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Sample records for memorial sloan-kettering cancer

  1. A Personal Reflection on the History of Radiation Oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Florence C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a historical and personal narrative of the development of radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from its founding more than 100 years ago to the present day. Methods and Materials: Historical sources include the Archives of MSKCC, publications by members of MSKCC, the author's personal records and recollections, and her communications with former colleagues, particularly Dr. Basil Hilaris, Dr. Zvi Fuks, and Dr. Beryl McCormick. Conclusions: The author, who spent 38 years at MSKCC, presents the challenges and triumphs of MSKCC's Radiation Oncology Department and details MSKCC's breakthroughs in radiation oncology. She also describes MSKCC's involvement in the founding of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.

  2. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Eastham, James A; Scardino, Peter T; Lilja, Hans

    2016-05-01

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA ≥ 3 ng/mL: consider prostate biopsy; if PSA ≥ 1 but decision to biopsy a man with a PSA > 3 ng/mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, digital rectal examination results, and workup for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) sarcoma nomogram useful in an Asian population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Deanna Wan Jie; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Lim, Cindy Xindi; Chee, Soo Khee; Quek, Richard Hong Hui; Farid, Mohamad; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2017-10-01

    A nomogram for prediction of 12-year sarcoma-specific survival has been developed based on patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated in Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC). We aim to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the MSKCC sarcoma nomogram in a cohort of patients treated at an Asian institution. This has not been validated in an Asian population and thus its universal applicability remains unproven. Between 1990 and 2013, 840 adult patients underwent treatment for primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS) at the National Cancer Centre Singapore. Patients who presented with locally recurrent or metastatic disease were excluded from the analysis. The variables included in the MSKCC nomogram included age at diagnosis, tumor size, histologic grade, histologic subtype, depth and site. A total of 399 patients were left for analysis. The nomogram was validated by assessing its extent of discrimination and level of calibration. All patients had deep tumors. Disease occurred most commonly in the lower extremity (n = 149 [37.3%]), the most common histologic subtype was "Others" (angiosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, sarcoma NOS [not otherwise specified] and rhabdomyosarcoma). Sixty-four percent of all patients had high-grade tumors while 36% had low-grade tumors. The median patient age at diagnosis was 54 years (range: 17-88 years). The median follow up time for all patients and surviving patients were 29 (range: 1-174) and 33 (range: 1-157) months, respectively. The observed 5- and 10-year sarcoma-specific survival were 55% and 33%, respectively. The concordance index was 0.71. For level of calibration, the observed correspondence between predicted and actual outcomes suggest that the MSKCC nomogram generally predicts well for patients with higher survival probability, but consistently overpredicts survival for the other groups, in our cohort of patients. The MSKCC sarcoma nomogram was found to be accurate in terms of extent of discrimination

  4. Building a CAR Garage: Preparing for the Delivery of Commercial CAR T Cell Products at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perica, Karlo; Curran, Kevin J; Brentjens, Renier J; Giralt, Sergio A

    2018-03-01

    Two commercial chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies for CD19-expressing B cell malignancies, Kymriah and Yescarta, have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The administration of CAR T cells is a complex endeavor involving cell manufacture, tracking and shipping of apheresis products, and management of novel and severe toxicities. At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we have identified 8 essential tasks that define the CAR T cell workflow. In this review, we discuss practical aspects of CAR T cell program development, including clinical, administrative, and regulatory challenges for successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a prospective study using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center bowel function instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihn, Myong Hoon; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Duck-Woo; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Lee, Soo Young; Hong, Sa Min

    2014-08-01

    Until recently, no studies have prospectively evaluated bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer with the use of a validated bowel function scoring system. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for altered bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted between January 2006 and May 2012 at the authors' institution. Patients who underwent sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery were recruited. Bowel function was assessed 1 day before (baseline) and at 1 year after sphincter-preserving surgery or temporary ileostomy takedown with the use of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with altered bowel function after surgery. Overall, 266 patients were eligible for the analysis. The tumor was located in the upper, middle, and lower rectum in 68 (25.5%), 113 (42.5%), and 85 (32.0%) patients. Intersphincteric resection and temporary ileostomy were performed in 18 (6.8%) and 129 (48.5%) patients. The mean Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score was 64.5 ± 7.6 at 1 year after sphincter-preserving surgery or temporary ileostomy takedown. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score decreased in 163/266 patients (61.3%) between baseline and 1 year after surgery. Tumor location (p = 0.01), operative method (p = 0.03), anastomotic type (p = 0.01), and temporary ileostomy (p = 0.01) were associated with altered bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery in univariate analyses. In multivariable analysis, only tumor location was independently associated with impaired bowel function after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery. This study was limited by its nonrandomized design and the lack of measurement before preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We suggest that preoperative counseling should be implemented to inform patients of the risk of bowel dysfunction

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Nancy Y., E-mail: Leen2@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27-91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3-135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia {>=}Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas; Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G.; Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center’s experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27–91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3–135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia ≥Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  8. Prognostic stratification of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib: comparison with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering prognostic factors model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamias, Aristotelis; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Stravodimos, Kostas; Xanthakis, Ioannis; Skolarikos, Andreas; Christodoulou, Christos; Syrigos, Kostas; Papandreou, Christos; Razi, Evangelia; Dafni, Urania; Fountzilas, George; Karadimou, Alexandra; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Lampaki, Sofia; Lainakis, George; Malettou, Lia; Timotheadou, Eleni; Papazisis, Kostas; Andreadis, Charalambos; Kontovinis, Loukas

    2010-01-01

    The treatment paradigm in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed in the recent years. Sunitinib has been established as a new standard for first-line therapy. We studied the prognostic significance of baseline characteristics and we compared the risk stratification with the established Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) model. This is a retrospective analysis of patients treated in six Greek Oncology Units of HECOG. Inclusion criteria were: advanced renal cell carcinoma not amenable to surgery and treatment with Sunitinib. Previous cytokine therapy but no targeted agents were allowed. Overall survival (OS) was the major end point. Significance of prognostic factors was evaluated with multivariate cox regression analysis. A model was developed to stratify patients according to risk. One hundred and nine patients were included. Median follow up has been 15.8 months and median OS 17.1 months (95% CI: 13.7-20.6). Time from diagnosis to the start of Sunitinib (<= 12 months vs. >12 months, p = 0.001), number of metastatic sites (1 vs. >1, p = 0.003) and performance status (PS) (<= 1 vs >1, p = 0.001) were independently associated with OS. Stratification in two risk groups ('low' risk: 0 or 1 risk factors; 'high' risk: 2 or 3 risk factors) resulted in distinctly different OS (median not reached [NR] vs. 10.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.3-13.3], p < 0.001). The application of the MSKCC risk criteria resulted in stratification into 3 groups (low and intermediate and poor risk) with distinctly different prognosis underlying its validity. Nevertheless, MSKCC model did not show an improved prognostic performance over the model developed by this analysis. Studies on risk stratification of patients with advanced RCC treated with targeted therapies are warranted. Our results suggest that a simpler than the MSKCC model can be developed. Such models should be further validated

  9. Development and Assessment of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s Surgical Secondary Events Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Vivian E.; Selby, Luke V.; Sovel, Mindy; Disa, Joseph J.; Hoskins, William; DeMatteo, Ronald; Scardino, Peter; Jaques, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studying surgical secondary events is an evolving effort with no current established system for database design, standard reporting, or definitions. Using the Clavien-Dindo classification as a guide, in 2001 we developed a Surgical Secondary Events database based on grade of event and required intervention to begin prospectively recording and analyzing all surgical secondary events (SSE). Study Design Events are prospectively entered into the database by attending surgeons, house staff, and research staff. In 2008 we performed a blinded external audit of 1,498 operations that were randomly selected to examine the quality and reliability of the data. Results 1,498 of 4,284 operations during the 3rd quarter of 2008 were audited. 79% (N=1,180) of the operations did not have a secondary event while 21% (N=318) of operations had an identified event. 91% (1,365) of operations were correctly entered into the SSE database. 97% (129/133) of missed secondary events were Grades I and II. Three Grade III (2%) and one Grade IV (1%) secondary event were missed. There were no missed Grade 5 secondary events. Conclusion Grade III – IV events are more accurately collected than Grade I – II events. Robust and accurate secondary events data can be collected by clinicians and research staff and these data can safely be used for quality improvement projects and research. PMID:25319579

  10. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  11. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2000-12-19

    Dec 19, 2000 ... ... Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA .... with biotinylated horse anti-mouse IgG (Vector Labora- ...... development of new therapies or prognosis of the disease,.

  12. Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    have obtained full IRB approval for this study at both the primary sites, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Dana Farber Cancer...California, The University of Copenhagen, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, and Memorial Sloan Kettering. (NEW...sequencer to generate paired-end colour space reads (50 nucleotides forward and 35 nucleotides reverse) by a multiplexed operation. The colour -space

  13. The relative value of cytometry and cytology in the management of bladder cancer: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalament, R A; Fair, W R; Whitmore, W F; Melamed, M R

    1988-02-01

    The flow cytometric studies presented herein are based almost entirely on DNA measurements and represent an early application of this diagnostic test. Nevertheless, the MSKCC experience with FCM has demonstrated that it is technically feasible and clinically useful. The sensitivity of FCM is in the range of 80% to 85% overall, and is superior to that of conventional voided or bladder wash cytology. In the absence of inflammation secondary to infection, calculi, or intravesical agents such as BCG, the specificity is greater than 90%. In the presence of inflammation, FCM appears to be less specific than conventional cytology. A potential advantage of FCM over cytology is the quantitative nature of the examination permitting comparisons of sequential examinations. Also, there are refinements in technique that hold promise of increasing the accuracy or clinical usefulness of FCM, eg, the joint measurements of DNA and differentiation antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies. Yet, despite the current and potential advantages of FCM, voided urinary cytology continues to be the procedure of choice for detection and monitoring urothelial carcinoma, not only because of our long experience and better understanding of this test, but because of its proven high specificity, because it is noninvasive, widely available, and may help to detect upper tract or urethral tumors.

  14. Use of positron emission tomography scan response to guide treatment change for locally advanced gastric cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Elizabeth; Shah, Manish A; Schöder, Heiko; Strong, Vivian E; Coit, Daniel G; Brennan, Murray F; Kelsen, David P; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Tang, Laura H; Capanu, Marinela; Rizk, Nabil P; Allen, Peter J; Bains, Manjit S; Ilson, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early metabolic response on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is PET non-responders have poor outcomes whether continuing chemotherapy or proceeding directly to surgery. Use of PET may identify early treatment failure, sparing patients from inactive therapy and allowing for crossover to alternative therapies. We examined the effectiveness of PET directed switching to salvage chemotherapy in the PET non-responders. Patients with locally advanced resectable FDG-avid gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, epirubicin 50 mg/m(2), cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) day 1, and capecitabine 625 mg/m(2) bid (ECX) every 21 days. PET scan was obtained at baseline and after cycle 1. PET responders, (i.e., ≥35% reduction in FDG uptake at the primary tumor) continued ECX + bev. Non-responders switched to docetaxel 30 mg/m(2), irinotecan 50 mg/mg(2) day 1 and 8 plus bevacizumab every 21 days for 2 cycles. Patients then underwent surgery. The primary objective was to improve the 2-year disease free survival (DFS) from 30% (historical control) to 53% in the non-responders. Twenty evaluable patients enrolled before the study closed for poor accrual. Eleven were PET responders and the 9 non-responders switched to the salvage regimen. With a median follow-up of 38.2 months, the 2-year DFS was 55% [95% confidence interval (CI), 30-85%] in responders compared with 56% in the non-responder group (95% CI, 20-80%, P=0.93). The results suggest that changing chemotherapy regimens in PET non-responding patients may improve outcomes. Results from this pilot trial are hypothesis generating and suggest that PET directed neoadjuvant therapy merits evaluation in a larger trial.

  15. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Kernan, Nancy A; Khakoo, Yasmin; Marr, Brian P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2013-04-01

    Data on long-term outcomes of survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma are lacking. The authors sought to provide the first report characterizing long-term outcomes among survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective analysis of long-term medical outcomes in 19 survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma treated between 1992 and 2009. Severity of outcomes was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All patients received intensive multimodality therapy for their extra-ocular disease after management of their primary intra-ocular disease, including conventional chemotherapy (n = 19, 100%), radiotherapy (n = 15, 69%), and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (n = 17, 89%). The median follow-up was 7.8 years from diagnosis of extra-ocular retinoblastoma (range 2-17.8 years). The most common long-term non-visual outcomes were hearing loss (n = 15, 79%), short stature (n = 7, 37%), and secondary malignancies [SMN] (n = 6, 31%). Sixty-eight percent of survivors exhibited ≥2 non-visual long-term outcomes of any grade. Except short stature, which was not graded for severity, Grade 3-4 outcomes were limited to: ototoxicity (n = 8; n = 4 require hearing aids), SMNs (n = 6), and unequal limb length (n = 1). Five patients who developed SMNs carried a known RB1 mutation. SMNs developed at a median of 11.1 years after initial diagnosis; two patients died of their SMN. Long-term cardiac, pulmonary, hepatobiliary, or renal conditions were not identified in any survivors. Long-term outcomes are commonly seen in extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors but the majority are mild-moderate in their severity. Longer comprehensive follow-up is needed to fully assess treatment-related outcomes but the information collected to date may affect management decisions for children with extra-ocular disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  17. Novel Approaches to Locoregional and Systemic Immunotherapy for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0298 TITLE: Novel approaches to locoregional and systemic immunotherapy for ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Dmitriy Zamarin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY 10017 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel approaches to locoregional and systemic immunotherapy for ovarian cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER vel ap roaches to l c regional

  18. Radiation therapy of Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS: Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisce, L.Z.; Safai, B.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 the authors reported their experience in the management of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) affecting elderly men of Jewish or Italian descent. Since the outbreak of KS in 1981 among young male homosexuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) the KS in the elderly has been subsequently called classical Kaposi's sarcome (CKS) in order to differentiate it from the KS in AIDS. The radiosensitivity of CKS is well documented. This report describes the authors' early experience in the radiation therapy of KS in AIDS compared with CKS and also discusses the problems related to the irradiation of the immunocompromised patient

  19. Radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma: Results from Memorial Sloan-Kettering in the modern era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Trang H.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Healey, John H.; Laquaglia, Michael P.; Boland, Patrick J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) treated with modern radiotherapy techniques with MRI along with optimal chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of all 60 patients with ESFT who received radiation to the primary site between 1990 and 2004 were reviewed. All patients received chemotherapy, including vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Radiation was used as the sole modality for local control in 31 patients and was given either before (n = 3) or after surgical resection (n = 26) in the remainder. All patients had MRI and CT scan-based treatment planning, and 43% received intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Radiation doses ranged from 30 Gy to 60 Gy (median, 51 Gy), and 35% received hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Results: Median age was 16 years (range, 2-40 years). Because of selection bias for radiotherapy, the majority of primary tumors were centrally located (72%): spine (n = 18), pelvis (n = 15), extremities (n 12), chest wall (n = 5), head and neck (n = 5), and other (n = 5). Thirty-eight percent of patients presented with metastatic disease, and 52% of primary tumors were ≥8 cm. Actuarial 3-year local control was 77%. The presence of metastases at diagnosis was an adverse prognostic factor for local control (84% vs. 61%, p = 0.036). No other predictive factors for local failure were identified. In patients without metastatic disease, 3-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 70% and 86%, respectively, whereas in patients with metastases they were both 21%. Follow-up of surviving patients was 6-178 months (median, 41 months). Conclusion: In this unfavorable cohort of ESFT patients, radiation therapy was an effective modality for local control, especially for patients without metastases. The presence of metastases at diagnosis is a predictive factor not only for death but also for local failure

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a potential biomarker in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group Study-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group...... blinded to treatment group. The DCE-CT scans were performed at baseline, at weeks 5 and 10, and thereafter every third month. Blood flow (BF; mL/min/100 mL), peak enhancement (Hounsfield units), time to peak (seconds), and blood volume (BV; mL/100 g) were calculated. Parameters for DCE-CT were correlated...

  1. A communication tool for cancer patients with pain: the art therapy technique of the body outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatto, Paola; Sereno, Valerie; Capps, Roy

    2003-06-01

    The multidimensional aspect of pain suggests the use of multimodal interventions. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has recently utilized the art therapy modality to help patients communicate the painful side of their illness in such a way that they can feel understood and respected. In this paper we describe a simple innovative art therapy intervention that we have developed within the Art Therapy Service in the Psychiatric Department of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The patients work with a Body Outline as a starting template, together with the art therapist, in sessions lasting approximately 45 minutes. They are encouraged to fill the space inside and outside the Body Outline. They can use colored pastels, markers, or watercolor or cut out images for a collage. Seventy hospitalized adult cancer patients, 60 women and 10 men, used this intervention between January 1999 and May 2000. We have analyzed the variety of responses from the 70 patients, and three main groups have emerged, which have focused on the following issues: (1) visualization of physical pain, (2) communication of emotions, and (3) search for meaning/spirituality. The results suggest that because of its abstract symbolic feature, the Body Outline is a very flexible therapeutic intervention. It must be offered within the relationship with the art therapist, and it may fulfill quite a variety of expressive needs, from the description of physical pain to the elaboration of spiritual longings.

  2. 75 FR 9006 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Partially Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    .... Varmus, President, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; and Dr. Eric S. Lander, President and Director, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Meeting Accomodations: Individuals requiring special accommodation...

  3. Commentary on: "Ipilimumab versus placebo after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy (CA184-043): A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial." Kwon ED, Drake CG, Scher HI, Fizazi K, Bossi A, van den Eertwegh AJ, Krainer M, Houede N, Santos R, Mahammedi H, Ng S, Maio M, Franke FA, Sundar S, Agarwal N, Bergman AM, Ciuleanu TE, Korbenfeld E, Sengeløv L, Hansen S, Logothetis C, Beer TM, McHenry MB, Gagnier P, Liu D, Gerritsen WR, CA184-043 Investigators. Departments of Urology and Immunology and Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA, Electronic address: kwon.eugene@mayo.edu; Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and Brady Urological Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris-Sud, Villejuif, France; Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vienna General Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France; CHU Caremeau, Nimes, France; Centro Médico Austral, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Centre Jean Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand, France; St John of God Hospital, Subiaco, WA, Australia; University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy; Hospital de Caridade de Ijuí, Ijuí, Brazil; Nottingham University Hospital, Nottingham, UK; Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Netherlands Cancer Institute and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Institute of Oncology Ion Chiricuta and University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 to enhance antitumour immunity. Our aim was to assess the use of ipilimumab after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial in which men with at least one bone metastasis from castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel treatment were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive bone-directed radiotherapy (8Gy in one fraction) followed by either ipilimumab 10mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to four doses. Non-progressing patients could continue to receive ipilimumab at 10mg/kg or placebo as maintenance therapy every 3 months until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effect, or death. Patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group via a minimisation algorithm, and stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, alkaline phosphatase concentration, haemoglobin concentration, and investigator site. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00861614. From May 26, 2009, to Feb 15, 2012, 799 patients were randomly assigned (399 to ipilimumab and 400 to placebo), all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival was 11.2 months (95% CI: 9.5-12.7) with ipilimumab and 10.0 months (8.3-11.0) with placebo (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85, 0.72-1.00; P = 0.053). However, the assessment of the proportional hazards assumption showed that it was violated (P = 0.0031). A piecewise hazard model showed that the HR changed over time: the HR for 0-5 months was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.10-1.95), for 5-12 months was 0.65 (0.50-0.85), and beyond 12 months was 0.60 (0.43-0.86). The most common grade 3

  4. Focal low-dose rate brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong WY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available William Y Tong, Gilad Cohen, Yoshiya Yamada Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Whole-gland low-dose rate (LDR brachytherapy has been a well-established modality of treating low-risk prostate cancer. Treatment in a focal manner has the advantages of reduced toxicity to surrounding organs. Focal treatment using LDR brachytherapy has been relatively unexplored, but it may offer advantages over other modalities that have established experiences with a focal approach. This is particularly true as prostate cancer is being detected at an earlier and more localized stage with the advent of better detection methods and newer imaging modalities. Keywords: prostate cancer, focal, low dose rate, brachytherapy

  5. Putting TCGA Data to Work - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurosurgeon Cameron Brennan of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center used TCGA data to define subgroups of patients with a deadly brain cancer called glioblastoma multiforme. Learn more about his research in this TCGA in Action case study.

  6. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  7. Validation of a nomogram for predicting survival after resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Biere, S. S. A. Y.; Lagarde, S. M.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nomograms are statistical tools providing the overall probability of a specific outcome; they have shown better individual discrimination than the tumour node metastasis staging system in several cancers. The pancreatic nomogram, originally developed in the Memorial Sloan-Kettering

  8. 75 FR 22635 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... President, The White House; Dr. Harold E. Varmus, President, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; and Dr. Eric S. Lander, President and Director, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Meeting Accomodations...

  9. ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0277 TITLE: ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Rohit Bose CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0277 5c

  10. Predictors of Bowel Function in Long-term Rectal Cancer Survivors with Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mubarika; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert S; Temple, Larissa; Hornbrook, Mark C; Bulkley, Joanna E; McMullen, Carmit K; Grant, Marcia; Herrinton, Lisa J

    2017-11-01

    Bowel function in long-term rectal cancer survivors with anastomosis has not been characterized adequately. We hypothesized that bowel function is associated with patient, disease, and treatment characteristics. The cohort study included Kaiser Permanente members who were long-term (≥5 years) rectal cancer survivors with anastomosis. Bowel function was scored using the self-administered, 14-item Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Bowel Function Index. Patient, cancer, and treatment variables were collected from the electronic medical chart. We used multiple regression to assess the relationship of patient- and treatment-related variables with the bowel function score. The study included 381 anastomosis patients surveyed an average 12 years after their rectal cancer surgeries. The total bowel function score averaged 53 (standard deviation, 9; range, 31-70, higher scores represent better function). Independent factors associated with worse total bowel function score included receipt of radiation therapy (yes vs. no: 5.3-unit decrement, p 6 cm: 3.2-unit decrement, p decrement, p decrement, p model explained 20% of the variation in the total bowel function score. Low tumor location, radiation therapy, temporary ostomy during initial treatment, and history of smoking were linked with decreased long-term bowel function following an anastomosis. These results should improve decision-making about surgical options.

  11. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53 tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey.

  12. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Scott; Cifra, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Performance of a Nomogram Predicting Disease-Specific Survival After an R0 Resection for Gastric Cancer in Patients Receiving Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikken, Johan L. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Coit, Daniel G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Baser, Raymond E.; Gönen, Mithat [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Brennan, Murray F. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jansen, Edwin P.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boot, Henk [Department of Gastroenterology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de [Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Cats, Annemieke [Department of Gastroenterology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verheij, Marcel, E-mail: m.verheij@nki.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The internationally validated Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) gastric carcinoma nomogram was based on patients who underwent curative (R0) gastrectomy, without any other therapy. The purpose of the current study was to assess the performance of this gastric cancer nomogram in patients who received chemoradiation therapy after an R0 resection for gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: In a combined dataset of 76 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), and 63 patients from MSKCC, who received postoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) after an R0 gastrectomy, the nomogram was validated by means of the concordance index (CI) and a calibration plot. Results: The concordance index for the nomogram was 0.64, which was lower than the CI of the nomogram for patients who received no adjuvant therapy (0.80). In the calibration plot, observed survival was approximately 20% higher than the nomogram-predicted survival for patients receiving postoperative CRT. Conclusions: The MSKCC gastric carcinoma nomogram significantly underpredicted survival for patients in the current study, suggesting an impact of postoperative CRT on survival in patients who underwent an R0 resection for gastric cancer, which has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. This analysis stresses the need for updating nomograms with the incorporation of multimodal strategies.

  14. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): a novel framework for cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Salz, Talya; Basch, Ethan; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Carroll, Peter R; Tighe, Foss; Eastham, James; Rosen, Raymond C

    2010-06-17

    We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate) or security. SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  15. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  16. In vivo neutron activation at the Sloan-Kettering Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A medical cyclotron (Model CS-15, The Cyclotron Corporation, Berkeley, CA) with a multi-layer neutron collimator designed for partial body neutron irradiations and a low-background patient counting facility have been established for measurement of bone calcium and sodium; and soft tissue, exchangeable sodium and chlorine. The cyclotron also provides total-body calcium by the 37 Ar method of Palmer. (author)

  17. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria; Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices

  19. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  20. Cancer surgeons' distress and well-being, II: modifiable factors and the potential for organizational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca S; Baser, Ray; Li, Yuelin; Scardino, Peter T; Brown, Arthur E; Kissane, David W

    2011-05-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the prevalence of burnout among surgical oncologists at a comprehensive cancer center was 42% and psychiatric morbidity 27%, and high quality of life (QOL) was absent for 54% of surgeons. Here we examine modifiable workplace factors and other stressors associated with burnout, psychiatric morbidity, and low QOL, together with interest in interventions to reduce distress and improve wellness. Study-specific questions important for morale, QOL, and stressors associated with burnout were included in an anonymous Internet-based survey distributed to the surgical faculty at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Among the 72 surgeons who responded (response rate of 73%), surgeons identified high stress from medical lawsuits, pressure to succeed in research, financial worries, negative attitudes to gender, and ability to cope with patients' suffering and death. Workplace features requiring greatest change were the reimbursement system, administrative support, and schedule. Work-life balance and relationship issues with spouse or partner caused high stress. Strongest correlations with distress were a desire to change communication with patients and the tension between the time devoted to work versus time available to be with family. Surgeons' preferences for interventions favored a fitness program, nutrition consultation, and increased socialization with colleagues, with less interest in interventions conventionally used to address psychological distress. Several opportunities to intervene at the organizational level permit efforts to reduce burnout and improve QOL.

  1. 15-Year biochemical relapse free survival in clinical Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer following combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy; Seattle experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, John E.; Grimm, Peter D.; Blasko, John C.; Millar, Jeremy; Orio, Peter F.; Skoglund, Scott; Galbreath, Robert W.; Merrick, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) rates in patients with clinical Stages T1-T3 prostate cancer continue to be scrutinized after treatment with external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We report 15-year BRFS rates on 223 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer that were consecutively treated with I 125 or Pd 103 brachytherapy after 45-Gy neoadjuvant EBRT. Multivariate regression analysis was used to create a pretreatment clinical prognostic risk model using a modified American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition (two consecutive serum prostate-specific antigen rises) as the outcome. Gleason scoring was performed by the pathologists at a community hospital. Time to biochemical failure was calculated and compared by using Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire treatment group was 74%. BRFS using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering risk cohort analysis (95% confidence interval): low risk, 88%, intermediate risk 80%, and high risk 53%. Grouping by the risk classification described by D'Amico, the BRFS was: low risk 85.8%, intermediate risk 80.3%, and high risk 67.8% (p = 0.002). Conclusions: I 125 or Pd 103 brachytherapy combined with supplemental EBRT results in excellent 15-year biochemical control. Different risk group classification schemes lead to different BRFS results in the high-risk group cohorts

  2. Prognostic relevance of sunitinib toxicities and comparison of continuous vs. intermittent sunitinib dosing schedule in metastatic renal cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Ordu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Sunitinib-related side effects may develop as a result of the pharmacokinetic pathway affects the of the drug. Material and methods : Data on mRCC patients were obtained from the hospital archives. Outcomes of patients were evaluated in terms of related prognostic factors, sunitinib adverse events during the treatment, and two different sunitinib dosing schedules. Results : Seventy patients diagnosed with mRCC and treated with sunitinib were analyzed for prognostic factors and survival rates. During the mean follow-up of 33.5 months, 38 (54% patients were alive and 32 (46% patients died. The median time of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 27 months (12–61 and 19 months (5–45, respectively. In univariate analysis, good prognostic risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC, hypothyroidism as sunitinib toxicity and patients on sunitinib treatment more than 1 year were favorable prognostic factors for OS. Leukopenia and fatigue as sunitinib toxicity were poor prognostic factors for OS. PFS and OS of the patients were not significantly different when we compared intermittent (4/2 vs. continuous treatment dosing schedules. Conclusions : As a result of this trial, having hypothyroidism as an adverse effect of sunitinib was a favorable prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients. It was also found that 4/2 and continuous dosing schedules of sunitinib did not give rise to different outcomes in mRCC patients.

  3. Support needs of Chinese immigrant cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jennifer; Lee, Trevor; Li, Yanjun; Stern, Charles; Chen, Mei Hsuan; Winkel, Gary; Gany, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    To enable better psychosocial, informational, and practical support of Chinese patients with cancer, this study was conducted to identify the specific support needs of Chinese immigrant cancer patients. The Cancer Portal Project at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's Center for Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities is a patient navigation program that assists underserved and minority cancer patients in obtaining social and economic assistance at ten New York City cancer clinics. This need assessment was conducted as part of the Portal Project. Sixty-four questions were added to the existing Portal Intake Form about the needs and preferences for Chinese-language support and survivorship services. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as an exploratory principal component's factor analysis to determine if there were any patterns in the services and programs in which patients were interested. Ninety-six patients were approached for participation; 59 agreed to participate. Eighty-eight percent of participants were born in China. Ninety-seven percent preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. When asked about general interest in support programs, 53 % of the participants were "very interested," 27 % were "maybe interested," and 17 % were "not interested." Programs in which more participants were "very interested" included those that would provide information about obtaining financial assistance (79 %) and social assistance (74 %), information on treatment options (67 %), help in coping with the burden of illness on the family (65 %), and information about general healthcare (63 %). The factor analysis resulted in the identification of five factors: social/financial/treatment and care issues, nutrition and exercise/networking/general health care, coping with fear and stress, herbs and dietary supplements, and acupuncture and acupressure. In this study, 80 % of the participants expressed interest in programs tailored for

  4. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  5. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  6. Bringing Precision Medicine to Community Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Quest Diagnostics has teamed up with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and IBM Watson Health to offer IBM Watson Genomics to its network of community cancer centers and hospitals. This new service aims to advance precision medicine by combining genomic tumor sequencing with the power of cognitive computing. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. History of International Workshop on Mini-Micro- and Nano- Dosimetry (MMND) and Innovation Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Zaider, Marco; Yamada, Josh; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The biannual MMND (former MMD) - IPCT workshops was founded in collaboration between the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001 and has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced quality assurance (QA) dosimetry technology for radiation therapy and space science, as well as advanced technologies for clinical cancer treatment.

  8. Clinical role of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy confirmed Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Tatsuo; Poon, Bing Ying; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Bernstein, Melanie; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Eastham, James A

    2015-01-01

    To identify preoperative factors predicting Gleason score downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with biopsy Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer and to determine if prediction of downgrading can identify potential candidates for active surveillance (AS). We identified 1317 patients with biopsy Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancers who underwent RP at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013. Several preoperative and biopsy characteristics were evaluated by forward selection regression, and selected predictors of downgrading were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Decision curve analysis was used to evaluate the clinical utility of the multivariate model. Gleason score was downgraded after RP in 115 patients (9%). We developed a multivariable model using age, prostate-specific antigen density, percentage of positive cores with Gleason pattern 4 cancer out of all cores taken, and maximum percentage of cancer involvement within a positive core with Gleason pattern 4 cancer. The area under the curve for this model was 0.75 after 10-fold cross validation. However, decision curve analysis revealed that the model was not clinically helpful in identifying patients who will downgrade at RP for the purpose of reassigning them to AS. While patients with pathological Gleason score 3 + 3 with tertiary Gleason pattern ≤4 at RP in patients with biopsy Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer may be potential candidates for AS, decision curve analysis showed limited utility of our model to identify such men. Future study is needed to identify new predictors to help identify potential candidates for AS among patients with biopsy confirmed Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  9. Clinical role of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Tatsuo; Poon, Bing Ying; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Bernstein, Melanie; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Eastham, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify preoperative factors predicting Gleason score downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer. To determine if prediction of downgrading can identify potential candidates for active surveillance. Patients and Methods We identified 1317 patients with biopsy Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013. Several preoperative and biopsy characteristics were evaluated by forward selection regression, and selected predictors of downgrading were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of the multivariate model. Results Gleason score was downgraded after radical prostatectomy in 115 patients (9%). We developed a multivariable model using age, prostate specific antigen density, percent of positive cores with Gleason 4 cancer out of all cores taken, and maximum percent of cancer involvement within a positive core with Gleason 4 cancer. The area under the curve for this model was 0.75 after ten-fold cross validation. However, decision curve analysis revealed that the model was not clinically helpful in identifying patients who will downgrade at radical prostatectomy for the purpose of reassigning them to active surveillance. Conclusion While patients with pathology Gleason score 3+3 with tertiary Gleason pattern 4 or lower at radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer may be potential candidates for active surveillance, decision curve analysis showed limited utility of our model to identify such men. Future study is needed to identify new predictors to help identify potential candidates for active surveillance among patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score 3+4 prostate cancer. PMID:24725760

  10. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant FOLFOX for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercek, Andrea; Siegel, Cara L; Capanu, Marinela; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Saltz, Leonard B

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that the incidence of young women diagnosed with colorectal cancer is rising, thus there is an increasing number of female colorectal cancer survivors of premenopausal and child-bearing age. Adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy is the most widely used standard treatment for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer. We evaluated the incidence of FOLFOX-induced amenorrhea in women age 50 and younger treated with adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. A search of pharmacy records identified 119 women age 50 or younger who received adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering for stage II or III colorectal cancer from January 2002 and January 2011. Eligible patients were mailed an anonymous questionnaire. The returned surveys were reviewed and the results tallied. Seventy-three patients returned the questionnaire. Twenty-four patients were excluded from analysis: 19 were treated with pelvic radiotherapy, 2 patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy, 2 had a hysterectomy, and 1 stopped menstruating before diagnosis. Forty-nine patient responses were analyzed. In total, 41% (n = 20) experienced amenorrhea during chemotherapy. Sixteen percent had persistent amenorrhea 1 year after completion of chemotherapy. The incidence of amenorrhea during chemotherapy trended higher in patients aged older than 40 compared with patients aged 40 and younger (59% vs. 31% [P = .075]). There was no statistically significant difference in persistent amenorrhea between the 2 age groups (24% vs. 13%; P = .42). In this retrospective series, there appears to be a trend toward FOLFOX induced amenorrhea during chemotherapy increasing with age. Twenty-four percent of women older than the age of 40 were found to have persistent amenorrhea after FOLFOX therapy. Because of the small sample size, the study is underpowered to detect a statistically significant difference between older and younger patients. Prospective studies

  11. Expression and functional role of orphan receptor GPR158 in prostate cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Patel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC.

  12. Biobanking of human pancreas cancer tissue: impact of ex-vivo procurement times on RNA quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloff, Udo; Bhanot, Umesh; Gerald, William; Klimstra, David S; Jarnagin, William R; Brennan, Murray F; Allen, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    Tissue banking has become a major initiative at many oncology centers. The influence of warm ex-vivo ischemia times, storage times, and biobanking protocols on RNA integrity and subsequent microarray data is not well documented. A prospective institutional review board-approved protocol for the banking of abdominal neoplasms was initiated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 2001. Sixty-four representative pancreas cancer specimens snap-frozen at various ex-vivo procurement times (1 h) and banked during three time periods (2001-2004, 2004-2006, 2006-2008) were processed. RNA integrity was determined by microcapillary electrophoresis using the RNA integrity number (RIN) algorithm and by results of laser-capture microdissection (LCM). Overall, 42% of human pancreas cancer specimens banked under a dedicated protocol yielded RNA with a RIN of > or =7. Limited warm ex-vivo ischemia times did not negatively impact RNA quality (percentage of tissue with total RNA with RIN of > or =7 for 60 min, 42%), and long-term storage of banked pancreas cancer biospecimens did not negatively influence RNA quality (total RNA with RIN of > or =7 banked 2001-2004, 44%; 2004-2006, 38%; 2006-2008, 50%). RNA retrieved from pancreatic cancer samples with RIN of > or =7 subject to LCM yielded RNA suitable for further downstream applications. Fresh-frozen pancreas tissue banked within a standardized research protocol yields high-quality RNA in approximately 50% of specimens and can be used for enrichment by LCM. Quality of tissues of the biobank were not adversely impacted by limited variations of warm ischemia times or different storage periods. This study shows the challenges and investments required to initiate and maintain high-quality tissue repositories.

  13. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  14. CheckMate 025 Randomized Phase 3 Study: Outcomes by Key Baseline Factors and Prior Therapy for Nivolumab Versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escudier, Bernard; Sharma, Padmanee; McDermott, David F

    2017-01-01

    /kg every 2 wk or everolimus 10mg once daily. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The minimum follow-up was 14 mo. Baseline subgroup distributions were balanced between nivolumab and everolimus arms. Nivolumab demonstrated an OS improvement versus everolimus across subgroups, including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer...... Center (MSKCC) and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk groups; age

  15. 2015 Soft Condensed Matter Physics: Self-Assembly and Active Matter GRC/GRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard Poster Presenter Registered Beller, Daniel A Harvard University Poster Presenter Registered Bi, Dapeng Syracuse...Poster Presenter Registered Deforet, Maxime Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Poster Presenter Registered Del Gado, Emanuela Georgetown...Registered Dullens, Roel University of Oxford Poster Presenter Registered Fakhri, Nikta MIT Poster Presenter Registered Fan, Jing Harvard

  16. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    Specific Oligonucleotides SSP Sequence Specific Primers SSOP Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probes STAR ® Search, Tracking and Registry TBI Total... white paper detailing recommendations/guidelines for the assessment of new assays (potency or other assays) relevant to cord blood banking and/or...Irradiation - Marcel van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) 5. Organ Toxicity: h. Pulmonary Toxicity - Zeljko Vujaskovic (Duke) i

  17. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and the number of previous treatments with VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent radiology review committee in the first 375 randomly assigned patients and has been previously...

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Family Therapy in Advanced Cancer Continued Into Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane, David W; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Hichenberg, Shira; Schuler, Tammy; Lederberg, Marguerite; Lavelle, Lisa; Loeb, Rebecca; Del Gaudio, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Systematic family-centered cancer care is needed. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of family therapy, delivered to families identified by screening to be at risk from dysfunctional relationships when one of their relatives has advanced cancer. Eligible patients with advanced cancer and their family members screened above the cut-off on the Family Relationships Index. After screening 1,488 patients or relatives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or three related community hospice programs, 620 patients (42%) were recruited, which represented 170 families. Families were stratified by three levels of family dysfunction (low communicating, low involvement, and high conflict) and randomly assigned to one of three arms: standard care or 6 or 10 sessions of a manualized family intervention. Primary outcomes were the Complicated Grief Inventory-Abbreviated (CGI) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Generalized estimating equations allowed for clustered data in an intention-to-treat analysis. On the CGI, a significant treatment effect (Wald χ(2) = 6.88; df = 2; P = .032) and treatment by family-type interaction was found (Wald χ(2) = 20.64; df = 4; P families. Low-communicating families improved by 6 months of bereavement. In the standard care arm, 15.5% of the bereaved developed a prolonged grief disorder at 13 months of bereavement compared with 3.3% of those who received 10 sessions of intervention (Wald χ(2) = 8.31; df = 2; P =.048). No significant treatment effects were found on the BDI-II. Family-focused therapy delivered to high-risk families during palliative care and continued into bereavement reduced the severity of complicated grief and the development of prolonged grief disorder. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Treatment of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with modern radiotherapy techniques in the postoperative setting-the MSKCC experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Stegman, Lauren D.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with paranasal sinus (PNS) cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and July 2005, 85 patients with PNS and nasal cavity cancer underwent postoperative RT. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (49%; n = 42), T4 tumors (52%; n = 36), and the maxillary sinus (53%; n = 45) as the primary disease site. The median radiation dose was 63 Gy. Of the 85 patients, 76 underwent CT simulation and 53 were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT (27%; n = 23) or intensity-modulated RT (35%; n = 30). Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results: With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 60 months, the 5-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates were 62%, 87%, 82%, 55%, and 67%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, squamous cell histology and cribriform plate involvement predicted for an increased likelihood of local recurrence, and squamous cell histologic features predicted for worse overall survival. None of the patients who underwent CT simulation and were treated with modern techniques developed a Grade 3-4 late complication of the eye. Conclusion: Complete surgical resection followed by adjuvant RT is an effective and safe approach in the treatment of PNS cancer. Emerging tools, such as three-dimensional conformal treatment and, in particular, intensity-modulated RT for PNS tumors, may minimize the occurrence of late complications associated with conventional RT techniques. Local recurrence remains a significant problem

  20. Development of a Nomogram Model Predicting Current Bone Scan Positivity in Patients Treated with Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotto, Geoffrey T.; Yu, Changhong; Bernstein, Melanie; Eastham, James A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a nomogram predictive of current bone scan positivity in patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced prostate cancer; to augment clinical judgment and highlight patients in need of additional imaging investigations. Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review of bone scan records (conventional 99mTc-scintigraphy) of 1,293 patients who received ADT at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 2000 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables suitable for inclusion in the nomogram. The probability of current bone scan positivity was determined using these variables and the predictive accuracy of the nomogram was quantified by concordance index. Results: In total, 2,681 bone scan records were analyzed and 636 patients had a positive result. Overall, the median pre-scan prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 2.4 ng/ml; median PSA doubling time (PSADT) was 5.8 months. At the time of a positive scan, median PSA level was 8.2 ng/ml; 53% of patients had PSA <10 ng/ml; median PSADT was 4.0 months. Five variables were included in the nomogram: number of previous negative bone scans after initiating ADT, PSA level, Gleason grade sum, and history of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. A concordance index value of 0.721 was calculated for the nomogram. This was a retrospective study based on limited data in patients treated in a large cancer center who underwent conventional 99mTc bone scans, which themselves have inherent limitations. Conclusion: This is the first nomogram to predict current bone scan positivity in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients, providing high predictive accuracy. PMID:25386410

  1. Development of a nomogram model predicting current bone scan positivity in patients treated with androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKattan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop a nomogram predictive of current bone scan positivity in patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT for advanced prostate cancer; to augment clinical judgment and highlight patients in need of additional imaging investigations.Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of bone scan records (conventional 99mTc-scintigraphy of 1,293 patients who received ADT at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 2000 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables suitable for inclusion in the nomogram. The probability of current bone scan positivity was determined using these variables and the predictive accuracy of the nomogram was quantified by concordance index.Results: In total, 2,681 bone scan records were analyzed and 636 patients had a positive result. Overall, the median pre-scan prostate-specific antigen (PSA level was 2.4 ng/ml; median PSA doubling time (PSADT was 5.8 months. At the time of a positive scan, median PSA level was 8.2 ng/ml; 53% of patients had PSA <10 ng/ml; median PSADT was 4.0 months. Five variables were included in the nomogram: number of previous negative bone scans after initiating ADT, PSA level, Gleason grade sum, and history of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. A concordance index value of 0.721 was calculated for the nomogram. This was a retrospective study based on limited data in patients treated in a large cancer centre who underwent conventional 99mTc bone scans, which themselves have inherent limitations. Conclusions: This is the first nomogram to predict current bone scan positivity in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients, providing high predictive accuracy.

  2. Patterns of Utilization of Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Outcomes in Black Women After Breast Conservation at a Large Multidisciplinary Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; McCormick, Beryl; Zhang, Zhigang; Azu, Michelle; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Brown, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.

  3. Outcome of genetic evaluation of patients with kidney cancer referred for suspected hereditary cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelly L; Alanee, Shaheen; Glogowski, Emily A; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Klein, Robert; Russo, Paul; Coleman, Jonathan; Offit, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    To analyze patients with kidney cancer referred for evaluation at a high-volume genetics service at a comprehensive cancer center and identify factors associated with positive tests for hereditary cancer syndromes. A retrospective review of patients referred to the Clinical Genetics Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was performed, and patients with a personal history of kidney cancer were identified. Patient and disease characteristics were reviewed. In all, 4 variables including age at diagnosis of kidney tumor, presence of syndromic manifestations, family history of kidney cancer, and number of primary malignancies were evaluated for association with positive test results in 2 groups: patients tested for renal cell carcinoma syndromes and Lynch syndrome. Guidance for genetic testing strategy in patients with kidney cancer is provided. Between 1999 and 2012, 120 patients with a history of kidney cancer were evaluated by the Clinical Genetics Service. The mean age at kidney cancer diagnosis was 52 years (interquartile range: 42-63), with 57% being women. A family history of kidney cancer was reported by 39 patients (33%). Time between diagnosis of first cancer and genetic consultation was 5 years in the remaining 23%. Overall, 95 patients were tested for genetic abnormalities with 27 (28%) testing positive. Testing for renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-related syndromes was performed on 43 patients, with 13 testing positive (30%). Lynch syndrome testing was positive in 9 patients (32%) after 28 were tested. In RCC-associated syndromes, young age of diagnosis was associated with positive test results. Conversely, syndromic manifestations and increasing number of primary malignancies were associated with positive Lynch testing. The discovery of inherited kidney cancer syndromes has provided a unique opportunity to identify patients at increased risk for cancer. Factors associated with positive genetic testing are unique to different syndromes. These data

  4. Outcomes of asymptomatic anastomotic leaks found on routine postoperative water-soluble enema following anterior resection for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, S; Souroullas, P; Ho Tin, H; Hunter, I A; O'Grady, H; Gunn, J; Hartley, J E

    2013-11-01

    The incidence and consequence of an anastomotic leak associated with low anterior resection for cancer mandates covering stoma in most cases. A water-soluble enema is often performed to assess anastomotic integrity prior to stoma reversal. The functional outcome following reversal in patients with occult radiologically detected leaks is poorly defined. The goal of the present study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with a radiologically detected anastomotic leak who subsequently underwent stoma reversal. This case control study used patients with and without radiologically detected occult anastomotic leak having undergone reversal of covering stomata. The study group was matched with controls for age, gender, procedure, tumor stage, and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. Validated fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL), Cleveland Clinic Fecal Incontinence Score (CCFIS), and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Bowel Function Index (BFI) were used. Patient satisfaction, medication use, and ancillary procedures prior to closure were also recorded. Thirteen patients with radiologically detected occult anastomotic leaks and 13 matched controls were identified from a prospectively maintained database. The FIQL, CCFIS, and MSKCC BFI scores were significantly reduced in those with occult leaks. The mean number of radiological and surgical interventions was significantly greater in the patients with occult leaks. Antidiarrheal and bulking agent use, as well as patient satisfaction, were the same for both groups. Only one patient in the occult leak group would not undergo stoma reversal again. Reversal of a defunctioning ileostomy in the presence of an occult radiological leak can be associated with poorer functional outcomes, but patient satisfaction is undiminished.

  5. A score system for complete cytoreduction in selected recurrent ovarian cancer patients undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery: predictors- and nomogram-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Elena; Signorelli, Mauro; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Mosca, Lavinia; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO) and Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) criteria in predicting complete cytoreduction (CC) in patients undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) for recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). Data of consecutive patients undergoing SCS were reviewed. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie OVARian cancer study group (AGO-OVAR) and MSK criteria were retrospectively applied. Nomograms, based on AGO criteria, MSK criteria and both AGO and MSK criteria were built in order to assess the probability to achieve CC at SCS. Overall, 194 patients met the inclusion criteria. CC was achieved in 161 (82.9%) patients. According to the AGO-OVAR criteria, we observed that CC was achieved in 87.0% of patients with positive AGO score. However, 45 out of 71 (63.4%) patients who did not fulfilled the AGO score had CC. Similarly, CC was achieved in 87.1%, 61.9% and 66.7% of patients for whom SCS was recommended, had to be considered and was not recommended, respectively. In order to evaluate the predictive value of the AGO-OVAR and MSK criteria we built 2 separate nomograms (c-index: 0.5900 and 0.5989, respectively) to test the probability to achieve CC at SCS. Additionally, we built a nomogram using both the aforementioned criteria (c-index: 0.5857). The AGO and MSK criteria help identifying patients deserving SCS. However, these criteria might be strict, thus prohibiting a beneficial treatment in patients who do not met these criteria. Further studies are needed to clarify factors predicting CC at SCS. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  6. Reliability and validity of a survey to measure bowel function and quality of life in long-term rectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Herrinton, Lisa; Temple, Larissa K F; Hornbrook, Mark C; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Altschuler, Andrea; Krouse, Robert S

    2014-12-01

    Examination of reliability and validity of a specialized health-related quality of life questionnaire for rectal cancer (RC) survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). We mailed 1,063 Kaiser Permanente (KP) RC survivors (313 ostomy and 750 anastomosis) a questionnaire containing the Modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy (mCOH-QOL-O), SF-12v2, Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Bowel Function Index (BFI). We adapted certain BFI items for use by subjects with intestinal ostomies. We evaluated reliability for all instruments with inter-item correlations and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed construct validity only for the BFI in the ostomy group, because such use has not been reported. The overall response rate was 60.5 % (577 respondents/953 eligible). Compared with non-responders, participants were on average 2 years younger and more likely non-Hispanic white, resided in educationally non-deprived areas, and had KP membership through a group. The mCOH-QOL-O, SF-12, and FSSQ were found to be highly reliable for RC survivors. In the ostomy group, BFI Urgency/Soilage and Dietary subscales were found to be reliable, but Frequency was not. Factor analysis supported the construct of Urgency/Soilage and Dietary subscales in the ostomy group, although one item had a moderate correlation with all three factors. The BFI also demonstrated good concurrent validity with other instruments in the ostomy group. With possible exception of the BFI Frequency subscale in populations with ostomies, components of our survey can be used for the entire population of RC survivors, no matter whether they received anastomosis or ostomy.

  7. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  8. The role of parotid gland irradiation in the development of severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: Temporal patterns, risk factors, and testing the QUANTEC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Thor, Maria; Oh, Jung Hun; Riaz, Nadeem; Tsai, C Jillian; Rosenberg, Haley; Varthis, Spyridon; Yom, Sae Hee K; Huryn, Joseph M; Lee, Nancy Y; Deasy, Joseph O; Estilo, Cherry L

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate temporal patterns and potential risk factors for severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC), and to test the two QUANTEC (Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic) guidelines. Sixty-three patients treated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2006 and 2015, who had a minimum of three stimulated whole mouth saliva flow measurements (WMSFM) at a median follow-up time of 11 (range: 3-24) months were included. Xerostomia was defined as WMSFM ≤25% compared to relative pre-radiotherapy. Patients were stratified into three follow-up groups: 1: xerostomia was 27%, 14% and 17% at follow-up time points 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At xerostomia (Dmean contra : 25 Gy vs. 15 Gy; Dmean ipsi : 44 Gy vs. 25 Gy). Patients with xerostomia had higher pre-RT WMSFM (3.5 g vs. 2.4 g), and had been treated more frequently with additional chemotherapy (93% vs. 63%; all 4 variables: p xerostomia was higher compared to patients without (26 Gy vs. 20 Gy). The RR as specified by the one- and two-gland QUANTEC guideline was 2.3 and 1.4 for patients with Xerostomia following IMRT peaks within six months post-radiotherapy and fades with time. Limiting the mean dose to both parotid glands (ipsilateral xerostomia. Both QUANTEC guidelines are effective in preventing xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation Detection in Patients With Advanced Cancer by Universal Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes in Tumor and Normal DNA vs Guideline-Based Germline Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Kemel, Yelena; Stadler, Zsofia K; Joseph, Vijai; Zehir, Ahmet; Pradhan, Nisha; Arnold, Angela; Walsh, Michael F; Li, Yirong; Balakrishnan, Anoop R; Syed, Aijazuddin; Prasad, Meera; Nafa, Khedoudja; Carlo, Maria I; Cadoo, Karen A; Sheehan, Meg; Fleischut, Megan H; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Trottier, Magan; Lipkin, Steven M; Lincoln, Anne; Mukherjee, Semanti; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Cambria, Roy; Galle, Jesse; Abida, Wassim; Arcila, Marcia E; Benayed, Ryma; Shah, Ronak; Yu, Kenneth; Bajorin, Dean F; Coleman, Jonathan A; Leach, Steven D; Lowery, Maeve A; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kantoff, Philip W; Sawyers, Charles L; Dickler, Maura N; Saltz, Leonard; Motzer, Robert J; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Scher, Howard I; Baselga, Jose; Klimstra, David S; Solit, David B; Hyman, David M; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth

    2017-09-05

    Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of

  10. An assessment of Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria for active surveillance of clinically low-risk prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vitor; Cagiannos, Ilias; Lavallée, Luke T.; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Witiuk, Kelsey; Cnossen, Sonya; Eastham, James A.; Fergusson, Dean A.; Morash, Chris; Breau, Rodney H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Active surveillance is a strategy to delay or prevent treatment of indolent prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria were developed to select patients for prostate cancer active surveillance. The objective of this study was to compare pathological findings from PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible clinically low-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods A D’Amico low-risk cohort of 1512 radical prostatectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital or Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre between January 1995 and December 2007 was reviewed. Pathological outcomes (pT3 tumours, Gleason sum ≥7, lymph node metastases, or a composite) and clinical outcomes (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] recurrence, secondary cancer treatments, and death) were compared between PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible cohorts. Results The PRIAS-eligible cohort (n=945) was less likely to have Gleason score ≥7 (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.75), pT3 (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.31–0.55), nodal metastases (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10–1.31), or any adverse feature (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45–0.69) compared to the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. The probability of any adverse pathology in the PRIAS-eligible cohort was 41% vs. 56% in the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. At median follow-up of 3.7 years, 72 (4.8%) patients had a PSA recurrence, 24 (1.6%) received pelvic radiation, and 13 (0.9%) received androgen deprivation. No difference was detected for recurrence-free and overall survival between groups (recurrence hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.46–1.09 and survival HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36–1.47). Conclusions Low-risk prostate cancer patients who met PRIAS eligibility criteria are less likely to have higher-risk cancer compared to those who did not meet at least one of these criteria. PMID:28798822

  11. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P [The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nieva, J [Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Newton, P [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  12. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P; Nieva, J; Newton, P; Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  13. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Genomic Alterations Observed in Colitis-Associated Cancers Are Distinct From Those Found in Sporadic Colorectal Cancers and Vary by Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Rona; Shah, Manish A; Miller, Vincent A; Kelsen, Judith R; Wang, Kai; Heins, Zachary J; Ross, Jeffrey S; He, Yuting; Sanford, Eric; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Stephens, Philip J; Schultz, Nikolaus; Oren, Moshe; Tang, Laura; Kelsen, David

    2016-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are at increased risk for small bowel or colorectal cancers (colitis-associated cancers [CACs]). We compared the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs with those of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and investigated differences between CACs from patients with CD vs UC. We studied tumor tissues from patients with CACs treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or Weill Cornell Medical College from 2003 through 2015. We performed hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing analysis of >300 cancer-related genes to comprehensively characterize genomic alterations. We performed genomic analyses of 47 CACs (from 29 patients with UC and 18 with CD; 43 primary tumors and 4 metastases). Primary tumors developed in the ileum (n = 2), right colon (n = 18), left colon (n = 6), and rectosigmoid or rectum (n = 21). We found genomic alterations in TP53, IDH1, and MYC to be significantly more frequent, and mutations in APC to be significantly less frequent, than those reported in sporadic CRCs by The Cancer Genome Atlas or Foundation Medicine. We identified genomic alterations that might be targeted by a therapeutic agent in 17 of 47 (36%) CACs. These included the mutation encoding IDH1 R132; amplification of FGFR1, FGFR2, and ERBB2; and mutations encoding BRAF V600E and an EML4-ALK fusion protein. Alterations in IDH1 and APC were significantly more common in CACs from patients with CD than UC. In an analysis of CACs from 47 patients, we found significant differences in the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs compared with sporadic CRCs. We observed a high frequency of IDH1 R132 mutations in patients with CD but not UC, as well as a high frequency of MYC amplification in CACs. Many genetic alterations observed in CACs could serve as therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  16. Symptom Severity and Quality of Life Among Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Compared With Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Charles, Susan T; Gunaratne, Mekhala; Baxter, Nancy N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cohen, Zane; Gallinger, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. Long

  17. Impact of immune parameters on long-term survival in metastatic renal cell      carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede; Maase, Hans von der

    2006-01-01

    with estimated       5-year survival rates of 60%, 25%, and 0%, respectively. These findings       were apparent in both our own prognostic model and in an extended Memorial       Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) prognostic model. CONCLUSION:       This study points on five clinical and three...

  18. What is the gold standard for comprehensive interinstitutional communication of perioperative information for thyroid cancer patients? A comparison of existing electronic health records with the current American Thyroid Association recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Laura L; Tuttle, R Michael; Alon, Eran; Bergman, Donald A; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Harris, Jeffrey R; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Lupo, Mark; Milas, Mira; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa; Randolph, Gregory; Ross, Douglas S; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David James; Tufano, Ralph P; Mehra, Saral; Scherl, Sophie; Clain, Jason B; Urken, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    Appropriate management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer requires treating clinicians to have access to critical elements of the patient's presentation, surgical management, postoperative course, and pathologic assessment. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide an effective method for the storage and transmission of patient information, although most commercially available EHRs are not intended to be disease-specific. In addition, there are significant challenges for the sharing of relevant clinical information when providers involved in the care of a patient with thyroid cancer are not connected by a common EHR. In 2012, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) defined the critical elements for optimal interclinician communication in a position paper entitled, "The Essential Elements of Interdisciplinary Communication of Perioperative Information for Patients Undergoing Thyroid Cancer Surgery." We present a field-by-field comparison of the ATA's essential elements as applied to three contemporary electronic reporting systems: the Thyroid Surgery e-Form from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Alberta WebSMR from the University of Calgary, and the Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC). The MSKCC e-form fulfills 21 of 32 intraoperative fields and includes an additional 14 fields not specifically mentioned in the ATA's report. The Alberta WebSMR fulfills 45 of 82 preoperative and intraoperative fields outlined by the ATA and includes 13 additional fields. The TCCC fulfills 117 of 120 fields outlined by the ATA and includes 23 additional fields. Effective management of thyroid cancer is a highly collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. The patient information that factors into clinical decisions about thyroid cancer is complex. For these reasons, EHRs are particularly favorable for the management of patients with thyroid cancer. The MSKCC Thyroid Surgery e-Form, the Alberta WebSMR, and the TCCC each meet all of the general recommendations for

  19. Conformal radiotherapy to 76 Gy in localized prostate cancer. Therapeutic modalities and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontvert, D.; Mammar, H.; Flam, T.; Debre, B.; Thiounn, N.; Gaboriaud, G.; Jourdan-Da Silvae, N.; Beuzeboc, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to describe therapeutic modalities for localized prostate cancer treated by conformal radiation to 76 Gy with or without androgen ablation. To evaluate the preliminary results in terms of survival, biological control and toxicity. Patients and method: between January 1998 and June 2001, 321 patients with localized prostate cancer were irradiated at Institut Curie. Tumors were stratified into the three Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic groups (1998) for analysis: favorable risk group (F.G.) 23%, intermediate risk group (I.G.) 36.5%, unfavorable risk group (U.G.) 40.5%. Androgen deprivation, mainly neo-adjuvant, less or equal to one year was prescribed to 93.8% of patients (72.6% less or equal to six months). Planning target volume prescription doses were: prostate: 76 Gy, seminal vesicles: 56 to 76 Gy, and pelvic lymph nodes: 44 Gy to 16.8% of patients. Results: the five-year actuarial overall survival was 94% (95% I.C.: 90-97%). The median post-therapeutic follow-up was 36 months (nine to 60 months). The 48-month actuarial rates of biochemical control for the three prognostic groups were statistically different according to both the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus (A.S.T.R.O. 1997) and the Fox Chase Cancer Center definitions of biochemical failure (F.C.C.C. 2000) with respectively 87 and 94% for F.G., 78 and 84% for I.G., 54 and 58% for U.G. (P < 10-6 and P < 10-8). At time of our analysis, late post-treatment rectal and bladder bleedings were 17,4 and 13,6%, respectively. According to a 1-4 scale adapted from M.D. Anderson Cancer Center criteria: rectal bleedings were grade 1 (9.6%), grade 2 (6.2%) and grade 3 (1.6%). Bladder bleedings were grade 2 (13%) and grade 3 (0.6%). Analysis of rectal bleeding risk factors showed significant correlations with pelvic lymph nodes irradiation for grade 2 and 3, (P = 0.02), and for all grades, a correlation with smaller rectal wall volumes (P = 0.03), and greater

  20. Association of statin use with a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Matthew S.; Minsky, Bruce D.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Riedel, Elyn; Chessin, David B.; Guillem, Jose G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, might enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 358 patients with clinically resectable, nonmetastatic rectal cancer underwent surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for either locally advanced tumors or low-lying tumors that would require abdominoperineal resection. We excluded 9 patients for radiation therapy dose <45 Gy or if statin use was unknown, leaving 349 evaluable patients. Median radiation therapy dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy), and 308 patients (88%) received 5-flurouracil-based chemotherapy. Medication use, comorbid illnesses, clinical stage as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and type of chemotherapy were analyzed for associations with pathologic complete response (pCR), defined as no microscopic evidence of tumor. Fisher's exact test was used for categoric variables, Mantel-Haenszel test for ordered categoric variables, and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-three patients (9%) used a statin, with no differences in clinical stage according to digital rectal examination or ultrasound compared with the other 324 patients. At the time of surgery, 23 nonstatin patients (7%) were found to have metastatic disease, compared with 0% for statin patients. The unadjusted pCR rates with and without statin use were 30% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.10). Variables significant univariately at the p = 0.15 level were entered into a multivariate model, as were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were strongly associated with statin use. The odds ratio for statin use on pCR was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1; p = 0.003) after adjusting for NSAID use, clinical stage, and type of chemotherapy. Conclusion: In multivariate analysis, statin use is associated with an improved p

  1. Identification of Germline Genetic Mutations in Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo-Mullen, Erin E.; O’Reilly, Eileen; Kelsen, David; Ashraf, Asad M.; Lowery, Maeve; Yu, Kenneth; Reidy, Diane; Epstein, Andrew S.; Lincoln, Anne; Saldia, Amethyst; Jacobs, Lauren M.; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Zhang, Liying; Kurtz, Robert; Saltz, Leonard; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Stadler, Zsofia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is part of several cancer predisposition syndromes; however, indications for genetic counseling/testing are not well-defined. We sought to determine mutation prevalence and characteristics that predict for inherited predisposition to PAC. Methods We identified 175 consecutive PAC patients who underwent clinical genetics assessment at Memorial Sloan Kettering between 2011–2014. Clinical data, family history, and germline results were evaluated. Results Among 159 PAC patients who pursued genetic testing, 24 pathogenic mutations were identified (15.1%; 95%CI, 9.5%–20.7%), including BRCA2(n=13), BRCA1(n=4), p16(n=2), PALB2(n=1), and Lynch syndrome(n=4). BRCA1/BRCA2 prevalence was 13.7% in Ashkenazi Jewish(AJ) (n=95) and 7.1% in non-AJ(n=56) patients. In AJ patients with strong, weak, or absent family history of BRCA-associated cancers, mutation prevalence was 16.7%, 15.8%, and 7.4%, respectively. Mean age at diagnosis in all mutation carriers was 58.5y(range 45–75y) compared to 64y(range 27–87y) in non-mutation carriers(P=0.02). Although BRCA2 was the most common mutation identified, no patients with early-onset PAC(≤50y) harbored a BRCA2 mutation and the mean age at diagnosis in BRCA2 carriers was equivalent to non-mutation carriers(P=0.34). Mutation prevalence in early-onset patients(n=21) was 28.6%, including BRCA1(n=2), p16(n=2), MSH2(n=1) and MLH1(n=1). Conclusion Mutations in BRCA2 account for over 50% of PAC patients with an identified susceptibility syndrome. AJ patients had high BRCA1/BRCA2 prevalence regardless of personal/family history, suggesting that ancestry alone indicates a need for genetic evaluation. With the exception of BRCA2-associated PAC, inherited predisposition to PAC is associated with earlier age at PAC diagnosis suggesting that this subset of patients may also represent a population warranting further evaluation. PMID:26440929

  2. Analysis of biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer using dose-distribution variables and tumor control probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tumor control following three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer and to identify dose-distribution variables that correlate with local control assessed through posttreatment prostate biopsies. Methods and Material: Data from 132 patients, treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), who had a prostate biopsy 2.5 years or more after 3D-CRT for T1c-T3 prostate cancer with prescription doses of 64.8-81 Gy were analyzed. Variables derived from the dose distribution in the PTV included: minimum dose (Dmin), maximum dose (Dmax), mean dose (Dmean), dose to n% of the PTV (Dn), where n = 1%, ..., 99%. The concept of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was evaluated for different values of the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF 2 ). Four tumor control probability (TCP) models (one phenomenologic model using a logistic function and three Poisson cell kill models) were investigated using two sets of input parameters, one for low and one for high T-stage tumors. Application of both sets to all patients was also investigated. In addition, several tumor-related prognostic variables were examined (including T-stage, Gleason score). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. The ability of the logistic regression models (univariate and multivariate) to predict the biopsy result correctly was tested by performing cross-validation analyses and evaluating the results in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: In univariate analysis, prescription dose (Dprescr), Dmax, Dmean, dose to n% of the PTV with n of 70% or less correlate with outcome (p 2 : EUD correlates significantly with outcome for SF 2 of 0.4 or more, but not for lower SF 2 values. Using either of the two input parameters sets, all TCP models correlate with outcome (p 2 , is limited because the low dose region may not coincide with the tumor location. Instead, for MSKCC prostate cancer patients with their

  3. Overcoming intratumoural heterogeneity for reproducible molecular risk stratification: a case study in advanced kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbock, Alexander L R; Stewart, Grant D; O'Mahony, Fiach C; Laird, Alexander; Mullen, Peter; O'Donnell, Marie; Powles, Thomas; Harrison, David J; Overton, Ian M

    2017-06-26

    Metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (mccRCC) portends a poor prognosis and urgently requires better clinical tools for prognostication as well as for prediction of response to treatment. Considerable investment in molecular risk stratification has sought to overcome the performance ceiling encountered by methods restricted to traditional clinical parameters. However, replication of results has proven challenging, and intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) may confound attempts at tissue-based stratification. We investigated the influence of confounding ITH on the performance of a novel molecular prognostic model, enabled by pathologist-guided multiregion sampling (n = 183) of geographically separated mccRCC cohorts from the SuMR trial (development, n = 22) and the SCOTRRCC study (validation, n = 22). Tumour protein levels quantified by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) were investigated alongside clinical variables. Regularised wrapper selection identified features for Cox multivariate analysis with overall survival as the primary endpoint. The optimal subset of variables in the final stratification model consisted of N-cadherin, EPCAM, Age, mTOR (NEAT). Risk groups from NEAT had a markedly different prognosis in the validation cohort (log-rank p = 7.62 × 10 -7 ; hazard ratio (HR) 37.9, 95% confidence interval 4.1-353.8) and 2-year survival rates (accuracy = 82%, Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.62). Comparisons with established clinico-pathological scores suggest favourable performance for NEAT (Net reclassification improvement 7.1% vs International Metastatic Database Consortium score, 25.4% vs Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score). Limitations include the relatively small cohorts and associated wide confidence intervals on predictive performance. Our multiregion sampling approach enabled investigation of NEAT validation when limiting the number of samples analysed per tumour, which significantly degraded performance

  4. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Otto, B; Bander, NH [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    -drug conjugates. Further exploration using the model will examine binding and radioisotope residence as antibody dose is increased to antigen saturation. The Center for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy and Theranostics, Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), NIH (R25-CA096945). Technical services provided by the MSK Small-Animal Imaging Core Facility were supported by the NIH (R24-CA83084, P30-CA08748, and P50-CA92629; Zanzonico). NCI, Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparity (R21 CA153177-03; Osborne)

  5. Using generalized equivalent uniform dose atlases to combine and analyze prospective dosimetric and radiation pneumonitis data from 2 non-small cell lung cancer dose escalation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Yorke, Ellen D; Belderbos, José S A; Borst, Gerben R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lebesque, Joos V; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate≥20% were plotted. The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear-specific AR-V7 Protein Localization is Necessary to Guide Treatment Selection in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Howard I; Graf, Ryon P; Schreiber, Nicole A; McLaughlin, Brigit; Lu, David; Louw, Jessica; Danila, Daniel C; Dugan, Lyndsey; Johnson, Ann; Heller, Glenn; Fleisher, Martin; Dittamore, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) expressing AR-V7 protein localized to the nucleus (nuclear-specific) identify metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients with improved overall survival (OS) on taxane therapy relative to the androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi) abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and apalutamide. To evaluate if expanding the positivity criteria to include both nuclear and cytoplasmic AR-V7 localization ("nuclear-agnostic") identifies more patients who would benefit from a taxane over an ARSi. The study used a cross-sectional cohort. Between December 2012 and March 2015, 193 pretherapy blood samples, 191 of which were evaluable, were collected and processed from 161 unique mCRPC patients before starting a new line of systemic therapy for disease progression at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The association between two AR-V7 scoring criteria, post-therapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (PTPC) and OS following ARSi or taxane treatment, was explored. One criterion required nuclear-specific AR-V7 localization, and the other required an AR-V7 signal but was agnostic to protein localization in CTCs. Correlation of AR-V7 status to PTPC and OS was investigated. Relationships with survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analyses. A total of 34 (18%) samples were AR-V7-positive using nuclear-specific criteria, and 56 (29%) were AR-V7-positive using nuclear-agnostic criteria. Following ARSi treatment, none of the 16 nuclear-specific AR-V7-positive samples and six of the 32 (19%) nuclear-agnostic AR-V7-positive samples had ≥50% PTPC at 12 weeks. The strongest baseline factor influencing OS was the interaction between the presence of nuclear-specific AR-V7-positive CTCs and treatment with a taxane (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.078-0.79; p=0.019). This interaction was not significant when nuclear-agnostic criteria were used. To reliably inform treatment selection

  7. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Denise L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs, although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC, boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART, and multivariate logistic regression (MLR informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93% patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%. 101 (35% of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171 and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171. When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77, AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of

  8. Induction chemotherapy plus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in the definitive treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Sang; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Schindelheim, Rachel; Ng, Kenneth K.; Leibel, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our institution's experience using chemotherapy in conjunction with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1998, 152 patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with 3D-CRT at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A total of 137 patients (90%) were surgically staged with either thoracotomy or mediastinoscopy. The remainder were staged radiographically. Seventy patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, and 82 patients received induction chemotherapy before radiation. The majority of chemotherapy-treated patients received a platinum-containing regimen. Radiation was delivered with a 3D conformal technique using CT-based treatment planning. The median dose in the radiation alone group was 70.2 Gy, while in the combined modality group, it was 64.8 Gy. Results: The median follow-up time was 30.5 months among survivors. Stage IIIB disease was present in 36 patients (51%) in the radiation-alone group and 57 patients (70%) in the combined-modality group. Thirty-nine patients had poor prognostic factors (KPS 5%), and they were equally distributed between the two groups. The median survival times for the radiation-alone and the combined-modality groups were 11.7 months and 18.1 months, respectively (p=0.001). The 2-year rates of local control in the radiation-alone and combined-modality groups were 35.4% and 43.1%, respectively (p=0.1). Grade 3 or worse nonhematologic toxicity occurred in 20% of the patients receiving radiation alone and in 16% of those receiving chemotherapy and radiation. Overall, there were only 4 cases of Grade 3 or worse esophagitis. Conclusion: Despite more Stage IIIB patients in the combined-modality group, the addition of chemotherapy to 3D-CRT produced a survival advantage over 3D-CRT alone in Stage III NSCLC without a concomitant increase in toxicity. Chemotherapy thus appears to be beneficial, even in patients who are receiving higher

  9. Report on the Clinical Outcomes of Permanent Breast Seed Implant for Early-Stage Breast Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Crook, Juanita; McCann, Claire; Truong, Pauline; Verkooijen, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Permanent breast seed implant is an accelerated partial breast irradiation technique realizing the insertion of "1"0"3Pd seeds in the seroma after lumpectomy. We report the 5-year efficacy and tolerance for a cohort, pooling patients from 3 clinical trials. Methods and Materials: The trials accrued postmenopausal patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ ≤3 cm and clear surgical margins, who were node negative, and had a planning target volume <120 cm"3. The outcomes included overall and disease-free survival and local and contralateral recurrence at 5 years. The true local recurrence rate was compared using 2-tailed paired t tests for estimates calculated using the Tufts University ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and Memorial Sloan Kettering ductal carcinoma in situ nomograms. Results: The cohort included 134 patients, and the observed local recurrence rate at a median follow-up period of 63 months was 1.2% ± 1.2%, similar to the estimate for whole breast irradiation (P=.23), significantly better than for surgery alone (relative risk 0.27; P<.001), and significantly lower than contralateral recurrence (relative risk 0.33; P<.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 97.4% ± 1.9%, and the disease-free survival rate was 96.4% ± 2.1%. At 2 months, 42% of the patients had erythema, 20% induration, and 16% moist desquamation. The rate of mainly grade 1 telangiectasia was 22.4% at 2 years and 24% at 5 years. The rate of asymptomatic induration was 23% at 2 years and 40% at 5 years. Conclusions: The 5-year data suggest that permanent breast seed implantation is a safe accelerated partial breast irradiation option after lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer with a tolerance profile similar to that of whole breast irradiation.

  10. Report on the Clinical Outcomes of Permanent Breast Seed Implant for Early-Stage Breast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Toronto at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Oncology Department, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Caudrelier, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency Center for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); McCann, Claire [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Toronto at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Truong, Pauline [Radiation Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Verkooijen, Helena A. [Imaging Division, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: Permanent breast seed implant is an accelerated partial breast irradiation technique realizing the insertion of {sup 103}Pd seeds in the seroma after lumpectomy. We report the 5-year efficacy and tolerance for a cohort, pooling patients from 3 clinical trials. Methods and Materials: The trials accrued postmenopausal patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ ≤3 cm and clear surgical margins, who were node negative, and had a planning target volume <120 cm{sup 3}. The outcomes included overall and disease-free survival and local and contralateral recurrence at 5 years. The true local recurrence rate was compared using 2-tailed paired t tests for estimates calculated using the Tufts University ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and Memorial Sloan Kettering ductal carcinoma in situ nomograms. Results: The cohort included 134 patients, and the observed local recurrence rate at a median follow-up period of 63 months was 1.2% ± 1.2%, similar to the estimate for whole breast irradiation (P=.23), significantly better than for surgery alone (relative risk 0.27; P<.001), and significantly lower than contralateral recurrence (relative risk 0.33; P<.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 97.4% ± 1.9%, and the disease-free survival rate was 96.4% ± 2.1%. At 2 months, 42% of the patients had erythema, 20% induration, and 16% moist desquamation. The rate of mainly grade 1 telangiectasia was 22.4% at 2 years and 24% at 5 years. The rate of asymptomatic induration was 23% at 2 years and 40% at 5 years. Conclusions: The 5-year data suggest that permanent breast seed implantation is a safe accelerated partial breast irradiation option after lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer with a tolerance profile similar to that of whole breast irradiation.

  11. Validation and head-to-head comparison of three nomograms predicting probability of lymph node invasion of prostate cancer in patients undergoing extended and/or sentinel lymph node dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivas, Nikolaos; Wit, Esther; Tillier, Corinne; Muilekom, Erik van; Poel, Henk van der [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Winter, Alexander [School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University, University Hospital for Urology, Klinikum Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    The updated Winter nomogram is the only nomogram predicting lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients based on sentinel node (SN) dissection (sLND). The aim of the study was to externally validate the Winter nomogram and examine its performance in patients undergoing extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND), ePLND combined with SN biopsy (SNB) and sLND only. The results were compared with the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and updated Briganti nomograms. This retrospective study included 1183 patients with localized PCa undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) combined with pelvic lymphadenectomy and 224 patients treated with sLND and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), aiming to offer pelvic radiotherapy only in case of histologically positive SNs. In the RARP population, ePLND was applied in 956 (80.8%) patients,while 227 (19.2%) patients were offered ePLND combined with additional SNB. The median numbers of removed nodes were 10 (interquartile range, IQR = 6-14), 15 (IQR = 10-20) and 7 (IQR = 4-10) in the ePLND, ePLND + SNB, and sLND groups, respectively. Corresponding LNI rates were 16.6%, 25.5% and 42%. Based on the AUC, the performance of the Briganti nomogram (0.756) in the ePLND group was superior to both the MSKCC (0.744) and Winter nomogram (0.746). The Winter nomogram, however, was the best predictor of LNI in both the ePLND + SNB (0.735) and sLND (0.709) populations. In the calibration analysis, all nomograms showed better accuracy in the low/intermediate risk patients, while in the high-risk population, an overestimation of the risk for LNI was observed. The SN-based updated nomogram showed better prediction in the SN population. The results were also comparable, relative to predictive tools developed with (e)PLND, suggesting a difference in sampling accuracy between SNB and non-SNB. Patients who benefit most from the nomogram would be those with a low/intermediate risk of LN metastasis

  12. Introducing a music program in the perioperative area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, M F; Monson, B; Bookbinder, M

    1997-10-01

    Music can touch patients deeply and thus transform their anxiety and stress into relaxation and healing. Patients with cancer who undergo surgical procedures are highly stressed. To help alleviate these patients' stress and improve their comfort, perioperative nurses at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, surveyed surgical patients and staff members about introducing a perioperative music program. This article reviews the literature on the use of music in perioperative care settings and describes MSKCC's decision to evaluate and then implement a music program.

  13. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Larson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  14. Precision Oncology and Genetic Risk Information: Exploring Patients' Preferences and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Jada Hamilton is an Assistant Member at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, as well as an Assistant Attending Psychologist in the Behavioral Sciences Service, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and in the Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine at Memorial Hospital in New York, New York.  She leads a program of research at the intersection of behavioral science, cancer prevention, and genomics, with the goal of translating advances in genetic and genomic medicine into improved cancer care that is of high quality, aligned with patient preferences, and ultimately improves public health.  Dr. Hamilton is also currently leading a study to assess how patients and their families respond to inherited risk information that is revealed as part of tumor sequencing (funded through a Mentored Research Scholar Grant from the American Cancer Society), as well as studies to evaluate alternative models for offering genetic counseling and testing to patients with cancer, and to examine the effects of novel breast cancer genetic risk feedback on patients’ decision-making, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. Prior to joining the faculty of Memorial Sloan Kettering, Dr. Hamilton received a BA in Genetics and Psychology from Ohio Wesleyan University (2004), an MA and PhD in Social and Health Psychology from Stony Brook University (2006, 2009), and an MPH from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University (2010).  She also completed a postdoctoral fellowship as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program.

  15. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer.

  16. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on D mean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage ( 6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with D mean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD 50 , the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ 50 , the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD 50 . Results: D mean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD 50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD 50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, D mean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD 50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ 50 =3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ 50 =2

  17. WE-A-207-01: Memorial Lecturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Runkel, R

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Physics community lost one of its early pioneers in radiation oncology physics, Jacques Ovadia, who passed away in April of 2014 at the age of 90. Jacques received his Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana in 1951. Subsequently, under the guidance of John Laughlin, he was introduced to the field of Medical Physics. When John moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering, Jacques followed him. There he gained clinical experience and expertise in the then cutting-edge field of high energy electron beam therapy. In 1956, Jacques joined Dr. Erich Uhlmann at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago where one of the country’s first high energy medical linear accelerators had just been installed. During his 35 year tenure, Dr. Ovadia built a strong Medical Physics department that merged in 1984 with that of the University of Chicago. Jacques pioneered the use of high energy electron beams to treat deep seated tumors, multiple-field chest wall irradiation with variable electron energies, and even anticipated the current interest in high energy electron beam grid-therapy. At an early stage, he introduced a simulator, computerized treatment planning and in-house developed record and verify software. He retired in 1990 as Professor emeritus in Radiation and Cellular Biology at the University of Chicago. Dr. Ovadia was an early and strong supporter of AAPM. He was present at the Chicago ROMPS meeting where the decision was made to form an independent professional society for medical physics. He served as AAPM president in 1976. Jacques Ovadia is survived by his wife of 58 years, Florence, their daughter Corinne Graefe and son Marc Ovadia, MD, as well as four grandchildren and one great-grandchild. Jacques’ dynamic and ever enthusiastic personality inspired all who collaborated with him. He will be greatly missed

  18. WE-A-207-01: Memorial Lecturer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller-Runkel, R [St. Margaret Mercy Healthcare Centers, Hammond, IN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Medical Physics community lost one of its early pioneers in radiation oncology physics, Jacques Ovadia, who passed away in April of 2014 at the age of 90. Jacques received his Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana in 1951. Subsequently, under the guidance of John Laughlin, he was introduced to the field of Medical Physics. When John moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering, Jacques followed him. There he gained clinical experience and expertise in the then cutting-edge field of high energy electron beam therapy. In 1956, Jacques joined Dr. Erich Uhlmann at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago where one of the country’s first high energy medical linear accelerators had just been installed. During his 35 year tenure, Dr. Ovadia built a strong Medical Physics department that merged in 1984 with that of the University of Chicago. Jacques pioneered the use of high energy electron beams to treat deep seated tumors, multiple-field chest wall irradiation with variable electron energies, and even anticipated the current interest in high energy electron beam grid-therapy. At an early stage, he introduced a simulator, computerized treatment planning and in-house developed record and verify software. He retired in 1990 as Professor emeritus in Radiation and Cellular Biology at the University of Chicago. Dr. Ovadia was an early and strong supporter of AAPM. He was present at the Chicago ROMPS meeting where the decision was made to form an independent professional society for medical physics. He served as AAPM president in 1976. Jacques Ovadia is survived by his wife of 58 years, Florence, their daughter Corinne Graefe and son Marc Ovadia, MD, as well as four grandchildren and one great-grandchild. Jacques’ dynamic and ever enthusiastic personality inspired all who collaborated with him. He will be greatly missed.

  19. Evolving technologies drive the new roles of Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; St Germain, J; Lui, W

    2008-01-01

    Rapidly changing technology coupled with the financial impact of organized health care, has required hospital Biomedical Engineering organizations to augment their traditional operational and business models to increase their role in developing enhanced clinical applications utilizing new and evolving technologies. The deployment of these technology based applications has required Biomedical Engineering organizations to re-organize to optimize the manner in which they provide and manage services. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has implemented a strategy to explore evolving technologies integrating them into enhanced clinical applications while optimally utilizing the expertise of the traditional Biomedical Engineering component (Clinical Engineering) to provide expanded support in technology / equipment management, device repair, preventive maintenance and integration with legacy clinical systems. Specifically, Biomedical Engineering is an integral component of the Medical Physics Department which provides comprehensive and integrated support to the Center in advanced physical, technical and engineering technology. This organizational structure emphasizes the integration and collaboration between a spectrum of technical expertise for clinical support and equipment management roles. The high cost of clinical equipment purchases coupled with the increasing cost of service has driven equipment management responsibilities to include significant business and financial aspects to provide a cost effective service model. This case study details the dynamics of these expanded roles, future initiatives and benefits for Biomedical Engineering and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  20. Differentiated thyroid cancer: reclassification of the risk of recurrence based on the response to initial treatment; Carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides: reclasificación del riesgo de recurrencia según la respuesta al tratamiento inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, M. P.; Lozano Bullrich, M. P.; Rey, M.; Ridruejo, M. C.; Bomarito, M. J.; Claus Hermberg, H.; Pozzo, M.J., E-mail: mpazmartinez@yahoo.com [Hospital Alemán, Servicio de Endocrinología, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most frequent endocrine tumor generally showing a favourable outcome. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) classification system is not only useful to assess the risk of recurrence but also guides tumor follow-up. However, this system shows a static image of the patient at the beginning of treatment based on clinical and pathological features, and it has not been designed to be modified along the clinical course of disease. Therefore, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MS-KCC) has designed a reclassification system after 2 years of the initial treatment (IT) thus providing a dynamic perspective of each patient. Objective: to report our experience with the MS-KCC risk of recurrence reclassification system on DTC patients. Materials and methods: retrospective observational descriptive study of the results of the reclassification system of the DCT patients after two years of IT with surgery and radioiodine ablation, between October 2004 and April 2011. Data was obtained by reviewing the charts of patients. All surgeries, laboratory determinations and nuclear medicine procedures took place at our Hospital. Patients were classified according to initial risk of recurrence based on the ATA system and they were reclassified following the system proposed by the MS-KCC 2 years after IT. Patients with antithyroglobulin antibodies > 12 IU/ml were excluded due to interference with thyroglobulin determination. Results: we reviewed data of 31 patients diagnosed with DTC. They were classified according to the ATA system as: low risk 17 (54.8 %), intermediate risk 13 (42 %) and high risk 1 (3.2 %) and they were reclassified following the MS-KCC system as having: excellent response 25 (80.6 %), acceptable response 6 (19.4 %) and incomplete response 0 (0 %). An excellent response was observed in 14 (82.4 %) and an acceptable response was observed in 3 (17.6 %) of the low-risk classified patients; an excellent

  1. Exploring an unconventional approach to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    biologist, Dr. Paul Lasko. “I learned how to think and design experimental approaches through the Developmental Biology classes offered by Dr. Lasko,” says Dr. Amleh appreciatively of her professor, the recipient of 2014 Prix du Québec, which is the most prestigious award attributed by the Government of Quebec in all fields of culture and science.Upon completing her doctoral degree, Dr. Amleh went on to further her career at various institutions. She became a research fellow at the Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK in Bethesda, Maryland, as well as a research associate at the National Institutes of Health, also in Bethesda. Additional experience in the field also boosted her expertise when she worked as an instructor at the Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology, at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston, and a senior research scientist at the Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in NY.Reflecting upon her experiences throughout her doctoral and postdoctoral research, Dr. Amleh says, “I have addressed fundamental questions related to mammalian embryonic development through a variety of projects including molecular genetics and cell culture systems.” She adds, “My ongoing and future research work plans will continue to pursue questions related to the molecular/cellular/developmental and differentiation processes.” Dr. Amleh’s research interests are focused on understand- ing the genetic control of normal and abnormal development in the mammalian system including the incidence of cancer. When discussing about the current trends in cancer research, she opined that developing rational personal/targeted therapy is very promising to develop new approaches that deal with the devastating disorder in a more effective way. “It has been suggested that personalized medicine is the right way to conquer

  2. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yingna He,1 Linhua Zhang,2 Dunwan Zhu,2 Cunxian Song2 1Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Material of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit, were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3 cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer. Keywords: multifunctional liposome, magnetic resonance imaging, theranostic nanomedicine, mitoxantrone, gonadorelin

  3. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The state of the art in therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy can be curative or palliative in intent, and local or systemic in administration. Current therapy relies of beta emitting radioisotopes and selective carriers for the treatment of advanced tumours. The next generation of therapeutics may be alpha emitting radionuclides for subclinical, micrometastatic disease. Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT has been tested by in vitro and in vivo studies many cancers. The first phase 1 clinical trial of TAT for leukaemia with Bi-213 has concluded at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a phase 1 and 2 trial of intra-lesional TAT is ongoing at Duke University with At-211 labeled Mab against cystic glioma, and a phase 1 and 2 clinical trial for intra-lesional TAT with Bi-213 of subcutaneous secondary melanoma is underway at St George Hospital

  5. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  6. The Syed temporary interstitial iridium gynaecological implant: an inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Albert Y.C.

    2002-01-01

    Patients with advanced gynaecological cancer are often treated with a temporary interstitial implant using the Syed template and Ir-192 ribbons at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Urgency in planning is great. We created a computerized inverse planning system for the Syed temporary gynaecological implant, which optimized the ribbon strengths a few seconds after catheter digitization. Inverse planning was achieved with simulated annealing. We discovered that hand-drawn target volumes had drawbacks; hence instead of producing a grid of points based on target volume, the optimization points were generated directly from the catheter positions without requiring an explicit target volume. Since all seeds in the same ribbon had the same strength, the minimum doses were located at both ends of the implant. Optimization points generated at both ends ensured coverage of the whole implant. Inverse planning took only a few seconds, and generated plans that provide a good starting point for manual improvement. (author)

  7. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators

  8. Radiation induced sarcomas of bone following therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.H.; Woodward, H.Q.; Huvos, A.

    1983-01-01

    Because of new therapeutic trends of multi-modality and the importance of late effects, we have updated our series of radiation induced bone sarcomas seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over the past four decades. A total of 37 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bone in the irradiated field was analyzed. The median for latent period from irradiation to diagnosis of bone sarcoma was 11 years with a minimum latent period of four years. The median radiation dose for the bone sarcoma was 6000 rad in 6 weeks with a minimum total radiation dose of 3000 rad in 3 weeks. We have found nine patients who developed bone sarcomas in the radiation field after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Criteria for radiation induced bone sarcomas and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcomas are briefly discussed

  9. Management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma: new and emerging targets and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Janet Y Li1, Steven Horwitz2, Alison Moskowitz2, Patricia L Myskowski3, Melissa Pulitzer4, Christiane Querfeld31College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2Department of Medicine, Lymphoma Service, 3Department of Medicine, Dermatology Service, 4Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL clinically and biologically represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome being the most common subtypes. Over the last decade, new immunological and molecular pathways have been identified that not only influence CTCL phenotype and growth, but also provide targets for therapies and prognostication. This review will focus on recent advances in the development of therapeutic agents, including bortezomib, the histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and romidepsin, and pralatrexate in CTCL.Keywords: novel targets, histone deacetylase inhibitors, pralatrexate, bortezomib, cutaneous T cell lymphoma

  10. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  11. Testing a novel account of the dissociation between self-reported memory problems and memory performance in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni

    2018-01-01

    A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  13. Learning and memory performance in a cohort of clinically referred breast cancer survivors: the role of attention versus forgetting in patient-reported memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, James C; Ryan, Elizabeth; Barnett, Gregory; Andreotti, Charissa; Bolutayo, Kemi; Ahles, Tim

    2015-05-01

    While forgetfulness is widely reported by breast cancer survivors, studies documenting objective memory performance yield mixed, largely inconsistent, results. Failure to find consistent, objective memory issues may be due to the possibility that cancer survivors misattribute their experience of forgetfulness to primary memory issues rather than to difficulties in attention at the time of learning. To clarify potential attention issues, factor scores for Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory were analyzed for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in 64 clinically referred breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive complaints; item analysis was conducted to clarify specific contributors to observed effects, and contrasts between learning and recall trials were compared with normative data. Performance on broader cognitive domains is also reported. The Attention Span factor, but not Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, or Inaccurate Memory factors, was significantly affected in this clinical sample. Contrasts between trials were consistent with normative data and did not indicate greater loss of information over time than in the normative sample. Results of this analysis suggest that attentional dysfunction may contribute to subjective and objective memory complaints in breast cancer survivors. These results are discussed in the context of broader cognitive effects following treatment for clinicians who may see cancer survivors for assessment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Children's Memories for Painful Cancer Treatment Procedures: Implications for Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Craske, Michelle G.; Katz, Ernest R.

    2000-01-01

    Examined memory of 3- to 18-year-olds with leukemia regarding lumbar punctures (LP). Found that children displayed considerable accuracy for event details, with accuracy increasing with age. Use of Versed (anxiolytic medication described as a "memory blocker") was not related to recall. Higher distress predicted greater exaggerations in…

  15. What do cancer patients mean when they complain of concentration and memory problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cull, A.; Hay, C.; Love, S. B.; Mackie, M.; Smets, E.; Stewart, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive function items are increasingly included in quality of life measures, and complaints of concentration and memory difficulties are often reported by cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing patients' level of complaint by comparing subjective reports

  16. Attention and memory deficits in breast cancer survivors: implications for nursing practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen M

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) commonly report deficits in attention and memory, cognitive functions crucial for daily optimal functioning. Perceived deficits are reported before, during, and after adjuvant therapy and affect quality of life throughout survivorship. Deficits of attention and memory are particularly disruptive for BCSs working or attending school who report that subtle impairment diminishes their confidence and their performance at all levels of occupation. Chemotherapy and endocrine therapy contribute to attention and memory deficits, but research findings have not fully established the extent or timing of that influence. Fortunately, potential interventions for attention and memory deficits in BCSs are promising. These include cognitive remediation therapies aimed at training for specific areas of deficit, cognitive behavioral therapies aimed at developing compensatory strategies for areas of deficit, complementary therapies, and pharmacologic therapies.

  17. Specifically activated memory T cell subsets from cancer patients recognize and reject xenotransplanted autologous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhove, Philipp; Feuerer, Markus; Dolenc, Mathias; Schuetz, Florian; Choi, Carmen; Sommerfeldt, Nora; Schwendemann, Jochen; Ehlert, Katrin; Altevogt, Peter; Bastert, Gunther; Schirrmacher, Volker; Umansky, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow of breast cancer patients was found to contain CD8+ T cells specific for peptides derived from breast cancer–associated proteins MUC1 and Her-2/neu. Most of these cells had a central or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA–CD62L+ or CD45RA–CD62L–, respectively). To test their in vivo function, we separated bone marrow–derived CD45RA+ naive or CD45RA–CD45RO+ memory T cells, stimulated them with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate, and transferred them into NOD/SCID mice bearing autologous breast tumors and normal skin transplants. CD45RA– memory but not CD45RA+ naive T cells infiltrated autologous tumor but not skin tissues after the transfer. These tumor-infiltrating cells had a central or effector memory phenotype and produced perforin. Many of them expressed the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and were found around P-selectin+ tumor endothelium. Tumor infiltration included cluster formation in tumor tissue by memory T cells with cotransferred dendritic cells. It was associated with the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor reduction. We thus demonstrate selective homing of memory T cells to human tumors and suggest that tumor rejection is based on the recognition of tumor-associated antigens on tumor cells and dendritic cells by autologous specifically activated central and effector memory T cells. PMID:15232613

  18. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, Th.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients’ recall of information after

  19. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  20. Recall in older cancer patients: Measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van Weert, J.; van der Meulen, N.; van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  1. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  2. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-04-01

    Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. We constructed a recall questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions, completion items, and open-ended questions related to information about treatment and recommendations on how to handle side effects. Immediately after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment, 69 older patients (M = 71.8 years, SD = 4.1) completed the questionnaire. We checked recall against the actual communication in video recordings of the consultations. On average, 82.2 items were discussed during the consultations. The mean percentage of information recalled correctly was 23.2% for open-ended questions, 68.0% for completion items, and 80.2% for multiple-choice questions. Older cancer patients are confronted with a lot of information. Recall of information strongly depended on question format; especially active reproduction appeared to be poor. To improve treatment outcomes, it is important that cancer patients are able to actively retrieve knowledge about how to prevent and recognize adverse side effects and that this is checked by the health professional. We make suggestions on how to make information more memorable for older cancer patients.

  3. Analysis of memory deficits following chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors: evidence from the doors and people test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokasheva, Svetlana; Faran, Yifat; Cwikel, Julie; Geffen, David B

    2011-01-01

    Studies of cognitive effects of chemotherapy among breast cancer patients show that not all women who are exposed to chemotherapy develop cognitive dysfunction and that the observed declines in cognitive functioning may be quite subtle. The use of measures that are sensitive to subtle cognitive decline are recommended yet rarely used among clinical populations. The purpose of this study is to specify the types of memory changes observed among breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen, by using an analytic test of memory, the Doors and People test, which uses age-adjusted norms. The participants were 40 women who were survivors of breast cancer, 20 of whom had completed chemotherapy treatment and 20 women who were treated only with tamoxifen. There were no significant differences between the two groups in overall scores and in all four subtests: visual memory, verbal memory, recall, and recognition measured by age-adjusted scores. Forty percent of patients in both of the groups were classified as having mild impairment in episodic memory. No between-group differences were found in the frequency of subjective, cognitive complaints. Subjective complaints were reported by 69% of patients but were unrelated to objective performance. Memory deficits were observed in breast cancer patients who receive either chemotherapy or tamoxifen alone compared to age-adjusted norms. The Doors and People Test is a sensitive measure of memory deficits that is feasible for use with clinical populations of breast cancer patients in order to monitor changes in cognitive function.

  4. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  5. Self-reported memory problems in adult-onset cancer survivors: effects of cardiovascular disease and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Grandner, Michael A; Garland, Sheila N; Henry, Elizabeth; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Burish, Thomas G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer and its treatments can deleteriously affect memory. Cardiac function and insomnia can exacerbate memory problems. To examine the relationships among cardiovascular disease, insomnia, and self-reported memory problems (SRMP) in adult-onset cancer survivors. We included data from participants (41-64 year-old) of the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative probability sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the US. We excluded participants with brain cancer/stroke history since these conditions are expected to cause cognitive problems. Using binary logistic regression, we determined the prevalence of SRMP relative to cardiac problems and insomnia by weighting our results proportionally. We adjusted for predictors of memory problems: age, sex, race, education and general health. The sample included 2289 adults (49% females), 9% with a cancer history. The results pertain only to cancer survivors. Those with insomnia were 16 times as likely to have SRMP. Only insomnia symptoms (OR, 15.74; 95% CI, 1.73-143.30; p Insomnia accounted for 18.8% of the association between cardiac issues and SRMP, demonstrating mediation (Sobel p insomnia were not associated with SRMP (p > 0.05). We could not determine severity and time-related changes in SRMP. Likelihood of SRMP was higher in cancer survivors with a history of cardiovascular disease and insomnia symptoms. Future studies are needed to delineate the cardiac-insomnia-memory interrelationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  7. Hospital-Based Cancer Profile at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badar, F.; Mahmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine a frequency distribution of the type and clinical profile of cancer cases registered at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH and RC). Study Design: A retrospective, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The SKMCH and RC, Lahore, from December 1994 to December 2012. Methodology: The time period taken into consideration for the three most common diagnoses was December 1994 - December 2012. Summaries were obtained for gender, age-group, and cancer type on: (i) all age-groups, both genders combined; (ii) adults (> 18 years); (iii) adult males (> 18 years); (iv) adult females (> 18 years); and (v) children (18 years). For a subset of cases registered between January 2004 to December 31, 2012 (9 years), summaries on cancers, age, addiction, family history, disease stage, and grade were obtained for the above groups. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 19, was used to analyze the data. Results: The most common malignancies, for the 18-year time period, among adults, were those of breast (11,848/ 49,765, 23.81%), lip and oral cavity (3, 291/49, 765, 6.61%), and liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (2, 836/49, 765, 5.70%). Conclusion: Hospital-based results obtained from various oncology hospital and departments, can be considered as an effective way forward in getting a preview of cancer burden in the region. (author)

  8. Stress, Psychosocial Mediators, and Cognitive Mediators in Parents of Child Cancer Patients and Cancer Survivors: Attention and Working Memory Pathway Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Haegen, Marie; Luminet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long-term consequences of stress on cognitive processing in parents of child cancer survivors. Eligible studies were experimental, meta-analyses, and qualitative (2000-2013) from Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, PsycArticles, and Google Scholar. We identified 92 eligible papers. They showed that elevated stress can impede performances on tasks requiring attention and memory patterns. In pediatric oncology, parental stress increased shortly after diagnosis involving depression and anxiety. Consequences of stress on cognitive performances were observed mainly among depressed individuals. As regards parents of child cancer survivors, female gender, low Socioeconomic Status (SES), and innate traits of anxiety/anger predicted the development of PTSS. Evidence of stress on attention and working memory processes in parents of child cancer survivors is insufficiently developed.

  9. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  10. Music therapy for mood disturbance during hospitalization for autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Vickers, Andrew J; Magill, Lucanne A

    2003-12-15

    High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) is a commonly used treatment for hematologic malignancies. The procedure causes significant psychological distress and no interventions have been demonstrated to improve mood in these patients. Music therapy has been shown to improve anxiety in a variety of acute medical settings. In the current study, the authors determined the effects of music therapy compared with standard care on mood during inpatient stays for HDT/ASCT. Patients with hematologic malignancy admitted for HDT/ASCT at two sites (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Ireland Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio) were randomized to receive music therapy given by trained music therapists or standard care. Outcome was assessed at baseline and every 3 days after randomization using the Profile of Mood States. Of 69 patients registered in the study, follow-up data were available for 62 (90%). During their inpatient stay, patients in the music therapy group scored 28% lower on the combined Anxiety/Depression scale (P = 0.065) and 37% lower (P = 0.01) on the total mood disturbance score compared with controls. Music therapy is a noninvasive and inexpensive intervention that appears to reduce mood disturbance in patients undergoing HDT/ASCT. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.

  11. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2017-03-01

    Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like childhood cancer may cause survivors to be more insecurely attached than healthy peers, which could have downstream effects on survivors' romantic relationships later in life. Therefore, we examined survivors' perspectives on parent behaviors, adult attachment, and marital status among adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to controls. One hundred forty-nine young adult survivors and 149 matched controls (M age  = 28, range 20-40) indicated their relationship status (single vs. partnered) and completed standardized questionnaires assessing memories of upbringing (warmth, overprotection, rejection) and adult attachment (avoidance, anxiety). Adult survivors of childhood cancer remembered mothers and fathers as emotionally warmer (d = 0.53/0.30), and mothers as less rejecting than controls (d = 0.30). Adult attachment was overall similar between survivors and controls, but partnered survivors reported particularly low attachment-related anxiety. Childhood cancer was related to higher mother and father warmth, which were associated with lower attachment-related avoidance and in turn with a greater likelihood of being in a relationship. Adult childhood cancer survivors did not remember their parents as overprotective, but reported more positive parenting relative to controls; and similar adult attachment and relationship status. The results were unexpected, but offer novel insights for future prospective studies, which are necessary to better understand psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer.

  12. Working memory training in survivors of pediatric cancer: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Allen, Taryn M; Bonner, Melanie J

    2013-08-01

    Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive deficits, but few empirically supported treatment options exist. We examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a home-based, computerized working memory training program, CogmedRM, with survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors of brain tumors or ALL (n = 20) with identified deficits in attention and/or working memory were randomized to either the success-adapted computer intervention or a non-adaptive, active control condition. Specifically, children in the adaptive condition completed exercises that became more challenging with each correct trial, whereas those in the non-adaptive version trained with exercises that never increased in difficulty. All participants were asked to complete 25 training sessions at home, with weekly, phone-based coaching support. Brief assessments were completed pre-intervention and post-intervention; outcome measures included both performance-based and parent-report measures of working memory and attention. Eighty-five percent of survivors were compliant with the intervention, with no adverse events reported. After controlling for baseline intellectual functioning, survivors who completed the intervention program evidenced significant post-training improvements in their visual working memory and in parent-rated learning problems compared with those in the active control group. No differences in verbal working memory functioning were evident between groups, however. Home-based, computerized cognitive training demonstrates good feasibility and acceptability in our sample. Children with higher intellectual functioning at baseline appeared to benefit more from the training, although further study is needed to clarify the strength, scope, and particularly the generalizability of potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Australia-wide comparison of intensity modulated radiation therapy prostate plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, M.; Holloway, L.; Bailey, M.; Kneebone, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Australian centres to produce high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate plans, and to compare the planning parameters and resultant dose distributions. Five Australian radiation therapy departments were invited to participate. Each centre received an identical 5 mm-slice CT data set complete with contours of the prostate, seminal vesicles, rectum, bladder, femoral heads and body outline. The planning team was asked to produce the best plan possible, using published Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre prescription and dose constraints. Three centres submitted plans for evaluation. All plans covered the planning target volume adequately; however, only one plan met all the critical organ dose constraints. Although the planning parameters, beam arrangements and planning systems were different for each centre, the resulting plans were similar. In Australia, IMRT for prostate cancer is in the early stages of implementation, with routine use limited to a few centres. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Control of norovirus outbreak on a pediatric oncology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Anna; Copeland, Gretchen; Richardson, Lauren; McKay, Shelley; Chou, Alexander; Babady, N Esther; Tang, Yi-Wei; Boulad, Farid; Eagan, Janet; Sepkowitz, Kent; Kamboj, Mini

    2015-10-01

    Patients undergoing treatment for cancer with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell recipients are at risk for severe morbidity caused by norovirus (NV). We describe a NV outbreak on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's pediatric oncology unit. Stool testing for diagnosis of NV was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve NV cases occurred; 7 were hospital acquired. Twenty-five health care workers reported NV compatible illness. Patient-to-patient transmission occurred once. The practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were supplemented with electronic surveillance, surrogate screening for NV, and heightened cleaning. Two additional cases occurred after implementation of interventions. Long-term shedding was detected in 2 patients. We describe interventions for controlling NV on a pediatric oncology unit. High-risk chronic shedders pose ongoing transmission risks. PCR is a valuable diagnostic tool but may be overly sensitive. Surrogate markers to assess NV burden in stool and studies on NV screening are needed to develop guidelines for high-risk chronic shedders. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Communication skills training: describing a new conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Bylund, Carma L

    2008-01-01

    Current research in communication in physician-patient consultations is multidisciplinary and multimethodological. As this research has progressed, a considerable body of evidence on the best practices in physician-patient communication has been amassed. This evidence provides a foundation for communication skills training (CST) at all levels of medical education. Although the CST literature has demonstrated that communication skills can be taught, one critique of this literature is that it is not always clear which skills are being taught and whether those skills are matched with those being assessed. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Comskil Model for CST seeks to answer those critiques by explicitly defining the important components of a consultation, based on Goals, Plans, and Actions theories and sociolinguistic theory. Sequenced guidelines as a mechanism for teaching about particular communication challenges are adapted from these other methods. The authors propose that consultation communication can be guided by an overarching goal, which is achieved through the use of a set of predetermined strategies. Strategies are common in CST; however, strategies often contain embedded communication skills. These skills can exist across strategies, and the Comskil Model seeks to make them explicit in these contexts. Separate from the skills are process tasks and cognitive appraisals that need to be addressed in teaching. The authors also describe how assessment practices foster concordance between skills taught and those assessed through careful coding of trainees' communication encounters and direct feedback.

  16. Ewing sarcoma in adults treated with modern radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Meyers, Paul A.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Magnan, Heather; Healey, John H.; Boland, Patrick J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate local control and survival outcomes in adults with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with radiotherapy (RT). Material and methods: Retrospective review of all 109 patients age ⩾18 treated for ES with RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011. RT was used as the definitive local control modality in 44% of patients, preoperatively for 6%, and postoperatively for 50%. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 27 years (range, 18–67). The 5-year local failure (LF) was 18%. Differences in LF were not identified when evaluated by modality of local control (RT versus combined surgery and RT), RT dose, fractionation, and RT technique. However, margin status at time of resection significantly predicted LF. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 44% and 66% for patients with localized disease, compared with 16% and 26% for metastatic disease (p = 0.0005 and 0.0002). Tumor size, histopathologic response to chemotherapy, and treatment on or according to a protocol were also significantly associated with survival. Conclusions: This series of adults treated with modern chemotherapy and RT had prognostic factors and outcomes similar to adolescents with ES. All adults with ES should be treated with an aggressive, multidisciplinary approach

  17. CheckMate 025 Randomized Phase 3 Study: Outcomes by Key Baseline Factors and Prior Therapy for Nivolumab Versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudier, Bernard; Sharma, Padmanee; McDermott, David F; George, Saby; Hammers, Hans J; Srinivas, Sandhya; Tykodi, Scott S; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Procopio, Giuseppe; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Castellano, Daniel; Gurney, Howard; Donskov, Frede; Peltola, Katriina; Wagstaff, John; Gauler, Thomas C; Ueda, Takeshi; Zhao, Huanyu; Waxman, Ian M; Motzer, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    The randomized, phase 3 CheckMate 025 study of nivolumab (n=410) versus everolimus (n=411) in previously treated adults (75% male; 88% white) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) demonstrated significantly improved overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). To investigate which baseline factors were associated with OS and ORR benefit with nivolumab versus everolimus. Subgroup OS analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Hazard ratios were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Nivolumab 3mg/kg every 2 wk or everolimus 10mg once daily. The minimum follow-up was 14 mo. Baseline subgroup distributions were balanced between nivolumab and everolimus arms. Nivolumab demonstrated an OS improvement versus everolimus across subgroups, including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk groups; age guide treatment decisions, and further supports nivolumab as the standard of care in previously treated patients with aRCC. We investigated the impact of demographic and pretreatment features on survival benefit and tumor response with nivolumab versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). Survival benefit and response were observed for multiple subgroups, supporting the use of nivolumab as a new standard of care across a broad range of patients with previously treated aRCC. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01668784. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhou Qu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

  19. Variability in Predictions from Online Tools: A Demonstration Using Internet-Based Melanoma Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabor, Emily C; Coit, Daniel; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; McMasters, Kelly M; Michaelson, James S; Stromberg, Arnold J; Panageas, Katherine S

    2018-02-22

    Prognostic models are increasingly being made available online, where they can be publicly accessed by both patients and clinicians. These online tools are an important resource for patients to better understand their prognosis and for clinicians to make informed decisions about treatment and follow-up. The goal of this analysis was to highlight the possible variability in multiple online prognostic tools in a single disease. To demonstrate the variability in survival predictions across online prognostic tools, we applied a single validation dataset to three online melanoma prognostic tools. Data on melanoma patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2000 and 2014 were retrospectively collected. Calibration was assessed using calibration plots and discrimination was assessed using the C-index. In this demonstration project, we found important differences across the three models that led to variability in individual patients' predicted survival across the tools, especially in the lower range of predictions. In a validation test using a single-institution data set, calibration and discrimination varied across the three models. This study underscores the potential variability both within and across online tools, and highlights the importance of using methodological rigor when developing a prognostic model that will be made publicly available online. The results also reinforce that careful development and thoughtful interpretation, including understanding a given tool's limitations, are required in order for online prognostic tools that provide survival predictions to be a useful resource for both patients and clinicians.

  20. Serious Infections in Patients Receiving Ibrutinib for Treatment of Lymphoid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Tilly; Taur, Ying; Cohen, Nina; Palomba, M Lia; Seo, Susan K; Hohl, Tobias M; Redelman-Sidi, Gil

    2018-03-02

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Several case series have described opportunistic infections among ibrutinib recipients, but the full extent of these infections is unknown. We sought to determine the spectrum of serious infections associated with ibrutinib treatment. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with lymphoid malignancies at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who received ibrutinib during a five-year period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016. Serious infections were identified by review of the relevant microbiology, clinical laboratory, and radiology data. Risk factors for infection were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. 378 patients with lymphoid malignancies who received ibrutinib were analyzed. The most common underlying malignancies were CLL and MCL. 84% of patients received ibrutinib as monotherapy. Serious infection developed in 43 patients (11.4%), primarily during the first year of ibrutinib treatment. Of these, 23 (53.5%) developed invasive bacterial infections, and 16 (37.2%) developed invasive fungal infections (IFI). The majority of those who developed IFI on ibrutinib therapy (62.5%) lacked classical clinical risk factors for fungal infection (i.e., neutropenia, lymphopenia, and receipt of corticosteroids). Infection resulted in death in six of the 43 patients (14%). Patients with lymphoid malignancies receiving ibrutinib treatment are at risk for serious infections, including IFI.

  1. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.A.; Fung, A.Y.C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-01-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. (author)

  2. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  3. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.A. [Department of Medical Physics, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Fung, A.Y.C.; Zaider, M. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-08-21

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. (author)

  4. Implanted Cardiac Defibrillator Care in Radiation Oncology Patient Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Amols, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review the experience of a large cancer center with radiotherapy (RT) patients bearing implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) to propose some preliminary care guidelines as we learn more about the devices and their interaction with the therapeutic radiation environment. Methods and Materials: We collected data on patients with implanted ICDs treated with RT during a 2.5-year period at any of the five Memorial Sloan-Kettering clinical campuses. Information regarding the model, location, and dose detected from the device, as well as the treatment fields, fraction size, and treatment energy was collected. During this time, a new management policy for these patients had been implemented requiring treatment with low-energy beams (6 MV) and close surveillance of the patients in partnership with their electrophysiologist, as they received RT. Results: During the study period, 33 patients were treated with an ICD in place. One patient experienced a default of the device to its initial factory setting that was detected by the patient hearing an auditory signal from the device. This patient had initially been treated with a 15-MV beam. After this episode, his treatment was replanned to be completed with 6-MV photons, and he experienced no further events. Conclusion: Patients with ICDs and other implanted computer-controlled devices will be encountered more frequently in the RT department, and proper management is important. We present a policy for the safe treatment of these patients in the radiation oncology environment.

  5. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Karthik V; Sosa, Carlos P; Hillman, David W; Sanhueza, Cristobal; Dalpiaz, Candace L; Costello, Brian A; Quevedo, Fernando J; Pitot, Henry C; Dronca, Roxana S; Ertz, Donna; Cheville, John C; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Kohli, Manish

    2017-11-03

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC) patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR) of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05-0.34) were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only ( p < 0.0001). Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  6. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik V. Giridhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.04–0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05–0.34 were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only (p < 0.0001. Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  7. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival Improved With Treatment on Multimodality Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Naamit Kurshan; Wexler, Leonard H.; Singer, Samuel; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Keohan, Mary Louise; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric sarcoma rarely occurring in adults. For unknown reasons, adults with RMS have worse outcomes than do children. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from all patients who presented to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011 with RMS diagnosed at age 16 or older. One hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Ten were excluded for lack of adequate data. Results: The median age was 28 years. The histologic diagnoses were as follows: embryonal 54%, alveolar 33%, pleomorphic 12%, and not otherwise specified 2%. The tumor site was unfavorable in 67% of patients. Thirty-three patients (24%) were at low risk, 61 (44%) at intermediate risk, and 44 (32%) at high risk. Forty-six percent were treated on or according to a prospective RMS protocol. The 5-year rate of overall survival (OS) was 45% for patients with nonmetastatic disease. The failure rates at 5 years for patients with nonmetastatic disease were 34% for local failure and 42% for distant failure. Among patients with nonmetastatic disease (n=94), significant factors associated with OS were histologic diagnosis, site, risk group, age, and protocol treatment. On multivariate analysis, risk group and protocol treatment were significant after adjustment for age. The 5-year OS was 54% for protocol patients versus 36% for nonprotocol patients. Conclusions: Survival in adult patients with nonmetastatic disease was significantly improved for those treated on RMS protocols, most of which are now open to adults

  8. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival Improved With Treatment on Multimodality Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Naamit Kurshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Singer, Samuel [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keohan, Mary Louise [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne, E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric sarcoma rarely occurring in adults. For unknown reasons, adults with RMS have worse outcomes than do children. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from all patients who presented to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011 with RMS diagnosed at age 16 or older. One hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Ten were excluded for lack of adequate data. Results: The median age was 28 years. The histologic diagnoses were as follows: embryonal 54%, alveolar 33%, pleomorphic 12%, and not otherwise specified 2%. The tumor site was unfavorable in 67% of patients. Thirty-three patients (24%) were at low risk, 61 (44%) at intermediate risk, and 44 (32%) at high risk. Forty-six percent were treated on or according to a prospective RMS protocol. The 5-year rate of overall survival (OS) was 45% for patients with nonmetastatic disease. The failure rates at 5 years for patients with nonmetastatic disease were 34% for local failure and 42% for distant failure. Among patients with nonmetastatic disease (n=94), significant factors associated with OS were histologic diagnosis, site, risk group, age, and protocol treatment. On multivariate analysis, risk group and protocol treatment were significant after adjustment for age. The 5-year OS was 54% for protocol patients versus 36% for nonprotocol patients. Conclusions: Survival in adult patients with nonmetastatic disease was significantly improved for those treated on RMS protocols, most of which are now open to adults.

  9. Hemithoracic radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication for malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vishal; Mychalczak, Borys; Krug, Lee; Flores, Raja; Bains, Manjit; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: In a retrospective review, we included MPM patients treated with P/D and adjuvant RT at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1974 to 2003. When indicated, patients received intraoperative brachytherapy to residual tumor. Results: All 123 patients received external beam RT (median dose, 42.5 Gy; range, 7.2-67.8 Gy) to the ipsilateral hemithorax postoperatively. Fifty-four patients underwent brachytherapy (matched peripheral dose, 160 Gy). The median and 2-year overall survival for all patients was 13.5 months (range, 1-199 months) and 23%, respectively. One-year actuarial local control for all patients was 42%. Multivariate analysis for overall survival revealed radiation dose <40 Gy (p = 0.001), nonepithelioid histology (p = 0.002), left-sided disease (p = 0.01), and the use of an implant (p = 0.02) to be unfavorable. Two patients (1.6%) died from Grade 5 toxicity within 1 month of treatment. Conclusions: Pleurectomy/decortication with adjuvant radiotherapy is not an effective treatment option for patients with MPM. Our results imply that residual disease cannot be eradicated with external RT with or without brachytherapy and that a more extensive surgery followed by external RT might be required to improve local control and overall survival

  10. Tissue-resident memory T cells in tissue homeostasis, persistent infection, and cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Thomas; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tscharke, David C; Bedoui, Sammy

    2018-05-01

    A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of T RM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function. Nevertheless, certain transcriptional programs are shared and appear as important unifying features for the overall population of T RM cells and tissue-resident lymphocytes. It is now widely appreciated that T RM cells are a critical component of our immune defense by acting as peripheral sentinels capable of rapidly mobilizing protective tissue immunity upon pathogen recognition. This function is of particular importance in anatomical sites that are not effectively surveilled by blood-borne memory T cells in absence of inflammation, such as neuronal tissues or epithelial compartments in skin and mucosae. Focusing on the well-characterized subtype of CD8 +  CD69 +  CD103 + T RM cells, we will review current concepts on the generation, persistence and function of T RM cells and will summarize commonly used tools to study these cells. Furthermore, we will discuss accumulating data that emphasize localized T RM responses as an important determinant of tissue homeostasis and immune defense in the context of microbiota-immune interactions, persistent infections and cancer surveillance. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modulating epigenetic memory through vitamins and TET: implications for regenerative medicine and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Vitamins A and C represent unrelated sets of small molecules that are essential to the human diet and have recently been shown to intensify erasure of epigenetic memory in naive embryonic stem cells. These effects are driven by complementary enhancement of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) demethylases - vitamin A stimulates TET expression, whereas vitamin C potentiates TET catalytic activity. Vitamin A and C cosupplementation synergistically enhances reprogramming of differentiated cells to the naive state, but overuse may exaggerate instability of imprinted genes. As such, optimizing their use in culture media will be important for regenerative medicine and mammalian transgenics. In addition, mechanistic perception of how these vitamins interact with the epigenome may be relevant for understanding cancer and improving patient treatment.

  12. Assessing cancer-specific anxiety in Chinese men with prostate cancer: psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingmei; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Zijun; Luo, Jie; Dai, Yun; Zheng, Li; Wang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) was developed to identify and assess cancer-specific anxiety among men with prostate cancer (PCa); however, there is no Chinese version. The aim of our study was to translate the English version of MAX-PC into Chinese and evaluate the psychometric properties of it. The study cohort comprised 254 participants. Internal consistency including the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlations were used to measure the reliability of the scale. Factor structure was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity by comparing MAX-PC scores with anxiety subscale scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Divergent validity was assessed by correlating MAX-PC with HADS depression subscale, while discriminant ability by comparing differences in MAX-PC scores between different patient groups. The Chinese version of MAX-PC demonstrated good reliability; the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total and three subscales (prostate cancer anxiety, PSA anxiety, and fear of recurrence) being 0.94, 0.93, 0.82, and 0.85, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the scale established in the original version. Despite the somewhat underperformed divergent validity, the scale demonstrated good concurrent validity with a strong correlation with the HADS anxiety subscale (r = 0.71, p anxiety in Chinese PCa patients.

  13. Reactivation of CDX2 in Gastric Cancer as Mark for Gene Silencing Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameoka, Yuri; Kitazawa, Riko; Ariasu, Kanazu; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    To explore the epigenetic mechanism that reactivates CDX2 (a homeobox transcription factor that serves as a tumor-suppressor gene) in intestinal-type gastric cancer during cancer progression, we examined the methylation status of the CDX2 gene promoter and the expression pattern of methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2). From archives of the pathology records of surgically excised advanced stomach cancer cases in the Department of Molecular Pathology, Ehime University in a past decate (n=265), 10 cases of intestinal-type tubular adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated type (wel) with minor poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (por) components were selected. The expression pattern of CDX2, MUC2 and MeCP2 in these 10 cases was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The cancerous and non-cancerous areas were selectively obtained by microdissection, and the methylation status of the CDX2 promoter of each area was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). In all 10 cases, CDX2 expression was clearly observed in the nucleus of the non-cancerous background of the intestinal metaplasic area, where the unmethylation pattern of the CDX2 gene promoter prevailed with reduced MeCP2 expression. In this metaplastic area, CDX2 expression was co-localized with its target gene, MUC2. CDX2 expression then disappeared from the deep invasive wel area. Reflecting the reduced CDX2 expression, microdissected samples from all the wel areas showed hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter by MSP, with prominent MeCP2 expression. Interestingly, while hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter was maintained in the por area in 8 of the 10 cases, CDX2 expression was restored in por areas where MeCP2 expression was markedly and selectively reduced. The other two cases, however, showed a constant MeCP2 expression level comparable to the surrounding deep invasive wel area with negative CDX2 expression. Therefore, gene silencing by hypermethylation may be overcome by the reduction of

  14. A conversation with Susan Band Horwitz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Susan Band; Goldman, I David

    2015-01-01

    Susan Band Horwitz is a Distinguished Professor and holds the Falkenstein Chair in Cancer Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. She is co-chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology and associate director for therapeutics at the Albert Einstein Cancer Center. After graduating from Bryn Mawr College, Dr. Horwitz received her PhD in biochemistry from Brandeis University. She has had a continuing interest in natural products as a source of new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Her most seminal research contribution has been in the development of Taxol(®). Dr. Horwitz and her colleagues made the discovery that Taxol had a unique mechanism of action and suggested that it was a prototype for a new class of antitumor drugs. Although Taxol was an antimitotic agent blocking cells in the metaphase stage of the cell cycle, Dr. Horwitz recognized that Taxol was blocking mitosis in a way different from that of other known agents. Her group demonstrated that the binding site for Taxol was on the β-tubulin subunit. The interaction of Taxol with the β-tubulin subunit resulted in stabilized microtubules, essentially paralyzing the cytoskeleton, thereby preventing cell division. Dr. Horwitz served as president (2002-2003) of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. She has received numerous honors and awards, including the C. Chester Stock Award from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Warren Alpert Foundation Prize from Harvard Medical School, the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society's Medal of Honor, and the AACR Award for Lifetime Achievement in Cancer Research. The following interview was conducted on January 23, 2014.

  15. Delirium in advanced age and dementia: A prolonged refractory course of delirium and lower functional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOETTGER, SOENKE; JENEWEIN, JOSEF; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    Objective The factors associated with persistent delirium, in contrast to resolved delirium, have not been studied well. The aim of our present study was to identify the factors associated with delirium resolution as measured by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and functional improvement as measured by the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale. Method All subjects were recruited from psychiatric referrals at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The two study instruments were performed at baseline (T1), at 2–3 days (T2), and at 4–7 days (T3). Subjects with persistent delirium were compared to those with resolved delirium in respect to sociodemographic and medical variables. Results Overall, 26 out of 111 patients had persistent delirium. These patients were older, predominantly male, and had more frequently preexisting comorbid dementia. Among cancer diagnoses and stage of illness, brain cancer and terminal illness contributed to persistent delirium or late response, whereas gastrointestinal cancer was associated with resolved delirium. Among etiologies, infection responded late to delirium management, usually at one week. Furthermore, delirium was more severe in patients with persistent delirium from baseline through one week. At baseline, MDAS scores were 20.1 in persistent delirium compared to 17 to 18.8 in resolved delirium (T2 and T3), and at one week of management (T3), MDAS scores were 15.2 and 4.7 to 7.4, respectively. At one week of management, persistent delirium manifested in more severe impairment in the domains of consciousness, cognition, organization, perception, psychomotor behavior, and sleep–wake cycle. In addition, persistent delirium caused more severe functional impairment. Significance of results In this delirium sample, advanced age and preexisting dementia, as well as brain cancer, terminal illness, infection, and delirium severity contributed to persistent delirium or late response, indicating a prolonged

  16. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  17. Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Morgenstern, H; Spitz, M R; Tashkin, D P; Yu, G P; Marshall, J R; Hsu, T C; Schantz, S P

    1999-12-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. In some subcultures, it is widely perceived to be harmless. Although the carcinogenic properties of marijuana smoke are similar to those of tobacco, no epidemiological studies of the relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer have been published. The relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer was investigated by a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with pathologically confirmed diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and 176 cancer-free controls at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 1994. Epidemiological data were collected by using a structured questionnaire, which included history of tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. The associations between marijuana use and head and neck cancer were analyzed by Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression models. Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and passive smoking, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with marijuana use [odds ratio (OR) comparing ever with never users, 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-6.6]. Dose-response relationships were observed for frequency of marijuana use/day (P for trend marijuana use (P for trend marijuana use were observed with cigarette smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and to a lesser extent, alcohol use. Our results suggest that marijuana use may increase the risk of head and neck cancer with a strong dose-response pattern. Our analysis indicated that marijuana use may interact with mutagen sensitivity and other risk factors to increase the risk of head and neck cancer. The results need to be interpreted with some caution in drawing causal inferences because of certain methodological limitations, especially with regard to interactions.

  18. Pharmacology of bovine and human thyrotropin: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J

    1999-05-01

    Before the induction of a brief period of hypothyroidism became the standard method for inducing 131I uptake in thyroid cancer diagnosis and therapy, several other methods were explored and used. At the dawn of this new era of recombinant human thyrotropin (TSH) it is of interest to reflect briefly on some of this work. Partially purified bovine TSH (bTSH) was supplied for many years by the Armour Company as Thytropar for intramuscular injection and was first used in thyroid cancer 50 years ago at the Montefiore Hospital and at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Most of the patients were already hypothyroid and bTSH induced further 131I uptake in only a few. Experience over the next 30 years revealed frequent allergic reactions, occasionally serious ones, and in 1961 it was shown that prolonged use could result in resistance to both bTSH and human TSH. bTSH was, therefore, reserved for thyroid cancer patients unable to increase endogenous TSH when hypothyroid. bTSH also was used widely as a test to distinguish between hypothyroidism caused by thyroid or pituitary failure until it was replaced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In a few studies, TRH was also tested as an adjuvant to increase endogenous TSH and thus help to stimulate function in thyroid cancer, but this attracted little interest. Prolonged hypothyroidism, enhanced by antithyroid drugs, was used early on, but this very effective stimulant of thyroid cancer function was, for multiple reasons, discarded. Beginning interest 15 to 25 years ago in obtaining TSH from human pituitary glands, a byproduct of growth hormone production, was interrupted when this product was found to risk development of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Recombinant human TSH, a safe and effective substitute, is now ready for widespread use and development in thyroid cancer management.

  19. Initial Efficacy Testing of an Autobiographical Memory Intervention on Advance Care Planning for Patients With Terminal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohard, Cheryl

    2017-11-01

    To test the efficacy of a novel intervention to facilitate advance care planning.
. Exploratory, quasiexperimental pilot study with two independent groups.
. A large hospice located in the southwestern United States. 
. A convenience sample of 50 participants with terminal cancer enrolled in hospice.
. An autobiographical memory (ABM) intervention used the participants' experiences with cancer and end of life for the purpose of directing advance care planning.
. Two domains of advance care planning, decision making and communication, were measured in relation to 11 variables. The ABM intervention was nonthreatening, short in duration, and easily completed with participants as they recalled, without hesitation, specific personal memories of family and friends who had died and their advance care plans. The Mann-Whitney nonparametric test revealed that participants in the experimental group had a higher average rank than those in the control group for communicating the decision about antibiotics, as well as exhibited a trend toward significance for five other advance care planning variables.
. Findings showed that directive ABMs may be effective in influencing the decision making and communication of advance care planning for terminally ill patients with cancer.
. The current level of understanding about using the ABM intervention suggests that nurses can initiate an advance care planning conversation using this approach.

  20. Reduced prefrontal activation during working and long-term memory tasks and impaired patient-reported cognition among cancer survivors postchemotherapy compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Apple, Alexandra C; Schroeder, Matthew P; Ryals, Anthony J; Voss, Joel L; Gitelman, Darren; Sweet, Jerry J; Butt, Zeeshan A; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne I

    2016-01-15

    Patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have reported cognitive impairments that may last for years after the completion of treatment. Working memory-related and long-term memory-related changes in this population are not well understood. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that cancer-related cognitive impairments are associated with the under recruitment of brain regions involved in working and recognition memory compared with controls. Oncology patients (n = 15) who were receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and had evidence of cognitive impairment according to neuropsychological testing and self-report and a group of age-matched, education group-matched, cognitively normal control participants (n = 14) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed a nonverbal n-back working memory task and a visual recognition task. On the working memory task, when 1-back and 2-back data were averaged and contrasted with 0-back data, significantly reduced activation was observed in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for oncology patients versus controls. On the recognition task, oncology patients displayed decreased activity of the left-middle hippocampus compared with controls. Neuroimaging results were not associated with patient-reported cognition. Decreased recruitment of brain regions associated with the encoding of working memory and recognition memory was observed in the oncology patients compared with the control group. These results suggest that there is a reduction in neural functioning postchemotherapy and corroborate patient-reported cognitive difficulties after cancer treatment, although a direct association was not observed. Cancer 2016;122:258-268. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. Robert R. Shaw, MD: thoracic surgical hero, Afghanistan medical pioneer, champion for the patient, never a surgical society president.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, Harold C; Urschel, Betsey Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Dr Robert R. Shaw arrived in Dallas to practice Thoracic Surgery in 1937, as John Alexander's 7th Thoracic Surgical Resident from Michigan University Medical Center. Dr Shaw's modus operandi was, "You can accomplish almost anything, if you don't care who gets the credit." He was a remarkable individual who cared the most about the patient and very little about getting credit for himself. From 1937 to 1970, Dr Shaw established one of the largest lung cancer surgical centers in the world in Dallas, Texas. It was larger than M.D. Anderson and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospitals put together regarding the surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. To accomplish this, he had the help of Dr Donald L. Paulson, who trained at the Mayo Clinic and served as Chief of Thoracic Surgery at Brook Army Hospital during the Second World War. Following the War, because of his love for Texas, he ended up as a partner of Dr Shaw in Dallas. Together, they pursued the development of this very large surgical lung cancer center. Dr Shaw and his wife Ruth went to Afghanistan with Medico multiple times to teach men modern cardiac and thoracic surgery. They also served as consultants on Medico's Ship of Hope in Africa. Dr Shaw initiated multiple new operations including: 1) resection of Pancoast's cancer of the lung after preoperative irradiation; 2) upper lobe of the lung bronchoplasty, reattaching (and saving) the lower lobe to prevent the "disabling" pneumonectomy; and 3) resections of pulmonary mucoid impaction of the lung in asthmatics. Because of his humility and giving "the credit to others," Dr Shaw was never President of a major medical or surgical association. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Learning and memory performance in breast cancer survivors 2 to 6 years post-treatment: the role of encoding versus forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, James C; Andreotti, Charissa; Tsu, Loretta; Ellmore, Timothy M; Ahles, Tim A

    2016-06-01

    Our previous retrospective analysis of clinically referred breast cancer survivors' performance on learning and memory measures found a primary weakness in initial encoding of information into working memory with intact retention and recall of this same information at a delay. This suggests that survivors may misinterpret cognitive lapses as being due to forgetting when, in actuality, they were not able to properly encode this information at the time of initial exposure. Our objective in this study was to replicate and extend this pattern of performance to a research sample to increase the generalizability of this finding in a sample in which subjects were not clinically referred for cognitive issues. We contrasted learning and memory performance between breast cancer survivors on endocrine therapy 2 to 6 years post-treatment with age- and education-matched healthy controls. We then stratified lower- and higher-performing breast cancer survivors to examine specific patterns of learning and memory performance. Contrasts were generated for four aggregate visual and verbal memory variables from the California Verbal Learning Test-2 (CVLT-2) and the Brown Location Test (BLT): Single-trial Learning: Trial 1 performance, Multiple-trial Learning: Trial 5 performance, Delayed Recall: Long-delay Recall performance, and Memory Errors: False-positive errors. As predicted, breast cancer survivors' performance as a whole was significantly lower on Single-trial Learning than the healthy control group but exhibited no significant difference in Delayed Recall. In the secondary analysis contrasting lower- and higher-performing survivors on cognitive measures, the same pattern of lower Single-trial Learning performance was exhibited in both groups, with the additional finding of significantly weaker Multiple-trial Learning performance in the lower-performing breast cancer group and intact Delayed Recall performance in both groups. As with our earlier finding of weaker initial

  4. Reverse Stage Shift at a Tertiary Care Center: Escalating Risk in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Power, Nicholas E.; Fine, Samson W.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Laudone, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in clinical and pathological characteristics of prostate cancer in patients treated surgically at a large tertiary care center in the context of increased use of active surveillance (AS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Materials We performed retrospective review of 6,624 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2000–2010 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Patients were stratified by surgical approach (open, laparoscopic or robotic) and risk categories (low, intermediate, or high). Patients with low-risk disease, without intervention and minimum followup of 6 months were considered to have elected AS. Results AS cases increased from <20 per year between 2000–2004 to ≥100 per year between 2007–2009. Over the same decade MIS cases (laparoscopic or robotic) increased from zero to 63% of all surgical cases. The percentage of patients in intermediate- and high-risk categories increased over time, while the percentage in the low-risk category decreased (OR per year 0.91, 95% CI 0.89, 0.92, p <0.0005). The proportion of surgery patients with Gleason 6 tumors decreased over time (OR per year 0.87, 95% CI 0.85, 0.88; p <0.0005) while pathologic stage and Gleason score increased (p <0.0005). The proportion of low-risk cases decreased across all types of surgery, with the largest decrease in robotic surgery (p <0.0005). Conclusions We observed a reverse stage shift in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy since 2000 despite the introduction and rapid proliferation of MIS. These findings may be due to increased use of AS and institutional focus on treatment of higher-risk disease. PMID:21484780

  5. Maximal safe dose therapy of I-131 after failure of standard fixed dose therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Seok, Ju Won; Uh, Jae Sun

    2005-01-01

    In patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy presents an awkward situation in terms of treatment decision making. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration base on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We investigated the efficacy of MSD in differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted after conventional fixed dose therapy. Forty-six patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had non-responsible residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy were enrolled in this study. The postoperative pathology consisted of 43 papillary carcinomas and 3 follicular carcinomas. MSD was calculated according the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. MSDs were administered at intervals of at least 6 months. Treatment responses were evaluated using I-131 whole body scan (WBS) and serum thyroglobulin measurements. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq. Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 (41.3%) stable disease, and 6 (13.0%) disease progression. Thus, about a half of the patients showed complete or partial remission, and of these patients, 14 (67%) showed response after a single MSD administration and 6 (29%) showed response after the second dose of MSD administrations. Twenty-nine patients (63%) experienced transient cytopenia after therapy, and recovered spontaneously with the exception of one. MSD administration is an effective method even in the patients who failed to be treated by conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD therapy of I-131 can be considered in the patients who failed by fixed dose therapy

  6. Maximal safe dose of I-131 after failure of standard fixed dose therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kang, Won-Jun; Park, Do-Joon; Lee, Dong-Soo; Cho, Bo-Youn; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2008-01-01

    The maximal safe dose (MSD) on the basis of bone marrow irradiation levels allows the delivery of a large amount of I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue. The efficacy of MSD therapy in differentiated metastatic thyroid cancers that persisted after conventional fixed dose therapy is investigated. Forty-seven differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with non-responsive residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy were enrolled in this study. Their postoperative pathologies were 43 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas. The MSD was calculated with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center protocol using serial blood samples. The MSDs were administered at intervals of 6 months. Treatment responses were evaluated using I-131 whole-body scans and serum thyroglobulin measurements. The mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq (339.6±57.5 mCi). Of the 46 patients, 7 (14.9%) showed complete remission, 15 (31.9%) partial remission, 19 (40.4%) stable disease, and 6 (12.8%) disease progression. Of the patients who showed complete or partial remission, 15 (65%) showed response after the first MSD session and 6 (26%) showed response after the second session. Twenty-nine patients (62%) experienced transient cytopenia after therapy, but three did not recover to the baseline level. The maximal safe dose provides an effective means of treatment in patients who failed to respond adequately to conventional fixed dose therapy. I-131 MSD therapy can be considered in patients who fail fixed dose therapy. (author)

  7. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    PURPOSE: Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy -the State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last two decades of the last century, the development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) has substantially reduces the volume of critical organs irradiated to high doses, and has permitted the increase of tumor dose without concomitant increase in normal tissue complication. At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a clinical trial in cancer of the prostate has accrued >1600 patient and the prescription dose has been escalated to 81 Gy with 3D-CRT, and to 86.4 Gy using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with promising results. 3D-CRT and IMRT involves the delineation of target and non-target structures from patient-specific 3D image data-sets (primarily CT, sometimes supplemented with MRI, PET etc.), the calculation and display of 3D dose distributions, the analysis and evaluation of structure-specific dose-volume data (DVH-dose volume histogram), radiation delivery with computer-controlled multileaf collimators (MLC), and treatment verification with electronic portal images. However, the dose distribution conformality achieved with 3D-CRT can be further improved by the use of computer-optimized IMRT. In addition, the treatment design phase of 3D-CRT involves several iterative steps and can be time-consuming, particularly when the anatomical geometry is complex. Thus, IMRT is an incremental advance from 3D-CRT with two key enhancements: 1) computerized iterative treatment plan optimization, and 2) the use of intensity-modulated radiation beams. To deliver the IM beams, one efficacious approach is to use MLC in the dynamic mode, using the so-called sliding-window technique, i.e. the leaves of the MLC are in motion while the radiation is being delivered. Since 1995, we have treated over 1500 patients with IMRT. This discussion shall describe the physical aspects of IMRT, emphasizing those features and benefits unique to this approach. Pertinent clinical results will also be briefly presented

  9. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of Recent US Value Frameworks-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J; Garrison, Louis P; Ramsey, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    The sixth section of our Special Task Force (STF) report reviews and comments on recent US-oriented value assessment frameworks, specifically those published by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We review published commentaries that address the validity, reliability, and conceptual underpinnings of these frameworks. We find common themes of critique regarding the strengths and limitations across frameworks. Particular shortcomings of some frameworks pose greater threats to their face validity and utility compared with others. The most significant limitations include lack of clear perspective (e.g., patient vs. health plan) and poor transparency in accounting for costs and benefits. We then review how each framework adheres to core STF recommendations, with particular emphasis on whether the framework can be used to support coverage decisions by health insurers, and whether it adheres to core principles of cost-effectiveness analysis. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Research framework most closely adheres to core STF recommendations. Others have significant limitations that vary widely from framework to framework. We also review how the frameworks follow STF recommendations for addressing potentially relevant issues beyond cost-effectiveness analysis - for example, equity in resource allocation and patient heterogeneity. Finally, we review whether and how each framework uses value thresholds and addresses affordability concerns. We conclude with suggestions for further research, particularly in the areas of testing the measurement and use of novel elements of value and deliberative processes. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-institutional validation of a novel textural analysis tool for preoperative stratification of suspected thyroid tumors on diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna M; Nagala, Sidhartha; McLean, Mary A; Lu, Yonggang; Scoffings, Daniel; Apte, Aditya; Gonen, Mithat; Stambuk, Hilda E; Shaha, Ashok R; Tuttle, R Michael; Deasy, Joseph O; Priest, Andrew N; Jani, Piyush; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Griffiths, John

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate cytology fails to diagnose many malignant thyroid nodules; consequently, patients may undergo diagnostic lobectomy. This study assessed whether textural analysis (TA) could noninvasively stratify thyroid nodules accurately using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). This multi-institutional study examined 3T DW-MRI images obtained with spin echo echo planar imaging sequences. The training data set included 26 patients from Cambridge, United Kingdom, and the test data set included 18 thyroid cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, New York, USA). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were compared over regions of interest (ROIs) defined on thyroid nodules. TA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and feature reduction were performed using the 21 MaZda-generated texture parameters that best distinguished benign and malignant ROIs. Training data set mean ADC values were significantly different for benign and malignant nodules (P = 0.02) with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 63%, respectively, and a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73. The LDA model of the top 21 textural features correctly classified 89/94 DW-MRI ROIs with 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and an AUC of 0.97. This algorithm correctly classified 16/18 (89%) patients in the independently obtained test set of thyroid DW-MRI scans. TA classifies thyroid nodules with high sensitivity and specificity on multi-institutional DW-MRI data sets. This method requires further validation in a larger prospective study. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. New roles & responsibilities of hospital biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; Stone, B; Booth, P; Lui, W

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the changing healthcare environment has required hospitals and specifically Biomedical Engineering to critically evaluate, optimize and adapt their operations. The focus is now on new technologies, changes to the environment of care, support requirements and financial constraints. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), an NIH-designated comprehensive cancer center, has been transitioning to an increasing outpatient care environment. This transition is driving an increase in-patient acuity coupled with the need for added urgency of support and response time. New technologies, regulatory requirements and financial constraints have impacted operating budgets and in some cases, resulted in a reduction in staffing. Specific initiatives, such as the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals, requirements for an electronic medical record, meaningful use and ICD10 have caused institutions to reevaluate their operations and processes including requiring Biomedical Engineering to manage new technologies, integrations and changes in the electromagnetic environment, while optimizing operational workflow and resource utilization. This paper addresses the new and expanding responsibilities and approach of Biomedical Engineering organizations, specifically at MSKCC. It is suggested that our experience may be a template for other organizations facing similar problems. Increasing support is necessary for Medical Software - Medical Device Data Systems in the evolving wireless environment, including RTLS and RFID. It will be necessary to evaluate the potential impact on the growing electromagnetic environment, on connectivity resulting in the need for dynamic and interactive testing and the growing demand to establish new and needed operational synergies with Information Technology operations and other operational groups within the institution, such as nursing, facilities management, central supply, and the user departments.

  13. Adjuvant therapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases: the predictive value of the MSKCC clinical risk score in the era of modern chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Reissfelder, Christoph; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Jäger, Dirk; Büchler, Markus W; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz

    2014-03-11

    Despite introduction of effective chemotherapy protocols, it has remained uncertain, if patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases should receive adjuvant therapy. Clinical or molecular predictors may help to select patients at high risk for disease recurrence and death who obtain a survival advantage by adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 297 patients with potentially curative resection of CRC liver metastases were analyzed. These patients had no neoadjuvant therapy, no extrahepatic disease and negative resection margins. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients' risk status was evaluated using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center clinical risk score (MSKCC-CRS). Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 137 (43%) patients had a MSKCC-CRS > 2. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 116 (37%) patients. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were of younger age (p = 0.03) with no significant difference in the presence of multiple metastases (p = 0.72) or bilobar metastases (p = 0.08). On multivariate analysis adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in the entire cohort (Hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.98). It improved survival markedly in high-risk patients with a MSKCC-CRS > 2 (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23-0.69), whereas it was of no benefit in patients with a MSKCC-CRS ≤ 2 (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.57-1.43). The MSKCC-CRS offers a tool to select patients for adjuvant therapy after resection of CRC liver metastases. Validation in independent patient cohorts is required.

  14. A Health Economics Approach to US Value Assessment Frameworks-Introduction: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J; Willke, Richard J; Garrison, Louis P

    2018-02-01

    Concerns about rising spending on prescription drugs and other areas of health care have led to multiple initiatives in the United States designed to measure and communicate the value of pharmaceuticals and other technologies for decision making. In this section we introduce the work of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Special Task Force on US Value Assessment Frameworks formed to review relevant perspectives and appropriate approaches and methods to support the definition and use of high-quality value frameworks. The Special Task Force was part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Initiative on US Value Assessment Frameworks, which enlisted the expertise of leading health economists, concentrating on what the field of health economics can provide to help inform the development and use of value assessment frameworks. We focus on five value framework initiatives: the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. These entities differ in their missions, scope of activities, and methodological approaches. Because they are gaining visibility and some traction in the United States, it is essential to scrutinize whether the frameworks use approaches that are transparent as well as conceptually and methodologically sound. Our objectives were to describe the conceptual bases for value and its use in decision making, critically examine existing value frameworks, discuss the importance of sound conceptual underpinning, identify key elements of value relevant to specific decision contexts, and recommend good practice in value definition and implementation as well as areas for further research. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Value Frameworks in Oncology: Comparative Analysis and Implications to the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, Mark; Madhavan, Priya; Kuehn, Michael; Richardson, Sasha

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of oncology care continues to rise, composite value models that variably capture the diverse concerns of patients, physicians, payers, policymakers, and the pharmaceutical industry have begun to take shape. To review the capabilities and limitations of 5 of the most notable value frameworks in oncology that have emerged in recent years and to compare their relative value and application among the intended stakeholders. We compared the methodology of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework (version 2.0), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Evidence Blocks, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center DrugAbacus, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review Value Assessment Framework, and the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale, using a side-by-side comparative approach in terms of the input, scoring methodology, and output of each framework. In addition, we gleaned stakeholder insights about these frameworks and their potential real-world applications through dialogues with physicians and payers, as well as through secondary research and an aggregate analysis of previously published survey results. The analysis identified several framework-specific themes in their respective focus on clinical trial elements, breadth of evidence, evidence weighting, scoring methodology, and value to stakeholders. Our dialogues with physicians and our aggregate analysis of previous surveys revealed a varying level of awareness of, and use of, each of the value frameworks in clinical practice. For example, although the ASCO Value Framework appears nascent in clinical practice, physicians believe that the frameworks will be more useful in practice in the future as they become more established and as their outputs are more widely accepted. Along with patients and payers, who bear the burden of treatment costs, physicians and policymakers have waded into the discussion of defining value in oncology care, as well

  16. Transcriptional diversity of long-term glioblastoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Naamit K; Goenka, Anuj; Turcan, Sevin; Reyngold, Marsha; Makarov, Vladimir; Kannan, Kasthuri; Beal, Kathryn; Omuro, Antonio; Yamada, Yoshiya; Gutin, Phillip; Brennan, Cameron W; Huse, Jason T; Chan, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of glioma with poor prognosis. However, a small number of patients live much longer than the median survival. A better understanding of these long-term survivors (LTSs) may provide important insight into the biology of GBM. We identified 7 patients with GBM, treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), with survival >48 months. We characterized the transcriptome of each patient and determined rates of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 and IDH2 mutational status. We identified LTSs in 2 independent cohorts (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA] and NCI Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data [REMBRANDT]) and analyzed the transcriptomal characteristics of these LTSs. The median overall survival of our cohort was 62.5 months. LTSs were distributed between the proneural (n = 2), neural (n = 2), classical (n = 2), and mesenchymal (n = 1) subtypes. Similarly, LTS in the TCGA and REMBRANDT cohorts demonstrated diverse transcriptomal subclassification identities. The majority of the MSKCC LTSs (71%) were found to have methylation of the MGMT promoter. None of the patients had an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, and IDH mutation occurred in a minority of the TCGA LTSs as well. A set of 60 genes was found to be differentially expressed in the MSKCC and TCGA LTSs. While IDH mutant proneural tumors impart a better prognosis in the short-term, survival beyond 4 years does not require IDH mutation and is not dictated by a single transcriptional subclass. In contrast, MGMT methylation continues to have strong prognostic value for survival beyond 4 years. These findings have substantial impact for understanding GBM biology and progression. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ovarian function in survivors of childhood medulloblastoma: Impact of reduced dose craniospinal irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, Sadana; Dunkel, Ira J; Khakoo, Yasmin; Wolden, Suzanne; Allen, Jeffrey; Sklar, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Data on ovarian function (OvF) in medulloblastoma (MB) survivors is limited, with most studies describing outcomes in survivors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) doses >24 Gy ± standard chemotherapy. The objective of the current study is to report on OvF: (i) across a range of CSI doses; and (ii) following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR). Retrospective review of female MB survivors who were diagnosed in childhood and followed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Patients were divided into three groups: (i) CSI ≤24 Gy +/- standard chemotherapy; (ii) CSI ≥35 Gy +/- standard chemotherapy; and (iii) high-dose chemotherapy with ASCR +/- CSI. Primary ovarian dysfunction (POD) occurred in 2/17 subjects in group 1, 3/9 subjects in group 2 and 5/5 subjects in group 3 (P < 0.01). Normalization of function was noted in four subjects with POD. Persistent POD requiring hormone replacement (POF) was observed in 1/17 subjects in group 1, 2/9 in group 2, and 3/5 in group 3 (P = 0.02). Neither age at treatment nor type of standard chemotherapy correlated with risk of POD or POF. Both POD and POF appear to occur in a small proportion of patients who are treated with contemporary doses of CSI +/- standard chemotherapy. However, ovarian dysfunction requiring hormone replacement therapy is common following high-dose chemotherapy associated with ASCR. These findings will assist clinicians in counseling patients regarding fertility preservation and risk of impaired ovarian function/future fertility. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:317-321. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  19. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p symptoms (p = .026), hospital stay (p = .038) and death (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  20. The Working Memory and Dorsolateral Prefrontal-Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Changes in Long-Term Survival Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingui; Tao, Longxiang; Li, Jingjing; Wu, Jiaonan; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jingjie; Qiu, Bensheng; Yu, Yongqiang; He, Xiaoxuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tamoxifen is the most widely used drug for treating patients with estrogen receptor-sensitive breast cancer. There is evidence that breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen exhibit cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying working memory deficits in combination with functional connectivity changes in premenopausal women with breast cancer who received long-term tamoxifen treatment. Methods: A total of 31 premenopausal women with breast cancer who received tamoxifen and 32 matched healthy control participants were included. The participants completed n-back tasks and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which measure working memory performance and brain functional connectivity, respectively. A seed-based functional connectivity analysis within the whole brain was conducted, for which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was chosen as the seed region. Results: Our results indicated that the tamoxifen group had significant deficits in working memory and general executive function performance and significantly lower functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus compared with the healthy controls. There were no significant changes in functional connectivity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex within the whole brain between the tamoxifen group and healthy controls. Moreover, significant correlations were found in the tamoxifen group between the functional connectivity strength of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus and decreased working memory performance. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be affected by tamoxifen treatment, supporting an antagonistic role of tamoxifen in the long-term treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:28177081

  1. Safety and treatment outcomes of first-line pazopanib in renal cell carcinoma: A prospective observational study in a single Malaysia tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Nor Mohd Farez Ahmat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pazopanib is the standard of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. Previous studies on this indication were limited to patients who were selected on the basis of a fairly preserved performance status and normal organ function. Thus, the clinical trial population may not be representative of all patients seen in real-world practice. Based on these considerations, this prospective single-centre observational study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and safety profile of pazopanib in Malaysian population. Patients and methods: Patients prescribed with pazopanib between June 2015 and June 2017 were recruited and followed up for 2-years or till death whichever comes first. Progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were evaluated. Multivariate and survival analysis were performed. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated with pazopanib where 89% had clear cell histology.  Sixteen patients (59% were intermediate risk and 41% were poor risk based on Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC criteria. All patients experienced at least one adverse event. The most common were cutaneous toxicity (92% followed by proteinuria, hypertension, diarrhoea and mucositis. Treatment interruption was needed in 15 patients. The median PFS and OS were 9.57 months and 15.5 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, MSKCC risk score demonstrates strong predictive treatment outcome. The median PFS was 14.5 months in intermediate risk and 3.96 months in poor risk (OR: 0.2, p<0.001. However, the median OS is still immature to be reported since 63% of intermediate risk group is still alive at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion: In mRCC patients, treatment with pazopanib was effective in patients with intermediate risk group. In terms of safety, patient tolerated pazopanib quite well with mostly experienced grade 1 to 2 adverse events.

  2. Outcomes and Prognostic Variables in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Recent Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zhung, Joanne E.; Patel, Snehal G.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shah, Jatin P.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent experience of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma treated with radiation therapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2004, a total of 59 patients with a diagnosis of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck received radiation therapy at our institution. The subsite distribution was oral cavity, 28% (n = 17); paranasal sinuses, 22% (n = 13); parotid, 14% (n = 8); submandibular, 14% (n = 8); oropharynx, 10% (n = 6); sublingual, 3% (n = 2); nasopharynx, 3% (n = 2); and other, 5% (n = 3). T Stage distribution was T1, 34% (n = 20); T2, 19% (n = 11); T3, 14% (n = 8); and T4, 34% (n = 20). Twenty-nine percent of patients (n = 17) were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy; 25% (n =15), with three-dimensional conformal therapy, and the remainder, with conventional techniques. Ninety percent (n = 53) of patients received treatment including the base of skull. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 5.9 years. Five-year and 10-year rates of local control and distant metastases-free survival were 91%/81% and 81%/49%, respectively. Five-year and 10-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 76%/40% and 87%/65%, respectively. On univariate analysis, stage T4 (p = 0.004) and gross/clinical nerve involvement (p = 0.002) were associated with decreased progression free survival, whereas stage T4 and lymph node involvement were associated with decreased overall survival (p = 0.046 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Radiation therapy in combination with surgery produces excellent rates of local control, although distant metastases account for a high proportion of failures. Routine treatment to the base of skull reduces the significance of histologic perineural invasion, but major nerve involvement remains an adverse prognostic factor

  3. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens

  4. Predicting the risk of perioperative transfusion for patients undergoing elective hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Camelia S; Jarnagin, William R; Fong, Yuman; Elkin, Elena; Fischer, Mary; Wuest, David; D'Angelica, Michael; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Blumgart, Leslie H; Gönen, Mithat

    2009-12-01

    To develop 2 instruments that predict the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing elective liver resection for primary and secondary tumors. Hepatic resection is the most effective treatment for several benign and malign conditions, but may be accompanied by substantial blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusions. While blood conservation strategies such as autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, or cell saver systems are available, they are economically efficient only if directed toward patients with a high risk of transfusion. Using preoperative data from 1204 consecutive patients who underwent liver resection between 1995 and 2000 at Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center, we modeled the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion. We used the resulting model, validated on an independent dataset (n = 555 patients), to develop 2 prediction instruments, a nomogram and a transfusion score, which can be easily implemented into clinical practice. The planned number of liver segments resected, concomitant extrahepatic organ resection, a diagnosis of primary liver malignancy, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelets levels predicted the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion. The predictions of the model appeared accurate and with good discriminatory abilities, generating an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. Preoperative factors can be combined into risk profiles to predict the likelihood of transfusion during or after elective liver resection. These predictions, easy to calculate in the frame of a nomogram or of a transfusion score, can be used to identify patients who are at high risk for red cell transfusions and therefore most likely to benefit from blood conservation techniques.

  5. Family focused grief therapy: The therapy of choice in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care refers to offering physical, psychosocial and spiritual care to patients who are suffering from life threatening diseases. It also includes providing psychological support for family members and other close relations during the period of illness (anticipatory grief and in the period of bereavement and mourning after the patient's death. The choice of therapy during the process of bereavement and mourning is Family Focused Grief Therapy (FFGT. FFGT is a brief, focused and time-limited psychotherapeutic model of intervention belonging to family psychotherapy which is specified for the families that face a life threatening disease of a family member. FFGT, with some modifications, can be applied in work with the families who are facing a terminal illness of younger family members - a child or an adolescent. FFGT typically comprises of 7 to 9 sessions lasting for 90 minutes, which are arranged flexibly across 9 to 18 months, depending on the needs of each family individually. It is important to emphasize that the frequency and number of sessions in each phase depend on the specific features and needs of each particular family. The intervention aim of FFGT is to prevent the complications of bereavement by enhancing the functioning of the family, through exploration of its cohesion, communications (of thoughts and feelings, and handling of conflict. The story of illness and the related grief is shared in the process. The creator of this model is Dr David Kissane, a psychiatrist and a family psychotherapist from Melbourne, Australia, who also worked at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre in New York. The main aims of this article are, on the one hand, to introduce this very useful model of the family therapy to the professional community in Serbia and, on the other, to introduce a conceptual and practical frame of palliative care.

  6. Blood Transfusion Requirement and Not Preoperative Anemia Are Associated with Perioperative Complications Following Intracorporeal Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Shen; Lamb, Benjamin W; Khetrapal, Pramit; Tan, Mae-Yen; Tan, Melanie El; Sridhar, Ashwin; Cervi, Elizabeth; Rodney, Simon; Busuttil, Gerald; Nathan, Senthil; Hines, John; Shaw, Greg; Mohammed, Anna; Baker, Hilary; Briggs, Timothy P; Klein, Andrew; Richards, Toby; Kelly, John D

    2017-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of preoperative anemia and the impact of preoperative anemia and blood transfusion requirement on 30- and 90-day complications in a cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC). IRARC was performed on 166 patients between June 2011 and March 2016. Prospective data were collected for patient demographics, clinical and pathologic characteristics, perioperative variables, transfusion requirements, and hospital length of stay. Thirty- and 90-day complications were classified according to the modified Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Clavien-Dindo system. Preoperative anemia was common (43.4%) and greatest in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (48.6%) (p blood transfusion (p = 0.001). Blood transfusion required in 20.4% of patients with intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion rate was 10.2% and 13.9%, respectively. The 30-day all complication rate and 30-day major complication rate were 55.4% and 15.7%, respectively, while 90-day all complication rate and 90-day major complication rate were 65.7% and 19.3%, respectively. Intraoperative blood transfusion was not associated with increased complications, but postoperative blood transfusion requirement was independently associated with perioperative morbidity: all 30-day complications (p = 0.003), all 90-day complications (p = 0.009), and 90-day major complications (p = 0.004). The presence of preoperative anemia in patients undergoing iRARC is not associated with increased surgical risk, although preoperative anemic patients were significantly more likely to require blood transfusion. Blood transfusion requirement and specifically postoperative blood transfusion are independently associated with perioperative morbidity and are an important factor for the optimization of postoperative outcomes.

  7. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  8. Contrast Media Use in Radiation Oncology: A Prospective, Controlled Educational Intervention Study with Retrospective Analysis of Patient Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Christopher A.; Mutter, Robert W.; Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intravenous contrast media (ICM) administration is recommended as part of radiation therapy (RT) simulation in a variety of clinical scenarios, but can cause adverse events. We sought to assess radiation oncology resident knowledge about ICM, and to determine if an educational intervention (EI) could improve this level of knowledge. In conjunction, we retrospectively analyzed risk factors and adverse events related to ICM use before and after the EI to determine whether any improvements in patient outcomes could be realized. Methods Over 2 years, 21 residents in radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) participated in a pretest-EI-posttest study based on the ACR’s Manual on Contrast Media. Medical and RT records were reviewed, and ICM use, risk factors and adverse events were recorded. Results There was no significant difference in resident understanding of ICM use in residents of different years of training (p=0.85). Understanding of ICM use increased in residents that attended the EI (p<0.05), but this was not sustained 1 year after the EI (p=0.48). Of the 6852 RT simulations that were performed at MSKCC, 1350 (19.7%) involved ICM. Mild adverse events occurred in a few patients (<5%) simulated with ICM, but there was no difference in the number of risk factors or adverse events before and after the EI. Conclusions The EI effectively improved short-term understanding of ICM use. However, the effect was not sustained. The frequency of adverse events related to ICM use was small and not significantly impacted by the EI. PMID:21129689

  9. Microbiota Disruption Induced by Early Use of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Is an Independent Risk Factor of Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Jenq, Robert R; Peled, Jonathan U; Taur, Ying; Hiergeist, Andreas; Koestler, Josef; Dettmer, Katja; Weber, Markus; Wolff, Daniel; Hahn, Joachim; Pamer, Eric G; Herr, Wolfgang; Gessner, André; Oefner, Peter J; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Holler, Ernst

    2017-05-01

    In allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently used for treatment of infectious complications, but their effect on microbiota composition is still poorly understood. This retrospective analysis of 621 patients who underwent ASCT at the University Medical Center of Regensburg and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York assessed the impact of timing of peritransplant antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota composition as well as transplant-related mortality (TRM) and overall survival. Early exposure to antibiotics was associated with lower urinary 3-indoxyl sulfate levels (P antibiotic treatment, which was particularly significant (P = .005) for Clostridium cluster XIVa in the Regensburg group. Earlier antibiotic treatment before ASCT was further associated with a higher TRM (34%, 79/236) compared with post-ASCT (21%, 62/297, P = .001) or no antibiotics (7%, 6/88, P antibiotic treatment was the dominant independent risk factor for TRM (HR, 2.0; P ≤ .001) in multivariate analysis besides increase age (HR, 2.15; P = .004), reduced Karnofsky performance status (HR, 1.47; P = .03), and female donor-male recipient sex combination (HR, 1.56; P = .02) A competing risk analysis revealed the independent effect of early initiation of antibiotics on graft-versus-host disease-related TRM (P = .004) in contrast to infection-related TRM and relapse (not significant). The poor outcome associated with early administration of antibiotic therapy that is active against commensal organisms, and specifically the possibly protective Clostridiales, calls for the use of Clostridiales-sparing antibiotics and rapid restoration of microbiota diversity after cessation of antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of primary unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas with I-125 implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretz, T.; Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.; Manolatos, S.; Linares, L.; Harrison, L.; Anderson, L.L.; Fuks, Z.; Brennan, M.F. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Between January 1 1974 and October 31 1987, 98 patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were treated with I-125 implants during laparotomy. Presenting symptoms were pain, jaundice, and weight loss. All patients underwent laparotomy and surgical staging. Thirty patients had T1NoMo disease, 47 patients had T2-3NoMo disease, and 21 patients had significant regional lymph node involvement (T1-3N1Mo). The surgical procedure performed was biopsy only (16 patients), gastric bypass, biliary bypass, and partial or total pancreatectomy with incomplete resection. The total activity and the number of seeds used were determined from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Stereoshift localization X ray films were taken 3-6 days after operation. The mean activity, minimal peripheral dose (MPD), and volume of the implants were 35 mCi, 13,660 cGy, and 53 cm3, respectively. In addition, 27 patients received postoperative external irradiation and 27 patients received chemotherapy. Postoperative complications were observed in 19 patients. These included post-operative death (1 patient), biliary fistula (4), intraabdominal abscess (4), GI bleeding (3), gastric or small bowel obstruction (6), sepsis (5), and deep vein thrombophlebitis (4). Pain relief was obtained in 37/57 patients (65%) presenting with pain. A multivariate analysis showed that four factors significantly affected survival: T stage, N stage, administration of chemotherapy, and more than 30% reduction in the size of the implant on follow-up films. The median survival for the entire group was 7 months. A subgroup of patients with T1No stage disease who received chemotherapy survived 18.5 months. The indications for I-125 seed implantation in unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas are discussed.

  11. Treatment of primary unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas with I-125 implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, T.; Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.; Manolatos, S.; Linares, L.; Harrison, L.; Anderson, L.L.; Fuks, Z.; Brennan, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1 1974 and October 31 1987, 98 patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were treated with I-125 implants during laparotomy. Presenting symptoms were pain, jaundice, and weight loss. All patients underwent laparotomy and surgical staging. Thirty patients had T1NoMo disease, 47 patients had T2-3NoMo disease, and 21 patients had significant regional lymph node involvement (T1-3N1Mo). The surgical procedure performed was biopsy only (16 patients), gastric bypass, biliary bypass, and partial or total pancreatectomy with incomplete resection. The total activity and the number of seeds used were determined from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Stereoshift localization X ray films were taken 3-6 days after operation. The mean activity, minimal peripheral dose (MPD), and volume of the implants were 35 mCi, 13,660 cGy, and 53 cm3, respectively. In addition, 27 patients received postoperative external irradiation and 27 patients received chemotherapy. Postoperative complications were observed in 19 patients. These included post-operative death (1 patient), biliary fistula (4), intraabdominal abscess (4), GI bleeding (3), gastric or small bowel obstruction (6), sepsis (5), and deep vein thrombophlebitis (4). Pain relief was obtained in 37/57 patients (65%) presenting with pain. A multivariate analysis showed that four factors significantly affected survival: T stage, N stage, administration of chemotherapy, and more than 30% reduction in the size of the implant on follow-up films. The median survival for the entire group was 7 months. A subgroup of patients with T1No stage disease who received chemotherapy survived 18.5 months. The indications for I-125 seed implantation in unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas are discussed

  12. Quantitative method for the determination of Iso-fludelone (KOS-1803) in human plasma by LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Susan M.; Parise, Robert A.; Levine, Erica D.; Rizvi, Naiyer A.; Gounder, Mrinal M.; Beumer, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    Epothilones are relatively new tubulin-poison anticancer drugs. Iso-fludelone (KOS-1803) is a synthetic third generation epothilone drug discovered at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and currently in Phase I clinical trials. We report an LC-MS/MS assay for the sensitive, accurate and precise quantitation of Iso-fludelone in 0.2 mL of human plasma. Validation was performed according to FDA guidance. The assay comprised of KOS-1724 as the internal standard and an MTBE liquid-liquid extraction with a water wash step. Separation was achieved with an YMC-Pack ODS-AQ column and an isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water (70:30, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min for 4 min. Chromatographic separation was followed by electrospray, positive-mode ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was linear from 0.1– 300 ng/mL and was accurate (−9.41–7.07%) and precise (1.03–13.7%) which fulfilled FDA criteria for validation. Recovery from plasma was 73.9–79.7% and ion suppression was negligible (−22.8 to −31.3%). Plasma freeze thaw stability (99.97–105.7%), stability for 11 months at −80 °C (94.93–107.9%), and stability for 6 h at room temperature (94.75–105.5%) were all acceptable. This assay is currently being applied to quantitate Iso-fludelone in clinical samples. PMID:25168219

  13. [Retrospective analysis of 47 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma using T-staging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-hong; Zhao, Zhi-ming; Peng, Shu-you; Liu, Ying-bin; Wu, Yü-lian; Fang, He-qing; Jiang, Xian-chuan

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of T-staging system for hilar cholangiocarcinoma which was adopted in memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center of New York. The image data of these 47 patients were analyzed retrospectively from December 1997 to December 2002 whose data were according with our demand, and they were staged into three-stage according to the criteria of the T-staging system. The difference of respectability, ratio of tumor-free resection margin and actuarial survival rate were analyzed for different T-staging. And the coincident ratio of three different kinds of imaging methods was also analyzed. Twenty patients had T(1) tumors, twenty three had T(2) tumors and four had T(3) tumors. The resectability of the three stage was 60%, 39% and 0% respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.013). The likelihood of achieving tumor-free margin decreased progressively with increasing T stage (P = 0.018). The cumulative 1-year survival rates of T(1), T(2) and T(3) patients were 60%, 39% and 0% respectively, and the cumulative 3-year survival rate was 35%, 9% and 0% respectively, the survival of different stage patients differed markedly (P = 0.0103). The coincident ratio of combined using MRCP and color Doppler-ultrasonography was higher than that of combined using MRCP and B-ultrasonography or combined using CT/SCT and color Doppler-ultrasonography (P = 0.007). The T-staging system has a better value for preoperative assessment, and can be used to judge resectability and survival of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. It will be helpful to use MRCP and color Doppler-Ultrasonography combined to verdict the coverage of the tumor and the T-staging preoperatively.

  14. Involved field (IF) irradiation with or without chemotherapy in the management of children with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Tan, C.; Bretsky, S.; He, S.Q.; Exelby, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present policy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) of treating children with Hodgkin's disease [HD] is as follows: involved field (IF) irradiation only (3,600 rad) for Stages IA and IIA; IF irradiation (2,400 or 2,000 rad) combined with multidrug chemotherapy (MDP) protocol for all other stages. A somewhat higher recurrence rate is accepted for Stages IA and IIA in view of the good salvage rate for these recurrences and in view of side effects of more aggressive types of radiation treatment. One hundred forty-two patients with HD, 2-19 years of age, were treated at MSKCC between 1970 and 1981; 98 of these were treated according to the present policy (SP group), and 44 (NP group) were treated differently. All SP patients underwent staging laparotomy. The follow-up time was 12 to 146 months with a median of 65 months; two patients were lost to follow-up. For the SP group, all stages, 10-year disease-free survival is 77%, and 10-year survival is 93%. By comparison, in the NP group 10-year disease-free survival is 64%, and 10-year survival is 80%. The disease-free survival of SP patients in Stages IA and IIA treated with IF radiation alone is 72%, and survival is 95%. The disease-free survival of SP patients in advanced stages treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy is 87%; the salvage rate of recurrent disease in these stages is poor. The survival was apparently better in the SP group as compared to the NP group. All 6 patients of the SP group who died had a nodular sclerosing type of HD. None of the patients in the SP group have developed secondary malignancies, and no severe bone growth retardations or late effects to other organs were observed

  15. Rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadner, H.

    1984-01-01

    In spite of an excellent improvement of treatment strategies many questions about the best therapeutic approach in rhabdomyosarcoma remain open. The rare incidence (4,5 per million children and year), the biological heterogeneity, the different localisations and stages of disease still remain a challenge for the interdisciplinary cooperation in paediatric oncology. The optimum treatment consists of a qualified combination of chemo- and radiotherapy as well as surgical intervention. The importance of each modality is to be defined in every individual case. Only with such an approach severe mutilations can be avoided and a better chance of survival offered. A national study for rhabdomyosarcoma of the Austrian Paediatric Oncology Group is presented, which has been established in close collaboration with the paediatric onologists of West-Germany. The study protocol since January 1982 is still in use. Therapeutic strategies of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group were taken into consideration. The chemotherapy essentially consists of a modified T9- and T11-protocol (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York) including newer drugs like cisplatin and VP 16 -213. The surgical intervention is recommended as primary resection only when multilations can be avoided (otherwise a biopsy is proposed). The secondary and definitive resection or biopsy is provided for the time period after completion of 16 weeks of chemotherapy. The addition of radiotherapy after the second look operation promises the maximum of curative effect. The following chemotherapy is planned for further 16 or 36 weeks according to the stage of disease. Because of the rather small number of patients and because of the necessity of a close collaboration between surgeons, urologists, radiotherapists and paediatricians it is recommended to transfer the patient to a center of paediatric oncology. (Author)

  16. Management and outcome of stage 3 neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Shakeel; Kushner, Brian H.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The management of patients with International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage 3 neuroblastoma (NB) is not consistent worldwide. We describe a single centre approach at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) from 1991 to 2007 that minimizes therapy except for those patients with MYCN-amplified NB. Methods In this retrospective analysis of 69 patients, tumour MYCN was not amplified in 53 and amplified in 16. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Fourteen patients with non-MYCN-amplified tumours were treated with surgery alone (group A) and the remaining 39 (group B) with surgery following chemotherapy that was initiated and administered at non-MSKCC institutions. Chemotherapy was discontinued after surgery in 38/39 of the latter. The 10-year EFS and OS for all patients with MYCN-non-amplified NB were 74.9 ± 16.9% and 92.6 ± 5.5%, respectively. There was no difference in OS between groups A and B (p = 0.2; 10-year OS for groups A and B was 84.6 ± 14% and 97.1 ± 2.9%, respectively). Patients with MYCN-amplified disease (group C) underwent dose-intensive induction, tumour resection and local radiotherapy: 13 achieved complete or very good partial remission, and 10 received myeloablative chemotherapy. 11/16 patients also received 3F8-based immunotherapy: 10 remain free of disease. The 10-year EFS and OS for patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma treated with immunotherapy were both 90.9 ± 8.7%. Conclusion Patients with MYCN-non-amplified stage 3 NB can be successfully treated with surgery without the need for radiotherapy or continuation of chemotherapy. Combination of dose-intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and immunotherapy was associated with a favourable outcome for most patients with MYCN-amplified stage 3 NB. PMID:18996003

  17. Treatment and outcome of adult-onset neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maya; Kushner, Brian H; Kramer, Kim; Basu, Ellen M; Roberts, Stephen S; Hammond, William J; LaQuaglia, Michael P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Modak, Shakeel

    2018-03-25

    Adult-onset neuroblastoma is rare and little is known about its biology and clinical course. There is no established therapy for adult-onset neuroblastoma. Anti-GD2 immunotherapy is now standard therapy in children with high-risk neuroblastoma; however, its use has not been reported in adults. Forty-four adults (18-71 years old) diagnosed with neuroblastoma between 1979 and 2015 were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Five, 1, 5 and 33 patients had INSS stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 diseases, respectively. Genetic abnormalities included somatic ATRX (58%) and ALK mutations (42%) but not MYCN-amplification. In the 11 patients with locoregional disease, 10-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was 35.4 ± 16.1% and 61.4 ± 15.3%, respectively. Among 33 adults with stage 4 neuroblastoma, 7 (21%) achieved complete response (CR) after induction chemotherapy and/or surgery. Seven patients with primary refractory neuroblastoma (all with osteomedullary but no soft tissue disease) received anti-GD2 antibodies, mouse or humanized 3F8. Antibody-related adverse events were similar to those in children, response rate being 71.4%. In patients with stage 4 disease at diagnosis, 5-year PFS was 9.7± 5.3% and most patients who were alive with disease at 5 years died of neuroblastoma over the next 5 years, 10-year OS being only 19.0 ± 8.2%. Patients who achieved CR after induction had superior PFS and OS (p = 0.006, p = 0.031, respectively). Adult-onset neuroblastoma appeared to have different biology from pediatric or adolescent NB, and poorer outcome. Complete disease control appeared to improve long-term survival. Anti-GD2 immunotherapy was well tolerated and might be beneficial. © 2018 UICC.

  18. Quantitative method for the determination of iso-fludelone (KOS-1803) in human plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Susan M; Parise, Robert A; Levine, Erica D; Rizvi, Naiyer A; Gounder, Mrinal M; Beumer, Jan H

    2014-11-01

    Epothilones are relatively new tubulin-poison anticancer drugs. Iso-fludelone (KOS-1803) is a synthetic third generation epothilone drug discovered at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and currently in phase I clinical trials. We report an LC-MS/MS assay for the sensitive, accurate and precise quantitation of iso-fludelone in 0.2mL of human plasma. Validation was performed according to FDA guidance. The assay comprised of KOS-1724 as the internal standard and an MTBE liquid-liquid extraction with a water wash step. Separation was achieved with an YMC-Pack ODS-AQ column and an isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water (70:30, v/v) at 0.3mL/min for 4min. Chromatographic separation was followed by electrospray, positive-mode ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 300ng/mL and was accurate (-9.41 to -7.07%) and precise (1.03-13.7%) which fulfilled FDA criteria for validation. Recovery from plasma was 73.9-79.7% and ion suppression was negligible (-22.8 to -31.3%). Plasma freeze-thaw stability (99.97-105.7%), stability for 11 months at -80°C (94.93-107.9%), and stability for 6h at room temperature (94.75-105.5%) were all acceptable. This assay is currently being applied to quantitate iso-fludelone in clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Nutritional Factors to Predict the Risk of Complications for Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Ben-Zvi, Tal; Nguilé-Makao, Molière; Fradet, Yves; Lacombe, Louis; Fradet, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify nutritional preoperative factors associated with complications after radical cystectomy (RC). We prospectively evaluated the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Score, body mass index (BMI), appetite, stool frequency, hydration, food intake, weight loss, albuminemia, and prealbuminemia of 144 patients who underwent RC between January 2011 and April 2014. Postoperative complications were defined as any adverse event reported in the patient's file up to 90 days after surgery. Each complication was classified according to the Clavien-Dindo and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center systems. The adjusted relative risk (RR) computed through a Poisson regression model was used to identify nutritional risk factors associated with post-RC complications. A high BMI >27 kg/m 2 was associated with higher risk of low-grade complications (RR:1.47 [95% CI,1.09-2.00]) at 7 days and a four-fold increased risk of cardiac complications at 7 and 90 days (RR:3.77 [1.15-12.32] and RR:3.28 [1.35-7.98]). Decreased appetite was associated with low-grade (RR:1.43 [1.03-1.99] complications within 90 days. Preoperative weight loss >3 kg was associated with high-grade (RR:2.49 [1.23-5.05]) and wound (RR:2.51 [1.23-5.10]) complications within 90 days. This study showed that preoperative nutritional status of patients may predict the occurrence of complications up to 90 days post-RC. Development of preoperative nutritional interventions may reduce the deleterious impact of RC on patients' health.

  20. [Application of compression equipment using the "form memory" effect and super-elasticity of titanium nickelide in surgery for rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A A; Vazhenin, A V; Plotnikov, V V; Spirev, V V; Chinarev, Iu B

    2010-01-01

    The study is concerned with development of equipment for forming circular compression intestinal anastomosis using the "form memory" effect and super-elasticity of titanium nickelide. A sequence of technological operations is suggested, experimental tests and clinical trials carried out and immediate and end-results for anterior resection in rectal cancer are evaluated. Compression equipment for forming colorectal anastomosis proved reliable in long-term operation.

  1. Ovarian cancer: contribution of radiation therapy to patient management: Erskine Memorial Lecture, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Ovarian cancer may be treated with radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination. To evaluate the contribution of radiation therapy to patient management the cure rate must be estimated; data are presented suggesting that the 5-year survival rate provides a reasonable estimate of the cure rate. A study of patients treated since 1971 showed that stage and postoperative residuum could be used to divide patients into two subgroups, a poor prognosis group and a good prognosis group; a multifactorial grouping of patients in the good prognosis group who were treated postoperatively with radiation therapy only was further able to divide patients into low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups. Studies of radiation therapy for different subgroups are discussed; abdominopelvic irradiation has been shown to improve survival for approximately one-third of patients with cancer of the ovary

  2. Stem-Like Memory T Cells Are Discovered | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    T cells are the white blood cells that are the body’s first line of attack against foreign invaders.  When designing immunotherapies to treat cancer the goal is to prolong the immune response of T cells a bit beyond what the body normally does when a bacterium or a virus is encountered.   Nicholas P. Restifo, M.D., working with Luca Gattinoni, M.D., and other colleagues in

  3. Cancer 'survivor-care': II. Disruption of prefrontal brain activation top-down control of working memory capacity as possible mechanism for chemo-fog/brain (chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, R B

    2013-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairments (termed 'chemo-fog' or 'chemo-brain'), particularly in memory, have been self-reported or identified in cancer survivors previously treated with chemotherapy. Although a variety of deficits have been detected, a consistent theme is a detriment in visuospatial working memory. The parietal cortex, a major site of storage of such memory, is implicated in chemotherapy-induced damage. However, if the findings of two recent publications are combined, the (pre)frontal cortex might be an equally viable target. Two recent studies, one postulating a mechanism for 'top-down control' of working memory capacity and another visualizing chemotherapy-induced alterations in brain activation during working memory processing, are reviewed and integrated. A computational model and the proposal that the prefrontal cortex plays a role in working memory via top-down control of parietal working memory capacity is consistent with a recent demonstration of decreased frontal hyperactivation following chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-associated impairment of visuospatial working memory might include the (pre)frontal cortex in addition to the parietal cortex. This provides new opportunity for basic science and clinical investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and subjective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors: role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; Awick, Elizabeth A; McAuley, Edward

    2017-09-01

    Many breast cancer survivors report cancer and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change. However, very little is known about the relationship between physical activity and subjective memory impairment (SMI) in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical activity and SMI and longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress as potential mediators. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 1477) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, distress (depression, concerns about recurrence, perceived stress, anxiety), fatigue and SMI at baseline and 6-month follow-up. A subsample (n = 362) was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences SMI via exercise self-efficacy, distress and fatigue. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good fit in the full sample (χ 2  = 1462.5, df = 469, p = exercise self-efficacy and reduced distress and fatigue. Higher levels of physical activity, lower levels of fatigue and distress and higher exercise self-efficacy may play an important role in understanding SMI in breast cancer survivors across time. Future research is warranted to replicate and explore these relationships further. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  6. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E Cooke

    Full Text Available Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment.

  7. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Morgenstern, H; Spitz, M R; Tashkin, D P; Yu, G P; Hsu, T C; Schantz, S P

    2000-10-01

    Although active tobacco smoking has been considered a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, few studies have evaluated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its interaction with mutagen sensitivity on the risk of head and neck cancer. We investigated the relationship between ETS and head and neck cancer in a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with pathologically confirmed diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and 176 cancer-free controls at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 1994. A structured questionnaire was used to collect ETS exposure and other covariates including a history of active tobacco smoking and alcohol use. ETS measures include a history of ETS exposure at home and at workplace. The associations between passive smoking and head and neck cancer were analyzed by Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression models. Additive and multiplicative models were used to evaluate effect modifications between ETS and mutagen sensitivity. The crude odds ratio (OR) for ETS exposure was 2.8 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.3-6.0]. Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and marijuana use, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with ETS (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-6.8). Dose-response relationships were observed for the degree of ETS exposure; the adjusted ORs were 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.1) for those with moderate exposure and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.5) for individuals with heavy exposure (P for trend = 0.025), in comparison with those who never had ETS exposures. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to nonactive smoking cases and controls (crude OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.6-8.4). Crude odds ratios were 1.8 for those with moderate ETS exposure and 4.3 for individuals with heavy ETS exposure among nonsmoking cases and controls (P for trend = 0.008). More

  9. Radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.; Ajani, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain 33 papers grouped under the headings of: Heath memorial award lecture; Large bowel cancer; Esophageal cancer; Pancreatic, Endocrime, and Hepatobiliary cancer; Gastric cancer; Joanne Vandenberge hill award and William O. Russell lectureship in anatomic pathology; and Jeffrey A. Gottlieb memorial lecture

  10. Sentinel Node Mapping Using Indocyanine Green and Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Technology for Uterine Malignancies: Preliminary Experience With the Da Vinci Xi System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesto, Gabriele; Romano, Fabrizio; Fiamengo, Barbara; Vitobello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as the new frontier for the surgical staging of apparently early-stage cervical and endometrial cancer. Different colorimetric and radioactive tracers, alone and in combination, have been proposed with encouraging results. Fluorometric mapping using indocyanine green (ICG) appears to be a suitable and attractive alternative to provide reliable staging [1-4]. In this video, we present the technique of SLN mapping in 2 cases (1 endometrial and 1 cervical cancer, respectively) using ICG and the near-infrared technology provided by the newest Da Vinci Xi robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Together we report the results of our preliminary experience on the first 20 cases performed. The new robotic Da Vinci Xi system was available at our institution since May 2015. Upon institutional review board/ethical committee approval, all consecutive patients with early-stage endometrial and cervical cancer who were judged suitable for robotic surgery have been enrolled for SLN mapping with ICG. We adopted the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center SLN algorithm; the tracer was delivered into the cervix in all cases. Four milliliters (1.25 mg/mL) of ICG was injected divided into the 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the cervix alone, with 1 mL deep into the stroma and 1 mL submucosally at the skin incision. Sentinel lymph nodes were examined with a protocol including both ultrastaging with immunohistochemistry [3] and 1-step nucleic acid amplification assay [5,6] under a parallel protocol of study. During the study period, 20 cases were managed; 14 and 6 patients had endometrial and cervical cancer, respectively. SLN was detected in all cases (20/20, 100%). Bilateral SLNs were detected in 17 of 20 (85.0%) cases. Based on preoperative and intraoperative findings, 13 (65.0%) patients received systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy after SLN mapping. Three (15.0%) patients had microscopic nodal metastases on SLN. No

  11. Germline Variants in Targeted Tumor Sequencing Using Matched Normal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kasmintan A; Cheng, Donavan T; Joseph, Vijai; Prasad, Meera; Walsh, Michael; Zehir, Ahmet; Ni, Ai; Thomas, Tinu; Benayed, Ryma; Ashraf, Asad; Lincoln, Annie; Arcila, Maria; Stadler, Zsofia; Solit, David; Hyman, David M; Hyman, David; Zhang, Liying; Klimstra, David; Ladanyi, Marc; Offit, Kenneth; Berger, Michael; Robson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Tumor genetic sequencing identifies potentially targetable genetic alterations with therapeutic implications. Analysis has concentrated on detecting tumor-specific variants, but recognition of germline variants may prove valuable as well. To estimate the burden of germline variants identified through routine clinical tumor sequencing. Patients with advanced cancer diagnoses eligible for studies of targeted agents at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center are offered tumor-normal sequencing with MSK-IMPACT, a 341-gene panel. We surveyed the germline variants seen in 187 overlapping genes with Mendelian disease associations in 1566 patients who had undergone tumor profiling between March and October 2014. The number of presumed pathogenic germline variants (PPGVs) and variants of uncertain significance per person in 187 genes associated with single-gene disorders and the proportions of individuals with PPGVs in clinically relevant gene subsets, in genes consistent with known tumor phenotypes, and in genes with evidence of second somatic hits in their tumors. The mean age of the 1566 patients was 58 years, and 54% were women. Presumed pathogenic germline variants in known Mendelian disease-associated genes were identified in 246 of 1566 patients (15.7%; 95% CI, 14.0%-17.6%), including 198 individuals with mutations in genes associated with cancer susceptibility. Germline findings in cancer susceptibility genes were concordant with the individual's cancer type in only 81 of 198 cases (40.9%; 95% CI, 34.3%-47.9%). In individuals with PPGVs retained in the tumor, somatic alteration of the other allele was seen in 39 of 182 cases (21.4%; 95% CI, 16.1%-28.0%), of which 13 cases did not show a known correlation of the germline mutation and a known syndrome. Mutations in non-cancer-related Mendelian disease genes were seen in 55 of 1566 cases (3.5%; 95% CI, 27.1%-45.4%). Almost every individual had more than 1 variant of uncertain significance (1565 of 1566 patients; 99

  12. Micro-Mini & Nano-Dosimetry & Innovative Technologies in Radiation Therapy (MMND&ITRO2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The biennial MMND (formerly MMD) - IPCT workshops, founded in collaboration with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001, has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced dosimetric technology for radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) and space science, as well as advanced technologies for prostate cancer treatment. In more recent years, the interests of participants and the scope of the workshops have extended far beyond prostate cancer treatment alone to include all aspects of radiation therapy, radiation science and technology. We therefore decided to change the name in 2016 to Innovative Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO). MMND ITRO 2016 was held on 26-31 January, 2016 at the beautiful Wrest Point Hotel in Hobart, Tasmania and attracted an outstanding international faculty and nearly 200 delegates from 18 countries (http://mmnditro2016.com/) The MMND 2016 program continued to cover advanced medical physics aspects of IMRT, IGRT, VMAT, SBRT, MRI LINAC, innovative brachytherapy, and synchrotron MRT. The demand for sophisticated real time and high temporal and spatial resolution (down to the submillimetre scale) dosimetry methods and instrumentation for end-to-end QA for these radiotherapy technologies is increasing. Special attention was paid to the contribution of advanced imaging and the application of nanoscience to the recent improvements in imaging and radiotherapy. The last decade has seen great progress in charged particle therapy technology which has spread throughout the world and attracted strong current interest in Australia. This demands a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of ion interactions with biological tissue and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons and heavy ions. The further development of computational and experimental micro-and nano-dosimetry for ions has important application in radiobiology based treatment planning and space radiation

  13. Micro-Mini and Nano-Dosimetry and Innovative Technologies in Radiation Therapy (MMND and ITRO2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The biennial MMND (formerly MMD) - IPCT workshops, founded in collaboration with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001, has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced dosimetric technology for radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) and space science, as well as advanced technologies for prostate cancer treatment. In more recent years, the interests of participants and the scope of the workshops have extended far beyond prostate cancer treatment alone to include all aspects of radiation therapy, radiation science and technology. We therefore decided to change the name in 2016 to Innovative Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO). MMND ITRO 2016 was held on 26-31 January, 2016 at the beautiful Wrest Point Hotel in Hobart, Tasmania and attracted an outstanding international faculty and nearly 200 delegates from 18 countries (http://mmnditro2016.com/) The MMND 2016 program continued to cover advanced medical physics aspects of IMRT, IGRT, VMAT, SBRT, MRI LINAC, innovative brachytherapy, and synchrotron MRT. The demand for sophisticated real time and high temporal and spatial resolution (down to the submillimetre scale) dosimetry methods and instrumentation for end–to-end QA for these radiotherapy technologies is increasing. Special attention was paid to the contribution of advanced imaging and the application of nanoscience to the recent improvements in imaging and radiotherapy. The last decade has seen great progress in charged particle therapy technology which has spread throughout the world and attracted strong current interest in Australia. This demands a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of ion interactions with biological tissue and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons and heavy ions. The further development of computational and experimental micro-and nano-dosimetry for ions has important application in radiobiology based treatment planning and space radiation

  14. Systematic in-vitro evaluation of the NCI/NIH Developmental Therapeutics Program Approved Oncology Drug Set for the identification of a candidate drug repertoire for MLL-rearranged leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema KA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kimberley A Hoeksema1, Aarthi Jayanthan1, Todd Cooper2, Lia Gore3, Tanya Trippett4, Jessica Boklan6, Robert J Arceci5, Aru Narendran11Division of Pediatric Oncology, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's Hospital, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 5Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Despite significant progress made in the overall cure rate, the prognosis for relapsed and refractory malignancies in children remains extremely poor. Hence, there is an urgent need for studies that enable the timely selection of appropriate agents for Phase I clinical studies. The Pediatric Oncology Experimental Therapeutics Investigators' Consortium (POETIC is systematically evaluating libraries of known and novel compounds for activity against subsets of high-risk pediatric malignancies with defined molecular aberrations for future clinical development. In this report, we describe the in-vitro activity of a diverse panel of approved oncology drugs against MLL-rearranged pediatric leukemia cell lines. Agents in the Approved Oncology Drug Set II (National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health Developmental Therapeutics Program were evaluated by in-vitro cytotoxicity assays in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia cell lines with MLL gene rearrangements. Validation studies were carried out with patient leukemia cells in culture. Comparative analysis for toxicity against nonmalignant cells was evaluated in normal bone marrow stromal cells and normal human lymphocytes. Results from this study show that 42 of the 89 agents tested have

  15. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  16. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  17. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Spratt, Nancy LeeDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT, has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically

  18. Multifractionated image-guided and stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy of paraspinal tumors: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshiya; Lovelock, D. Michael; Yenice, Kamil M.; Bilsky, Mark H.; Hunt, Margaret A.; Zatcky, Joan; Leibel, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The use of image-guided and stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques have made the delivery of high-dose radiation to lesions within close proximity to the spinal cord feasible. This report presents clinical and physical data regarding the use of IMRT coupled with noninvasive body frames (stereotactic and image-guided) for multifractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (Memorial) stereotactic body frame (MSBF) and Memorial body cradle (MBC) have been developed as noninvasive immobilizing devices for paraspinal IMRT using stereotactic (MSBF) and image-guided (MBC) techniques. Patients were either previously irradiated or prescribed doses beyond spinal cord tolerance (54 Gy in standard fractionation) and had unresectable gross disease involving the spinal canal. The planning target volume (PTV) was the gross tumor volume with a 1 cm margin. The PTV was not allowed to include the spinal cord contour. All treatment planning was performed using software developed within the institution. Isocenter verification was performed with an in-room computed tomography scan (MSBF) or electronic portal imaging devices, or both. Patients were followed up with serial magnetic resonance imaging every 3-4 months, and no patients were lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used for analysis of clinical data. Results: Both the MSBF and MBC were able to provide setup accuracy within 2 mm. With a median follow-up of 11 months, 35 patients (14 primary and 21 secondary malignancies) underwent treatment. The median dose previously received was 3000 cGy in 10 fractions. The median dose prescribed for these patients was 2000 cGy/5 fractions (2000-3000 cGy), which provided a median PTV V100 of 88%. In previously unirradiated patients, the median prescribed dose was 7000 cGy (5940-7000 cGy) with a median PTV V100 of 90%. The median Dmax to the cord was 34% and 68% for previously irradiated and never

  19. Recent advances in radioiodine use for the management of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It has been well accepted that radioiodine is useful in the management of patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Although radioiodine has been used for more than 60 years in diagnosis and treatment, some improvements still appear continuously. Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) and radioiodine whole body scans (WBS) are used to detect recurrent thyroid caner. Tg has been known to be more sensitive than WBS, and false negative WBS with elevated Tg are frequently found. However, the clinical importance of Tg negative cases with positive WBS has not been clarified. We found that 34 among 960 patients who showed negative Tg with positive post-therapy I-131 WBS had functioning metastases to extrathyroidal organs. Complementary use of radioiodine WBS is recommended to exclude Tg false negative cases. The retinoic acid (RA) is well known to induce the cellular re-differentiation and increase the expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in de-differentiated tumor cell. We performed RA treatment with I-131 in 40 patients with elevated serum Tg level but no focal iodine uptake in WBS. In 14 patients (35%), improved I-131 uptake was seen. Focal iodine uptakes were seen in 4 patients, and diffuse hepatic visualization without localized lesions were found in 10 patients. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration based on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount of I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We performed MSD therapy in 46 patients with differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted even after conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD was calculated according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq (337.3±37.5 mCi). Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 stable disease, and 6 disease progression. Twenty-nine patients (63%) had a transient cytopenia after therapy. MSD therapy of

  20. Radiation protection procedures and dose to the staff in brachytherapy with permanent implant of the sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, G.; Cattani, F.

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of intra capsular prostate cancers with the permanent implantation of low energy sealed radioactive sources (''103 Pd-''125I) offers the same probability of curing the tumours as surgery and external-beam radiotherapy with a minimum incidence of unwanted side-effects. The first attempts of using sealed sources for treating prostate cancers go back to 1917, when Barringer reported the results obtained with the implant of ''236Ra needles. Beginning from that period the interest for prostate brachytherapy has shown a fluctuating trend, due especially to the technological possibilities and to the status of the alternative treatment modalities (surgery, external radiotherapy). The main reason of the substantial failure of brachytherapy as compared to the two other treatment modalities had two main causes: the energy, too high ( E≅ 840 keV), of γ-radiation emitted by ''226 Ra in equilibrium with its decay products and the lack of imaging techniques able to visualize with sufficient accuracy both the prostate and the arrangement, inside it, of the radioactive sources. The employ of low energy γ-emitting radionuclides began in 1974, when Whitmore et al. working at the Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Hospital of New York suggested the use of ''125 I sealed sources for the realisation of interstitial permanent implants. Also this attempt, though reducing the side effects typical of the surgical intervention (incontinence, impotence), did non give the expected results in terms of local control of the disease and, as a consequence, of the survival's length. This partial failure was attributed to the fact that, in most cases the dose distribution inside the target volume was not homogeneous, due to the inadequacy of the available imaging techniques used for checking the real position of the sources, during their manual insertion in the tissues. In the last ten years,however, great progresses have been made in the US i maging techniques, in the manufacture of

  1. Evaluation of an interdisciplinary re-isolation policy for patients with previous Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, N; Eagan, J A; Gillern, P; Armstrong, D; Sepkowitz, K A

    1998-12-01

    Diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is increasingly recognized as a nosocomial problem. The effectiveness and cost of a new program to decrease nosocomial spread by identifying patients scheduled for readmission who were previously positive for toxin was evaluated. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is a 410-bed comprehensive cancer center in New York City. Many patients are readmitted during their course of cancer therapy. In 1995 as a result of concern about the nosocomial spread of C difficile, we implemented a policy that all patients who were positive for C difficile toxin in the previous 6 months with no subsequent toxin-negative stool as an outpatient would be placed into contact isolation on readmission pending evaluation of stool specimens. Patients who were previously positive for C difficile toxin were identified to infection control and admitting office databases via computer. Admitting personnel contacted infection control with all readmissions to determine whether a private room was required. Between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996, 47 patients who were previously positive for C difficile toxin were readmitted. Before their first scheduled readmission, the specimens for 15 (32%) of these patients were negative for C difficile toxin. They were subsequently cleared as outpatients and were readmitted without isolation. Workup of the remaining 32 patients revealed that the specimens for 7 patients were positive for C difficile toxin and 86 isolation days were used. An additional 25 patients used 107 isolation days and were either cleared after a negative specimen was obtained in-house or discharged without having an appropriate specimen sent. Four patients (9%) had reoccurring C difficile after having toxin-negative stools. We estimate (because outpatient specimens were not collected) the cost incurred at $48,500 annually, including the incremental cost of hospital isolation and equipment. Our policy to control the spread of nosocomial C

  2. World gynecologic oncology publications and the Turkish contribution to the literature between 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Polat; Gultekin, Murat; Ayhan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the number of publications and the contribution from top-ranking countries, institutions, and authors in 3 gynecologic oncology journals (Gynecologic Oncology [GO], International Journal of Gynecological Cancer [IJGC], and European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology [EJGO]),as well as the degree of Turkish contribution between 2000 and 2007. Articles published between 2000 and 2007 in 3 gynecologic oncology journals indexed by the Science Citation Index were accessed via the ISI-Thomson website. Additionally, PubMed, Sciencedirect, and Blackwell-Synergy databases were used to identify the originating countries and institutions of the published articles. The types of articles, originating countries, and names of the institutions and authors were determined. Furthermore, the number of articles affiliated with Turkish institutions and the publication year were also determined. We located 6,851 articles published in the 3 journals. During this period 36.1%, 7.7%, 7.2%, 5.8% and 4.8% of the papers originated from the USA, Japan, Italy, Turkey, and England, respectively. The 5 most productive institutions were the University of Texas, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, University of Alabama, and University of Athens. The 5 most productive authors were Markman (USA), Chi (USA), Ayhan (Turkey), Barakat (USA), and Vergote (Belgium), respectively. In all, 36.1% of the papers originated from the USA, while 44% originated from 17 European countries. The USA was the first-ranked country of origin in GO and IJGC, while Turkey was the first-ranked country of origin in EJGO. Overall, 399 (5.8%) papers originated from Turkish institutions. Most of the gynecologic oncology publications originated from the USA and Western European countries, where gynecologic oncology training is available and surgical and research traditions are well established. On the other hand, Turkish researchers made an important contribution to gynecologic

  3. Risk for Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultcrantz, Malin; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W; Landgren, Ola; Derolf, Åsa R; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Andersson, Therese M L

    2018-03-06

    Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are reported to be at increased risk for thrombotic events. However, no population-based study has estimated this excess risk compared with matched control participants. To assess risk for arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with MPNs compared with matched control participants. Matched cohort study. Population-based setting in Sweden from 1987 to 2009, with follow-up to 2010. 9429 patients with MPNs and 35 820 matched control participants. The primary outcomes were rates of arterial and venous thrombosis. Flexible parametric models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and cumulative incidence with 95% CIs. The HRs for arterial thrombosis among patients with MPNs compared with control participants at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years were 3.0 (95% CI, 2.7 to 3.4), 2.0 (CI, 1.8 to 2.2), and 1.5 (CI, 1.4 to 1.6), respectively. The corresponding HRs for venous thrombosis were 9.7 (CI, 7.8 to 12.0), 4.7 (CI, 4.0 to 5.4), and 3.2 (CI, 2.9 to 3.6). The rate was significantly elevated across all age groups and was similar among MPN subtypes. The 5-year cumulative incidence of thrombosis in patients with MPNs showed an initial rapid increase followed by gentler increases during follow-up. The HR for venous thrombosis decreased during more recent calendar periods. No information on individual laboratory results or treatment. Patients with MPNs across all age groups have a significantly increased rate of arterial and venous thrombosis compared with matched control participants, with the highest rates at and shortly after diagnosis. Decreases in the rate of venous thrombosis over time likely reflect advances in clinical management. The Cancer Research Foundations of Radiumhemmet, Blodcancerfonden, the Swedish Research Council, the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet, the Adolf H. Lundin Charitable Foundation, and Memorial Sloan

  4. Validation study of a computer-based open surgical trainer: SimPraxis® simulation platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran LN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Linh N Tran,1 Priyanka Gupta,2 Lauren H Poniatowski,2 Shaheen Alanee,3 Marc A Dall’Era,4 Robert M Sweet21Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 2Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Technological advances have dramatically changed medical education, particularly in the era of work-hour restrictions, which increasingly highlights a need for novel methods to teach surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a novel, computer-based, interactive, cognitive simulator for training surgeons to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND.Methods: Eight prostate cancer experts evaluated the content of the simulator. Contextual aspects of the simulator were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The experts and nine first-year residents completed a simulated PLND. Time and deviations were logged, and the results were compared between experts and novices using the Mann–Whitney test.Results: Before training, 88% of the experts felt that a validated simulator would be useful for PLND training. After testing, 100% of the experts felt that it would be more useful than standard video training. Eighty-eight percent stated that they would like to see the simulator in the curriculum of residency programs and 56% thought it would be useful for accreditation purposes. The experts felt that the simulator aided in overall understanding, training indications, concepts and steps of the procedure, training how to use an assistant, and enhanced the knowledge of anatomy. Median performance times taken by experts and interns to complete a PLND procedure on the simulator were 12.62 and 23.97 minutes, respectively. Median deviation from the incorporated procedure pathway for experts was 24.5 and was 89 for novices

  5. Growth patterns of survivors of retinoblastoma treated with ophthalmic artery chemosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruti S Akella

    Full Text Available Although studies from pediatric cancers (largely acute lymphoblastic leukemia have shown that patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy may experience decreased growth velocity during the treatment phase, no such data exist for retinoblastoma patients treated with systemic chemotherapy or ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC. The purpose of this study is to report growth patterns of our retinoblastoma (Rb population who were treated with OAC in a retrospective, single center (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center review of 341 patients treated between 2006 and 2016. Children who only received OAC were classified as naive; those who were treated initially with systemic chemotherapy and subsequently presented to our center for OAC were termed secondary; and a small group of patients who received single-agent systemic chemotherapy prior to OAC were labeled bridge. For all patients, height and weight were recorded at monthly intervals during OAC (short-term and then annually during a follow-up period (long-term up to 3 years after treatment. Excluded from this study were children who received external radiation therapy and those with genetic syndromes, which are independently associated with growth derangements. During OAC, there was no significant difference in growth velocity between the naïve and secondary groups. In either group, number of treatments also did not affect growth rate. Three years after the end of OAC, naïve patients were in the 68th percentile by height (95% CI 61.30, 74.63 compared to secondary patients in the 61st percentile (95% CI 51.1, 71.47. Both groups were in the same weight percentiles during the first two years of follow-up but at the three-year follow-up period, naïve patients were in the 63rd percentile (95% CI 57.4, 69.4 and secondary patients were in the 60th percentile (95% CI 50.4, 69.7. OAC for retinoblastoma does not appear to impact short-term growth velocity, weight gain during the treatment period or after

  6. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  7. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  8. Memory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  9. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  10. Patterns of Failure for Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Perineal and Perianal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors and patterns of failure for rhabdomyosarcoma of the perineal and perianal region (PRMS), with an emphasis on radiation therapy for locoregional control. Methods and Materials: Detailed records of all 14 patients treated for PRMS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1998 and 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and a competing-risks analysis was used to assess the cumulative incidence of local, regional, and distant failures. Results: Median age was 15.8 years (range, 1.1-31.9 years). High-risk features were identified: 9 of 14 patients (64%) had group 3 disease and 3 of 14 (21%) had group 4; 11 of 14 tumors (78%) were alveolar; 12 of 14 tumors (86%) were ≥5 cm; and 9 of 14 patients (64%) had involved lymph nodes (N1). Of those aged ≥10 years at diagnosis, 9 of 10 (90%) had alveolar histology, all had tumors ≥5 cm, and 8 of 10 (80%) presented with N1 disease. The rates of local, regional, and distant failure at 5 years were 17%, 31%, and 52%, respectively. Although 3 of the 4 patients with regional failure received nodal irradiation, only one of the nodal failures occurred in the radiation therapy field. The 5-year EFS was 33%, and OS was 39%. Age ≥10 years was associated with poor outcomes: EFS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 75% in those aged <10 years (P=.04); the OS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 100% in those aged <10 years (P=.04). Conclusions: Patients with PRMS, especially those aged ≥10 years, present with poor prognostic features and continue to have poor outcomes. Given the high incidence of regional node recurrence, we recommend prophylactic ilioinguinal lymph node irradiation for all patients aged ≥10 years. For children aged <10 years, nodal evaluation is essential to determine the role for lymph node irradiation

  11. Improvement in erection hardness and intercourse success with first dose of sildenafil citrate 100 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulhall JP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available John P Mulhall,1 Dana L Creanga,2 Vera J Stecher31Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Consultant to Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Medical Affairs, Primary Care Business Unit, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USAPurpose: To determine, in men with erectile dysfunction (ED, the extent of improvement in erection hardness and in the rate of successful sexual intercourse (SSI during the final intercourse attempt using sildenafil 50 mg compared with the subsequent initial attempt after a dose increase to 100 mg.Patients and methods: This post hoc analysis used data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of flexible-dose sildenafil for the treatment of men with ED, who were given sildenafil 50 mg or matching placebo, to be taken as needed before sexual intercourse. After 2 weeks, those with no tolerability concerns were titrated up to 100 mg, forming the subgroup of this analysis. The main outcome measures were event log data, including an Erection Hardness Score (EHS and a question on SSI (“Did your erection last long enough for you to have successful sexual intercourse?”, for each attempt at sexual intercourse, analyzed by study and treatment group (sildenafil or placebo. Statistical comparisons were conducted by using the Fisher's exact test.Results: In both studies, the sildenafil group had a larger proportion of EHS4 (completely hard and fully rigid erections (P < 0.001 and SSI (P < 0.005 compared with the placebo group, both before and after the dose increase. Between the final 50 mg sildenafil dose and the initial 100 mg sildenafil dose, the outcomes improved and significantly so in the larger study.Conclusion: The improved efficacy with sildenafil 100 mg versus 50 mg, which occurs rapidly, suggests that patients should be encouraged to use 100 mg if they are unable to achieve completely hard and fully rigid erections or SSI with the 50 mg dose

  12. Axitinib for preoperative downstaging of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation and direct invasion of the duodenum and inferior vena cava: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki H

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Yuki,1,* Takao Kamai,1,* Keiichi Kubota,2 Hideyuki Abe,1 Daisaku Nishihara,1 Tomoya Mizuno,1 Akinori Masuda,1 Hironori Betsunoh,1 Masahiro Yashi,1 Yoshitatsu Fukabori,1 Ken-Ichiro Yoshida1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this manuscript Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation is invasive, refractory to treatment, and has a higher mortality. Therefore, systemic therapy is still challenging, and the curative resection of localized or locally advanced RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation is very important. Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with improved safety and tolerability. Axitinib is generally recommended as second-line therapy for advanced RCC because the phase III axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced RCC (AXIS trial demonstrated that it achieved longer progression-free survival than sorafenib in patients with metastatic RCC after failure of an approved first-line regimen. Methods: We present a 73-year-old man who had a large (13 cm in diameter right RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation that directly invaded the duodenum and inferior vena cava. The patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, was unable to eat solid food, and had become emaciated. Thus, his classification was poor risk with anemia, hypercalcemia, and poor performance status, according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center criteria. He seemed unlikely to survive if radical nephrectomy, cavotomy with thrombectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy were performed. To reduce the tumor burden and potential operative complications, we administered axitinib as first-line neoadjuvant therapy. Results: Six weeks of treatment reduced the tumor burden without causing severe toxicities. Subsequently, radical right nephrectomy, cavotomy

  13. Medikamentöse Therapie des metastasierten Nierenzellkarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidinger M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Zum Zeitpunkt der Diagnose eines Nierenzellkarzinoms befinden sich 60 % der Patienten in einem metastasierten Stadium. Screening-Verfahren zur Früherkennung existieren nicht. In den vergangenen 6 Jahren nach jahrzehntelanger Interferon-alpha-Therapie wurde diese Ära mit der Zulassung von neuen, zielgerichteten Therapien revolutioniert. Damit wurden das Gesamt- und das progressionsfreie Überleben dieser Erkrankung erheblich verbessert. Die palliative Nephrektomie stellt jedoch auch in dieser Ära der neuen Therapien den Goldstandard dar. Ergebnisse: In den ersten Studien wurden Patienten nach Versagen von Interferon-alpha eingeschlossen. In diesem Setting gibt es positive Daten zu Sunitinib, Sorafenib und Pazopanib. Später, nach der Zulassung der ersten Tyrosinkinaseinhibitoren, wurden die Studien als richtige Erstlinienstudien ohne Interferon-alpha-Vorbehandlung konzipiert. Die optimale Therapieabfolge sollte nach dem Risikoprofil stratifiziert werden, nämlich vorrangig nach dem so genannten „Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center“- (MSKCC- Risikoscore. Abhängig davon, welcher der 3 Risikogruppen („good“, „intermediate“ oder „poor“ der Patient angehört, empfehlen die Guidelines unterschiedliche Substanzen. In der Erstlinie für „Good“- oder „Intermediate-risk“-Patienten sind Sunitinib, Bevacizumab + Interferon-alpha und Pazopanib eine Standardoption. Sie unterscheiden sich vor allem in ihrem Nebenwirkungsprofil. Daher sollten bei der Wahl der Erstlinie neben dem Risikoscore immer auch die Begleiterkrankungen mit einbezogen werden. Für so genannte „Poor-risk“-Patienten gibt es Daten zu Temsirolimus und Sunitinib. In der Zweitlinie sind Everolimus und Axitinib zur Behandlung zugelassen. Zusammenfassung: Die Behandlung des metastasierten Nierenzellkarzinoms wurde durch die Zulassung von einigen neuen, zielgerichteten Substanzen in den letzten Jahren bereichert. Die optimale Therapieabfolge zur Verbesserung des

  14. Value Tools in Managed Care Decision Making: Current Hurdles and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Jeremy; Galante, Dominic; Shafrin, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Organizations such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, and Memorial Sloan Kettering have created distinct tools to help different stakeholders assess the value of oncology treatments. However, the oncology value tools were not necessarily created for payers, and it is unclear whether payers are using these tools as part of their drug management process. To understand what value tools payers are using in oncology management and what benefits and shortcomings the tools may have from the payer perspective. A survey targeting drug coverage decision makers at health plans was conducted in August 2016. Respondents attesting to using 2 or more value tools in drug management were eligible for an additional in-depth interview to understand the respondents' perceived benefits and shortcomings of current value tools. Respondents also were asked to describe desired attributes of a hypothetical payer-centric value tool. A total of 28 respondents representing approximately 160 million commercially insured medical lives completed the survey. Twenty respondents (71%) reported using at least 1 value tool in their drug management process. Twelve respondents (43%) used at least 2 tools, and 4 respondents (14%) used at least 3 tools. A total of 6 respondents were selected for in-depth interviews. Interviewees praised value tools for advancing the discussion on drug value and incorporating clinical evidence. However, interviewees felt available value tools varied on providing firm recommendations and relevant price benchmarks. Respondents most commonly recommended the following attributes of a proposed payer-centric value framework: taking a firm position on product value; product comparisons in lieu of comparative clinical trials; web-based tool access; and tool updates at least quarterly. Interview respondents also expressed some support for allowing manipulation of inputs and inclusion of

  15. International travel patterns and travel risks for stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Tarek; Griffin, Kenneth; Lane, Dakotah; Matasar, Matthew; Shah, Monika K

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is being increasingly utilized for multiple medical illnesses. However, there is limited knowledge about international travel patterns and travel-related illnesses of stem cell transplant recipients (SCTRs). An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 979 SCTRs at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center using a previously standardized and validated questionnaire. International travel post SCT, pre-travel health advice, exposure risks, and travel-related illnesses were queried. A total of 516 SCTRs completed the survey (55% response rate); of these, 40% were allogeneic SCTRs. A total of 229 (44.3%) respondents reported international travel outside the United States and Canada post SCT. The international travel incidence was 32% [95% confidence interval CI 28-36] within 2 years after SCT. Using multivariable Cox regression analysis, variables significantly associated with international travel within first 2 years after SCT were history of international travel prior to SCT [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.3, 95% CI 2.3-12.0], autologous SCT (HR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-2.8), foreign birth (HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and high income (HR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-3.7). During their first trip, 64 travelers (28%) had traveled to destinations that may have required vaccination or malaria chemoprophylaxis. Only 56% reported seeking pre-travel health advice. Of those who traveled, 16 travelers (7%) became ill enough to require medical attention during their first trip after SCT. Ill travelers were more likely to have visited high-risk areas (60 vs 26%, p = 0.005), to have had a longer mean trip duration (24 vs 12 days, p = 0.0002), and to have visited friends and relatives (69 vs 21%, p travel was common among SCTRs within 2 years after SCT and was mainly to low-risk destinations. Although the overall incidence of travel-related illnesses was low, certain subgroups of travelers were at a significantly higher risk. Pre

  16. Long-term benefit of sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Latin America: retrospective analysis of patient clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaletz O

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oren Smaletz,1 Matias Chacón,2 Ludmila de Oliveira Koch,1 Daniela R de Carvalho Rocha,1 Fernanda C Cardoso1 1Department of Oncology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Medical Oncology Department, Alexander Fleming Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of Latin American patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who experienced a progression-free survival (PFS for at least 15 months following treatment with sunitinib. Patients and methods: In this retrospective analysis, mRCC patients in two institutions in Latin America received sunitinib at a starting dose of either 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off treatment (Schedule 4/2 in repeated 6-week cycles or sunitinib 37.5 mg on a continuous daily dosing schedule. Clinical characteristics, tolerability, and PFS data were collected. Results: Twenty-nine patients with long-term clinical benefit from sunitinib were identified between September 2005 and August 2009. Median PFS was 23 months (range: 15–54 months. Two of the 29 patients with prolonged PFS achieved a complete response and additional eleven had a partial response. Most patients were aged <60 years, had good performance status, favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic risk, and disease limited to one or two sites. Dose reduction was necessary in all patients who started sunitinib at 50 mg/day administered on Schedule 4/2. Adverse events leading to dose reduction included grade 3 hand–foot syndrome, mucositis, fatigue, and hypertension. At the time of data cutoff, four patients were still receiving sunitinib treatment. Conclusion: Extended PFS can be achieved in Latin American patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib. Although the small sample size and retrospective nature of this evaluation preclude the identification of pretreatment predictive factors contributing to this benefit, the current analysis warrants

  17. The core competencies of James Marion Sims, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, J Michael; Gandy, Roy E; Rodning, Charles B

    2012-07-01

    The concept of core competencies in graduate medical education was introduced by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education of the American Medical Association to semiquantitatively assess the professional performance of students, residents, practitioners, and faculty. Many aspects of the career of J. Marion Sims, MD, are exemplary of those core competencies: MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: Author of the first American textbook related to gynecology. MEDICAL CARE: Innovator of the Sims' Vaginal Speculum, Sims' Position, Sims' Test, and vesico-/rectovaginal fistulorrhaphy; advocated abdominal exploration for penetrating wounds; performed the first cholecystostomy. PROFESSIONALISM: Served as President of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Medical Association, and the American Gynecologic Society. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS/COMMUNICATION: Cared for the indigent, hearthless, indentured, disenfranchised; served as consulting surgeon to the Empress Eugénie (France), the Duchess of Hamilton (Scotland), the Empress of Austria, and other royalty of the aristocratic Houses of Europe; accorded the National Order of the Legion of Honor. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING: Introduction of silver wire sutures; adoption of the principles of asepsis/antisepsis; adoption of the principles of general anesthesia. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE: Established the Woman's Hospital, New York City, New York, the predecessor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases; organized the Anglo-American Ambulance Corps under the patronage of Napoleon III. What led him to a life of clinical and humanitarian service? First, he was determined to succeed. His formal medical/surgical education was perhaps the best available to North Americans during that era. Second, he was courageous in experimentation and innovation, applying new developments in operative technique, asepsis/antisepsis, and general anesthesia. Third, his curiosity was not burdened by rigid

  18. Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Zauderer, Marjorie G.; Laser, Benjamin; Krug, Lee M.; Yorke, Ellen; Sima, Camelia S.; Rimner, Andreas; Flores, Raja; Rusch, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who are unable to undergo pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal radiation doses to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and two intact lungs (i.e., no previous pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 41.4–50.4) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results: Of the 36 patients, 56% had right-sided tumors. The histologic type was epithelial in 78%, sarcomatoid in 6%, and mixed in 17%, and 6% had Stage I, 28% had Stage II, 33% had Stage III, and 33% had Stage IV. Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed); 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication before IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of the 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had Grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including 1 death) and 2 had Grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing Grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 75% and 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 69% and 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions: Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in our retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. We have initiated a Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin with or without pleurectomy

  19. Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E., E-mail: ken.rosenzweig@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zauderer, Marjorie G. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Laser, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Krug, Lee M. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sima, Camelia S. [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Flores, Raja [Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Rusch, Valerie [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who are unable to undergo pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal radiation doses to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and two intact lungs (i.e., no previous pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 41.4-50.4) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results: Of the 36 patients, 56% had right-sided tumors. The histologic type was epithelial in 78%, sarcomatoid in 6%, and mixed in 17%, and 6% had Stage I, 28% had Stage II, 33% had Stage III, and 33% had Stage IV. Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed); 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication before IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of the 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had Grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including 1 death) and 2 had Grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing Grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 75% and 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 69% and 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions: Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in our retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. We have initiated a Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin with or without pleurectomy

  20. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  1. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  2. Unconventional cytokine profiles and development of T cell memory in long-term survivors after cancer vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyte, Jon Amund; Trachsel, Sissel; Risberg, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Cancer vaccine trials frequently report on immunological responses, without any clinical benefit. This paradox may reflect the challenge of discriminating between effective and pointless immune responses and sparse knowledge on their long-term development. Here, we have analyzed T cell responses...... in long-term survivors after peptide vaccination. There were three main study aims: (1) to characterize the immune response in patients with a possible clinical benefit. (2) To analyze the long-term development of responses and effects of booster vaccination. (3) To investigate whether the Th1/Th2...... display unconventional cytotoxicity and specifically kill tumor cells expressing mutated TGFbeta receptor II. Cytokine profiling on the long-term survivors demonstrates high IFN gamma/IL10-ratios, favoring immunity over tolerance, and secretion of multiple chemokines likely to mobilize the innate...

  3. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  4. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...... in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It contributes to the understanding of processes of memory transmission and negotiation across borders and cultures in Europe, emphasizing the interconnectedness of memory with emotions, mediation and politics....... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions...

  5. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  6. [(Neurological CPC-59). A 65-year-old man with a history of gastric cancer who presented progressive loss of vision, memory loss and consciousness disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, C; Matsumine, H; Suzuki, K; Saito, A; Ohtaka, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, J; Mizuno, Y

    1997-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with progressive loss of vision and consciousness disturbance. The patient was well until his age of 63 when he was found to have a gastric cancer. He was treated by the tumor resection and chemotherapy; he was apparently well, but hepatic metastases were found in the next year (1996). In June, 1996, he noted an onset of blurred vision more on the left. He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on July 14, 1996. His vision was 0.8 on the right and 0.15 on the left. He was treated with oral prednisolone with slight improvement. He was also found to have IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy; Bence-Jones protein was positive and a bone marrow aspiration revealed that approximately 10% of bone marrow cells were atypical plasma cells. His vision had progressively got worse and he became blind by the end of October 1996. A chest X-ray and cranial CT scan revealed multiple abnormal nodular densities. In the middle of November 1996, he became confused, disoriented and agitated. His mental symptoms had progressively became worse, and a neurologic consultation was asked on December 10, 1996. Neurologic examination revealed that he was somnolent with decreased attention to his surroundings. He showed marked disorientation and memory loss. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. He was able to recognize only light and dark. Pupils were moderately dilated with very sluggish light reflex remained. Vertical gaze was moderately restricted and horizontal nystagmus was noted upon left and right lateral gaze. The remaining of the neurologic examination were unremarkable. General physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly; the liver was palpable by 3 cm below the right costal margin. Laboratory examination revealed anemia (Hb10.1 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (43,000/microliter). A cranial CT scan and MRI revealed a mass lesion in involving the chiasmatic and bilateral hypothalamic areas. The tumor showed intense homogeneous

  7. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  8. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  9. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  10. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  11. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  12. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  13. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  14. Memory Reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Josue; Nader, Karim

    2018-01-01

    Scientific advances in the last decades uncovered that memory is not a stable, fixed entity. Apparently stable memories may become transiently labile and susceptible to modifications when retrieved due to the process of reconsolidation. Here, we review the initial evidence and the logic on which reconsolidation theory is based, the wide range of conditions in which it has been reported and recent findings further revealing the fascinating nature of this process. Special focus is given to conceptual issues of when and why reconsolidation happen and its possible outcomes. Last, we discuss the potential clinical implications of memory modifications by reconsolidation.

  15. Olfactory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electro-physiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory. PMID:19686208

  16. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  17. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  18. Results of adjuvant therapy in postmastectomy breast patients irradiated at the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw between 1985 and 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galecki, J.; Grudzien-Kowalska, M.; Zalucki, W.; Hicer-Grzenkiewicz, J.; Dyttus-Cebulok, K.; Jonska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Between the years 1985 and 1994 at the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw two radiotherapy techniques were used in the case of postmastectomy breast cancer patients. In technique 'A', in order to limit cardiotoxicity, peripheral nodes only were irradiated, in technique 'B' the chest wall was additionally treated. Usually technique 'B' was chosen in more advanced cases, but generally the selection of the technique was left to the discretion of the attending physician.To estimate disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) with regard to prognostic factors, to evaluate locoregional failures as related to the radiotherapy technique and to assess early and late morbidity. The retrospective analysis included 507 postmastectomy patients consecutively irradiated for breast cancer in stage IA - III B. Median age was 57 years. Median follow-up was 10 years. The incidence of patients with pN1 stage was 90% and with pN0 10%. We applied a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions, over 5 weeks, with Co 60 to the supraclavicular area, axillary and internal mammary nodes. The chest wall was irradiated with electrons to a total dose of 46 Gy at 90% isodose in 23 fractions over 5 weeks. Three-dimensional treatment planning of the chest wall was used. Technique 'A' and 'B' were used in 62% and 38% of patients, respectively. Simultaneously with radiotherapy 67% of patients received chemotherapy (CMF), and/or hormonotherapy (tamoxifen). In 33% of patients no systemic treatment was administered. We analysed the influence of the following prognostic factors: age and hormonal status, additional diseases, duration of symptoms before treatment, breast laterality, T-stage, breast tumour location, carcinoma type, tumour grade, nodal index, extranodal extension and vascular invasion on disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS); in a univariate analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method and in a multivariate analysis with the Cox

  19. Wnt signaling inhibits CTL memory programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Li, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Induction of functional CTLs is one of the major goals for vaccine development and cancer therapy. Inflammatory cytokines are critical for memory CTL generation. Wnt signaling is important for CTL priming and memory formation, but its role in cytokine-driven memory CTL programming is unclear. We found that wnt signaling inhibited IL-12-driven CTL activation and memory programming. This impaired memory CTL programming was attributed to up-regulation of eomes and down-regulation of T-bet. Wnt signaling suppressed the mTOR pathway during CTL activation, which was different to its effects on other cell types. Interestingly, the impaired memory CTL programming by wnt was partially rescued by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, we found that crosstalk between wnt and the IL-12 signaling inhibits T-bet and mTOR pathways and impairs memory programming which can be recovered in part by rapamycin. In addition, direct inhibition of wnt signaling during CTL activation does not affect CTL memory programming. Therefore, wnt signaling may serve as a new tool for CTL manipulation in autoimmune diseases and immune therapy for certain cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...

  1. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    in which it was to be contextualized and through a close partnership between aphasics and their caretakers. The underlying design methodology for the MemoryBook is Participatory Design manifested through the collaboration and creations by two aphasic residents and one member of the support staff. The idea...

  2. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  3. Skilled Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-06

    Woodworth, R. S. Experimental Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1938. Yates, F. A. The art of memory. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. 50...Group 1 Psychologist (TAEG) ON! Branch Office Dept. of the Navy 1030 East Green Street Orlando, FL 32813 Pasadena, CA 91101 1 Dr. Richard Sorensen I

  4. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs learning while sparing source memory and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra E; Slivicki, Richard A; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments. Episodic memory in rats can be examined using a source memory task. In the current study, rats received paclitaxel, a taxane-derived chemotherapeutic agent, and learning and memory functioning was examined using the source memory task. Treatment with paclitaxel did not impair spatial and episodic memory, and paclitaxel treated rats were not more susceptible to cognitive challenges. Under conditions in which memory was not impaired, paclitaxel treatment impaired learning of new rules, documenting a decreased sensitivity to changes in experimental contingencies. These findings provide new information on the nature of cancer chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments, particularly regarding the incongruent vulnerability of episodic memory and new learning following treatment with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  6. Treadwell Memorial

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Frances K

    2015-01-01

    This is a memorial to gold mining in Southeast Alaska. The structure takes visitors from the Treadwell trail onto the edge of a popular local beach, reclaiming a forgotten place that was once the largest gold mine in the world. A tangible tribute to this obscure period of history, this building kindles a connection between artifacts and the community. It is a liminal space, connecting ocean and mountain, past and present, civilization and wilderness. An investigation of the Treadwell Gold...

  7. Randomized controlled trial of increasing physical activity on objectively measured and self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors: The memory & motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Myers, Emily; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Palmer, Barton W; Weiner, Lauren S; Parker, Barbara A; Patterson, Ruth E

    2018-01-01

    Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales. Linear mixed-effects regression models tested intervention effects for changes in cognition scores. On average, participants (n = 87) were aged 57 years (standard deviation, 10.4 years) and were 2.5 years (standard deviation, 1.3 years) post surgery. Scores on the Oral Symbol Digit subscale (a measure of processing speed) evidenced differential improvement in the exercise arm versus the control arm (b = 2.01; P cognition were not statistically significant but were suggestive of potential group differences. Time since surgery moderated the correlation, and participants who were ≤2 years post surgery had a significantly greater improvement in Oral Symbol Digit score (exercise vs control (b = 4.00; P 2 years postsurgery (b = -1.19; P = .40). A significant dose response was observed with greater increased physical activity associated with objective and self-reported cognition in the exercise arm. The exercise intervention significantly improved processing speed, but only among those who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 2 years. Slowed processing speed can have substantial implications for independent functioning, supporting the potential importance of early implementation of an exercise intervention among patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2018;124:192-202. © 2017

  8. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  9. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  10. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  11. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    OpenAIRE

    Bhinnety, Magda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  12. Current applications of PET imaging of sex hormone receptors with a fluorinated analogue of estradiol or of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J-N.; Montravers, F.; Huchet, V.; Michaud, L.; Ohnona, J.; Balogova, S.; Kerrou, K.; Gligorov, V.; Lotz, P.; Nataf, V.; Cussenot, O.; Darai, E.

    2015-01-01

    utility in those settings; only initial results are available. The indication of PET and PET/CT has been even more disputed in prostate carcinoma, due to the lack of significant FDG uptake in most cases, at least before the castration-resistant stage. Using FDHT, a fluorinated testosterone analogue, PET is able to detect the over-expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in lesions, at a whole-body level. At least partly due to the rather large number of alternative tracers that are in development or even routinely available in some countries, few FDHT studies have been published until now. From absorbed dose values previously published for FES by the team of University of Washington School of Medicine at Seattle, and for FDHT by the teams of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at New York and of Washington University at St. Louis, we applied the coefficients of ICRP publication 103 and calculated an effective dose per unit of injected activity of 0.023 mSv/MBq for FES and 0.018 mSv/MBq for FDHT. The radiation exposure is of the same order of magnitude as with FDG.

  13. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  14. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity

  15. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  16. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  17. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  18. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  19. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  20. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  1. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  2. Memory: sins and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of d...

  3. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  4. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  5. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  6. Stochastic memory: getting memory out of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2011-03-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors, can store information without the need of a power source. These systems are generally defined in terms of deterministic equations of motion for the state variables that are responsible for memory. However, in real systems noise sources can never be eliminated completely. One would then expect noise to be detrimental for memory. Here, we show that under specific conditions on the noise intensity memory can actually be enhanced. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of a memristor in which the addition of white noise into the state variable equation improves the memory and helps the operation of the system. We discuss under which conditions this effect can be realized experimentally, discuss its implications on existing memory systems discussed in the literature, and also analyze the effects of colored noise. Work supported in part by NSF.

  7. Detailed Sensory Memory, Sloppy Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R. E.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  8. Radiation Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of anti-TGFβ antibody clearly boosted the CD8 memory pool, especially the central memory type, to the detriment of T effector cells. Similar findings...interest also because T cell inflammation of the memory type correlates with better prognosis in colorectal cancer presumably through stronger recall ...ABSTRACT Inhibiting TGFβ in the context of focal irradiation seems to create a favorable systemic immune landscape that drives T cell memory

  9. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  10. Preserved learning and memory following 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide treatment in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Garrick D.; Kelley-Bell, Bennett; Spangler, Edward L.; Perez, Evelyn J.; Longo, Dan L.; de Cabo, Rafael; Zou, Sige; Rapp, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Some patients experience enduring cognitive impairment after cancer treatment, a condition termed “chemofog”. Animal models allow assessment of chemotherapy effects on learning and memory per se, independent of changes due to cancer itself or associated health consequences such as depression. The present study examined the long-term learning and memory effects of a chemotherapy cocktail used widely in the treatment of breast cancer, consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cyclophosphamide (CYP...

  11. Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective mem...

  12. Main Memory DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  13. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  14. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  15. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by examining mundane accounts of touristic encounters with sites of memory? From Blaavand Beach in Western Denmark......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...... of memory. They highlight the role of mundane uses of the past and indicate the need for cross - disciplinary research on the visual and on memory...

  16. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  17. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  18. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  20. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  1. Generation and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  2. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  3. Using the framework of corporate culture in “mergers” to support the development of a cultural basis for integrative medicine – guidance for building an integrative medicine department or service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia M Witt,1–3 Marion Pérard,2 Brian Berman,3,4 Susan Berman,4 Timothy C Birdsall,5 Horst Defren,6 Sherko Kümmel,7 Gary Deng,8 Gustav Dobos,9 Atje Drexler,10 Christine Holmberg,2 Markus Horneber,11 Robert Jütte,9 Lori Knutson,12 Christopher Kummer,13 Susanne Volpers,14 David Schweiger15 1University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Maryland School of Medicine, Center for Integrative Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 4The Institute for Integrative Health, Baltimore, USA; 5Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Goodyear, Arizona, USA, 6Kliniken Essen Mitte, Evang, Huyssen-Stiftung/Knappschaft GmbH Patientenmanagement, Essen, Germany; 7Department of Senology, Breast Center, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Evang. Huyssens Stiftung, Knappschaft GmbH, Essen, Germany; 8Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 9Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; 10Robert Bosch Foundation GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany; 11Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology and Hematology, Paracelsus Medical University, Klinikum Nürnberg, Germany; 12Integrative Healthcare Solutions, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 13Institute of Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA, Zurich, Switzerland; 14Frauenselbsthilfe nach Krebs, Bonn, Germany; 15Schweiger, Schweiger & Associates, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, USA Background: An increasing number of clinics offer complementary or integrative medicine services; however, clear guidance about how complementary medicine could be successfully and efficiently integrated into conventional health care settings is still lacking. Combining conventional and complementary medicine into integrative medicine can be regarded as a kind of

  4. Manifesto: towards a clinically-oriented psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Chen, Ling Y

    2017-04-26

    New technologies to collect patient - reported outcomes have substantially solved the challenge of integrating a questionnaire in a busy clinical practice. At Memorial Sloan Kettering, we have been collecting patient reported outcomes electronically for many years. Our experience confirms the predicted benefits of obtaining patient reported outcomes but has also raised serious concerns about whether instruments developed for the research setting are appropriate for routine clinical use. We summarize four principles for a clinically - relevant psychometrics. First, minimize patient burden: the use of a large number of items for a single domain may be of interest for research but additional items have little clinical utility. Secondly, use simplified language: patients who do not have good language skills are typically excluded from research studies but will nonetheless present in clinical practice. Third, avoid dumb questions: many questionnaire items are inappropriate when applied to a more general population. Fourth, what works for the group may not work for the individual: group level statistics used to validate survey instruments can obscure problems when applied to a subgroup of patients. There is a need for a clinically-oriented psychometrics to help design, test, and evaluate questionnaires that would be used in routine practice. Developing statistical methods to optimize questionnaires will be highly challenging but needed to bring the potential of patient reported outcomes into widespread clinical use.

  5. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  6. Determination of memory performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopych, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of testing statistical hypotheses theory a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of widely used in neuropsychology human memory performance (free recall, cued recall, and recognition probabilities), a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of intensities of cues used in experiments for testing human memory quality are proposed. Models for active and passive traces of memory and their relations are found. It was shown that autoassociative memory unit in the form of short two-layer artificial neural network with (or without) damages can be used for model description of memory performance in subjects with (or without) local brain lesions

  7. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  8. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  9. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the pre-change object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the pre-change object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88 percent of the iconic memory trials, on 71 percent of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53 percent of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  10. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  11. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  12. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  13. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  14. Inteligência Artificial e Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lobo

    Full Text Available RESUMO Ao mesmo tempo em que se discutem problemas na relação médico-paciente e a deficiência do exame clínico na atenção médica, que torna o diagnóstico clínico mais dependente de exames complementares, enfatiza-se cada vez mais a importância do computador em medicina e na saúde pública. Isto se dá seja pela adoção de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica, seja pelo uso integrado de novas tecnologias, incluindo as tecnologias vestíveis/corporais (wearable devices, seja pelo armazenamento de grandes volumes de dados de saúde de pacientes e da população. A capacidade de armazenamento e processamento de dados aumentou exponencialmente ao longo dos recentes anos, criando o conceito de big data. A Inteligência Artificial processa esses dados por meio de algoritmos, que tendem a se aperfeiçoar pelo seu próprio funcionamento (self learning e a propor hipóteses diagnósticas cada vez mais precisas. Sistemas computadorizados de apoio à decisão clínica, processando dados de pacientes, têm indicado diagnósticos com elevado nível de acurácia. O supercomputador da IBM, denominado Watson, armazenou um volume extraordinário de informações em saúde, criando redes neurais de processamento de dados em vários campos, como a oncologia e a genética. Watson assimilou dezenas de livros-textos em medicina, toda a informação do PubMed e Medline, e milhares de prontuários de pacientes do Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Hospital. Sua rede de oncologia é hoje consultada por especialistas de um grande número de hospitais em todo o mundo. O supercomputador inglês Deep Mind, da Google, registrou informações de 1,6 milhão de pacientes atendidos no National Health Service (NHS, permitindo desenvolver novos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica, analisando dados desses pacientes, permitindo gerar alertas sobre a sua evolução, evitando medicações contraindicadas ou conflitantes e informando tempestivamente os profissionais de

  15. Medulloblastoma: long-term results for patients treated with definitive radiation therapy during the computed tomography era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Wang, M.-H.; Haida, Toni; Lindsley, Karen L.; Finlay, Jonathan; Dunkel, Ira J.; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Leibel, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We performed a retrospective evaluation of the patterns of failure and outcome for medulloblastoma patients treated with craniospinal irradiation therapy during the computed tomography (CT) era. Materials and Methods: The records of 100 patients treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1979 and 1994 were reviewed. CT scans or magnetic resonance imaging were used to guide surgical intervention and evaluate the extent of resection postoperatively. All patients were treated with conventional fractionation (1.8 Gy/day) and the majority received full-dose neuraxis radiation therapy and > 50 Gy to the primary site. Results: With a median follow-up of 100 months, the median, 5-year, and 10-year actuarial overall survival for the entire group were 58 months, 50%, and 25%, respectively. The median, 5- and 10-year actuarial disease-free survivals were 37 months, 41%, and 27%, respectively. Patients with localized disease (no evidence of disease beyond the primary site) had significantly improved overall (p < 0.02) and disease-free (p < 0.02) survivals compared to those with non localized disease. For patients with localized disease, the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 59% and 31%, whereas the disease-free survivals were 49% and 31%, respectively. Disease-free and overall survivals at similar intervals for patients with non localized disease were 29% and 30% (5 years), and 29% and 20% (10 years), respectively. Sixty-four of 100 patients failed treatment. Local failure as any component of first failure occurred in 35% of patients or 55% (35 of 64) of all failures and as the only site of first failure in 14% or 22% (14 of 64) of all failures. For patients presenting with localized disease (n = 68), local failure as any component of first failure occurred in 32% (22 of 68) and in 18% (12 of 68) as the only site. A multivariate analysis showed that M stage was the only prognostic factor to influence overall survival. For disease-free survival

  16. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  17. The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-02

    In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery.

  18. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  19. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  20. Time for memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This article is a continuous dialogue on memory triggered by Brockmeier’s (2010) article. I drift away from the conventionalization of the archive as a spatial metaphor for memory in order to consider the greater possibility of “time” for conceptualizing memory. The concept of time is central...... in terms of autobiographical memory. The second category of time is discussed, drawing on Augustine and Bergson amongst others. Bergson’s notion of duration has been considered as a promising concept for a better understanding of autobiographical memory. Psychological phenomena such as autobiographical...... memory should embrace not only spatial dimension, but also a temporal dimension, in which a constant flow of irreversible time, where multiplicity, momentarily, dynamic stability and becoming and emergence of novelty can be observed....

  1. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  2. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  3. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  4. Making Memories Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes en...

  5. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  6. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam and globalizat....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  7. Memory T Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Qianqian eZhang; Qianqian eZhang; Fadi G. Lakkis

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review...

  8. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  9. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  10. Memories Persist in Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form of expression of memory. Silence is a tactic used to overcome losses and reset everyday life in contexts of protracted violence.

  11. The future of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  12. Sparse distributed memory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  13. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    .... Understanding the mechanisms and structures underlying working memory is, hence, one of the most important scientific issues that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency and performance...

  14. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  15. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-01-01

    The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that se...

  16. A real-time multichannel memory controller and optimal mapping of memory clients to memory channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomony, M.D.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing demands for main memory bandwidth and memory speed/power tradeoff led to the introduction of memories with multiple memory channels, such as Wide IO DRAM. Efficient utilization of a multichannel memory as a shared resource in multiprocessor real-time systems depends on mapping of the

  17. Acoustic Masking in Primary Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Herbert A.; Welsh, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments are reported to investigate the theory that since auditory sensory memory is used to store memory information, concurrent auditory stimulation should destroy memory information and thus reduce recall performance. (Author/RM)

  18. Applications for Packetized Memory Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Myles Glen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the memory subsystem has a large impact on the performance of modern computer systems. Many important applications are memory bound and others are expected to become memory bound in the future. The importance of memory performance makes it imperative to understand and optimize the interactions between applications and the system architecture. Prototyping and exploring various configurations of memory systems can give important insights, but current memory interfaces are lim...

  19. Time Series with Long Memory

    OpenAIRE

    西埜, 晴久

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates an application of long-memory processes to economic time series. We show properties of long-memory processes, which are motivated to model a long-memory phenomenon in economic time series. An FARIMA model is described as an example of long-memory model in statistical terms. The paper explains basic limit theorems and estimation methods for long-memory processes in order to apply long-memory models to economic time series.

  20. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: working and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  2. Memory and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Niglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "memory" has different meanings when analyzed within specific cultural contexts. In general, the memory expresses the ability of man to keep track of events, information, sensations, ideas, experiences, and recall this consciousness as soon as certain motivations make necessary the contribution of past experience.

  3. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  4. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  5. Static memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A semiconductor memory device includes n-wells (22) and p-wells (24) used to make up a plurality of memory cell elements (40). The n-wells (22) and p-5 wells (24) can be back-biased to improve reading and writing performance. One of the n-wells and p-wells can be globally biased while the other one

  6. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  7. Working Memory and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  8. Reading and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

  9. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  10. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  11. An Exceptional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  12. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

    2006-01-01

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy

  13. Search of associative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Shiffrin, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes search of associative memory (SAM), a general theory of retrieval from long-term memory that combines features of associative network models and random search models. It posits cue-dependent probabilistic sampling and recovery from an associative network, but the network is specified as a

  14. The Use of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The predominantly linguistic orientation to current educational thinking, with its emphasis on the abstract and indirect, does not solve the problem of achieving a sense of identity. Experiential memory is crucial in personal identity. The definition and use of experiential memory and its merit are explored. (SR)

  15. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-06

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  16. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  17. Children's episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Lee, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Episodic memory develops during childhood and adolescence. This trajectory depends on several underlying processes. In this article, we first discuss the development of the basic binding processes (e.g., the processes by which elements are bound together to form a memory episode) and control processes (e.g., reasoning and metamemory processes) involved in episodic remembering. Then, we discuss the role of these processes in false-memory formation. In the subsequent sections, we examine the neural substrates of the development of episodic memory. Finally, we discuss atypical development of episodic memory. As we proceed through the article, we suggest potential avenues for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 365-373 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.114 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Making memories matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Gold

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem.

  19. Making Memories Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

  20. Learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Anna-Katharine; Ran, Kathy; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review and define memory and learning processes from a neuropsychological perspective. Then we provide some illustrations of how noninvasive brain stimulation can play a major role in the investigation of memory functions, as it can be used to identify cause-effect relationships and chronometric properties of neural processes underlying cognitive steps. In clinical medicine, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used as a diagnostic tool to understand memory and learning deficits in various patient populations. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation is also being applied to enhance cognitive functions, offering exciting translational therapeutic opportunities in neurology and psychiatry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.

  2. Medical applications of accelerators at Tata Memorial Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinshaw, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Tata Memorial Centre constitutes the national comprehensive cancer centre for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and research on cancer. It is well equipped with sophisticated state-of-the-art equipment capable of delivering External Beam Radiotherapy (Ebert) and Brachytherapy. Nearly 400 patients receive Ebert daily at the institute from a team of highly skilled and dedicated radiation oncologists, medical physicists and technologists, making it one of the busiest centres in the country

  3. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  4. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  5. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.; Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  6. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.C.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  7. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Gorree, Eva

    2012-05-17

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a preferential loss of hippocampus-dependent, configurational information over more cortically based memory components, including memory for individual objects. The current study systematically tests this hypothesis, using a new paradigm that allows the contemporaneous assessment of memory for objects, object pairings, and object-position conjunctions. Retention of each memory component was tested, at multiple intervals, up to 3 mo following encoding. The three memory subtasks adopted the same retrieval paradigm and were matched for initial difficulty. Results show differential decay of the tested episodic memory components, whereby memory for configurational aspects of a scene (objects' co-occurrence and object position) decays faster than memory for featured objects. Interestingly, memory requiring a visually detailed object representation decays at a similar rate as global object recognition, arguing against interpretations based on task difficulty and against the notion that (visual) detail is forgotten preferentially. These findings show that memories undergo qualitative changes as they age. More specifically, event memories become less configurational over time, preferentially losing some of the higher order associations that are dependent on the hippocampus for initial fast encoding. Implications for theories of long-term memory are discussed.

  8. Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

  9. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  10. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  11. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  12. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  13. Characterizing Memory Usage Behavior in Memory-related Code Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Howard Wah

    2017-01-01

    With the heavy memory pressure produced by multi-core systems and with memory per- formance trailing processor performance, today’s application developers need to consider the memory subsystem during software development. In particular, optimizing software re- quires a deep understanding of how the software uses the memory and how the hardware satisfies the memory requests. In order to accelerate development, programmers rely on soft- ware tools such as profilers for insightful analysis. Howe...

  14. Documenting a Contested Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at how symbols in the urban environment are intentionally produced and modified to regulate a community’s collective memory. Our urban environment is filled with symbols in the form of images, text, and structures that embody certain narratives about the past. Once those symbols...... to preserve the memory of the revolution through graffiti murals and the utilization of public space, and from the other, the authority’s efforts to replace those initiatives with its own official narrative. Building on the concept of collective memory, as well as Bartlett’s studies of serial reproductions...

  15. Imagined memories of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maia Schmidt, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Pintura, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 A Tese é compsota por dois volumes, um em portugês, outro em inglês Visual imagery, narratives and locations have always been linked to the study of memory. Memory has always been linked to art history and historical shifts in the study of memory had a direct impact on the history of painting. Painting was based on stories and served to make those stories memorable. Since then there have been numerous inve...

  16. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  17. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  18. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  19. Organization and Memory in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.

    This paper discusses organizational processes and memory in general and organizational processes and adult age differences in memory in particular. The simplest analysis of memory is to divide the process into two parts: storage and retrieval. Studies show that the limitation of memory lies primarily in retrieval rather than storage. Organization…

  20. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  1. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  2. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that separates the learning of pure context from footshock-motivated contextual fear learning, I demonstrate doubly dissociable hippocampal mechanisms of initial context learning and subsequent updating of the neutral contextual representation to incorporate the footshock. Contextual memory consolidation was dependent upon BDNF expression in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas the footshock modification of the contextual representation required the expression of Zif268. These mechanisms match those previously shown to be selectively involved in hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation, respectively. Moreover, memory reactivation is a necessary step in modifying memory content, as inhibition of hippocampal synaptic protein degradation also prevented the footshock-mediated memory modification. Finally, dorsal hippocampal knockdown of Zif268 impaired the reconsolidation of the pure contextual memory only under conditions of weak context memory training, as well as failing to disrupt contextual freezing when a strong contextual fear memory is reactivated by further conditioning. Therefore, an adaptive function of the reactivation and reconsolidation process is to enable the updating of memory content.

  3. Memory training with senior citizens

    OpenAIRE

    CHOVANCOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This is a theoretical work. It deals with the topics of senior citizens and the aging process in an abbreviated conception, periodization of old age, and active life of seniors. It describes forms of social work with seniors in medical facilities, home environments and communities, and in old people's homes. Further, it describes memory: its definition, types of memory, memory loss, reasons why people forget, work with memory and advice on memory improvement from the medical point of view. Th...

  4. Josephson Thermal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Claudio; Solinas, Paolo; Braggio, Alessandro; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Giazotto, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    We propose a superconducting thermal memory device that exploits the thermal hysteresis in a flux-controlled temperature-biased superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID). This system reveals a flux-controllable temperature bistability, which can be used to define two well-distinguishable thermal logic states. We discuss a suitable writing-reading procedure for these memory states. The time of the memory writing operation is expected to be on the order of approximately 0.2 ns for a Nb-based SQUID in thermal contact with a phonon bath at 4.2 K. We suggest a noninvasive readout scheme for the memory states based on the measurement of the effective resonance frequency of a tank circuit inductively coupled to the SQUID. The proposed device paves the way for a practical implementation of thermal logic and computation. The advantage of this proposal is that it represents also an example of harvesting thermal energy in superconducting circuits.

  5. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive mechanism (or set of mechanisms) that is responsible for keeping track of multiple task related goals and subgoals, or integrating multiple sources of information...

  6. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  7. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  8. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  9. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  10. Conglomerate memory and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under what conditions do countries and cultures considered radically different find a basis for allegiance and kinship? What part does memory play in this process? This article responds to these questions in two ways: 1 Through Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, I propose that when an other appears in empathetic discourses that both honor difference and cite shared human experiences, seemingly irreconcilable people can develop a sense of mutual responsibility and 2 Conglomerate memory, memories that fuse together others through common pains, contributes to such an appearance. To illustrate this point, I turn to Congolese voices as they are articulated in online American discourses; although currently, authors of online texts typically rely on traditional narrative forms that position Central Africa as incommensurate to Western civilizations, the Internet's worldwide accessibility and intertextual capacities render it a place primed for developing international collectives by connecting memories while maintaining difference.

  11. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  12. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  13. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  14. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  15. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  16. Laser memory (hologram) and coincident redundant multiplex memory (CRM-memory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostojic, Branko

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that besides the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting waves of the light (i.e. hologram) it is possible to construct the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting impulses (CFM-memory). It is given the mathematical description of the memory, based on the experimental model. Although in the paper only the technical aspect of CRM memory is given. It is mentioned the possibility that the human memory has the same principle and that the invention of CRM memory is due to cybernetical analysis of the system human eye-visual cortex

  17. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  18. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  19. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. False memories and confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

    1998-04-01

    Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories.

  1. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  2. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M., E-mail: ymjin@mtu.edu

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  3. Internet Journal of Medical Update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    This synoptic review of the pragmatic aspects of surgery will help students understand and remember better what they would have gleaned from weightier textbooks and formal lectures. The book is very readable, focused as it is on ... Sloan-Kettering, Dietl, Palomo and. Charcot, and non-English terms such as Sitz bath.

  4. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  6. Memory reflected in our decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study looks at the role working memory plays in risky-choice framing. Eighty-six participants took the Automatic OSPAN, a measurement of working memory; this was followed by a risky-choice framing task. Participants with high working memory capacities demonstrated well pronounced framing effects, while those with low working memory capacities did not. This pattern suggests that, in a typical risky-choice decision task, elaborative encoding of task information by those with high working memory capacity may lead them to a more biased decision compared to those with low working memory.

  7. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  8. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  9. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  10. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  11. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a phenomenon observed from invertebrates to human. Memory extinction is proposed to be an active inhibitory modification of memory, however, whether extinction is affected in aging animals remains to be elucidated. Employing a modified paradigm for studying memory extinction in fruit flies, we found that only the stable, but not the labile memory component was suppressed by extinction, thus effectively resulting in higher memory loss in aging flies. Strikingly, young flies were able to fully restore the stable memory component 3 h post extinction, while aging flies failed to do so. In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radvansky, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    .... This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation...

  13. Multistate Resistive Switching Memory for Synaptic Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wehbe, Nimer; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    memory performance is observed. Conventional synaptic operation in terms of potentiation, depression plasticity, and Ebbinghaus forgetting process are also studied. The memory mechanism is shown to originate from the migration of the oxygen vacancies

  14. Behavioural memory reconsolidation of food and fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R; Barber, David J; Lee, Jonathan L C

    2011-10-18

    The reactivation of a memory through retrieval can render it subject to disruption or modification through the process of memory reconsolidation. In both humans and rodents, briefly reactivating a fear memory results in effective erasure by subsequent extinction training. Here we show that a similar strategy is equally effective in the disruption of appetitive pavlovian cue-food memories. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine, under the same behavioural conditions, did not potentiate appetitive memory extinction, suggesting that reactivation does not enhance subsequent extinction learning. To confirm that reactivation followed by extinction reflects a behavioural analogue of memory reconsolidation, we show that prevention of contextual fear memory reactivation by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nimodipine interferes with the amnestic outcome. Therefore, the reconsolidation process can be manipulated behaviourally to disrupt both aversive and appetitive memories. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re not alone. Everyone forgets things occasionally. Still, memory loss is nothing to take lightly. Although there are no guarantees when it comes to preventing memory loss or dementia, certain activities might help. Consider ...

  16. Cancer on a mammogram is not memorable: readers remember their recalls and not cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander G.; Kok, Phebe; Zentner, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    To determine if presence of cancer on a mammogram makes that mammogram more memorable. A total of 100 mammograms (25 cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases. Set pairs were presented in five reads to eight radiologist readers. Readers were asked to 'clear' or 'call back' cases, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old ' (remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline, to calculate each reader's false recollection rate. For cases presented more than once ('old' cases, 100 presentations) readers could have 'correct memory' or 'memory loss'. Memory performance was defined as odds ratio of correct memory to memory loss. Multivariate logistic data regression analysis identified predictors of memory performance from: reader, set, time since last read, presence of cancer, and whether the case was called back at the last read. Memory performance differed markedly between readers and reader identity was a highly significant predictor of memory performance. Presence of cancer was not a significant predictor of memory performance (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.49–1.21). Whether the case was called back at the last read was a highly significant predictor (odds ratio 4.22, 95% CI: 2.70–6.61) for the model incorporating reader variability, and also the model without reader variability (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI: 1.74–4.08). The only statistically significant predictor of radiologist memory for a mammogram was whether the radiologist 'called it back' at a prior reading round. Presence of cancer on a mammogram did not make it memorable.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  18. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  19. Wormholes in Memory: Is memory one representation or many?

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff Dirk U. Hills Thomas T. Hertwig Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The analogy of space to human cognition has a long standing tradition. Our study aims to elaborate on the validity of this analogy for search in memory. Using the search of associative memory framework (SAM) we show that people are able to dynamically recruit independent memory representations in the recall of country names. By instructing participants to use specific recall cues we also show that despite a strong effect on the retrieval sequence total recall from memory remains unaffected. ...

  20. Noradrenergic System and Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Zenger, Manuel

    2017-07-22

    There is ample evidence indicating that noradrenaline plays an important role in memory mechanisms. Noradrenaline is thought to modulate these procsses through activation of adrenergic receptors in neurons. Astrocytes that form essential partners for synaptic function, also express alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In astrocytes, noradrenaline triggers metabolic actions such as the glycogenolysis leading to an increase in l-lactate formation and release. l-Lactate can be used by neurons as a sourc of energy during memory tasks and can also induc transcription of plasticity genes in neurons. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors can also trigger gliotransmitter release resulting of intracllular calcium waves. These gliotransmitters modulate the synaptic activity and thereby can modulate long-term potentiation mechanisms. In summary, recnt evidencs indicate that noradrenaline exerts its memory-promoting effects through different modes of action both on neurons and astrocytes.

  1. Noradrenergic System and Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Zenger, Manuel; Burlet-Godinot, Sophie; Petit, Jean-Marie; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence indicating that noradrenaline plays an important role in memory mechanisms. Noradrenaline is thought to modulate these procsses through activation of adrenergic receptors in neurons. Astrocytes that form essential partners for synaptic function, also express alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In astrocytes, noradrenaline triggers metabolic actions such as the glycogenolysis leading to an increase in l-lactate formation and release. l-Lactate can be used by neurons as a sourc of energy during memory tasks and can also induc transcription of plasticity genes in neurons. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors can also trigger gliotransmitter release resulting of intracllular calcium waves. These gliotransmitters modulate the synaptic activity and thereby can modulate long-term potentiation mechanisms. In summary, recnt evidencs indicate that noradrenaline exerts its memory-promoting effects through different modes of action both on neurons and astrocytes.

  2. Eavesdropping on Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2017-01-03

    For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true. Here I describe my professional life as an experimental psychologist, in which I've eavesdropped on this process, as well as many personal experiences that may have influenced my thinking and choices.

  3. Echoic memory in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian

    2008-10-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.

  4. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  5. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  6. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman

    2016-01-01

    that postulates cohesion and conflict as rooted in ethnic and religious differences. It suggests ‘conviviality’ as the production of space, by arguing that hard times, tensions as well as sensorial pleasures produce a sense of belonging in a place, through shared ways of living. While memories of ‘coexistence......The article explores the narratives and memories of past diversity and current practices of conviviality to investigate how class, lifestyle and tastes affect the daily interactions between people belonging to different ethno-religious backgrounds. This chapter critiques ‘coexistence’ as a concept......’ emphasize the fragmentation of people into ethnic and religious groups as a consequence of the homogenization process in the post-Ottoman Turkish context, bitter sweet memories of conviviality create a sense of belonging to Burgaz....

  7. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  8. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  9. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  10. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Gorree, E.

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent

  11. Time-Predictable Virtual Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory is an important feature of modern computer architectures. For hard real-time systems, memory protection is a particularly interesting feature of virtual memory. However, current memory management units are not designed for time-predictability and therefore cannot be used...... in such systems. This paper investigates the requirements on virtual memory from the perspective of hard real-time systems and presents the design of a time-predictable memory management unit. Our evaluation shows that the proposed design can be implemented efficiently. The design allows address translation...... and address range checking in constant time of two clock cycles on a cache miss. This constant time is in strong contrast to the possible cost of a miss in a translation look-aside buffer in traditional virtual memory organizations. Compared to a platform without a memory management unit, these two additional...

  12. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective....... It presents an overview of basic applied and clinical approaches to autobiographical memory, covering memory specificity, traumatic memories, involuntary and intrusive memories, and the role of self-identity. The book discusses a wide range of psychological disorders, including depression, posttraumatic...

  13. Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following through with current events and activities. Often long-term memories of childhood or young adulthood remain vivid, even in the case of Alzheimer's disease, so it is short-term memory that is important to assess when ...

  14. Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Pathogenic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivan, Stephanie E; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain's emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  15. DNA methylation and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J; Sweatt, J David

    2010-11-01

    Memory formation and storage require long-lasting changes in memory-related neuronal circuits. Recent evidence indicates that DNA methylation may serve as a contributing mechanism in memory formation and storage. These emerging findings suggest a role for an epigenetic mechanism in learning and long-term memory maintenance and raise apparent conundrums and questions. For example, it is unclear how DNA methylation might be reversed during the formation of a memory, how changes in DNA methylation alter neuronal function to promote memory formation, and how DNA methylation patterns differ between neuronal structures to enable both consolidation and storage of memories. Here we evaluate the existing evidence supporting a role for DNA methylation in memory, discuss how DNA methylation may affect genetic and neuronal function to contribute to behavior, propose several future directions for the emerging subfield of neuroepigenetics, and begin to address some of the broader implications of this work.

  16. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  17. Emotional organization of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M

    2005-09-01

    The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.

  18. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance

  19. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  20. noMemory

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Bjørn Nødland; Hillestad, Bendik Kiste; Stenshagen, Per-Arne Waaler

    2016-01-01

    noMemory is a project to create a strategy game in Unreal Engine 4. In this game, you control one or more heroes and units, and battle against another human player locally, or against an Artificial Intelligence. This thesis will go through this game from its inception as an idea, through its implementation, and conclude with our thoughts on the result and the journey there. noMemory er et prosjekt for å lage et strategi spill i Unreal Engine 4. I dette spillet kontrollerer du én eller fler...

  1. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  2. Bifurcation with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.E.; Davis, S.H.; Rosenblat, S.; Kath, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A model equation containing a memory integral is posed. The extent of the memory, the relaxation time lambda, controls the bifurcation behavior as the control parameter R is increased. Small (large) lambda gives steady (periodic) bifurcation. There is a double eigenvalue at lambda = lambda 1 , separating purely steady (lambda 1 ) from combined steady/T-periodic (lambda > lambda 1 ) states with T → infinity as lambda → lambda + 1 . Analysis leads to the co-existence of stable steady/periodic states and as R is increased, the periodic states give way to the steady states. Numerical solutions show that this behavior persists away from lambda = lambda 1

  3. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  4. Constructive Memory: Past and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adapti...

  5. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  6. Self, Nation, and Generational Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss/Bøss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory........A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory.....

  7. Memory effects on stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Alexander; Sung, Wokyung

    1996-02-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with internal colored noise. In this situation the system possesses time-dependent memory friction connected with noise via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, so that in the absence of periodic driving the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium state. For this non-Markovian case we find that memory usually suppresses stochastic resonance. However, for a large memory time SR can be enhanced by the memory.

  8. Limited Memory, Categorization, and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer; Amit Pazgal

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a limited consumer memory on the price competition between firms. It studies a specific aspect of memory--namely, the categorization of available price information that the consumers may need to recall for decision making. This paper analyzes competition between firms in a market with uninformed consumers who do not compare prices, informed consumers who compare prices but with limited memory, and informed consumers who have perfect memory. Consumers, aw...

  9. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  10. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  11. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWith the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform

  13. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  14. Context Memory in Korsakoff's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  15. Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  16. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.; Pandis, I.; Kersten, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform access pattern (NUMA).

  17. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  18. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  19. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  20. Acute memory deficits in chemotherapy-treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oana C; Mayes, Andrew; McCabe, Martin G; Talmi, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Data from research on amnesia and epilepsy are equivocal with regards to the dissociation, shown in animal models, between rapid and slow long-term memory consolidation. Cancer treatments have lasting disruptive effects on memory and on brain structures associated with memory, but their acute effects on synaptic consolidation are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that cancer treatment selectively impairs slow synaptic consolidation. Cancer patients and their matched controls were administered a novel list-learning task modelled on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Learning, forgetting, and retrieval were tested before, and one day after patients' first chemotherapy treatment. Due to difficulties recruiting cancer patients at that sensitive time, we were only able to study 10 patients and their matched controls. Patients exhibited treatment-dependent accelerated forgetting over 24 hours compared to their own pre-treatment performance and to the performance of control participants, in agreement with our hypothesis. The number of intrusions increased after treatment, suggesting retrieval deficits. Future research with larger samples should adapt our methods to distinguish between consolidation and retrieval causes for treatment-dependent accelerated forgetting. The presence of significant accelerated forgetting in our small sample is indicative of a potentially large acute effect of chemotherapy treatment on forgetting, with potentially clinically relevant implications.

  1. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kevin J; Greenspan, Rachel L; Bogart, Daniel F; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2016-07-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a suspect from a lineup (Exp. 2). Then we exposed participants to manipulated versions of their memory reports, and later tested their memories a second time. The results indicated that the majority of participants failed to detect the misinformation, and that exposing witnesses to misleading versions of their own memory reports caused their memories to change to be consistent with those reports. These experiments have implications for eyewitness memory.

  2. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  3. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    generations. Acts of mass violence also construct a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated in contemporary documentary or fiction films. In these processes of retelling acts...

  4. Wolfgang Gentner Memorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The Memorial was held in the Main Auditorium on 30 April 1981. The photo shows (centre, first row) Volker Soergel (DESY Director), Mrs. Gentner, Jean Teillac (President of the Council), Hélène Langevin-Joliot, Herwig Schopper (CERN Director-General).

  5. The Memory of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Houlind

    The thematic aim of the present dissertation is twofold: To contribute to the contemporary discussion within philosophy of religion, which revolves around ‘the death and (alleged) return of God’; more specifically, I want to rethink God through the concept memory, drawing on selected writings from...

  6. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  7. Retrieval from semantic memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman-Vonk, Wietske

    1977-01-01

    The present study has been concerned with the retrieval of semantic information. Retrieving semantic information is a fundamental process in almost any kind of cognitive behavior. The introduction presented the main experimental paradigms and results found in the literature on semantic memory as

  8. Echoic memory in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, C.; Kalenscher, T.; Güntürkün, O.; Kaernbach, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no

  9. Does Echoic Memory Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Randall W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To examine developmental aspects of auditory sensory memory, a series of experiments was conducted on the stimulus suffix effect with the primary variables being age of subject (7 and 11 years), rates of presentation, and length of list. Effects were nearly identical across age groups when a fast presentation rate was used. (Author/DB)

  10. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  11. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  12. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  13. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...

  14. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  15. Technical memory 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999

  16. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ... event effects, and will scale to smaller geometries to provide the same performance. we then designed arrays of that memory to build up blocks to be used in complex Cool-RAD(tm) parts such as microprocessors and digital signal processors.

  17. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  18. THE MEMORY OF JUDGMENT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Lawrence Douglas' book1, The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History ... film that is not amenable to cross-examination— in a manner that advances his ... willed by more, and tolerated by all”.7 Although the height of the war .... forum that assists in the assessment of the question of guilt or innocence in an.

  19. "Memorial de agravios"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1959-12-01

    Full Text Available El texto de este célebre documento, conocido con el nombre de Memorial de Agravios, fue redactado por Don Camilo Torres, en su calidad de Asesor del Cabildo de Santafé y se publicó por primera vez en folleto en 1832.

  20. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  1. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  2. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  3. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Working memory affects false memory production for emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Ciriello, Alfonso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Whereas a link between working memory (WM) and memory distortions has been demonstrated, its influence on emotional false memories is unclear. In two experiments, a verbal WM task and a false memory paradigm for negative, positive or neutral events were employed. In Experiment 1, we investigated individual differences in verbal WM and found that the interaction between valence and WM predicted false recognition, with negative and positive material protecting high WM individuals against false remembering; the beneficial effect of negative material disappeared in low WM participants. In Experiment 2, we lowered the WM capacity of half of the participants with a double task request, which led to an overall increase in false memories; furthermore, consistent with Experiment 1, the increase in negative false memories was larger than that of neutral or positive ones. It is concluded that WM plays a critical role in determining false memory production, specifically influencing the processing of negative material.

  5. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  6. A comparison of three types of autobiographical memories in old-old age: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Eyal, Nitza; Reichental, Yael; Hazan, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this paper, we examine the content, characteristic themes and environments, and structural characteristics of each of the 3 types of memory. The participants were 26 persons from a larger longitudinal study with an average age of 91 years; half were men and the other half women. The study integrated qualitative and quantitative tools. An open-ended questionnaire included questions about the participants' life story as well as questions about the 3 types of memories. The responses were rated by 3 independent judges on dimensions of central themes and structural characteristics. First memories had a more positive emotional tone, more references to characters from the participant's social circle, a stronger sense of group belonging, and a more narrative style than the other types of memories. Pivotal and traumatic memories were described as more personal than first memories. The 3 types of memories reflect different stages in life development, which together form a sense of identity. They present experiences from the past on select themes, which may assist in the complex task of coping with the difficulties and limitations that advanced old age presents. Future research should examine the functional role of those memories and whether they enable the old-old to support selfhood in the challenging period of last changes and losses. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Milestoning with transition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2011-12-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between milestones. The transition probabilities and transition time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent transitions between milestones. This approximation is justified if the transition probabilities and transition times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent transitions. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with transition memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous transitions made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits

  8. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  9. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In the analysis of body-memory and improvisation presented in this paper I contend that dancers’ specialised body-memory are not to be understood as more or less automatized. Rather, in each repetition, body-memories – or habits – are to be understood as unfolding in response to the actual context....... The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  10. Memory of titoism: Hegemony frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Todor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses today’s hegemony memory of titoism. The article presents the different reductions in the actually domestic memory culture which are connected with the demonisation and negative symbolisation of titoism. It was broader discussed diffent myths and ideologisations, the factors of a selective memory and a new context in the memory of titoism. Here are outlined the privatisation and the retraditionalisation as the main factors in the maintaing of a new frameworks for the memory of socialism and in the negative symbolisation of titoism.

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  13. Eyelid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  14. Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  16. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  17. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of memory can inform the diagnosis of memory impairments in degenerative diseases, and the patterns of impairment seen in the degenerative diseases can help contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms of normal memory.

  18. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Andrey; Dabaghian, Yuri A.

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure. PMID:29740306

  19. Progress In Optical Memory Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Yoshito

    1987-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the concept of optical memory was first proposed in 1966. Since then considerable progress has been made in this area together with the creation of completely new markets of optical memory in consumer and computer application areas. The first generation of optical memory was mainly developed with holographic recording technology in late 1960s and early 1970s. Considerable number of developments have been done in both analog and digital memory applications. Unfortunately, these technologies did not meet a chance to be a commercial product. The second generation of optical memory started at the beginning of 1970s with bit by bit recording technology. Read-only type optical memories such as video disks and compact audio disks have extensively investigated. Since laser diodes were first applied to optical video disk read out in 1976, there have been extensive developments of laser diode pick-ups for optical disk memory systems. The third generation of optical memory started in 1978 with bit by bit read/write technology using laser diodes. Developments of recording materials including both write-once and erasable have been actively pursued at several research institutes. These technologies are mainly focused on the optical memory systems for computer application. Such practical applications of optical memory technology has resulted in the creation of such new products as compact audio disks and computer file memories.

  20. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Babichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure.