterial meningitis: epidemiology, trials and genetic association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasanmoentalib, E. Soemirien; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease that continues to inflict a heavy toll. We reviewed recent advances in vaccination, randomized studies on treatment, and genetic association studies in bacterial meningitis. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has decreased after implementation of

  20. Current concept in the management of acute bacterial meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though largely considered a disease of the so called dry and hot “African meningitis belt,” meningitis is assuming a global public health problem. Recent emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has resulted in increased morbidity of and mortality attributable to meningitis. This review addresses recent developments in the ...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Merel M.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; Seron, Mercedes Valls; Houben, Judith; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes meningitis is the third most common cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with high rates of mortality and unfavorable outcome. We analyzed 101 cytokines, chemokines and complement factors in CSF of adult patients with Listeria meningitis included in a prospective

  2. Reação em campo à murcha bacteriana de cultivares de tomate em Roraima Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato cultivars in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyanameyka E de Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith é a doença bacteriana mais importante do tomateiro na Região Norte do Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o nível de resistência de cultivares de tomate, avaliar o progresso da murcha bacteriana nesses genótipos a fim de conhecer o comportamento da doença nos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, para auxiliar no manejo da epidemia, e determinar a época crítica para o desenvolvimento da doença nessas cultivares nas condições de Roraima. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um campo naturalmente infestado com a biovar 1 de Rasltonia solanacearum, por dois anos. A área tinha um histórico de quatro anos de plantios sucessivos com plantas de tomate suscetíveis à murcha bacteriana, e as perdas alcançando até 100%. Para condução do experimento foram utilizadas mudas das cultivares Majestade, Nemonetta, Carmen, Liliane, Santa Clara, Sensação, San Vito, Gaúcho Melhorado, Hector e Laura. Foram feitas seis avaliações do número de tomateiros que apresentavam murcha irreversível e/ou morte durante o ciclo da cultura. Foram determinadas as variáveis área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a taxa de progresso da doença (r, incidência média (Y50, incidência máxima (Ymáx e a incidência final da doença. Os valores de AACPD e da variável r para a cultivar Majestade foram menores que para as demais, demonstrando que houve menor incidência de plantas doentes nesta cultivar, indicando resistência. Embora o nível de resistência apresentado por esta cultivar não seja muito elevado, o cultivo da mesma é recomendável e viável para o plantio no Estado de Roraima, especialmente considerando-se os altos preços do tomate, que são adquiridos de outras regiões produtoras no país, embora somente esta resistência não garanta, sozinha, o controle adequado da doença, sendo necessárias outras medidas de controle associadas

  3. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  4. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Lind, I

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens of cerebros......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens....../139) of the culture-negative specimens. CSF specimens from 21 patients with bacterial meningitis caused by other species were all negative in CIE, except four, three of which contained Escherichia coli antigen reacting with antiserum to N. meningitidis group B and one E. coli antigen reacting with antiserum to H...

  5. Targets for adjunctive therapy in pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Collodel, Allan; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Moreira, Ana Paula; Ceretta, Renan A; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a severe infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The inflammatory reaction to the disease contributes to neuronal injury and involves the meninges, the subarachnoid space and the brain parenchymal vessels. Bacterial pathogens may reach the blood-brain barrier and be recognized by antigen-presenting cells through the binding of Toll-like receptors, triggering an inflammatory cascade. This in turn produces cytokines and chemokines, increases adhesion molecule expression and attracts leukocytes from the blood. This cascade leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage and blood-brain barrier permeability. In spite of effective antibacterial treatments, approximately one third of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae, such as hearing loss, cerebral palsy, seizures, hydrocephaly or cognitive impairment. This review summarizes the information on targets of adjuvant treatments of acute pneumococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xudong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD, VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis. Conclusion This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.

  7. Meningitis after cochlear implantation in Mondini malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, E L; Eby, T L

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential for CSF leakage and subsequent meningitis after cochlear implantation in the malformed cochlea has been recognized, this complication has not been previously reported. We report a case of CSF otorhinorrhea and meningitis after minor head trauma developing 2 years after cochlear implantation in a child with Mondini malformation. Leakage of CSF was identified from the cochleostomy around the electrode of the implant, and this leak was sealed with a temporalis fascia and muscle plug. Although this complication appears to be rare, care must be taken to seal the cochleostomy in children with inner ear malformations at the initial surgery, and any episode of meningitis after surgery must be thoroughly investigated to rule out CSF leakage from the labyrinth.

  8. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Onuma, Takehide [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  9. MODERN CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ENTEROVIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Usacheva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous viral meningitises from 80% to 90% of cases are accounted for meningitis of enteroviral etiology according to the international data. Despite the favorable disease course, there are forms which are characterized by severe damage of CNS. In order to improve diagnostics of enteroviral meningitis in this article we have made a comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters in 23 patients with enteroviral meningitis and 18 patients with serous meningitis of non-enteroviral etiology. Anamnesis data and the major clinical manifestations of the disease dynamics were analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of diagnoses, by which patients were sent to infectious hospital, the symptoms that occurred during patients’ admission into hospitals and their severity. The presence and severity of meningeal symptoms and the indices of cerebrospinal fluid in the patients of the comparison group were analyzed in detail. It is shown that enteroviruses are the important factor in the development of meningitis in the children of younger age. The clinical picture of enteroviral meningitis often develops gradually for 2-3 days and includes the typical syndromes: intoxication and meningeal ones. Every third patient with enterovirus infection has diarrhea and catarrhal symptoms, that’s why it is difficult to diagnose meningitis in its early stages, but it allows to assume enteroviral etiology of the disease. The meningitis of enteroviral etiology is characterized by multiple meningeal signs, while the non-enteroviral meningitis is characterized by dissociation with the prevalence of the of Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s symptoms. The analysis of the laboratory data showed that the enteroviral meningitis is characterized by low (over 50-100 cells "mixed" pleocytosis (the ratio of lymphocytes and neutrophils is about 1:1. These data can be used for differential diagnosis between enteroviral meningitis and serous meningitis of

  10. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharath, R.D.; Vasudev, M.K.; Sinha, S.; Ravishankar, S.; Chandrashekar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  11. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release...

  12. Mondini Dysplasia Presenting as Otorrhea without Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mondini dysplasia is a rare inner ear malformation that is usually only diagnosed after recurrent meningitis. Surgical intervention is mandatory. This report highlights the case of a patient with Mondini dysplasia who presented with hearing impairment and otorrhea and was diagnosed and treated before the occurrence of meningitis, thus preventing morbidity and neurologic sequelae. Hearing impairment may be the only manifestation of Mondini dysplasia, and the benefit of hearing screening is emphasized. Temporal bone computed tomography should be considered in children with unilateral sensorineural or mixed-type hearing impairment.

  13. Mondini dysplasia presenting as otorrhea without meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Hung-Ching; Peng, Chun-Chih; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Chiu, Nan-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Mondini dysplasia is a rare inner ear malformation that is usually only diagnosed after recurrent meningitis. Surgical intervention is mandatory. This report highlights the case of a patient with Mondini dysplasia who presented with hearing impairment and otorrhea and was diagnosed and treated before the occurrence of meningitis, thus preventing morbidity and neurologic sequelae. Hearing impairment may be the only manifestation of Mondini dysplasia, and the benefit of hearing screening is emphasized. Temporal bone computed tomography should be considered in children with unilateral sensorineural or mixed-type hearing impairment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  15. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Chul; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Hong Kue; Lee, Soon Il [Sowa Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis.

  16. Aspectos epidemiológicos da infecção por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b Epidemiologic aspects of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Loguercio Bouskela

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar o papel do Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib como um dos patógenos mais importantes implicados em doenças infecciosas invasivas, especialmente nos 2 primeiros anos de vida. Nos países em desenvolvimento, o H. Influenzae chega a causar 30% dos casos de pneumonia com cultura positiva e de 20 a 60% dos casos de meningite bacteriana. No presente estudo, dados epidemiológicos do Brasil foram comparados com dados internacionais obtidos em bancos de dados (Medline, 1966 a 1995; LILACS, 1982 a 1995; Thesis databank, 1980 a 1995; e Dissertation abstracts, 1988 a 1994. Analisámos o coeficiente de incidência do Hib no Brasil por estado e por faixa etária, com estratificação inclusive para o 1° ano de vida. A meningite foi utilizada como marcador do coeficiente de incidência devido às dificuldades para obter material adequado para a identificação do microrganismo nos outros quadros, como pneumonia, osteomielite, epiglotite ou endocardite. Nossa análise revelou que os dados nacionais mascaram a incidência e a letalidade regionais do H. influenzae: por exemplo, em 1991, a incidência no Brasil foi de 18,4 em 100 000 crianças menores de 1 ano; no mesmo período, a incidência no Distrito Federal foi de 175 em 100 000 crianças entre 4 e 6 meses. Além disso, a letalidade na região Norte foi de 35% em 1987, contra 22% para o Brasil como um todo. Nosso estudo abre a discussão sobre aspectos epidemiológicos relevantes das infecções por Hib e sobre o custo-benefício da profilaxia e vacinação nas faixas etárias de maior risco.This paper reviews the role of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib as one of the most important pathogens causing invasive infectious diseases, especially in the first 2 years of life. In developing countries H. influenzae is responsible for 30% of all pneumonia cases with positive cultures and for 20% to 60% of all bacterial meningitis cases. In this study we compared

  17. Tratamento da vaginose bacteriana com gel vaginal de Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: ensaio clínico randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Melania Maria Ramos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: testar a eficácia e a tolerância do gel de aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi para tratamento da vaginose bacteriana. MÉTODOS: quarenta e oito mulheres com vaginose bacteriana sintomática (de acordo com os critérios de Amsel foram incluídas em ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, controlado, comparando-se o uso do gel vaginal de aroeira (25 casos com placebo (23 casos. Os principais desfechos avaliados foram: taxa de cura, presença de lactobacilos na colpocitologia depois do tratamento e efeitos colaterais. Realizou-se análise estatística usando os testes chi2 e exato de Fisher, ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: adotando-se os parâmetros clínicos de Amsel para vaginose bacteriana, a taxa de cura foi de 84% no grupo da aroeira e 47,8% no grupo placebo (p = 0,008. Observou-se freqüência significativamente maior de lactobacilos na colpocitologia entre as pacientes tratadas com aroeira (43,5% em relação ao placebo (4,3% (p = 0,002. Efeitos adversos relacionados ao tratamento não foram freqüentes em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: o presente estudo indica que o gel vaginal de aroeira é efetivo e seguro para o tratamento da vaginose bacteriana. Além disso, sugerem-se potenciais efeitos benéficos na flora vaginal.

  18. Administração endovenosa de antibióticos e resistência bacteriana: responsabilidade da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso da terapêutica com antibióticos e o desenvolvimento da resistência bacteriana dependem de diversos fatores, sendo que os relacionados ao cuidado de enfermagem são o seu preparo e a sua administração. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre falhas na administração de antibióticos analisando sua possível influência na resistência bacteriana. Delineamento: realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica das fontes do LILACS e Medline. Métodos: realizada revisão bibliográfica sistematizada com pesquisa de artigos de 1994 a 2005 na Internet usando-se os seguintes descritores juntamente com enfermagem: resistência bacteriana, controle de antibióticos, infecções hospitalares, administração de medicamentos, erros de medicações e eventos adversos. Foram selecionados 58 artigos que apresentaram correlação com a enfermagem e/ou eram básicos na fundamentação brasileira ou internacional. Resultados: Foram descritos aspectos gerais sobre a resistência bacteriana, antibióticos e custos incluindo estratégias para prevenção da resistência e classificações de erros utilizadas internacionalmente. Conclusões: Baseado nesse conhecimento são recomendadas intervenções para implementação do cuidado de enfermagem prático e seguro.

  19. Meningococcal meningitis: vaccination outbreak response and epidemiological changes in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    The main approach to controlling epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt has been reactive vaccination campaigns with serogroup A polysaccharide vaccine once the outbreak reached an incidence threshold. Early reactive vaccination is effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. A recent paper in International Health has shown that earlier reactive vaccination campaigns may be even more effective than increasing the coverage area of vaccination. Monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine programs have recently been launched to prevent transmission in endemic areas in the African meningitis belt. Conjugate vaccines can induce immunological memory and have impact on pharyngeal carriage. However, reactive vaccination still has a role to play taking into account the dynamic changes in the epidemiology of meningitis in this area. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR EMAMI NAEINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to one laboratory and were examined by Slide method.
    Results. Positive CRP was found in 97.6 percent of those who were finally diagnosed as bacterial meningitis. The frequency of CRP for other types of meningitis was 16.6 percent (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. In the absence of infection, CSF is free of CRP. Positive CRP may help to the differentiate the different types of meningitis.

  1. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C

    2006-01-01

    levels in 153 pneumococcal meningitis patients with and without presence of bacteraemia. RESULTS: As designed, blood bacterial concentrations were significantly different among three experimental groups during the 16 hours study period (Kruskal Wallis test, P ...BACKGROUND: Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response. METHODS: To explore the role of systemic infection on the meningeal inflammation, experimental meningitis...... weeks prior to the experiment ("immunized" rabbits", n = 8), or not treated further ("control" rabbits, n = 9). WBC and bacterial concentrations were determined in CSF and blood every second hour during a 16 hours study period together with CSF IL-8 and protein levels. We also studied CSF and blood WBC...

  2. Infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Storgaard, Merete; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments...... identified 252 cases of viral meningitis (3.6/100,000/year), 214 cases of bacterial meningitis (3.1/100,000/year), and 96 cases of infectious encephalitis (1.4/100,000/year). In bacterial meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae was most frequent (n=101) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n=24) and β......-haemolytic streptococci (n=14). Meningococcal meningitis was rare (n=11). In encephalitis, Herpes simplex virus-1 was most common (n=37) followed by Varicella zoster virus (n=20), while Varicella zoster virus (n=61) was most common in viral meningitis followed by enterovirus (n=50) and Herpes simplex virus-2 (n=46). Case...

  3. Bacteremia causes hippocampal apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Leib, S.L.; Rowland, Ian J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bacteremia and systemic complications both play important roles in brain pathophysiological alterations and the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. Their individual contributions to the development of brain damage, however, still remain to be defined. METHODS: Using an adult...... rat pneumococcal meningitis model, the impact of bacteremia accompanying meningitis on the development of hippocampal injury was studied. The study comprised of the three groups: I. Meningitis (n=11), II. meningitis with attenuated bacteremia resulting from iv injection of serotype......-specific pneumococcal antibodies (n=14), and III. uninfected controls (n=6). RESULTS: Pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis score 0.22 (0.18-0.35) compared to uninfected controls (0.02 (0.00-0.02), Mann Whitney test, P=0.0003). Also, meningitis with an attenuation of bacteremia...

  4. Eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Carvalho Raimundo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El eritema multiforme, aparece como una enfermedad sistémica con la participación de la piel y las membranas mucosas en relación con varios factores como las infecciones bacterianas o virales, y en particular la administración de drogas, analgésicos y antibióticos en general. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 29 años de edad con eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos con la aparición de lesiones vesiculares-bulloso-ulcerosas en las regiones de los labios, encías, la lengua y la mucosa genital en tratamiento de una infección del tracto urinario con norfloxacino 400 mg por una semana. Fue realizado un tratamiento de soporte con el uso de colutorios para la higienización bucal y pomada a base de corticoide para protección de las úlceras, antihistamínicos y orientación nutricional de dieta líquida hipercalórica e hiperproteica. Este síndrome está caracterizado como un proceso eruptivo buloso agudo que compromete la calidad de vida del paciente y no hay pruebas de laboratorio específicas por lo que su diagnóstico debe estar basado en la revisión minuciosa de la anamnesis y en los hallazgos clínicos.

  5. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C; Perea, William A

    2015-11-15

    An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years' experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100,000 in 2004-2010 to 0.02 per 100,000 in 2011-2013 (P meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  6. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M.; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C.; Perea, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years’ experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. Methods. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). Results. The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100 000 in 2004–2010 to 0.02 per 100 000 in 2011–2013 (P meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. PMID:26553668

  7. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology, immunology, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Peter R; Jarvis, Joseph N; Panackal, Anil A; Fisher, Matthew C; Molloy, Síle F; Loyse, Angela; Harrison, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent. Despite therapy, mortality rates in these groups are high. Over the past 5 years, advances have been made in rapid point-of-care diagnosis and early detection of cryptococcal antigen in the blood. These advances have enabled development of screening and pre-emptive treatment strategies aimed at preventing the development of clinical infection in patients with late-stage HIV infection. Progress in optimizing antifungal combinations has been aided by evaluation of the clearance rate of infection by using serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Measurement and management of raised CSF pressure, a common complication, is a vital component of care. In addition, we now better understand protective immune responses in HIV-associated cases, immunogenetic predisposition to infection, and the role of immune-mediated pathology in patients with non-HIV associated infection and in the context of HIV-associated immune reconstitution reactions.

  9. Childhood bacterial meningitis in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : The recommended antibiotic treatment of bacterial meningitis has come under scrutiny following frequent reports of in-vitro resistance by the common causative organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. Objective : The study recorded the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity patterns and outcome of ...

  10. Computed Tomography Study Of Complicated Bacterial Meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To monitor the structural intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis using computed tomography (CT) scan. Retrospective study of medical and radiological records of patients who underwent CT scan over a 4 year period. AUniversityTeachingHospital in a developing country. Thirty three patients with clinically and ...

  11. Prediction of unfavorable outcomes in cryptococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakyemez, I N; Erdem, H; Beraud, G

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV...

  12. Childhood bacterial meningitis in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The recommended antibiotic treatment of bacterial meningitis has come under scrutiny following frequent reports of in-vitro resistance by the common causative organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. Objective. The study recorded'the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity patterns and outcome of ...

  13. Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, T.; Hoitsma, E.; Hupperts, R.; Spanjaard, L.; Luirink, M.; Jacobs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is Streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the

  14. Communication between Paranasal Sinuses and Meninges after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication between Paranasal Sinuses and Meninges after Trauma. NL Hurst. Abstract. Two cases are presented, both demonstrating the value of the painstaking use of pleuridirectional spiral tomography to map out the exact situation and extent of defects where a communication exists between the paranasal ...

  15. Seizures in adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoons, E.; Weisfelt, M.; de Gans, J.; Spanjaard, L.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Reitsma, J. B.; van de Beek, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence and prognostic relevance of seizures in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study, in which patients with seizures are selected from a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired

  16. [Streptococcus salivarius meningitis after spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conangla, G; Rodríguez, L; Alonso-Tarrés, C; Avila, A; de la Campa, A G

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a usual commensal of skin, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, oral cavity and paranasal sinuses. Although it is usually considered to have low virulence, S. salivarius may cause life-threatening infections, particularly endocarditis. On the other hand, bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia is very rare, there being some reported cases caused by S. salivarius, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We report a 57 year old man who developed meningitis symptoms within 10 h of an uncomplicated inguinal herniorrhaphy performed during spinal anesthesia. Cerebrospinal cultures grew S. salivarius sensitive to penicillin. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin G and left the hospital without sequelae. In the literature, bacterial meningitis due to S. salivarius is rarely reported. Of the 28 cases, 18 occurred after lumbar puncture for diagnostic or for spinal anesthesia, 5 occurred following a bacteriemia for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or intestinal neoplasia, and the other 5 in patients who had dural defects. We discuss the possible etiological causes of the meningitis due to S. salivarius cases reports. The early recognition of this entity and the aseptic precautions likely to reduce the incidence of infectious complications after lumbar puncture are stressed.

  17. Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Tunkel, Allan R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis kills or maims about a fifth of people with the disease. Early antibiotic treatment improves outcomes, but the effectiveness of widely available antibiotics is threatened by global emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. New antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, could have a

  18. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  19. Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis And Dexamethasone Adjunctive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Neonatal bacterial meningitis is devastating, with attendant high mortality and neurological sequelae. We, therefore, aimed to delineate its current incidence, etiologic, clinical, laboratory spectra, and the effect of steroid therapy on the outcome. Methodology: Babies admitted from1992 to 1995 in the Special Care ...

  20. Tuberculous and brucellosis meningitis differential diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Gencer, Serap

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the dif...

  1. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  2. CSF Cultures and Bacteremia in Neonatal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal (CSF culture results were compared with results of blood cultures and CSF parameters (WBC, glucose, and protein in 9111 neonates with culture-proven meningitis and a first lumbar puncture at >34 weeks’ gestational age from 150 NICU’s managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group.

  3. Emergency diagnosis and treatment of adult meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitch, Michael T.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    Despite the existence of antibiotic therapies against acute bacterial meningitis, patients with the disease continue to suffer significant morbidity and mortality in both high and low-income countries. Dilemmas exist for emergency medicine and primary-care providers who need to accurately diagnose

  4. The meningeal sign: a new appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzelmann, A.; Palmie, S.; Zimmer, C.; Benz, T.; Leweke, F.; Freund, M.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of the meningeal sign in meningiomas and metastases. We studied 20 patients with meningiomas and 17 patients with cerebral metastases adjacent to the dura. MRI studies (Siemens, Magnetom 1,5) included axial T 1 -weighted and T 2 -weighted unenhanced as well as gadolinium-DTPA enhanced T 1 -weighted (axial, coronal, sagittal) SE imaging. In all patients the tumours were resected with the attached dura mater. Histopathological examinations were done, which corresponded to the area of marked enhancement by gadolinium-DTPA. There was no correlation between the occurrence of the meningeal sign and the histopathological examinations. In 20 patients with meningiomas adjacent to the dura we found the meningeal sign in 11 cases. Histologically we observed an increase of collagen fibres and fibrocytes. In 5 to 17 cases with superficial cerebral as dura infiltrations and microbleedings. The meningeal sign is not specific for meningiomas and can be observed in a wide variety of pathological entities. (orig.) [de

  5. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis, as well as potential targets for (adjunctive) therapy. PMID:21734248

  6. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Clinical and MRI evaluation of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chunjing; Shu Jiner; Chen Jian; Sheng Sanlan; Lu Jinhua; Cai Xiaoxiao; Li Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM), and to improve the understanding of TBM. Methods: The clinical and MRI findings in 42 patients with confirmed TBM were analyzed retrospectively. MRI examination was performed using a 1 Tesla system, including SE T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Intravenous contrast was injected in 29 patients, and follow-up scans were performed on 17 patients. Results: Of 24 patients with early TBM, MRI was abnormal in 5(21%) with slight Tl-hypointense meningeal (4) or ependymal thickening (1). MRI on 33/35 (94%) patients with late stage TBM was abnormal with T 1 hypointensity and T 2 hyperintensity including meningeal thickening (19), mild surrounding brain edema (10), nodules (11), tuberculoma (5) and abscess (2). There was significant plaque-like, nodular or rim enhancement with surrounding brain edema. Conclusion: Tuberculous meningitis has minimal clinical and MRI findings in the early phase and significant clinical and MRI findings in the late phase. The enhanced scan may help to detect the abnormality. (authors)

  8. Diagnostic challenges with acellular bacterial meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and requires prompt diagnosis because it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.[1,2] The incidence ranges from 5 per 100 000 persons in southern Africa to 12 per 100 000 in Africa.[3,4] Up to 50% of survivors may suffer from long-term neurological sequelae.

  9. Epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in

  10. Bacterial meningitis and neurological complications in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parunyou Julayanont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The neurological complications secondary to bacterial meningitis contribute to the high mortality rate and to disability among the survivors. Cerebrovascular complications, including infarction and hemorrhage, are common. Inflammation and increased pressure in the subarachnoid space result in cranial neuropathy. Seizures occur in either the acute or delayed phase after the infection and require early detection and treatment. Spreading of infection to other intracranial structures, including the subdural space, brain parenchyma, and ventricles, increases morbidity and mortality in survivors. Infection can also spread to the spinal canal causing spinal cord abscess, epidural abscess, polyradiculitis, and spinal cord infarction secondary to vasculitis of the spinal artery. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction is also an uncommon complication after bacterial meningitis. Damage to cerebral structures contributes to cognitive and neuropsychiatric problems.  Being aware of these complications leads to early detection and treatment and improves mortality and outcomes in patients with bacterial meningitis.

  11. [Acute care of patients with bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetefeld, H R; Dohmen, C

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening emergency that is still associated with high mortality and poor outcome. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, therapy, and prognosis in bacterial meningitis. Prognostic factors which could be influenced positively are identified and a focused procedure in the emergency setting and for the treatment of complications are provided. This work is based on a literature search (PubMed, guidelines) and personal experience (standard operating procedures, SOP). Despite improved health care, bacterial meningitis is still associated with high mortality and poor neurological outcome, which has remained largely unaltered during recent decades. Diagnosis and, more importantly, effective therapy of bacterial meningitis are often delayed, having an immediate negative influence on clinical outcome. Neurological and nonneurological complications often necessitate intensive care and may occur rapidly or in the further course of the disease. Immediate initiation of effective therapy is crucial to positively influence mortality and neurological outcome. Antibiotics should be administered within 30 min after admission. To achieve this, a focused and well-organized procedure in the emergency setting is necessary. Because of intra- and extracranial complications, patients need to be treated on intensive care units including neurological expertise and interdisciplinary support.

  12. Outcomes of bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C; Levy, C; Baumie, F; Joao, L; Béchet, S; Carbonnelle, E; Grimprel, E; Cohen, R; Gaudelus, J; de Pontual, L

    2016-06-01

    Pediatricians are well aware of the immediate risks of bacterial meningitis in children. However, the long-term outcome of the disease has not been extensively studied. We aimed: (i) to evaluate the duration and quality of the long-term follow-up of children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in a general pediatric department, (ii) to estimate the incidence of sequelae at the various stages of follow-up, and (iii) to compare our data with that of other studies. We conducted a retrospective study and included 34 children (3 months-15 years) who had been hospitalized for bacterial meningitis in the pediatric department of a University Hospital between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2013. Overall, 32% of patients presented with sequelae and 15% with seizures. Only one patient presented with hearing loss, but 23.5% of patients did not have any hearing test performed. Seven patients had a neuropsychological assessment performed and no severe neuropsychological sequela was observed in this group. The average follow-up duration increased during the study period (from 23 to 49months). The long-term follow-up modalities observed in other studies were highly variable. Assessing the incidence and severity of sequelae was therefore difficult. A standardized follow-up should be implemented by way of a national surveillance network of children presenting with bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. YKL-40 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with purulent meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, C; Johansen, JS; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken on admission from patients suspected of having meningitis (48 with purulent meningitis, 49 with lymphocytic meningitis, 5 with encephalitis, and 32 without evidence of meningitis). YKL-40 levels in CSF were significantly higher in patients with purulent meningitis (median...

  14. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

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    Mook-Kanamori Barry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  15. Alteraciones morfológicas en pulmón por la influenza A H1N1/v09 en autopsias, Colombia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rivera

    2011-03-01

    Conclusión. El porcentaje bajo de infección bacteriana concomitante observado en los casos de influenza A H1N1/ v09 en este estudio, es una característica sobresaliente que sugiere que el resultado fatal de la infección, probablemente no esté asociado a una enfermedad bacteriana secundaria, como se ha sugerido en reportes previos. Es probable que las lesiones observadas se puedan atribuir al daño tisular en la respuesta inflamatoria celular y humoral asociada a la infiltración por células poliformonucleares y macrófagos en el intersticio y la luz alveolares, como también por la lesión viral.

  16. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P meningitis (P meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  17. Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Hillary R; Boyle, Sean D

    2017-09-01

    The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care. Viral meningitis is generally self-limited with a good prognosis. Examination maneuvers such as Kernig sign or Brudzinski sign may not be useful to differentiate bacterial from aseptic meningitis because of variable sensitivity and specificity. Because clinical findings are also unreliable, the diagnosis relies on the examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture. Delayed initiation of antibiotics can worsen mortality. Treatment should be started promptly in cases where transfer, imaging, or lumbar puncture may slow a definitive diagnosis. Empiric antibiotics should be directed toward the most likely pathogens and should be adjusted by patient age and risk factors. Dexamethasone should be administered to children and adults with suspected bacterial meningitis before or at the time of initiation of antibiotics. Vaccination against the most common pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis is recommended. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts is helpful in preventing additional infections.

  18. Cumplimiento de las recomendaciones internacionales en la lucha contra las resistencias bacterianas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Jose Rabanaque, Mara; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en España y Dinamarca, en cuanto al uso ambulatoriode Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA), así como analizarla relación entre éste y las resistencias bacterianas a ellos. Material y métodos: Los sistemas...... Antimicrobial consumption interactive database (ESAC-Net) y Antimicrobial resistanceinteractive database (EARS-Net) aportaron el consumo ambulatorio (2010-2013) de los CIA (fluoroquinolonas, macrólidos ycefalosporinas de 3ª y 4ª generación) y los porcentajes de a islamientosde los principales patógenos...... ambospaíses es similar, la proporción de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a macrólidos es mayor en España. Conclusión: La elevada utilización de agentes CIA enatención primaria en España se aleja de las recomendaciones de la OMS de limitar su uso. Además tiene como consecuenciaunas elevadas tasas de...

  19. Clinical findings and management of patients with meningitis with an emphasis on Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Corinna; Schutz, Cornelia; Tluway, Anthony; Matuja, William; Schmutzhard, Erich; Winkler, Andrea S

    2016-07-15

    The spectrum of meningitis pathogens differs depending on the age of patients and the geographic region, amongst other. Although meningitis vaccination programs have led to the reduction of incidence rates, an imbalance between low- and high-income countries still exists. In a hospital-based study in rural northern Tanzania, we consecutively recruited patients with confirmed meningitis and described their clinical and laboratory characteristics. A total of 136 patients with meningitis were included. Fever (85%), meningism (63%) and impairment of consciousness (33%) were the most frequent clinical symptoms/signs. Nearly 10% of all patients tested were positive for malaria. The majority of the patients with bacterial meningitis (39%), especially those under 5years of age, were confirmed to be infected with Haemophilus influenzae (26%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (19%) and Neisseria meningitidis (15%). Haemophilus influenzae represented the dominant causative organism in children under 2years of age. Our study emphasizes the importance of recognizing warning symptoms like fever, meningism and impairment of consciousness, implementing laboratory tests to determine responsible pathogens and evaluating differential diagnoses in patients with meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. It also shows that Haemophilus influenza meningitis is still an important cause for meningitis in the young, most probabaly due to lack of appropriate vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Patrones de resistencia bacteriana en urocultivos en un hospital oncológico Antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from urine cultures at an oncological center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cornejo-Juárez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Describir los patrones de resistencia bacteriana en cultivos de orina en un hospital oncológico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron las cepas obtenidas de cultivos de orina de 1998 a 2005. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de sensibilidad para diferentes antibióticos, tras analizar por separado cepas nosocomiales y compararlas con las de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 9 232 cultivos positivos (20.7% de 44 447 muestras: gramnegativos, 78.8%; grampositivos, 13.8%; y levaduras, 7.4 por ciento. Escherichia coli fue el principal microorganismo identificado (41.3%; la resistencia en aislados nosocomiales fue mayor que en la comunidad para amikacina (92.4 y 97%, ceftazidima (83.1 y 95.1% y ciprofloxacina (46.2 y 58.6%. De igual manera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa presentó mayor resistencia para amikacina y ceftazidima en las cepas nosocomiales (55.7 y 66.6%; y 65.5 y 84.8%, respectivamente. Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina se encontró sólo en 2.5% (3/119 aislados de E. faecium. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una mayor resistencia bacteriana en las cepas de origen nosocomial en comparación con las cepas comunitarias. Se encontró un incremento progresivo de la resistencia para E. coli, el patógeno aislado con más frecuencia de infecciones nosocomiales y comunitarias. Es prioritario intensificar una campaña educativa para el control y uso racional de los antibióticos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of antimicrobial resistance of organisms isolated from urine cultures at a teaching oncological hospital for adult patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All strains obtained from urine cultures from 1998 to 2005 were included. Mean susceptibilities were obtained for each antimicrobial tested; nosocomial and community-acquired isolates were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 9 232 positive urine cultures were obtained (20.7% from 44 447 samples taken. Gram negative bacteria were reported in 78.8%, Gram-positive in 13.8% and yeasts in 7

  1. Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of recurrent bacterial and fungal meningitis in the Netherlands, 1988-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Joris J.; Bekker, Vincent; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van der Ende, Arie; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Patients may experience multiple episodes of bacterial meningitis. Information from large studies of recurrent meningitis is limited. We evaluated the incidence of recurrent bacterial meningitis and the distribution of causative organisms in The Netherlands. Methods. Data for patients

  2. HIB-INFECTION: MENINGITIS, CELLULITIS IN THE CHILD OF 6 MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Harchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of Hib-infection is the clinic purulent meningitis and pannikulita young child. Shows the complexity of the differential diagnosis of meningitis in combination with panniculitis with meningococcal disease (meningitis, meningokokktsemiya.

  3. Relación placa bacteriana y caries en un grupo de niños escolarizados entre 5 y 14 años de la población de la Boquilla - Cartagena en el año 20041

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizelia Alfaro Zolá

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la ocurrencia de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentales y relacionarla con el tipo de lesión de caries que se presenta en niños escolares de 5 a 14 años de la Boquilla - Cartagena. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal, en el cual se seleccionó una muestra de 89 niños escolares de la población de la Boquilla a través de un muestreo aleatorio sistemático, a quienes se les evaluó el estado de higiene oral mediante el índice de placa comunitario de Corchuelo modificado y el índice de caries superficial con criterios de diagnóstico Ekstrand. Resultados: La superficie con lesiones de caries de mayor frecuencia fue la oclusal, presentándose un mayor numero de lesiones detenidas, seguido en palatino por las lesiones precavitacionales, a diferencia de las superficies vestibular y lingual donde se encontraron un mayor número de superficies sanas. En todas las superficies evaluadas predominó la presencia de placa bacteriana independientemente de la presencia de caries y no se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre estas dos variables. Conclusiones: La alta frecuencia de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentarias nos mostró el deficiente estado de higiene oral de la población, sin embargo, sigue en duda la pertinencia de los índices de placa para la predicción de la caries debido a que no se encontró relación estadística. (Duazary 2007; 2: 119 - 126

  4. Extramedullary spinal teratoma presenting with recurrent aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpayo, Lucy L; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Man; Wang, Kai; Wang, Jiao; Yang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Spinal teratomas are extremely rare; they constitute meningitis. A 7-year-old boy presented with paroxysmal abdominal pain and a history of recurrent aseptic meningitis. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were present. Lumber puncture revealed pleocytosis with no evidence of bacteria growth. Imaging of the spine revealed a cystic lesion in spinal cord at thoracic level 9-11. Endoscopic excision of the cyst was successfully performed. Surgical and histopathological findings confirmed extramedullary matured teratoma. As the symptomatic attacks of spontaneous rupture of spinal teratoma resemble presentations of Mollaret meningitis, spinal teratoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Mollaret meningitis. We describe a rare example of spinal teratoma causing recurrent meningitis. Spine imaging should be considered in individuals with recurrent aseptic meningitis as this promotes earlier diagnosis, more appropriate treatment, and improved neurological outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalencia de la resistencia bacteriana en flora bucal en niños de 4 a 8 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Verolo

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Esta investigación apunta a ser un aporte de interés para el estudio de la ecología microbiana de la cavidad bucal y al análisis de la importancia biológica del empleo de antimicrobianos. El uso de un antimicrobiano al mismo tiempo que actúa sobre el patógeno, puede modificar la composición de los gérmenes de la microflora normal. Métodos: Se siguió un procedimiento basado en un cuestionario y en la toma de muestras de la mucosa orofaríngea y/o yugal de niños de 4 a 8 años que concurrieron a la clínica de Odontopediatría de la Universidad de la República, durante los meses de julio-agosto y diciembre de 2009. Resultados: El 84,6% de los niños consumió antibiótico previo a la consulta. El 81,8% tomó Amoxicilina. El 89,4% lo consumió hacía más de 15 días. El 81,8% lo consumió por una semana o más. De las cepas analizadas, resultaron sensibles a Amoxicilina 62,5%, a Eritromicina 50%, a Clindamicina 92,5%. Del estudio de la CIM el 72,5% fue sensible a Penicilina. Conclusiones: En esta población de estudio no podemos objetivar que exista una correlación entre la resistencia bacteriana de S. mitis y el consumo de antibióticos.

  6. Avaliação histopatológica das queimaduras de 2º grau em dorso de ratos tratadas com curativo de celulose bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Luís Portella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Recentemente curativos com celulose bacteriana(CB estão sendo utilizados como cobertura para tratamento de queimaduras e representam grande avanço na área de biomateriais OBJETIVOS: Elucidação sobre os aspectos cicatriciais e de epitelização das queimaduras tratadas com CB MÉTODOLOGIA: Foram provocadas queimaduras de 2o grau por escaldo em 24 ratos Wistar sp. tratadas com CB Bionext® ou solução fisiológica 0,9%, no controle. Posteriormente foi realizada aferição da espessura de epiderme e avaliação imunohistoquímica com os marcadores α-actina e Fator de VonWillebrand RESULTADOS: As avaliações não evidenciaram diferença estatística significativa em relação à presença de miofibroblastos p=0,7816 e IC95%= -10,9 a 8,3, neovascularizacão p=0,7465 e IC95%= -7,21 a 5,24 e espessura epidérmica p=0,5849 e IC95%= -18,45 a 32,62 entre os grupos tratados com CB e solução fisiológica 0,9% CONCLUSÃO: Não foi evidenciado diferença estatística significativa em relação ao grupo tratado com CB e o controle.

  7. Amphotericin B induced ocular toxicity in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P K; Lai, K N

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of acute visual loss after a test dose (1 mg) of intravenous amphotericin B administered to a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and with cryptococcal meningitis. Her visual acuity was normal prior to the injection of amphotericin B. The meningitis subsequently responded to miconazole and flucytosine treatment. Our findings suggest that amphotericin B should be withheld in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis if disease of the optic nerve is strongly suspected. PMID:2730866

  8. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Mehta; Rohan R Mahale; Uchil Sudhir; Mahendra Javali; Rangasetty Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no pri...

  9. Transethmoidal intranasal meningoencephalocele in an adult with recurrent meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takafumi; Sugeno, Naoto; Shiga, Yusei; Takeda, Atsushi; Karibe, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2005-08-01

    Intranasal meningoencephalocele is a rarely encountered congenital malformation. We report a case of transethmoidal intranasal meningoencephalocele in a 52-year old man with recurrent purulent meningitis. After treatment of the acute meningitis, frontal craniotomy followed by the removal of the stalk of the meningoencephalocele and repair of the bony defect was successfully performed. He has had no further meningitis or CSF rhinorrhea post-operatively. Detailed neuroradiological examination and appropriate surgical treatment are important to prevent fatal neurological complications of intranasal meningoencephalocele.

  10. Clinical study on epilepsy secondary to fungal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu YANG; Min ZHANG; Xi HE

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), imaging and EEG characteristics of 10 patients with epilepsy secondary to fungal meningitis were retrospectively analyzed, so as to improve the diagnosis and treatment of fungal meningitis. The results suggest that patients with fungal meningitis involving the cortex were sensitive to secondary epilepsy; imaging examinations showing frontotemporal lesions and EEG showing moderate-to-severe abnormalities were sensitive to secondary ...

  11. Five Cases of Recurrent Meningitis Associated with Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shimasaki, Teppei; Chung, Heath; Shiiki, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    Although meningitis secondary to chronic strongyloidiasis is a rare complication, it is associated with a high mortality rate. Recurrent meningitis can occur if the underlying parasitic infection is left untreated. We report five cases of recurrent meningitis related to chronic strongyloidiasis that were associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Common causative organisms are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus bovis, and Klebsiella pneumonia. One patient died during t...

  12. Isolated Meningeal Recurrence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Butchart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal carcinomatosis occurs in 1–18% of patients with solid tumours, most commonly carcinomas of the breast and lung or melanomas. There are relatively few reports of meningeal carcinomatosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Isolated meningeal recurrence is particularly uncommon, and we present an unusual case of this in a 58-year-old man. The case was further complicated by the somewhat atypical presentation with a confirmed ischaemic stroke. The patient died one month after presentation.

  13. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Godoy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival y bajo este (subgingival tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por lo tanto, al remover los microorganismos que se ubican supragingivalmente sería posible encontrar cambios en el medio subgingival al no existir un intercambio entre los ambientes aerobios (supragingival y anaerobios (subgingival una vez desorganizada la placa bacteriana supragingival. Para demostrar esta relación se seleccionaron 7 individuos con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica moderada y severa a los cuales se les realizó un destartraje supragingival de boca completa para lograr desorganizar la placa bacteriana supragingival. A su vez se tomaron muestras microbiológicas de los sacos periodontales más profundos de cada cuadrante de estos individuos, siendo la primera muestra tomada previo al destartraje supragingival considerada como muestra basal (día 0, luego se tomaron a las 24 horas, a los 7 y 21 días de removida la placa bacteriana supragingival. De los resultados del presente estudio pudimos concluir que al desorganizar el biofilm supragingival se observa una disminución en la cantidad total de microorganismos subgingivales, así como también disminuye de manera considerable la proporción de Porphyoromona gingivalis presente en el medio subgingival. Lo cual permitiría establecer la existencia de una relación directa y dependiente entre los microorganismos que habitan el medio supragingival y subgingival.One of the fields of interest in the study of the microbiology periodontal for many investigators has been to identify if it is

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan DJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Derek J Sloan, Victoria Parris Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Cryptococcal meningitis causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease is greatest in middle- and low-income countries with a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs and some immunocompetent hosts are also at risk. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis consists of three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. Effective induction therapy requires potent fungicidal drugs (amphotericin B and flucytosine, which are often unavailable in low-resource, high-endemicity settings. As a consequence, mortality is unacceptably high. Wider access to effective treatment is urgently required to improve outcomes. For human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, judicious management of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia and appropriately timed introduction of antiretroviral therapy are important. Keywords: cryptococcosis, HIV, immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, antiretroviral therapy

  15. Optic nerve sheath fenestration in cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Milman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tatyana Milman1, Neena Mirani1,2, Roger E Turbin11Ophthalmology Department, Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Pathology Department, University Hospital, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USAAbstract: A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS developed crytpococcal meningitis, complicated by papilledema and severe progressive visual loss despite medical therapy. Bilateral optic sheath fenestration resulted in significant improvement in vision and resolution of papilledema. Histopathologic evaluation of the optic nerve sheath demonstrated numerous cryptococci. Optic nerve sheath fenestration may be an effective treatment method when high intracranial pressure is contributing to visual loss, even in the presence of involvement of the optic nerve sheath by the fungus.Keywords: optic nerve sheath, cryptococcal, meningitis, fenestration

  16. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Derek J; Parris, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease is greatest in middle- and low-income countries with a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs and some immunocompetent hosts are also at risk. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis consists of three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. Effective induction therapy requires potent fungicidal drugs (amphotericin B and flucytosine), which are often unavailable in low-resource, high-endemicity settings. As a consequence, mortality is unacceptably high. Wider access to effective treatment is urgently required to improve outcomes. For human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, judicious management of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia and appropriately timed introduction of antiretroviral therapy are important. PMID:24872723

  17. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocci, Simone; Mancini, Alessio; Canovari, Benedetta; Petrelli, Enzo; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Emanuela; Licci, Alberto; D'Addesa, Simona; Petrini, Giancarlo; Giacomini, Marinella; Renzi, Antonella; Migali, Antonio; Briscolini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a stem cell transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy for cutaneous chronic graft-versus host disease. A 59-year-old woman had undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (from a matched unrelated donor) 13 months previously for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. She was on regular hematologic follow-up. Though her previous malignancy has been in remission, she was immunosuppressed due to the pharmacological treatment. We describe a meningitis caused by a typical food-borne pathogen, dangerous in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Moreover the bacterium had a multidrug resistance, a rare characteristic in clinical listeriosis. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are key factors in these cases. We chose ampicillin and rifampicin that allowed a complete resolution of the clinical manifestations.

  18. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  19. Principles of effective therapy of bacterial meningitis

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    Jafarova K.A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of cerebrospinal fluid is essential for effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the basic principles of the treatment of bacterial meningitis. IP!adherence included patients received in-patient treatment with the diagnosis of meningitis. Research conducted in the department neuro-communicable diseases №1 Clinical Children's Hospital №2 named A.F.Garaeva, follow Isa-CSF in 25 patients (aged 1 to 10 years BGM!time personal cause. According to the authors to clarify the etiological factors in BGF is expedient to appoint panampitsillina (polusinte-matic drug penicillin in high doses. Summarizing the above outlined can come to the conclusion that the effectiveness of those causal therapy, when given their pectoralis complications and course of the disease may be assessed only on the basis of liquorologic research.

  20. Meningitis neumocócica en un lactante curada sin secuelas neurológicas ni neuroquirúrgicas

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    C. Lamote de Grignon

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactante de 45 días, en pésimas condiciones fisiológicas, que presenta una meningitis neumocócica indiscutible. Es tratada con sulfatiazol y penicilina (apenas por vía intratecal. Cura prácticamente a los 17 días sin secuela alguna. A los 8 meses se mantenía bien desde todos los puntos de vista.

  1. Optic nerve sheath fenestration in cryptococcal meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Tatyana; Mirani, Neena; Turbin, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed crytpococcal meningitis, complicated by papilledema and severe progressive visual loss despite medical therapy. Bilateral optic sheath fenestration resulted in significant improvement in vision and resolution of papilledema. Histopathologic evaluation of the optic nerve sheath demonstrated numerous cryptococci. Optic nerve sheath fenestration may be an effective treatment method when high intracranial pressure is contributing to visual loss, even in the presence of involvement of the optic nerve sheath by the fungus. PMID:19668765

  2. Combination Antifungal Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Jeremy N.; Chau, Tran T.H.; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Pham P.; Dung, Nguyen T.; Mai, Nguyen H.; Phu, Nguyen H.; Nghia, Ho D.; Phong, Nguyen D.; Thai, Cao Q.; Thai, Le H.; Chuong, Ly V.; Sinh, Dinh X.; Duong, Van A.; Hoang, Thu N.

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Combination antifungal therapy (amphotericin B deoxycholate and flucytosine) is the recommended treatment for cryptococcal meningitis but has not been shown to reduce mortality, as compared with amphotericin B alone. We performed a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether combining flucytosine or high-dose fluconazole with high-dose amphotericin B improved survival at 14 and 70 days.\\ud Methods\\ud We conducted a randomized, three-group, open-label trial of induction the...

  3. Intermittent third nerve palsy with cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J R

    1993-06-01

    In the several days before death, two AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) experienced episodic unilateral third nerve palsies seemingly related to transient peaks in ICP. While cryptococcal neuritis may have predisposed the nerves to pressure effects, CT scans showed no evidence of tentorial herniation. These cases raise the possibility that severe elevations of ICP can precipitate third nerve paresis on rare occasions.

  4. Unusual cause of fatal anthrax meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet; Atli, Seval Bilgiç

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in the province of Muş located in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The organism isolated from cerebrospinal fluid was identified as Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with crystallized penicillin G (24 MU/day IV) and ciprofloxacin (2 × 400/day IV), but died 5 days after hospitalization. Although it is a rare case, we consider that the patients who have skin, respiratory and neurological systems might also have hemorrhagic meningitis.

  5. CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII POSTOPERATIVE MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ghibu; Egidia Miftode; Olivia Dorneanu; Carmen Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing relevance in hospital infections during the last 15 years.This organism causes a wide range of infection .Extensive use of antibiotics within hospitals has contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistent A.baumannii strains that exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics ,including carbapenems.We report the case of an 37 years old man diagnosed with Acinetobacter multidrug-resistant post-neurosurgical meningitis with...

  6. The Role of Vancomycin on Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Shatat and P.I.C.U team

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: After the previous discussion of the results obtained from this study, the researchers concluded that most of the cases diagnosed meningitis was aseptic and there was no need for antibiotics. Also in those who diagnosed as bacterial vancomycin was not essential in all cases, this confirmed by the absence of any differences in the outcome. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 501-511

  7. Corticosteroid-induced cryptococcal meningitis in patient without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Anand; Meena, Alpana; Sreekumar, Arjun; Daga, Mradul Kumar

    2017-01-04

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most frequent cause of fungal meningitis in humans. Cryptococcus affects people of all ages and has a worldwide distribution. It is the fourth most common infection in AIDS (CD4 counts meningitis for a period of 8 weeks after which he developed cryptococcal meningitis. Attention is drawn to the increasing number of reported cases of this disease which have been associated with steroid therapy and this possibility should be remembered when investigating patients with tubercular meningitis especially if they are being treated with steroids. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Recurrent meningitis--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janocha-Litwin, Justyna; Simon, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses epidemiology, aetiology and the most important predisposing factors associated with recurrent meningitis, as well as the possibilities to prevent this particularly challenging clinical problem. The frequency of recurrent meningitis is estimated to be 2-9%. However, the case fatality is lower compared to a single episode of meningitis. The main causes of recurrent meningitis are considered to be: head injury, congenital or acquired (post-traumatic or post-surgical) cranial or spinal defects, chronic intracranial inflammation, complement system dysfunction, as well as congenital and acquired humoral or cellular immunodeficiency.

  9. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute streptococcal meningitis presenting as bilateral conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Matthew J; Smith, Austin T

    2018-04-05

    Bacterial meningitis is a relatively uncommon condition encountered in the emergency department and the constellation of symptoms varies. Hearing loss has been well documented in the literature as a complication of the disease process, but not as the presenting complaint. We describe a case of a 59-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset bilateral hearing loss who was found to have S. pneumonia meningitis bacterial meningitis. Even with advances in therapy, bacterial meningitis still carries a significant mortality rate. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to achieving good outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.H.; Chang, K.H.; Roh, J.K.; Kim, I.O.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Gd-DPTA-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 16 patients with meningitis (seven tuberculous, four bacterial, three fungal, and two viral) on a 2.0-T unit. Hemorrhagic infarcts of basal ganglia and localized enhancement of thickened dura adjacent were demonstrated on T1-weighted images in three patients with tuberculous meningitis and four with bacterial meningitis, respectively, that were not seen on CT. Enhanced T1-weighted images readily differentiated leptomeningeal enhancement from vessels in two cases with CT of equivocal meningeal enhancement. Nonenhanced T2-weighted images were most sensitive for demonstrating ischemia/infarct and edema. Otherwise, MR images generally matched CT scans

  12. [Factors associated with mortality in cryptococcal meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-qin; Xu, Bin; Ou, Xue-ting; Zhu, Li-ping; Weng, Xin-hua

    2010-01-05

    To investigate factors associated with mortality in non-AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis. We retrospectively reviewed 154 cases of non-HIV cryptococcal meningitis in a tertiary care hospital in China, from 1997 through 2007. The 1-year attributable mortality was 19.6% (28/143), and overall mortality was 28.7% (41/143). Advanced age (> or = 60 years), delay in diagnosis (> 4 months), hematologic malignancy, solid malignancy, altered mental status (coma, seizure, herniation), and CSF drainage or shunting were factors associated with increased death; factors associated with increased survival were amphotericin B based initial therapy and flucytosine containing therapy. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 60 years, the time from symptom onset to diagnosis > 4 months, coma, cerebral herniation, and non-amphotericin B based initial therapy were independently associated with increased overall mortality; factors independently associated with cause-specific mortality were time from symptom onset to diagnosis > 4 months, cerebral herniation and non-amphotericin B based initial therapy. A variety of factors were associated with mortality in non-AIDS cryptococcal meningitis. Amphotericin B based initial treatment was independently correlated to improved 1-year survival.

  13. [Which vaccination strategies for African meningococcal meningitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, P; Debois, H

    2002-12-01

    In 1963, Lapeyssonnie published a masterful description of the epidemiology of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in the Sahel region of Africa (essentially due to the Neisseria meningitidis sero-group A): geographic spread (meningitis belt), seasonal cycle (dry and cool season). When a combined polyosidic AC vaccine became available in the early 1970s, a disease control strategy was defined along the lines of epidemiological surveillance, prophylaxis of lethality by early treatment of cases and reactive vaccination, since the polyosidic vaccine could not be included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Despite some success, this strategy has not led to the control of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in Africa. Amongst the obstacles encountered are the difficulty to define at what point an out-break becomes an epidemic, gaps in epidemiological surveillance, unavailable vaccine doses, delayed and complex vaccination campaigns. At the end of the 1990s, controversy ensued: since reactive vaccination was fraught with so many problems, why not consider a strategy of preventive AC vaccination for high risk areas? But this controversy may well die out with the emergence of the present-day W 135 serogroup responsible for the first large scale epidemic in Burkina Faso in 2002. If this is confirmed, a polyosidic vaCcine containing the W 135 antigen would be required, pending the availability for Africa of a conjugate tetravalent ACYW135 vaccine which could be included in the EPI.

  14. Epidemiología de la meningitis Una visión socio-epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Morales Bedoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la socio-epidemiología, la meningitis tiene dos diferentes comportamientos tanto en su etiología como en su distribución, morbilidad y letalidad. La meningitis viral o aséptica, con manifestaciones clínicas menos severas, responde principalmente en su distribución a hábitos personales, factores educativos y estilos de vida, siendo principalmente los enterovirus sus agentes etiológicos. La meningitis de origen bacteriano, causada principalmente por Neisseriae meningitidis y el Streptococcus pneumoniae, representa la forma más letal de la enfermedad, y tanto su distribución, morbilidad y mortalidad están determinadas por las condiciones económicas y sociales de los países y comunidades más pobres del mundo, en donde la vacunación para su prevención como los medicamentos para su control están muy limitados por el nivel de desarrollo económico.

  15. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frimodt-Møller Niels

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response. Methods To explore the role of systemic infection on the meningeal inflammation, experimental meningitis was induced by intracisternal injection of ~1 × 106 CFU Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3, and the 26 rabbits were either provided with ~1 × 106 CFU S. pneumoniae intravenously at 0 hour ("bacteraemic" rabbits, n = 9, immunized with paraformaldehyde-killed S. pneumoniae for 5 weeks prior to the experiment ("immunized" rabbits", n = 8, or not treated further ("control" rabbits, n = 9. WBC and bacterial concentrations were determined in CSF and blood every second hour during a 16 hours study period together with CSF IL-8 and protein levels. We also studied CSF and blood WBC levels in 153 pneumococcal meningitis patients with and without presence of bacteraemia. Results As designed, blood bacterial concentrations were significantly different among three experimental groups during the 16 hours study period (Kruskal Wallis test, P P > 0.05. Blood WBC decreased in bacteraemic rabbits between ~10–16 hours after the bacterial inoculation in contrast to an increase for both the immunized rabbits and controls (P P In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, no significant difference in CSF WBC was observed between patients with or without bacteraemia at admission (n = 103, 1740 cells/μL (123–4032 vs. n = 50, 1961 cells/μL (673–5182, respectively, P = 0.18, but there was a significant correlation between CSF and blood WBC (n = 127, Spearman rho = 0.234, P = 0.008. Conclusion Our results suggest that a decrease in peripheral WBC induced by enhanced bacteraemia in pneumococcal meningitis results in an attenuated CSF pleocytosis.

  16. Infecciones en pacientes hospitalizados por cirrosis Infections in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Mathurin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos la prevalecencia y relevancia clínica de las infecciones bacterianas y no bacterianas en pacientes cirróticos predominantemente alcohólicos internados en un hospital de mediana complejidad, y comparamos las características clínicas, de laboratorio y la evolución de pacientes con y sin infección bacteriana en un estudio prospectivo de cohorte. Se incluyeron 211 internaciones consecutivas de 132 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis, de abril 2004 a julio 2007. El promedio de edad (±DS fue 51.8 (±8 años, 112 fueron hombres (84.8%; etiología alcohólica 95.4%. Se diagnosticaron 129 episodios de infecciones bacterianas en 99/211 (46.9% internaciones, adquiridos en la comunidad 79 (61.2% y 50 (38.8% intrahospitalarios: peritonitis bacteriana espontánea (23.3%; infección urinaria (21.7%; neumonías (17.8%; infecciones de piel y partes blandas (17.1%; sepsis por bacteriemia espontánea (7.7%; otras infecciones bacterianas (12.4%. El 52.2% fueron por gérmenes gram-positivos. Hubo ocho casos de tuberculosis e infecciones graves por hongos y parásitos. La prevalecencia de tuberculosis fue del 6% con una mortalidad anual de 62.5%. El 28.1% (9/32 de los exámenes coproparasitológicos tuvieron Strongyloides stercolaris. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue mayor en los pacientes con infección bacteriana (32.4% vs. 13.2%; p=0.02. Fueron identificados como predictores independientes de mortalidad: las infecciones bacterianas, el score de Child-Pügh y creatininemia > 1.5 mg/dl. En el análisis multivariado fueron factores independientes asociados a infección bacteriana la leucocitosis y la encefalopatía hepática grado III/IV. Este estudio confirma que las infecciones bacterianas y no bacterianas son una complicación frecuente y grave en pacientes cirróticos internados, con un aumento de la mortalidad hospitalaria.We evaluated the prevalence and the clinical relevance of bacterial and nonbacterial infections in predominantly alcoholic

  17. Recuperação de níquel e outros metais a partir de diferentes fontes (rejeitos minerais de processo industrial e pentlandita '(Ni,Fe)IND. 9' 'S IND. 8' ) mediante lixiviação ácida e bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Blandón, Nury Alexandra Muñoz [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Uma possibilidade para a recuperação de metais a partir de minerais com baixos teores ou de rejeitos industriais é a utilização da lixiviação com micro-organismos. A biolixiviação é o processo de oxidação bacteriana de sulfetos metálicos contendo metais de valor (por exemplo, níquel, cobre ou zinco), os quais são liberados para a solução, seguida da recuperação por técnicas metalúrgicas convencionais. Estudos de biolixiviação de concentrados de sulfetos minerais em tanques agitados e, sobretu...

  18. Enfermedad por meningococo, Neisseria meningitidis: perspectiva epidemiológica, clínica y preventiva Meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis: epidemiological, clinical, and preventive perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Almeida-González

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana continúa siendo uno de los grandes problemas de la salud pública mundial. En particular, la infección por Neisseria meningitidis afecta tanto a países desarrollados como subdesarrollados, y se presenta en formas endémicas y epidémicas. La enfermedad meningocóccica se puede manifestar clínicamente no sólo como meningitis, sino con cuadros fulminantes de meningococcemia. La persistencia de N. meningitidis se debe al gran porcentaje de portadores y a la dinámica de transmisión de la bacteria. Aproximadamente 500 millones de personas en el mundo son portadoras de N. meningitidis en la nasofaringe. Los factores de transmisiblidad identificados han sido el tabaquismo activo o pasivo, la presencia de infecciones virales del tracto respiratorio superior, épocas de sequía, y el hacinamiento. Por lo anterior, se han descrito brotes de enfermedad meningocóccica en cuarteles militares, escuelas, cárceles y dormitorios. Algunos determinantes que permiten la invasión sistémica incluyen daños en la mucosa nasofaríngea de portadores, cepas virulentas con formación de cápsula, ausencia de anticuerpos bactericidas y deficiencias del sistema del complemento. El control de la enfermedad meningocóccica en circunstancias endémicas y epidémicas se logra por el tratamiento de casos con antibióticos adecuados (penicilina, ceftriaxona o cloranfenicol, la quimioprofilaxis de contactos cercanos (ciprofloxacina, rifampicina o ceftriaxona, y la vigilancia clínica de éstos. Sin embargo, es fundamental subrayar que la clave para el control efectivo de la enfermedad meningocóccica es la inmunoprofilaxis. Las vacunas disponibles incluyen las de polisacáridos monovalentes o bivalentes (serogrupos A y C, tetravalentes (A, C, Y, W-135, la conjugada (C o la combinada de proteínas de membrana celular y polisacárido (B y C. Recientemente nos hemos visto forzados a establecer planes nacionales de respuesta que incluyen la

  19. From Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa to the Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, M Teresa; Jodar, Luis; Granoff, Dan; Rabinovich, Regina; Ceccarini, Costante; Perkin, Gordon W

    2015-11-15

    Polysaccharide vaccines had been used to control African meningitis epidemics for >30 years but with little or modest success, largely because of logistical problems in the implementation of reactive vaccination campaigns that are begun after epidemics are under way. After the major group A meningococcal meningitis epidemics in 1996-1997 (250,000 cases and 25,000 deaths), African ministers of health declared the prevention of meningitis a high priority and asked the World Health Organization (WHO) for help in developing better immunization strategies to eliminate meningitis epidemics in Africa. WHO accepted the challenge and created a project called Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa (EVA) that served as an organizational framework for external consultants, PATH, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Consultations were initiated with major vaccine manufacturers. EVA commissioned a costing study/business plan for the development of new group A or A/C conjugate vaccines and explored the feasibility of developing these products as a public-private partnership. Representatives from African countries were consulted. They confirmed that the development of conjugate vaccines was a priority and provided information on preferred product characteristics. In parallel, a strategy for successful introduction was also anticipated and discussed. The expert consultations recommended that a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine be developed and introduced into the African meningitis belt. The results of the costing study indicated that the "cost of goods" to develop a group A - containing conjugate vaccine in the United States would be in the range of US$0.35-$1.35 per dose, depending on composition (A vs A/C), number of doses/vials, and presentation. Following an invitation from BMGF, a proposal was submitted in the spring of 2001. In June 2001, BMGF awarded a grant of US$70 million to create the Meningitis

  20. Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer