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Sample records for membrane omega-3 fatty

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Natividad R; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale. Furthermore, membrane composition is altered during human disease processes such as cancer and obesity. For example, an increased rate of lipid/cholesterol synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognized as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids/cholesterol to cellular function in disease models is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, an important consideration in regard to human health is that diet is a major modulator of cell membrane composition. This can occur directly through incorporation of membrane substrates, such as fatty acids, e.g., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and cholesterol. In this review, we describe scenarios in which changes in membrane composition impact human health. Particular focus is placed on the importance of intrinsic lipid/cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism and extrinsic dietary modification in cancer and its effect on plasma membrane properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erythrocyte Membrane in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Jihan; Mostafa, Ehab; El-Waseef, Maha; El-Khayat, Zakarya; Badawy, Ehsan; Medhat, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, almost always with a major contribution from insulin resistance which may be affected by cell membrane fatty acids and phospholipids fractions.Aim: To evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on erythrocyte membrane and also in decreasing oxidative stress in diabetic rats.Material and Methods: Sixty healthy male albino rats weighting 180-200 g divided int...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  5. Acute coronary syndrome patients with depression have low blood cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh A; Menon, Rishi A; Reid, Kimberly J; Harris, William S; Spertus, John A

    2008-10-01

    To determine the extent to which levels of membrane eicosapentaenoic (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) (the omega-3 index) were associated with depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Depression is associated with worse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with ACS. Reduced levels of blood cell membrane omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), an emerging risk factor for both CV disease and depression, may help to explain the link between depression and adverse CV outcomes. We measured membrane FA composition in 759 patients with confirmed ACS. The analysis included not only EPA and DHA but also the n-6 FAs linoleic and arachidonic acids (LA and AA). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ). Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for demographic and clinical characteristics. There was a significant inverse relationship between the n-3 index and depressive symptoms (PHQ) in the fully adjusted model (p = .034). For every 4.54% point rise in the n-3 index, there was a 1-point decline in depressive symptoms. In contrast to the n-3 FAs, membrane levels of the n-6 FAs LA and AA were not different between depressed and nondepressed ACS patients. We found an inverse relationship between the n-3 index and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients with ACS. Therefore, this study supports the hypothesis that reduced n-3 FA tissue levels are a common and potentially modifiable link between depression and adverse CV outcomes.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  7. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels and omega-3 fatty acid intake are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa R; Yin, Xiang; Seifert, Jennifer; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Eisenbarth, George S; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake and erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity (IA). The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young is following children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of persistent IA, as defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, i, or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits, and then for the development of type 1 diabetes, as diagnosed by a physician. One hundred and sixty-seven children with persistent IA were followed for a mean of 4.8 yr, and 45 of these developed type 1 diabetes at a mean age of 8.7 yr. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (as a percent of total lipid) and dietary fatty acid intake (estimated via food frequency questionnaire) were analyzed as time-varying covariates in proportional hazards survival analysis, with follow-up time starting at detection of the first autoantibody. Neither dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids nor omega-6 fatty acids were associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes, adjusting for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes, age at first IA positivity, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal ethnicity. Adjusting for HLA-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes and age at first IA positivity, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels of erythrocyte membranes were not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes. In this observational study, omega-3 fatty acid intake and status are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with IA. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  10. Comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Heather D.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1 to 11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as assessed by a parent-completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids. Design The study population included youth aged 1 to 11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal study in Denver, Colorado that is following a cohort of youth at risk for developing Type I diabetes. Four hundred four children who had erythrocyte membrane fatty acid data matched to an FFQ corresponding to the same time frame for a total of 917 visits (matches) were included. PUFA intake was expressed as both g/day (adjusted for total energy) and as percent of total fat intake. We used mixed models to test the association and calculate the correlation between the erythrocyte membrane estimates and PUFA intake using all records of data for each youth. Results Intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids (β=0.52, pchildren, a FFQ using parental report provided estimates of average long-term intakes of marine PUFAs that correlated well with their erythrocyte cell membrane fatty acid status. PMID:17440518

  11. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  12. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Products containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as krill oil and fish oils, have been effective in lowering triglyceride levels. Although no data have suggested that the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increases associated with some omega-3 fatty acid formulations lead to adverse outcomes, these elevations in LDL-C levels may compromise the achievement of lipid targets. Thus, there is a need for agents that can lower triglyceride levels without increasing LDL-C levels.

  13. Omega 3 fatty acids chemosensitize multidrug resistant colon cancer cells by down-regulating cholesterol synthesis and altering detergent resistant membranes composition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelsomino, G; Gazzano, E

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which modulate cholesterol homeostasis in dyslipidemic syndromes and have chemopreventive effects in colon cancer, may affect the respo...

  14. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; Ye. Yu. Yegorova

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important nutrient for proper support of normal living. Omega-3 PUFA play significant role in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, neuroprotection, they are necessary for development of human’s brain. Present study discusses results of fundamental and clinical studies on role of omega-3 PUFA in ontogenesis. Authors performed systematic analysis of physiological effects of omega-3 PUFA on molecular level. Deficiency of omega-3 PUFA results in decrease...

  15. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are important nutrient for proper support of normal living. Omega-3 PUFA play significant role in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, neuroprotection, they are necessary for development of human’s brain. Present study discusses results of fundamental and clinical studies on role of omega-3 PUFA in ontogenesis. Authors performed systematic analysis of physiological effects of omega-3 PUFA on molecular level. Deficiency of omega-3 PUFA results in decrease of intellect and increase of hyperactivity in children. The necessity of proper administration of omega-3 PUFA in early pre-school period and in younger schoolchildren is confirmed by results of clinical studies.

  16. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  17. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  18. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  19. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

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    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

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    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  1. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

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    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  4. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies. PMID:29215589

  5. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Costantini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers, the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies.

  6. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

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    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  7. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini

    2018-03-25

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health. Even though many health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported in the literature, there are also some controversies about their efficacy and certain benefits to human health.

  8. The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Adonis; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease by discussing key epidemiologic and placebo-controlled studies in people with and without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. In addition, studies on the antitriglyceridemic, antihypertensive, hemostatic, antiarrhythmic, and antiatherogenic properties of omega-3 fatty acids were examined. Lastly, we discussed current dietary and safety recommendations regarding fish and fish oil capsules as stated by the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Environmental Protection Agency. We found that omega-3 fatty acids have shown to significantly reduce coronary mortality and sudden death in people without prior cardiovascular disease and reduce all-cause death and cardiac mortality in secondary prevention studies. Studies on stroke are still unclear and more studies need to focus on stroke subtypes. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids might be the result of their ability to reduce triglyceride levels, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, arrhythmia, and atherogenesis. Currently, the general public is recommended to consume two fatty fish meals per week (0.3-0.5 grams per day eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Pregnant mothers and children should refrain from eating fish high in methylmercury levels while limiting their consumption of other fish varieties to 12 ounces per week. Patients with coronary heart disease should have 1 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas patients with hypertriglyceridemia should take 3 to 5 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under a physician's supervision.

  9. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

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    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  10. Health Benefits and Omega-3-Fatty Acid Content of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify the indigenous foods believed to have health benefits with possible functional properties, to determine the different ailments that these foods were used for, and to analyse the omega- 3-fatty acid content of the identified indigenous foods. The study population consisted of 46 ...

  11. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bozzatello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  12. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    . In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been used...... as a food additive because of its better chemical stability; studies showed that microencapsulation did not affect the bioavailability significantly. Even though food structures also affect the digestion and absorption of omega-3 containing lipids, several studies have shown that long-term intake of fish...

  13. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  14. The role for dietary omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2014-10-03

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Güttler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Iain J. Gallagher; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  18. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA, which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat, as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Qawasmi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and…

  1. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannì Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome. Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study

  2. Yogurt as a Vehicle for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Rognlien, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    Consumer interest in supplementation with healthy omega-3 fatty acids (Ï 3 FA) has led to increased research in fortification of popular foods with these healthy fats. Yogurt, which is already popular, offers a functional food matrix to fortify with Ï 3 FA. Fish oil, a major source of two important long chain Ï 3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an excellent source of Ï 3 FA enrichment into foods but brings problems of oxidation and off-flavors or odors when ...

  3. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acids and placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J

    2014-05-01

    The developing fetus requires substantial amounts of fatty acids to support rapid cellular growth and activity. Although the fatty acid composition delivered to the fetus is largely determined by maternal circulating levels, the placenta preferentially transfers physiologically important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. Maternal dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has been shown to increase gestation length, enhance fetal growth, and reduce the risk of pregnancy complications, although the precise mechanisms governing these effects remain uncertain. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several physiological pathways which could account for these effects, including anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving, and anti-oxidative pathways. Recent studies have shown that maternal dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation during rat pregnancy can reduce placental oxidative damage and increase placental levels of pro-resolving mediators, effects associated with enhanced fetal and placental growth. Because several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus, are associated with heightened placental inflammation and oxidative stress, there is considerable interest in the potential for dietary n-3 PUFAs as a therapeutic intervention for these disorders. In this study, we review the impact of dietary n-3 PUFAs on placental function, with particular focus on placental inflammation, inflammatory resolution, and oxidative stress.

  4. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distillation, which removes short-chain and saturated fatty acids, it is now possible for manufacturers of these ... in red blood cell membranes, expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was determined at baseline, ... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase from baseline) when ...

  5. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  7. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  8. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  9. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation...

  10. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  12. Efectos y controversias de los ácidos grasos omega-3: effects and controversies Omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur

    Full Text Available Gracias al descubrimieno del mecanismo de acción de los ácidos grasos omega-3 para disminuir las arritmias ventriculares, éstos han vuelto a cobrar importancia por su efecto cardio-protector. La ingestión de ácidos grasos omega-3 disminuye el riesgo de trombosis y accidentes cerebro-vasculares al disminuir los lípidos sanguíneos, mejorando en esta forma la función endotelial. Sin embargo, algunos estudios epidemiológicos no han encontrado una relación directa a este respecto y además hay controversia respecto a las dosis necesarias para lograr este efecto cardio-protector. Hay estudios que reportan que el contenido de metil-mercurio en peces afecta la disposición de los ácidos grasos omega-3. En el Caribe colombiano se ha encontrado contaminación de peces con metil-mercurio.Thanks to the discovery of omega-3 fatty acids’ mechanism of action, these have regained importance due to its cardio-protective effect. The ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids diminishes the risk of thrombosis and cerebro-vascular accidents by lowering serum lipids and improving endothelial function. Nevertheless, some epidemiological studies have not found a direct relationship with them and there is controversy with regard to the doses needed in order to achieve this cardio-protective effect. There are studies reporting that the methyl-mercury content in fish affects omega-3 fatty acids’ disposal. In the Colombian Caribbean region, fish contamination with methyl-mercury has been found.

  13. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  14. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  15. Omega-3 PUFA concentration by a novel PVDF nano-composite membrane filled with nano-porous silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Samaneh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane. Silica particles enhanced the thermal stability of PVDF/SiO 2 membranes; increasing the decomposition temperature from 371°C to 408°C. Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica (i.e., 20 by weight%). The separation performance of nano-composite membranes was also evaluated using the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration at a temperature and pressure of 30°C and 4bar, respectively. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from 34.8 by weight% in neat PVDF to 53.9 by weight% in PVDF with 15 by weight% of silica. Moreover, PVDF/SiO 2 nano-composite membranes exhibited enhanced anti-fouling property compared to neat PVDF membrane. Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated. Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.

  17. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  18. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  19. The implication of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in retinal physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Niyazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal tissues such as the retina and the brain are characterized by their high content in phospholipids. In the retina, phospholipids can account for until 80% of total lipids and are mainly composed by species belonging to phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine sub-classes. Within fatty acids esterified on retinal phospholipids, omega-3 PUFAs are major components since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can represent until 50% of total fatty acids in the photoreceptor outer segments. For long time, DHA is known to play a major role in membrane function and subsequently in visual processes by affecting permeability, fluidity, thickness and the activation of membrane-bound proteins. Today, more and more studies show that PUFAs from the omega-3 series may also operate as protective factors in retinal vascular and immuno-regulatory processes, in maintaining the physiologic redox balance and in cell survival. They may operate within complex systems involving eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinases. This new and emerging concept based on the interrelationship of omega-3 PUFAs with neural and vascular structure and function appears to be essential when considering retinal diseases of public health significance such as age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  1. The effects of addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the characteristics of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed semen. For this purpose, oil containing different levels of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids were added to semen extender. To emulsify the oil in semen extender, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added ...

  2. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  3. Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...... and other factors on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils. To help understand the impact of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, it presents a brief overview of encapsulation techniques and excipients used. Microencapsulation of fish oil improves its chemical...... stability by preventing oxidation and ensuring satisfactory organoleptic properties. Even though encapsulation excipients food matrices and lipid structures can affect the absorption rate of omega-3 fatty acids in short-term studies, microencapsulated fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids enriched foods...

  4. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  5. Effects of parental omega-3 fatty acid intake on offspring microbiome and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Myles

    Full Text Available The "Western diet" is characterized by increased intake of saturated and omega-6 (n-6 fatty acids with a relative reduction in omega-3 (n-3 consumption. These fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate the gut microbiome, resulting in altered host immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids can also directly modulate immunity through alterations in the phospholipid membranes of immune cells, inhibition of n-6 induced inflammation, down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, and by serving as pre-cursors to anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as resolvins and protectins. We have previously shown that consumption by breeder mice of diets high in saturated and n-6 fatty acids have inflammatory and immune-modulating effects on offspring that are at least partially driven by vertical transmission of altered gut microbiota. To determine if parental diets high in n-3 fatty acids could also affect offspring microbiome and immunity, we fed breeding mice an n-3-rich diet with 40% calories from fat and measured immune outcomes in their offspring. We found offspring from mice fed diets high in n-3 had altered gut microbiomes and modestly enhanced anti-inflammatory IL-10 from both colonic and splenic tissue. Omega-3 pups were protected during peanut oral allergy challenge with small but measurable alterations in peanut-related serologies. However, n-3 pups displayed a tendency toward worsened responses during E. coli sepsis and had significantly worse outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Our results indicate excess parental n-3 fatty acid intake alters microbiome and immune response in offspring.

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on regulatory T cells in hematologic neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne da Silva Borges Betiati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of leukemia and lymphomas is related to the increase in inflammatory process modulators. These, in turn, have divergent actions on the neoplastic process. Populations of T cells have different roles in the neoplastic environment; while interferon-gamma positive T cells have antitumor activity, the FoxP3+interleukin-10 positive population present a pro-tumor activity. Simultaneously, the inflammatory process promotes the mobilization of fatty acids from the cell membrane to produce lipid mediators, which also participate of the inflammatory response. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA omega-3 fatty acids, when incorporated in the plasmatic membrane, decrease the arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and the production of eicosanoids derived from it. Thus, an alternative family of lipid mediators are produced that are often less inflammatory than those produced from arachidonic acid. Fatty acids can also influence the production of peptide mediators such as cytokines, and the expression of transcription factors, which can determine the production patterns of eicosanoids and cytokines as well as cell differentiation. Due to these properties, the objective of this literature review was to investigate studies published over the last 15 years on the effects of using omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory markers in leukemia and lymphomas.

  7. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Kaya,1 Yakup Aksoy21Department of Ophthalmology, Anittepe Military Dispensary, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Girne Military Hospital, Girne, CyprusWe read the article entitled “Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study” by Tellez-Vazquez, with great interest.1 The authors found omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to have very beneficial effects on symptoms and clinical findings of dry eye. We appreciate the authors’ well-organized study that contained a large number of participants.Findings in this study show the importance of diet in dry eye syndrome. As a result of industrialization, natural eating habits have changed. Refined foods make up a large part of the diet. Thus, deficiency of essential molecules such as omega-3 is unavoidable. Elderly people especially, may have more deficiency because of potential absorption problems. Omega-3 is important for cell membrane stabilization and health of neural cells.2 Deficiency of omega-3 may have a significant role in dry eye, more than estimated. We suggest that supplementation of omega-3 should be recommended to chronic dry eye patients.View original paper by Tellez-Vazquez.

  9. Omega-3 supplementation alters mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, E A F; Paglialunga, S; Gerling, C; Whitfield, J; Mukai, K; Chabowski, A; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, L L; Holloway, G P

    2014-03-15

    Studies have shown increased incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into whole skeletal muscle following supplementation, although little has been done to investigate the potential impact on the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes and the functional consequences on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Therefore, we supplemented young healthy male subjects (n = 18) with fish oils [2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g docosahexanoic acid (DHA) per day] for 12 weeks and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken prior to (Pre) and following (Post) supplementation for the analysis of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and various assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Total EPA and DHA content in mitochondrial membranes increased (P respiration, determined in permeabilized muscle fibres, demonstrated no change in maximal substrate-supported respiration, or in the sensitivity (apparent Km) and maximal capacity for pyruvate-supported respiration. In contrast, mitochondrial responses during ADP titrations demonstrated an enhanced ADP sensitivity (decreased apparent Km) that was independent of the creatine kinase shuttle. As the content of ANT1, ANT2, and subunits of the electron transport chain were unaltered by supplementation, these data suggest that prolonged omega-3 intake improves ADP kinetics in human skeletal muscle mitochondria through alterations in membrane structure and/or post-translational modification of ATP synthase and ANT isoforms. Omega-3 supplementation also increased the capacity for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission without altering the content of oxidative products, suggesting the absence of oxidative damage. The current data strongly emphasize a role for omega-3s in reorganizing the composition of mitochondrial membranes while promoting improvements in ADP sensitivity.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Potier, Brigitte; Heberden, Christine; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    The literature on the influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) on brain aging has grown exponentially during the last decade. Many avenues have been explored but no global picture or clear evidence has emerged. Experimental studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA is involved in many neurobiological processes that are involved in neurotransmission and neuroprotection, indicating that these PUFAs may prevent age-related brain damage. Human studies have revealed only a weak link between ω-3 PUFA status and cognitive aging, whereas interventional studies have yet to confirm it. The purpose of this review is to analyze the developments in the area during the last 2 years. Human brain MRI studies have confirmed previous findings that ω-3 PUFA can protect the brain during aging; two intervention studies obtained clear evidence. We also analyzed the experimental data clarifying the involvement of ω-3 PUFA in neurotransmission, neuroprotection (including prevention of peroxidation, inflammation, and excitotoxicity), and neurogenesis, thereby helping the brain cope with aging. These recent human and experimental studies provide support for and clarification of how ω-3 PUFA protect against brain aging and highlight the main lines for future research.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mindrescu, Catalin; Gupta, Rakesh P; Hermance, Eileen V; DeVoe, Mary C; Soma, Vikas R; Coppola, John T; Staniloae, Cezar S

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease. Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in ...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  13. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):847-857, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular diseases: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Nutrient Deficits in Adverse Neurodevelopment and Childhood Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Gow, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 for treating symptoms of ADHD in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) show sizeable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and in young adult prisoners. Meta-analyses report efficacy for depressive symptoms in adults, and preliminary findings suggest anti-suicidal properties in adults, but studies in youth are insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding mood. Dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations for youth and adults based on general health considerations, while the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatments develops. PMID:24975625

  16. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I.; Gaccioli, Francesca; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR120 is predominantly expressed in the microvillous membrane (MVM) of human placenta and that the expression level of this receptor in MVM is not altered by maternal body mass index (BMI). PMID:24844436

  17. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fa...

  19. Enrichment of foods with omega-3 fatty acids: A multidisciplinary challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Enrichment of foods with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) poses a multidisciplinary challenge to food industry and academia. Although our knowledge about possible health effects of omega-3 PUFA has increased tremendously during the last 30 years, there is still a lot to be learned...... about these healthy fatty acids. Moreover, consumer acceptance and lipid oxidation of omega-3 PUFA-enriched food are other major challenges that the food industry meet when developing omega-3-enriched foods. Two examples on multidisciplinary research projects to overcome some of these challenges...... are given in this article together with cases studies illustrating how lipid oxidation can be prevented in a range of different omega-3-enriched foods....

  20. Determination expediency of the omega-3 unsaturated acids in fatty oils by NMR 1H spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikyan, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    1 H NMR spectra of fatty oils obtained from seeds of 55 plants were investigated 8 groups of signals were identified in all NMR spectra. Omega-3 fatty acids CH 3 groups signals were noticed in some of the spectra as a triplet in the area of 0.85-1.05 p.p.m. (oil CH 3 groups signals area). Integral intensities of omega-3 fatty acids CH 3 groups signals were calculated by using integral intensities of oils all CH 3 groups signals. Percents of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids in each of the investigated oils were then calculated. Theoretical percents of omega-3 fatty acids in oils were calculated. For that it was assumed that the signals of 2 CH 2 groups corresponds to 4 H signal and the signals of 3CH 3 group corresponds to 9 H signal. The experimental and theoretical percents of omega-3 fatty acids calculations were compared, and the accuracy of omega-3 fatty acids percent in oil was determined

  1. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on progestin stimulation of invasive properties in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael R; King, Rebecca A

    2012-12-01

    Clinical studies have shown that progestins increase breast cancer risk in hormone replacement therapy, while we and others have previously reported that progestins stimulate invasive properties in progesterone receptor (PR)-rich human breast cancer cell lines. Based on others' reports that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit metastatic properties of breast cancer, we have reviewed the literature for possible connections between omega-3 fatty-acid-driven pathways and progestin-stimulated pathways in an attempt to suggest theoretical mechanisms for possible omega-3 fatty acid inhibition of progestin stimulation of breast cancer invasion. We also present some data suggesting that fatty acids regulate progestin stimulation of invasive properties in PR-rich T47D human breast cancer cells, and that an appropriate concentration of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits progestin stimulation of invasive properties. It is hoped that focus on the inter-relationship between pathways by which omega-3 fatty acids inhibit and progestins stimulate breast cancer invasive properties will lead to further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies testing the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit progestin stimulation of invasive properties in breast cancer, and ameliorate harmful effects of progestins which occur in combined progestin-estrogen hormone replacement therapy.

  2. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies. Investigations of heterogeneity suggest differential effects of n-3PUFAs, depending on severity of depressive symptoms, where no effects of n-3PUFAs are found in studies of individuals with mild depressive symptomology, but possible benefit may be suggested in studies of individuals with more severe depressive symptomology. Objectives To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) versus a comparator (e.g. placebo, anti-depressant treatment, standard care, no treatment, wait-list control) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group’s Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries over all years to May 2015. We searched the database CINAHL over all years of records to September 2013. Selection criteria We included studies in the review if they: were a randomised controlled trial; provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and were conducted in adults with MDD. Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology (continuous data collected using a validated rating scale) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomology (dichotomous data on remission and response), quality of life, and failure to complete studies. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by

  5. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Phomocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  8. Interaction Effect of 8-Week Aerobic Exercise and Omega-3 Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Khedri; Mehdi Mogharnasi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Shinto

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disabling disease in the central nervous system in young to middle aged adults. Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS affecting between 50–60% of patients. Pilot studies in unipolar depression report an improvement in depression when omega-3 fatty acids are given with antidepressants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, as an augmentation therapy, improves treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD in people with MS. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids at six grams per day over three months. The primary outcome was a 50% or greater improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Thirty-nine participants were randomized and thirty-one completed the 3-month intervention. Improvement on MADRS between groups was not significantly different at the 3-month end point with 47.4% in the omega-3 fatty acid group and 45.5% in the placebo group showing 50% or greater improvement (p = 0.30. Omega-3 fatty acids as an augmentation therapy for treatment-resistant depression in MS was not significantly different than placebo in this pilot trial. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at the dose given was well-tolerated over 3 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122954.

  10. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  11. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  12. Interaction Effect of 8-Week Aerobic Exercise and Omega-3 Fatty Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khedri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample of 36 male non- athletes in the age range 50 to 70 years old randomly selected in four groups of nine persons, respectively, the first group: exercise supplemental omega-3, Group II: Exercise placebo group: supplementation with omega-3 groups quarter: placebo. Endurance exercise training program includes 24 sessions and 3 sessions per week, with duration and intensity was determined. (55-70% HRmax. Daily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids were 2 Capsule. Blood samples were taken after fasting 14 hours before the study and 48 hours after the last training session was conducted. The data Kolmogrov-Smirnov, t-test, One-Way Anova at significance level of p≤ 0.05 were analyzed in SPSS 17. Results: The results of research after 8 weeks showed that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, only increased in the exercise + omega-3 fatty acids group (7.8% that could not created a significant increase in plasma adiponectin concentration groups. Also in final of research did not show a significant difference between groups in compare after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that by aerobic exercise and use of omega-3 fatty acids and increase amounts of adiponectin and its anti boil property, perhaps maybe that, adiponectin by effect of its preservation has a great role in prevention and reduce of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  14. THE EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO ECCENTRIC STRENGTH EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly B. Jouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial. Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume, and temperature (infrared skin sensor. Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001 in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004. Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01 but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15. However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45. Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation

  15. An Improvement of Cardiovascular Risk Factors by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Masui, Yoshinori; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Adachi, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Hakoshima, Mariko; Waragai, Yoko; Harigae, Tadanao; Sako, Akahito

    2018-04-01

    An epidemiological survey in the Northwest Greenland reported that the Greenlanders have a lower frequency of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. The very low incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Greenlanders was explained by consumption of a diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Possible anti-atherothrombotic effects of omega-3 PUFA include an improvement of lipid metabolism such as a reduction of triglyceride and an increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and glucose metabolism, anti-platelet activity, anti-inflammatory effects, an improvement of endothelial function and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. The present study reviews an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and diabetes due to consumption of omega-3 PUFA. A sufficient number of studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces serum triglyceride and increases HDL-cholesterol. The mechanisms for omega-3 PUFA-mediated improvements of lipid metabolism have been partially elucidated. The studies using experimental animals, part of trials in humans, have shown the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The meta-analysis showed that omega-3 PUFA might prevent development of diabetes in part of population. Further studies should be performed to elucidate the association of omega-3 PUFA supplementation with diabetes, in the future.

  16. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on orexigenic and anorexigenic modulators at the onset of anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Ugrumov, Michael V; Sato, Tomoi; Goncalves, Carolina G; Meguid, Michael M

    2005-06-07

    In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance, tumor growth, and onset of anorexia in tumor-bearing rats. We hypothesize that, in cancer anorexia, omega-3FA is associated with quantitative reversal of hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1B)-receptor) enhancing FI. Fischer rats were divided into: MCA tumor bearing fed chow (TB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (TB-omega-3FA) and controls: non-tumor bearing fed chow (NTB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (NTB-omega-3FA). Rats were euthanized at anorexia and brains were removed for hypothalamic immunohistochemical study, using NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor-specific antibodies and slides assessed by image analysis. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. At anorexia, FI decreased (P anorexia, concomitant with an increase in FI, were probably mediated by omega-3FA inhibition of tumor-induced cytokines.

  17. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carla R. V.; Pernollet, Franck; van der Werf, Hayo M. G.

    2016-01-01

    A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1) modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2) increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by rep...

  18. Profiling of Omega 3 fatty acids from marine green algae Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Seeralan; Murugesan S.; Narender Sivaswamy S

    2016-01-01

    The applications of Omega-3 fatty acids for human health are rapidly expanding, which necessitates exploring alternative sources of fish. Single cell oils are now widely accepted in the market place and there is a growing awareness of the health benefits of PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The high prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of omega 3 f...

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids improve appetite in cancer anorexia, but tumor resecting restores it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Carolina G; Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Meguid, Michael M

    2006-02-01

    Tumor growth leads to cancer anorexia that is ameliorated using omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3FA). We hypothesize that omega-3FA modulates up-regulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and down-regulation of anorexigenic alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT(1B)-receptors) in tumor-bearing rats. Twenty-eight tumor-bearing rats were fed either chow (TB-Control) or omega-3FA (TB-omega-3FA). When anorexia developed in TB-Control rats, they and a cohort of TB-omega-pi-3 rats were killed. The rest had their tumor resected (R-Control and R-omega-3FA), and when anorexic TB-Controls normalized their food intake, brains were removed for hypothalamic immunocytochemical study of NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor antibodies concentrations. Comparison among slides were assessed by image analysis and analyzed by ANOVA and t test. At anorexia, hypothalamic NPY in arcuate nucleus (ARC) increased by 38% in TB-omega3FA versus TB-Control, whereas alpha-MSH decreased 64% in ARC and 29% in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Omega-3FA diet in anorexia (TB-omega-3FA vs R-omega-3FA) produced similar qualitative changes of NPY (22% increase) and alpha-MSH (31% decrease) in ARC, with concomitant decrease of 37% in 5-HT(1B)-receptors in PVN, confirming the influence of omega-3FA on the hypothalamic food intake modulators. However, after tumor resection (TB-Control vs R-Control) a 97% increase in NPY and a 62% decrease in alpha-MSH occurred that was significantly greater than in rats fed omega-3FA diet. Tumor resection and omega-3FA modifies hypothalamic food intake activity, up-regulating NPY and down-regulating alpha-MSH and 5-HT(1B)-receptors. Tumor resection in anorexic rats on chow diet restored hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and food intake quantitatively more than in rats fed omega3FA diet.

  20. Review of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie N. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Data Souces Literature was accessed via MEDLINE (1950–February 2009 and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1960–2009 using the medical subject heading terms omega-3 fatty acids and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Additional references were found by searching bibliographic references of resulting citations. Study Selection and Data Extraction All English-language, placebo controlled publications identified were analyzed for significance. Studies relevant to the objective were used, including eight studies evaluating the use of omega-3 fatty acid in the treatment of children with symptoms of ADHD. Data Synthesis Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been found to have variable efficacy in the treatment of patients with ADHD. Of the eight studies evaluated, three demonstrated no significant improvements in any evaluation criteria, with five studies reporting positive effects in at least one outcome measure. All positive efficacy studies included concomitant supplementation with omega-6 fatty acids. No clinically significant adverse effects were identified in the reviewed studies. Conclusions Based on the available data, current fatty acid supplementation techniques do not appear to be a consistant method of controlling ADHD symptoms. Without better evidence to determine the true value of fatty acids in the treatment of ADHD, omega-3 fatty acid use should be isolated to adjuvant supplementation or used in patients unable or unwilling to take stimulant medications. If recommended, there does not appear to be clinically significant adverse events associated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and this would be a safe treatment modality.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment

  3. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  4. Associations among Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status, Anxiety, and Mental Toughness in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B; Madrigal, Leilani A

    2017-01-01

    Poor omega-3 fatty acid status has been linked to anxiety in the general population, but scarce data are available describing omega-3 fatty acid levels in athletes and their associations with anxiety and mental toughness. Whole blood samples were obtained from 54 female collegiate athletes and analyzed for fatty acids as a part of this cross-sectional observational study. Participants also completed a food frequency questionnaire on the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)-2, and Mental Toughness Scale (MTS). Measures were collected during the athletes' off-season. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine the associations between fatty acid levels and psychological scores. Blood levels of the HS-Omega-3 Index® (rho = -0.32, p = 0.02), eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.40, p = 0.003), and docosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.33, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Likewise, dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.38, p = 0.007) and docosahexaenoic acid (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Blood docosapentaenoic acid was positively correlated with MTS (rho = 0.27, p = 0.049). None of the dietary or blood fatty acids were significantly correlated with SAS-2 scores. Both blood and dietary omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with general but not sport-specific anxiety in female collegiate athletes during an off-season period. Randomized trials should be conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anxiety and mental toughness in athletes.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids and the genetic risk of early onset acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Yinko, S S L; Thanassoulis, G; Stark, K D; Avgil Tsadok, M; Engert, J C; Pilote, L

    2014-11-01

    Recent gene-environment interaction studies suggest that diet may influence an individual's genetic predisposition to cardiovascular risk. We evaluated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake may influence the risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) conferred by genetic polymorphisms among patients with early onset ACS. Our population consisted of 705 patients of white European descent enrolled in GENESIS-PRAXY, a multicenter cohort study of patients aged 18-55 years and hospitalized with ACS. We used a case-only design to investigate interactions between the omega-3 index (a validated biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid intake) and 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with ACS. We used logistic regression to assess the interaction between each SNP and the omega-3 index. Interaction was also assessed between the omega-3 index and a genetic risk score generated from the 30 SNPs. All models were adjusted for age and sex. An interaction for increased ACS risk was found between carriers of the chromosome 9p21 variant rs4977574 and low omega-3 index (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.32, p = 0.02), but this was not significant after correction for multiple testing. Similar results were obtained in the adjusted model (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05-2.29, p = 0.03). We did not observe any interaction between the genetic risk score or any of the other SNPs and the omega-3 index. Our results suggest that omega-3 fatty acid intake may modify the genetic risk conferred by chromosome 9p21 variation in the development of early onset ACS and requires independent replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Oxylipins in a Routine Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schmöcker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood. Possible mechanisms include competition between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs at the cyclooxygenase (COX and lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 levels, and subsequent formation of oxylipins with specific anti-inflammatory or anti-arrhythmic effects. In this study, we report the impact of routine long-term treatment with prescription-grade n-3 PUFA (either 840 mg or 1680 mg per day on blood cell membrane fatty acid composition, as well as plasma oxylipin patterns, in a patient population with severe hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease who are on standard lipid-lowering and cardioprotective medications. Lipidomics analyses were performed by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Supplementation led to a dose-dependent increase in n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the blood cell fraction. We also observed a dose-dependent increase in EPA- and DHA-derived epoxy metabolites, whereas the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on LOX-dependent EPA- and DHA-derived hydroxy metabolites was less pronounced, with a tendency towards lower metabolites in subjects with higher n-3 PUFA levels. These data thus generally confirm effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation observed previously in healthy individuals. Additionally, they indicate a suppressive effect of high n-3 PUFA supplementation on the formation of LOX metabolites in the context of concomitant aspirin medication.

  7. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on kidney function after myocardial infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, E.K.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Stijnen, T.; Gemen, E.F.; Kusters, R.; Giltay, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney function gradually decreases with age, and myocardial infarction accelerates this deterioration. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may slow down the decline of kidney function. The effect of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids on kidney function in patients after

  8. Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyanarayanan V. Thuppal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA with the omega-3 index (O3-I, an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3% and Germany (5.5% puts the majority of adults sampled (99% in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40% when compared with Germans (10%. In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001. In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26% than in the U.S. (10% believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C

    2017-10-15

    Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are capable of partly inhibiting many aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid, and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of EPA and DHA include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB so reducing expression of inflammatory genes and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from EPA and DHA in a range of models of inflammatory conditions. Human trials demonstrate benefit of oral n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis and in stabilizing advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Author

  11. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence for possible treatment effects of omega-3 fatty acids in asthma. Methods Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Health, and, Dissertation Abstracts were searched to April 2003. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's of subjects of any age that used any foods or extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids as treatment or prevention for asthma. Data included all asthma related outcomes, potential covariates, characteristics of the study, design, population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and co interventions. Results Ten RCT's were found pertinent to the present report. Conclusion Given the largely inconsistent picture within and across respiratory outcomes, it is impossible to determine whether or not omega-3 fatty acids are an efficacious adjuvant or monotherapy for children or adults. Based on this systematic review we recommend a large randomized controlled study of the effects of high-dose encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids on ventilatory and inflammatory measures of asthma controlling diet and other asthma risk factors. This review was limited because Meta-analysis was considered inappropriate due to missing data; poorly or heterogeneously defined populations, interventions, intervention-comparator combinations, and outcomes. In addition, small sample sizes made it impossible to meaningfully assess the impact on clinical outcomes of co-variables. Last, few significant effects were found.

  12. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  13. Docosahexanoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischoulon, D; Fava, M

    2000-12-01

    Geographic areas where consumption of DHA is high are associated with decreased rates of depression. DHA deficiency states, such as alcoholism and the postpartum period, also are linked with depression. Individuals with major depression have marked depletions in omega-3 FAs (especially DHA) in erythrocyte phospholipids compared with controls. These data suggest that DHA may be associated with depression, and the limited data available on supplementation with DHA or other omega-3 FAs seem to support the hypothesis that DHA may have psychotropic effects. Overall, the use of EFAs is promising, particularly in view of the many illnesses potentially treatable with these substances; however, larger, carefully designed studies are needed to establish whether DHA is an effective and safe antidepressant, mood stabilizer, or antipsychotic. A few preliminary trials of DHA are in progress, but no studies comparing DHA against placebo or against an established antidepressant have been carried out. Studies to address this issue are being developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Studies likely will require escalating doses of DHA, eventually reaching high levels so as to ensure that patients will avoid a potentially ineffective subclinical dose. Careful monitoring of dietary intake among subjects also will necessary because a high intake of omega-3-rich foods may confound results. Finally, large-scale, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials comparing the efficacy and safety of DHA against standard antidepressants are required before psychiatrists can recommend DHA therapy as effective and safe for the treatment of depression and other mood disorders. Given the popularity of self-medication by patients who already are taking marketed antidepressants, studies examining the use of DHA as an augmentor to standard antidepressants may answer whether DHA can occupy a niche as an augmenting agent for patients who have made a partial response or have not responded to conventional

  14. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  15. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  16. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  17. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  18. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Neurotransmitters Level in the Brain of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H.N.; Said, U.Z.; Shedid, S.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Elmezayen, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on γ-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to γ-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress

  20. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S.; Rhodes, Lesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk. PMID:26861407

  2. Efficacies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Alpaslan; Şimşek, Memet; İlhan, Raşit; Can, Behzat; Baspinar, Melike; Akyol, Hadice; Gül, H Fatih; Gürsu, Ferit; Kavak, Burçin; Akın, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (vitamin D) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) on experimentally induced endometriosis in a rat model. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled experimental study was performed on 30 Wistar female rats. Endometriosis was surgically induced by implanting endometrial tissue on the abdominal peritoneum. Four weeks later, a second laparotomy was performed to assess pre-treatment implant volumes and cytokine levels. The rats were randomized into three groups: vitamin D group (42 μg/kg/day), omega-3 PUFA group (450 mg/kg/day), and control group (saline 0.1 mL/rat/day). These treatments were administered for 4 weeks. At the end of treatment, a third laparotomy was performed for the assessment of cytokine levels, implant volumes (post-treatment) and implants were totally excised for histopathologic examination. Pre- and post-treatment volumes, cytokine levels within the groups, as well as stromal and glandular tissues between the groups were compared. The mean post-treatment volume was statistically significantly reduced in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02) and the level of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the peritoneal fluid were significantly decreased at the end of treatment in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02, p=0.03, and p=0.03, respectively). In the vitamin D group, only IL-6 levels were significantly decreased. In the histopathologic examination, the glandular tissue and stromal tissue scores of the implants were significant lower in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.03 and p=0.02). Omega-3 PUFA caused significant regression of endometriotic implants. Vitamin D has not been as effective as omega-3 PUFA on endometriosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Major depression is associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Julien, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are intrinsic cell membrane components and closely involved in neurotransmission and receptor function. Lower omega-3 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), increases in cardiac events in CAD patients, and depression. We sought to examine relationships between depression and serum levels of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in patients recovering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We carried out a case-control study of serum PUFA levels and current major depression in 54 age- and sex-matched pairs approximately 2 months following ACS. Depressed patients had significantly lower concentrations of total omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and higher ratios of arachidonic acid (AA) to DHA, AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and n-3 to n-6 than controls. There were no baseline differences in any potential risk or protective factors for depression. Results are consistent with previous reports in depressed patients without CAD, and with literature concerning omega-3 levels and risk of CAD events. Dietary, genetic, and hormonal factors may all play a role in both depression and CAD. Both prospective studies and randomized trials are needed to help clarify the interrelationships.

  5. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydenham, Emma; Dangour, Alan D; Lim, Wee-Shiong

    2012-06-13

    Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomised controlled trials. To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarised narratively information on safety and adherence. Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up.In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention) or olive or sunflower oil (placebo) for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies had cognitive health as their primary outcome; one study of cardiovascular disease included cognitive health as an

  6. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  7. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: Pooling project of 19 cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...

  9. Post-Prandia glucose levels and consumption of Omega 3 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Amount and quality of dietary fat modifies glucose tolerance. Omega 3 Fatty Acids (n-3F A) are polyunsaturated fats, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found primarily in fish and they have a positive effect on glucose tolerance. Objective: To compare risk of type 2 diabetes ...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Heart Rate Variability in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Baumann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese children and adolescents are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. We hypothesized that cardiovascular prophylaxis with omega-3 fatty acids could benefit them. In our study, 20 children and adolescents (mean body mass index percentile: 99.1; mean age: 11.0 years underwent two ambulatory 24 h Holter electrocardiography (ECG recordings (before and after at least 3 months of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Time domain heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR were examined for these patients. As a control, we used 24 h Holter ECG recordings of 94 nonobese children and adolescents. Time domain HRV parameters, which are indicators of vagal stimulation, were significantly lower in obese patients than in healthy controls, but HR was higher (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal [SDNN] interbeat intervals: −34.02%; root mean square of successive differences [RMSSD] between normal heartbeats: −40.66%; percentage of consecutive RR intervals [pNN50]: −60.24%; HR: +13.37%. After omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, time domain HRV parameters and HR of obese patients were similar to the values of healthy controls (SDNN interbeat intervals: −21.73%; RMSSD: −19.56%; pNN50: −25.59%; HR: +3.94%. Therefore, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be used for cardiovascular prophylaxis in obese children and adolescents.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids related to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Satogami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.

  12. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    -3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use......Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  14. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians are far from desirable

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Kock Wai Ng; Sivalingam Nalliah; Azlinda Hamid; Siew Rong Wong; Sim Ling Chee; Cheryl Andrea Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews available reports on theomega-6 (linoleic acid, LA) and omega-3 fatty acid[alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) + eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid) intakes amongstMalaysians against Malaysian Recommended NutrientIntakes (RNI), focussing particularly on pregnant andlactating women because of the availability of data forthese latter vulnerable groups. Overall, the omega-6 andomega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians arepoor and far from desirable. The nutritional...

  15. Hypertriglyceridemia and omega-3 fatty acids: Their often overlooked role in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, M; Borghi, C; Pontremoli, R; De Ferrari, G M; Colivicchi, F; Desideri, G; Temporelli, P L

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to describe the pathogenic role of triglycerides in cardiometabolic risk, and the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. In epidemiological studies, hypertriglyceridemia correlates with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even after adjustment for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This has been further supported by Mendelian randomization studies where triglyceride-raising common single nucleotide polymorphisms confer an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Although guidelines vary in their definition of hypertriglyceridemia, they consistently define a normal triglyceride level as risk of cardiovascular disease, even in patients with optimally managed LDL-C levels, triglycerides are an important secondary target in both assessment and treatment. Dietary changes are a key element of first-line lifestyle intervention, but pharmacological treatment including omega-3 fatty acids may be indicated in people with persistently high triglyceride levels. Moreover, in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, omega-3 supplements significantly reduce the risk of sudden death, cardiac death and myocardial infarction and are generally well tolerated. Targeting resistant hypertriglyceridemia should be considered as a part of clinical management of cardiovascular risk. Omega-3 fatty acids may represent a valuable resource to this aim. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood omega-3 and trans fatty acids in middle-aged acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Reid, Kimberly J; Sands, Scott A; Spertus, John A

    2007-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that lower blood omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids (FAs) and/or higher trans FAs are associated with the risk of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Higher levels of omega-3 FA have been associated with decreased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, their association with ACS risk is unclear. Although higher self-reported intakes of trans FAs have been linked to increased coronary risk, the association between blood levels of trans FA and ACS risk is also unknown. We analyzed the FA composition of whole blood from 94 subjects with ACS and 94 age-, gender-, and race-matched controls. Omega-3 and trans FA associations with ACS were assessed using multivariable models after adjusting for smoking status, alcohol use, diabetes, body mass index, serum lipids, and history of myocardial infarction or revascularization. Subjects' mean age was 47 years, 54% were men, and 80% were Caucasian. Whole blood long-chain omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] plus docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) content was 29% lower in patients than in controls (1.7 +/- 0.9% vs 2.4 +/- 1.4%, p ACS, but higher blood trans FA content is not. Blood EPA + DHA may serve as a new, modifiable risk factor for ACS.

  17. Plasma and erythrocyte uptake of omega-3 fatty acids from an intravenous fish oil based lipid emulsion in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltweri, A M; Thomas, A L; Fisk, H L; Arshad, A; Calder, P C; Dennison, A R; Bowrey, D J

    2017-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that short term intravenous (IV) administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is more effective than oral supplementation at promoting incorporation of the bioactive omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma, blood cells and tissues. The effect of repeated short term IV infusion of omega-3 PUFAs was investigated in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer during palliative chemotherapy. Patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer (n = 21) were recruited into a phase II pilot clinical trial. All patients were scheduled for an intravenous infusion of Omegaven ® (fish oil supplement containing EPA and DHA) at a rate of 2 ml/kg body weight for 4 h once a week for up to six months. Blood samples were collected to assess omega-3 PUFA uptake into plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and into red blood cell (RBC) membranes. Fatty acid profiles were analysed by gas chromatography. Twenty patients received at least one Omegaven ® treatment and were included in the analysis. Each infusion of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in increased EPA and DHA in plasma NEFAs, but there was little effect on PUFAs within plasma PC during the infusions. However, with repeated weekly infusion of omega-3 PUFAs, the EPA content of plasma PC and of RBC membranes increased. Repeated weekly omega-3 PUFA infusion is effective in enriching plasma PC and RBC membranes in EPA in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy. Clinical Trials.Gov NCT01870791. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jill M; Yin, Xiang; Lamb, Molly M; Barriga, Katherine; Seifert, Jennifer; Hoffman, Michelle; Orton, Heather D; Barón, Anna E; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Chase, H Peter; Szabo, Nancy J; Erlich, Henry; Eisenbarth, George S; Rewers, Marian

    2007-09-26

    Cod liver oil supplements in infancy have been associated with a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a retrospective study. To examine whether intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are associated with the development of islet autoimmunity (IA) in children. A longitudinal, observational study, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), conducted in Denver, Colorado, between January 1994 and November 2006, of 1770 children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes, defined as either possession of a high diabetes risk HLA genotype or having a sibling or parent with type 1 diabetes. The mean age at follow-up was 6.2 years. Islet autoimmunity was assessed in association with reported dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids starting at age 1 year. A case-cohort study (N = 244) was also conducted in which risk of IA by polyunsaturated fatty acid content of erythrocyte membranes (as a percentage of total lipids) was examined. Risk of IA, defined as being positive for insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies on 2 consecutive visits and still autoantibody positive or having diabetes at last follow-up visit. Fifty-eight children developed IA. Adjusting for HLA genotype, family history of type 1 diabetes, caloric intake, and omega-6 fatty acid intake, omega-3 fatty acid intake was inversely associated with risk of IA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.96; P = .04). The association was strengthened when the definition of the outcome was limited to those positive for 2 or more autoantibodies (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09-0.58; P = .002). In the case-cohort study, omega-3 fatty acid content of erythrocyte membranes was also inversely associated with IA risk (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.96; P = .03). Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of IA in children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

  19. RBC and WBC fatty acid composition following consumption of an omega 3 supplement: Lessons for future clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Oscar F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty acids to alter growth or response to chemotherapeutic interventions of cancers, it will be essential to determine the omega 3 intake of individuals in the trial to determine compliance with consumption of the supplement and to correlate with endpoints of efficacy. We wondered if the fatty acid composition of RBCs might accurately indicate incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids in the WBCs. In this report we determine and compare the changes in fatty acid compositions of red blood cells and white blood cells in response to consumption of three doses of an omega 3 fatty acid supplement. Results We found that the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in both red blood cells and white blood cells increased following consumption of the supplement. There was a linear, dose responsive increase in the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells but the increase in omega 3 in white blood cells was not linear. The magnitude of increase in omega 3 fatty acids was different between the two cell types. Conclusions Fatty acid analysis of red blood cells is a good measure of compliance with supplement consumption. However, fatty acid analysis of white blood cells is needed to correlate changes in fatty acid composition of white blood cells with other biochemical changes in the white blood cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00899353.

  20. Rapid induction of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA) in Nannochloropsis sp. by UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpesh; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), provide substantial health benefits. As global fish stocks are declining and in some cases are contaminated with heavy metals, there is a need to find more sustainable land-based sources of these essential fatty acids. The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we present a new process to rapidly induce biosynthesis of essential fatty acids, including EPA in Nannochloropsis sp. BR2. Short exposure to UV-C at a dose of 100 or 250 mJ/cm(2) led to a significant increase in total cellular lipid contents when compared to mock-treated controls. A low dosage of 100 mJ/cm(2) also led to a twofold increase in total EPA content within 24 h that constituted 30% of total fatty acids and up to 12% of total dry weight at higher dosages. UV-C radiation may find uses as an easily applicable external inducer for large-scale production of omega-3 production from microalgae. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  2. Differences in Pop Levels between Conventional and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Enriched Milk and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2011-01-01

    Conventional and omega-3 fatty acid-enriched milk and cheese were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Omega-3-enriched products are usually supplemented with fish oil which is potentially contaminated. All classes of the considered POPs (PCBs, DDT, HCB, PBDEs, and PCDD/Fs) were found in the samples, with average concentrations higher in omega-3-enriched products than in conventional ones. For PCBs, DDT, and HCB, differences were statistically significant and, therefore, cannot ...

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  7. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  8. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Yakoob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids (FAs has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inflammation. Commercially available omega (ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are being prescribed as empirical treatment for many chronic ailments including IBS.Aim: To examine literature available support use of ω-3 PUFA in IBS.Methods: We conducted a search using “Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation” on the PubMed, Scopus, and databases (e.g. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded from 1966 to December, 2015. Result: The gut microbiota in IBS is associated with an imbalance of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. This imbalance has an impact on gas and metabolite production such as short chain fatty acids. Omega-3 FAs are anti-inflammatory, while ω-6 FAs are proinflammatory.Conclusion: The benefit of ω-3 FAs for IBS requires more clarification by prospective studies. Current claims of long chain PUFA supplementation in IBS should be viewed with caution

  9. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  10. Tracking of Drug Release and Material Fate for Naturally Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Keith M; Artzi, Natalie; Beck, Moshe; Beckerman, Rita; Moodie, Geoff; Albergo, Theresa; Conroy, Suzanne; Dale, Alicia; Corbeil, Scott; Martakos, Paul; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted on omega-3 fatty acid-derived biomaterials to determine their utility as an implantable material for adhesion prevention following soft tissue hernia repair and as a means to allow for the local delivery of antimicrobial or antibiofilm agents. Naturally derived biomaterials offer several advantages over synthetic materials in the field of medical device development. These advantages include enhanced biocompatibility, elimination of risks posed by the presence of toxic catalysts and chemical crosslinking agents, and derivation from renewable resources. Omega-3 fatty acids are readily available from fish and plant sources and can be used to create implantable biomaterials either as a stand-alone device or as a device coating that can be utilized in local drug delivery applications. In-depth characterization of material erosion degradation over time using non-destructive imaging and chemical characterization techniques provided mechanistic insight into material structure: function relationship. This in turn guided rational tailoring of the material based on varying fatty acid composition to control material residence time and hence drug release. These studies demonstrate the utility of omega-3 fatty acid derived biomaterials as an absorbable material for soft tissue hernia repair and drug delivery applications.

  11. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be e...

  13. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y

    2005-01-01

    In this work we advance the hypothesis that omega-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) exhibit cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. omega-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes and attenuate effects of environmental exposures that activate molecules implicated in pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases. These processes and exposures include ischemia, chronic light exposure, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular signaling mechanisms, and aging. A number of bioactive molecules within the retina affect, and are effected by such conditions. These molecules operate within complex systems and include compounds classified as eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, and inflammatory phospholipids. We discuss the relationship of LCPUFAs with these bioactivators and bioactive compounds in the context of three blinding retinal diseases of public health significance that exhibit both vascular and neural pathology. How is omega-3 LCPUFA status related to retinal structure and function? Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 LCPUFA, is also a major structural lipid of retinal photoreceptor outer segment membranes. Biophysical and biochemical properties of DHA may affect photoreceptor membrane function by altering permeability, fluidity, thickness, and lipid phase properties. Tissue DHA status affects retinal cell signaling mechanisms involved in phototransduction. DHA may operate in signaling cascades to enhance activation of membrane-bound retinal proteins and may also be involved in rhodopsin regeneration. Tissue DHA insufficiency is associated with alterations in retinal function. Visual processing deficits have been ameliorated with DHA supplementation

  14. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress NHE-1 upregulation in a rabbit model of volume- and pressure-overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Ravesloot, Jan H.; Coronel, Ruben; Verkerk, Arie O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-PUFAs) from fish oil (FO) may have cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HE). The cardiac Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE-1) is a key mediator for these detrimental cardiac

  15. EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID IN THE HEALING PROCESS OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    CASTILHO, Tiago Jacometo Coelho de; CAMPOS, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; MELLO, Eneri Vieira de Souza Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has been studied in the context of healing and tissue regeneration mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and antioncogenic properties. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects with the use of enteral immunonutrition containing various farmaconutrients such as L-arginine, omega-3, trace elements, but the individual action of each component in the healing of colonic anastomosis remains unclear. Aim: To e...

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and acute neurological trauma: a perspective on clinical translation*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman Stacy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute neurological trauma remains one of the clinical areas with the most significant unmet needs worldwide. In the central nervous system, acute trauma has two stages: the primary injury and the secondary injury. The former is irreversible, and is a direct consequence of the impact. In the aftermath of the injury, a complex series of processes exacerbate the injury and amplify tissue damage. Some of these processes are local, others involve a systemic response. It is these processes which ultimately determine the clinical outcome. The aim of the treatments is a to confer neuroprotection and b to promote neuroregeneration. The results reported so far with omega-3 fatty acids in animal models of neurotrauma suggest that these compounds have the potential to offer a novel therapeutic approach and target both protection and regeneration. They lead to increased neuronal and glial survival, they can limit the damaging neuroinflammation and they can also protect neurites. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have a complex pharmacodynamics, which leads potentially to the activation of a multitude of targets, including voltage and ligand-gated ion channels, transcription factors and G-protein coupled receptors. They can produce tissue-specific metabolites which have intrinsic activity, either on the same or on different cellular targets. The apparent large therapeutic window of omega-3 fatty acids is an advantage in the context of trauma, with patients in an unstable state, with multiple injuries. The specific use of omega-3 fatty acids in spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve injury will be discussed, focusing on issues which need to be addressed in order to translate successfully to the clinic the efficacy reported in the initial proof of concept animal studies.

  17. Prevention of ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation by omega 3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Billman, G E; Hallaq, H; Leaf, A

    1994-01-01

    A specially prepared dog model of myocardial infarction was used to test the efficacy of the long-chain polyunsaturated fish oil omega 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acids to prevent ischemia-induced malignant cardiac arrhythmias. The dogs had sustained a prior experimental myocardial infarction from ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and a hydraulic cuff was implanted around the left circumflex artery at that operation. After r...

  18. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Reverse Cholesterol Transport: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzini, Alex; Lunger, Lukas; Demetz, Egon; Hilbe, Richard; Weiss, Guenter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Tancevski, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on cardiovascular disease have been studied extensively. However, it remains unclear to what extent n-3 PUFAs may impact Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT). RCT describes a mechanism by which excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues is transported to the liver for hepatobiliary excretion, thereby inhibiting foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the literatu...

  19. The role of Omega-3 and Omega-9 fatty acids for the treatment of neuropathic pain after neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Arriero, Iriana; Serrano-Muñoz, Diego; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goicoechea, Carlos; Taylor, Julian; Velasco, Ana; Ávila-Martín, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosaexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA) and 2-hydroxy oleic acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models. These FAs reduces noxious hyperreflexia and pain-related anxiety behavior following peripheral nerve injury and improves sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury (SCI), including facilitation of descending inhibitory antinociception. The relative safe profile of neuroactive fatty acids (FAs) holds promise for the future clinical development of these molecules as analgesic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN LEMURU [Characteristics of Microcapsule of omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

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    Teti Estiasih 1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w on characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging omega-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.

  1. Awareness of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Possible Health Effects among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Rattner, Jodi; Brauer, Paula; Mutch, David M

    2018-03-16

    To assess awareness of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their possible health effects among young adults. An online survey was deployed to young adults. Questionnaire development involved identification of topic areas by content experts and adaptation of questions from previous consumer surveys. Focus groups and cognitive interviews ensured face validity, feasibility, and clarity of survey questions. Degrees of awareness and self-reported consumption were assessed by descriptive statistics and associations by Cochran's Q tests, Pearson's χ 2 tests, Z-tests, and logistic regression. Of the 834 survey completers (aged 18-25 years), more respondents recognized the abbreviations EPA (∼51%) and DHA (∼66%) relative to ALA (∼40%; P ≤ 0.01). Most respondents (∼83%) recognized that EPA and DHA have been linked to heart and brain health. Respondents who used academic/reputable sources, healthcare professionals, and/or social media to obtain nutritional information were more likely to report awareness of these health effects (P ≤ 0.01). Finally, 48% of respondents reported purchasing or consuming omega-3 foods, while 21% reported taking omega-3 supplements. This baseline survey suggests a high level of awareness of some aspects of omega-3 fats and health in a sample of young adults, and social media has become a prominent source of nutrition and health information.

  2. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

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    Carla R V Coelho

    Full Text Available A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1 modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2 increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets.

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Critical Illness: Anti-Inflammatory, Proresolving, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Prognosis and outcomes of critically ill patients are strictly related with inflammatory status. Inflammation involves a multitude of interactions between different cell types and chemical mediators. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are able to inhibit different pathways including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and interactions, and production of inflammatory cytokines, through the action of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). SPMs from omega-6 fatty acids, such as lipoxins, and from omega-3 fatty acids such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, act in reducing/resolving the inflammatory process in critical diseases, stimulating the phases of resolution of inflammation. In this light, the resolution of inflammation is nowadays considered as an active process, instead of a passive process. In critical illness, SPMs regulate the excessive posttrauma inflammatory response, protecting organs from damage. This review focuses on the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents. PMID:28694914

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

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    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  5. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

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    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  6. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Critical Illness: Anti-Inflammatory, Proresolving, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and outcomes of critically ill patients are strictly related with inflammatory status. Inflammation involves a multitude of interactions between different cell types and chemical mediators. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are able to inhibit different pathways including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and interactions, and production of inflammatory cytokines, through the action of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs. SPMs from omega-6 fatty acids, such as lipoxins, and from omega-3 fatty acids such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, act in reducing/resolving the inflammatory process in critical diseases, stimulating the phases of resolution of inflammation. In this light, the resolution of inflammation is nowadays considered as an active process, instead of a passive process. In critical illness, SPMs regulate the excessive posttrauma inflammatory response, protecting organs from damage. This review focuses on the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents.

  7. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders--linking the sea and the soul. 'Food for Thought' I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, B D; Parker, G B

    2011-07-01

    While there has long been interest in any nutritional contribution to the onset and treatment of mood disorders, there has been increasing scientific evaluation of several candidate nutritional and dietary factors in recent years. In this inaugural study of our 'Food for Thought' series, we will overview the evidence for any role of omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in regulating mood. Relevant literature was identified through online database searches and cross-referencing. Plausible mechanisms exist by which omega-3 FA may influence neuronal function and mood. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and both depressive and bipolar disorders. Studies investigating the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for mood disorders have however provided inconsistent results. The proportion of treatment studies showing a significant advantage of omega-3 supplementation has dropped over the last 5 years. However, the vast heterogeneity of the trials in terms of constituent omega-3 FAs, dose and length of treatment makes comparisons of these studies difficult. More research is required before omega-3 supplementation can be firmly recommended as an effective treatment for mood disorders. Whereas increased omega-3 FA intake may alleviate depressive symptoms, there is little evidence of any benefit for mania. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Serum omega-3 fatty acids are associated with ultimatum bargaining behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Brondino, Natascia; Re, Simona; Bertona, Marco; Geroldi, Diego

    2009-01-08

    In the ultimatum game (UG), two players are involved to bargain over a division of a given sum of money. The proposer makes an ultimatum offer of a fraction of money, while the responder can either accept or reject the proposer's decision. In case of rejection of the proposed splitting by the responder, neither player gets anything. Adverse psychological reactions are deemed to play a role in the rejection of unfair offers. Low serum levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been linked to impulse control and hostility. This study examined the serum omega-3 and omega-6 fractions in relation to the ultimatum bargaining behavior. Participants were sixty economy students (31 males and 29 females, mean age: 24.4+/-2.3 years) who played a euro 10 ultimatum game. Ultimatum offers were constrained to be euro 5 (proposer keeps euro 5) or euro 1 (proposer keeps euro 9) to generate a roughly even split between fair (5:5) and unfair (1:9) offers. Fasting serum alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were assayed with gas chromatography. In participants who rejected unfair offers there was a significant depletion of ALA, EPA and DHA. Moreover, the ratio of serum omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids was significantly lower in patients who rejected unfair offers as compared to those who did not. The results of this study suggest that a depletion of the serum omega-3 fatty acids is associated with rejections of unfair ultimatum offers in an experimental neuroeconomic setting.

  9. Omega 3 Fatty Acid inhibition of inflammatory cytokine-mediated Connexin43 regulation in the heart

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    Jennifer R Baum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, which increases in the heart post myocardial infarction (MI, has been shown to cause loss of Connexin43 (Cx43 function, an event known to underlie formation of the arrhythmogenic substrate. Omega 3 Fatty acids exhibit antiarrhythmic properties and impact IL-1β signaling. We hypothesize that Omega-3 fatty acids prevent arrhythmias in part, by inhibiting IL-1β signaling thus maintaining functional Cx43 channels. Methods: Rat neonatal myocytes or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial (MDCK cells grown in media in the absence (Ctr or presence of 30μM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an Omega-3 Fatty acid were treated with 0.1μM activated IL-1β. We determined Cx43 channel function using a dye spread assay. Western blot and immunostaining were used to examine Cx43 levels/localization and downstream effectors of IL-1 β. In addition we used a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI for 24 hours to determine the impact of an Omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet on Cx43 levels/localization post myocardial infarction.Results: IL-1β significantly inhibited Cx43 function in Ctr cells (200.9 +/- 17.7 μm [Ctr] vs. 112.8 +/- 14.9 μm [0.1uM IL-1β], p<0.05. However, DHA-treated cells remained highly coupled in the presence of IL-1β [167.9 +/- 21.9 μm [DHA] vs. 164.4 +/- 22.3 μm [DHA+0.1uM IL-1β], p<0.05, n=4. Additionally, western blot showed that IL-1β treatment caused a 38.5% downregulation of Cx43 [1.00au [Ctr] vs 0.615au (0.1μM IL-1β which was completely abolished in DHA treated cells (0.935au [DHA] vs. 1.02au [DHA+0.1μM IL-1β, p<0.05, n=3]. Examination of the downstream modulator of IL-1β, NFκβ showed that while hypoxia caused translocation of NFκβ to the nucleus, this was inhibited by DHA. Additionally we found that a diet enriched in Omega-3 Fatty acids inhibited lateralization of Cx43 in the post-myocardial infarction murine heart as well as limited activation of fibroblasts

  10. A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Henry; Mitra, Suparna; Croden, Fiona C; Taylor, Morag; Wood, Henry M; Perry, Sarah L; Spencer, Jade A; Quirke, Phil; Toogood, Giles J; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise; Loadman, Paul M; Hull, Mark A

    2017-09-26

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticolorectal cancer (CRC) activity. The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary omega-3 PUFAs alter the mouse intestinal microbiome compatible with antineoplastic activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on the faecal microbiome in middle-aged, healthy volunteers (n=22). A randomised, open-label, cross-over trial of 8 weeks' treatment with 4 g mixed eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid in two formulations (soft-gel capsules and Smartfish drinks), separated by a 12-week 'washout' period. Faecal samples were collected at five time-points for microbiome analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Both omega-3 PUFA formulations induced similar changes in RBC fatty acid content, except that drinks were associated with a larger, and more prolonged, decrease in omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid than the capsule intervention (p=0.02). There were no significant changes in α or β diversity, or phyla composition, associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, a reversible increased abundance of several genera, including Bifidobacterium , Roseburia and Lactobacillus was observed with one or both omega-3 PUFA interventions. Microbiome changes did not correlate with RBC omega-3 PUFA incorporation or development of omega-3 PUFA-induced diarrhoea. There were no treatment order effects. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation induces a reversible increase in several short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, independently of the method of administration. There is no simple relationship between the intestinal microbiome and systemic omega-3 PUFA exposure. ISRCTN18662143. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  11. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-06-11

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics.

  12. The impact of omega 3 fatty acids in atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness: An overview of their actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveniotis, Alexios; Siasos, Gerasimos; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Tsigkou, Vasiliki; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Zaromitidou, Marina; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Marinos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2018-03-20

    Fatty acids are common dietary nutrients particularly in economically developed countries. Research has revealed that omega-3fatty acids exert beneficial effects in the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid possess a number of biological actions which improve cardio-metabolic health. Omega-3 fatty acids display remarkable anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-arrythmogenic actions. Furthermore, they improve the levels of triglycerides, glucose metabolism and endothelial function. The aim of this review article is to present physical, biochemical and biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids and summarize the most important mechanisms of action on arterial wall properties and arterial stiffness in atherosclerosis. Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness can be regulated by the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids. The mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular health and arterial stiffening have been established. However, further research is needed in order to translate the conflicting results among the studies and improve the therapeutic options of cardiovascular disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Rosuvastatin, lycopene and omega-3 fatty acids: A potential treatment for systemic inflammation in COPD; a pilot study

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    Evan J. Williams

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that rosuvastatin, omega-3 fatty acids and lycopene have some anti-inflammatory effects systemically, but rosuvastatin may increase airway neutrophils, which would be undesirable in COPD patients, warranting further investigation.

  14. Depression and serum adiponectin and adipose omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Hatzis, Christos; Flouri, Sofia; Mantzoros, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate for a possible relationship between depression and serum adiponectin and adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA. The sample consisted of 90 healthy adolescent volunteers from the island of Crete. There were 54 girls and 36 boys, aged 13 to 18. The mean age was 15.2 years. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Depression was assessed through the use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue. CES-D correlated with dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that BDI was negatively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), while CES-D was positively associated with DGLA in adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin was not significantly associated with depression. The negative relationship between adipose EPA and depression in adolescents, is in line with findings of previous studies involving adult and elderly subjects, demonstrating negative relations between depression and adipose omega-3 PUFA. This is the first literature report of a relationship between depression and an individual omega-3 fatty acid in adolescents. The inverse relationship between adipose EPA and depression indicates that a low long-term dietary intake of EPA is associated with an increased risk for depression in adolescents.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Early Prevention of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disease: A Focus on Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J; Thomas, C J; Radcliffe, J; Itsiopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Furthermore, AD has provided the most positive indication to support the fact that inflammation contributes to neurodegenerative disease. The exact etiology of AD is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute, such as advancing age, family history, presence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, and poor diet and lifestyle. It is hypothesised that early prevention or management of inflammation could delay the onset or reduce the symptoms of AD. Normal physiological changes to the brain with ageing include depletion of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and brains of AD patients have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. DHA supplementation can reduce markers of inflammation. This review specifically focusses on the evidence in humans from epidemiological, dietary intervention, and supplementation studies, which supports the role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in AD in its early stages. Longer term trials with long chain omega-3 supplementation in early stage AD are warranted. We also highlight the importance of overall quality and composition of the diet to protect against AD and dementia.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: design and rationale of randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janczyk, Wojciech; Socha, Piotr; Lebensztejn, Dariusz; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Mazur, Artur; Neuhoff-Murawska, Joanna; Matusik, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome since obesity and insulin resistance are the main pathogenic contributors for both conditions. NAFLD carries increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. There is an urgent need to find effective and safe therapy for children and adults with NAFLD. Data from research and clinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in metabolic syndrome-related condition...

  17. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahida A Khan; Ahmad Makki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on t...

  20. Protection against fine particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Hao, Lei; Liu, Ying-Hua; Chen, Chih-Yu; Pai, Victor J; Kang, Jing X

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter, such as through air pollution, has been linked to the increased incidence of chronic diseases. However, few measures have been taken to reduce the health risks associated with fine particle exposure. The identification of safe and effective methods to protect against fine particle exposure-related damage is urgently needed. We used synthetic, non-toxic, fluorescent fine particles to investigate the physical distribution of inhaled fine particles and their effects on pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice. Tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids were elevated via dietary supplementation or the fat-1 transgenic mouse model. Markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation were assessed. We discovered that fine particulate matter not only accumulates in the lungs but can also penetrate the pulmonary barrier and travel into other organs, including the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testis. These particles induced both pulmonary and systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We also show that elevating tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids was effective in reducing fine particle-induced inflammation, whether as a preventive method (prior to exposure) or as an intervention (after exposure). These results advance our understanding of how fine particles contribute to disease development and suggest that increasing tissue omega-3 levels may be a promising nutritional means for reducing the risk of diseases induced by particle exposure. Our findings demonstrate that elevating tissue omega-3 levels can prevent and treat fine particle-induced health problems and thereby present an immediate, practical solution for reducing the disease burden of air pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction. © FASEB.

  2. NUTRITIONAL AND PROTECTIVE VALUES OF FISH – WITH EMPHSIS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the importance of fish as a life necessity in view of proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements and in comparison with high valued necessities of warm-blooded animals (meat, milk and eggs. Most literature information is related to the chemical components of meat, nutritional and biological values. Numerous papers have shown the components of fatty acids in fats of the most important freshwater and sea fish. According the contents of FPA (eicosapentaen fatty acids, 20:5 3 and DHA (docosaheksacn fatty acids, 22:6 3 the meat of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichtis molitrix can be compared to that of the highest quality sea fish. In the last 20 years many authors mentioned the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of heart attack, stroke, artherosclerosis, high blood pressure, psoriasis, thrombosis and arthritis.

  3. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

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    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  4. Attitudes and intentions toward purchasing novel foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G

    2005-01-01

    To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Two subsamples were surveyed via questionnaire: community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n = 79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 50). Using the TPB variables-intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control-questionnaire items were constructed to measure intention to consume omega-3-enriched novel foods. The results from subsamples did not differ and were combined for analysis. The determinants of intention defined in the TPB were investigated using multiple linear regressions. Regression analysis showed that the model was a significant determinant of intention (R2 = .725; P intention, whereas subjective norms and control beliefs were not. With attitude having the greatest influence on intentions, immediate prospects for modifying behavior are likely to come through a change in attitude, specifically in beliefs about the effectiveness of enriched products in achieving specific health benefits. Promoters of omega-3-enriched foods would be advised to direct their promotions toward changing the attitudes of consumers about the effectiveness of the functional ingredient.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  7. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  8. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

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    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  9. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

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    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  10. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Tajuddin N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing

  11. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

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    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  12. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mindrescu; Rakesh P Gupta; Eileen V Hermance; Mary C DeVoe; Vikas R Soma; et al

    2008-01-01

    Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on endothel...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Samira; Cooney, Josephine; Packard, Christopher J; Caslake, Muriel; Deighan, Christopher J

    2009-07-01

    Patients with nephrotic range proteinuria have a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and lipoproteins contribute to this increased risk with an abundance of atherogenic triglyceride (TG) rich apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. TG rich lipoproteins predominate postprandially and are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oils have been shown to have beneficial effects on lipids and lipoproteins in patients without proteinuria. 17 patients with nephrotic range proteinuria and 17 age and sex matched controls were studied. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed in patients and controls, before and after 8 weeks treatment with 4 g daily of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor). A standard fat load (90 g) was administered and blood sampling was performed in the fasting state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8h after the fat load. Chylomicrons and VLDL(1) density fraction was isolated from plasma by density ultracentrifugation. Postprandial chylomicron and VLDL(1) triglyceride concentrations were measured and quantified using the incremental area under the curve (AUC) method. Baseline postprandial chylomicron TG AUC was greater in patients compared with controls: median 18.5 mmol/lh (interquartile range 8.9-32.6) vs 9.3 mmol/lh (4.8-14.4) p=0.05. Following treatment patient chylomicron AUC fell [mean reduction 6.8 mmol/lh (95% CI 0.1-13.6) p=0.05]. No significant reduction in chylomicron AUC was observed in the controls [mean reduction 3.9 mmol/lh (95% CI -3.6 to 11.5)]. As a result, following 8 weeks treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, patient and control chylomicron AUC were no longer significantly different [patients 13.5 mmol/lh (7.4-22.9), controls 7.2 mmol/lh (4.6-14.5) both median and IQR, p=nsd]. VLDL(1) TG AUC did not differ at baseline between patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on VLDL(1) AUC following treatment in either

  15. Immunoregulating Potential of Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Usage for Frequent Infectious Diseases Prevention in Children

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    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Last years more and more investigations aim to study immune modulating function of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA the usage of which in practice could prevent development of acute respiratory diseases and allergic states. Among majority of LCPUFA omega 3 fatty acids are of greater interest. The authors of this article review several stu­dies and represents own investigation of impact of dietary supplement with omega 3 fatty acids complex («Omegami Smart Kid» on acute respiratory diseases reduction in children with recurrent forms of acute respiratory infectious pathology. Immunotropic action of dietary supplement of «Omegami Smart Kid» in children was associated with enhanced functioning of congenital and adaptive immunity. Immunoregulating target was associated with limited pro-inflammatory inclination of immunity as a nitro blue tetrazolium reduction test improvement, decreased CD25 and serum content of tumor necrosis factor α while an absence of concurrent immune suppression of anti-microbial protective potential.

  16. Vitamin D enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhu, Shenglong; Lin, Guangxiao; Song, Ci; He, Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading type of cancer in women and generally classified into three subtypes of ER + /PR + , HER2 + and triple negative. Both omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D 3 play positive role in the reduction of breast cancer incidence. However, whether combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D 3 has stronger protective effect on breast carcinogenesis still remains unknown. In this study, we show that the combination of ω-3 free fatty acids (ω-3 FFAs) and 1α, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 (VD 3 ) dramatically enhances cell apoptosis among three subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. Bcl-2 and total PARP protein levels are decreased in combined treatment MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. Caspase signals play a vital role in cell apoptosis induced by combination. Moreover, Raf-MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis induction by combination of ω-3 FFAs+VD 3 . These results demonstrate that the induction of cell apoptosis by combined treatment is dependent on different signaling pathways in three subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Controversial Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Xuejing; Gao, Peng; Yang, Shikun; Han, Yachun; Chen, Xianghui; Xiao, Li; Yuan, Shuguang; Liu, Fuyou; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Sun, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem which contributes to a significant morbidity and mortality in China. Concomitant inflammatory state further boosts the mortality due to cardiovascular events in patients with CKD undergoing dialysis. There is a general notion that Omega-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) have certain health benefits perhaps via the regulation of inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with CKD is controversial. We analyzed the data of oral supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in CKD patients by searching literature on database from inception to August 2016. The analysis included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) derived from multiple databases, and the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation versus the control cohorts were compared. All of the data analysis was calculated by RevMan 5.2. A total of 12 RCTs involving 487 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Among them 254 patients received omega-3 fatty acids and 233 patients served as controls who received placebo. The meta-analysis revealed no statistical significance in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.44 to 0.05; P = 0.11), IL-6 (SMD, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.33 to 0.33; P = 0.99) and TNF-α (SMD, 0.14; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.44; P = 0.38) between the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation group and control. This suggested that there is insufficient evidence to conclude the benefit of omega-3 fatty acids oral supplementation in reducing serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in patients with CKD. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  18. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

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    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effects of Glutamine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erythrocyte Deformability and Oxidative Damage in Rat Model of Enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cehreli, Ruksan; Akpinar, Hale; Artmann, Aysegul Temiz; Sagol, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate preventive effects of glutamine (Gln), omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on erythrocyte deformability (EDEF) in rat model of indomethacin-induced enterocolitis. Methods Nineteen Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups: control group, colitis induced by indomethacin and were fed with a standard laboratory diet (group 1), and colitis induced by indomethacin and were also fed with Gln, omega-3 FA (group 2). An investigation was performed i...

  1. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by o...

  2. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and ionizing irradiation on human breast cancer xenograft growth and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ivan L

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of an omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid enriched diet alone and in combination with gamma irradiation (IR therapy in nude mice bearing a human MDA-MB231 breast cancer xenograft were tested. The cancer cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of young female mice. Six weeks later, mice were randomly divided into two diet groups: 1 mice with 10% corn oil (rich in omega 6 fatty acids in their food, 2 mice consuming a 10% fat diet that was enriched in n-3 fatty acids. After two weeks on the diet, treatment with 200 cGy of IR every second day for four treatments (total 800 cGy was initiated on half of the mice from each diet group. Some mice in each of the 4 groups were euthanized 24 hours after the end of IR while the remaining mice were followed for 3 additional weeks. Tumor sections were stained for endothelial cells with CD31 and PAS and for hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-α. Results The tumor cortex within 100 microns of the well-vascularized capsule had little vascularization. Blood vessels, capillaries, and endothelial pseudopods were found at areas greater than 100 microns from the capsule (subcortex. Mice on the corn oil diet and treated with IR 24 hours previously or non-irradiated mice fed the n-3 diet had tumors with fewer blood vessels in the subcortex and more endothelial pseudopods projecting into hypoxic (HIF- α positive areas than did mice from the non-irradiated corn oil fed group. The tumor growth rate of mice that received IR or that were fed the n-3 fatty acid enriched diet was significantly slower than in the mice fed the 10% corn oil diet. Harmful side effects were found only in the IR treated mice. Conclusion The omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet proved to be a safe means for retarding tumor growth and vascularization.

  3. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  4. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

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    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  5. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Attenuates Organic Dust-Induced Airway Inflammation

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    Tara M. Nordgren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Workers exposed to organic dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing airway inflammatory diseases. Available preventative and therapeutic measures for alleviating dust-induced lung disease are inadequate. Because omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammatory processes, we aimed to determine whether nutritional supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA could reduce the airway inflammatory consequences of exposures to organic dust. Aqueous extracts of organic dusts from swine CAFOs (ODE were utilized. In DHA-pretreated human bronchial epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, monocyte cell cultures, and precision-cut murine lung slices, we found that DHA pretreatment dose-dependently decreased ODE-induced inflammatory cytokine production. To determine the in vivo significance of DHA, C57BL/6 mice were orally administered DHA for seven days prior to treatment with intranasal ODE or saline inhalations. Animals treated with 2 mg DHA demonstrated significant reductions in ODE-induced bronchial alveolar lavage neutrophil influx and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production compared to mice exposed to ODE alone. Collectively, these data demonstrate that DHA affects several lung cells to reduce the airway inflammatory response to organic dust exposures. Dietary supplementation with DHA may be an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce the airway inflammatory consequences in individuals exposed to agriculture dust environments.

  6. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

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    Nur Farhana Ahmad Sopian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6, standard pellet added with 10% (w/w fish oil (FO, n = 6, 10% (w/w soybean oil (SO, n = 6 and 10% (w/w butter (BT, n = 6. After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.

  7. α-linolenic omega-3 fatty acid for stroke protection: from brain preconditioning paradigm to nutrition

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    Blondeau Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third leading cause of death, due to its high incidence, the severity of the insult, and lack of treatment options. The only therapeutic is restoration of cerebral blood flow achieved by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment, but only approximately 5% of patients receive it. In addition, therapeutics aimed at achieving neuroprotection by blocking the ischemic cascade, as identified in numerous preclinical studies, failed in clinical trials. This failure in translation from experimental models to clinical trials led to a re-evaluation of properties which would constitute the ‘‘best-in class’’ therapeutics to be used against stroke. Given that neuroprotection appears ineffective per se, an emerging direction is to identify therapies, probably combinatorial in nature, which protect the whole neurovascular unit and target timedependent neurotoxic mechanisms. Molecules that activate complex cellular signaling cascades that render the brain resistant to subsequent ischemia, known as preconditioners, offer a novel perspective in stroke protection. Preconditioning elicits complex endogenous neuroprotective responses that act by pleiotropic mechanisms to block death pathways, promote survival pathways and increase resistance. In addition to chemical preconditioners, natural/endogenous compounds such as adenosine, glutamate, lysophospholipids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated to be excellent preconditioners. Consequently, a major new concept in preconditioning to combat stroke is introduced, which is preconditioning achieved through supplementation of an essential item in diet or as a nutraceutical. Several epidemiologic studies suggested a beneficial effect of a seafood/omega-3-enriched diet in cerebral diseases, but the omega-3-induced protective mechanisms are still poorly identified. This review highlights how α-linolenic acid (ALA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor

  8. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

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    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD.

  10. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

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    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  11. The influence of Omega3 fatty acids supplementation against aluminum-induced toxicity in male albino rats.

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    Oda, Samah S

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the protective and antioxidant potential of Omega3 fatty acids (FAs) against aluminum intoxicated male albino rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group I served as control; group II (Omega3-treated) received Omega3 FAs 1000 mg/kg bwt/day orally; group III (aluminum-treated) received aluminum chloride 100 mg/kg bwt/day orally and group IV (aluminum + Omega3-treated) received aluminum chloride 100 mg/kg bwt/day and Omega3 FAs 1000 mg/kg bwt/day orally. Treatments lasted for 4 weeks. Results indicate that administration of aluminum chloride showed non-significant changes in serum alanine aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine levels, a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and malondialdehyde as well as a significant reduction in serum-reduced glutathione levels. Aluminum treatment induced histopathological alterations in the liver, kidney, brain, testes, and epididymis. Omega3 FAs supplementation improved the serum parameters, enhanced endogenous antioxidant status, reduced lipid peroxidation, and ameliorated the intensity of the histopathological lesions. These findings reveal that Omega3 FAs supplementation can lighten the toxic effects of aluminum through their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging effects.

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for improving peripheral nerve health: protocol for a systematic review.

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    Zhang, Alexis Ceecee; MacIsaac, Richard J; Roberts, Leslie; Kamel, Jordan; Craig, Jennifer P; Busija, Lucy; Downie, Laura E

    2018-03-25

    Damage to peripheral nerves occurs in a variety of health conditions. Preserving nerve integrity, to prevent progressive nerve damage, remains a clinical challenge. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are implicated in the development and maintenance of healthy nerves and may be beneficial for promoting peripheral nerve health. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation on peripheral nerve integrity, including both subjective and objective measures of peripheral nerve structure and/or function. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on peripheral nerve assessments will be conducted. Comprehensive electronic database searches will be performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The title, abstract and keywords of identified articles will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers. Full-text articles will be obtained for all studies judged as eligible or potentially eligible; these studies will be independently assessed by two reviewers to determine eligibility. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias assessment will be performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool to appraise the quality of included studies. If clinically meaningful, and there are a sufficient number of eligible studies, a meta-analysis will be conducted and a summary of findings table will be provided. This is a systematic review that will involve the analysis of previously published data, and therefore ethics approval is not required. A manuscript reporting the results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and may also be presented at relevant scientific conferences. CRD42018086297. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  13. Enrichment of spreadable fats with polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 using fish oil.

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    Kolanowski, W; Swiderski, F; Lis, E; Berger, S

    2001-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 series, especially very long chain--eicosapenta- and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA, DHA)--exert a strongly desirable influence on health. However, their intake with the western-style diet is usually too low which favours development of many diseases (CVD, cancers, allergies, etc.). Nowadays elevation of EPA and DHA intake is commonly recommended, but almost the only dietary source of them is seafoods, especially fish. A new way to increase the intake of long-chain omega-3 without radical changes of eating patterns is enrichment of regularly consumed foods with unhydrogenated fish oil. The aim of this study was to establish sensory and nutritionally acceptable enrichment level of low-calorie spreadable fats (soft margarine and mix of butter and vegetable oil) with EPA and DHA by addition of fish oil preparations (ROPUFA--30% EPA, DHA and MARITEX--10%), and evaluation of the stability of enriched spreads during storage (sensory and chemical). It was shown that tested spreadable fats might be enriched up to 1% EPA, DHA (i.e. 3% ROPUFA, 8% MARITEX), and that this had no significant influence on sensory acceptability. Both used fish oils which exerted similar influence on the quality of fats. An enriched mix of butter and vegetable oil and margarine may be stored up to 3 and 6 weeks respectively without significant decrease of quality. Peroxide value and acid numbers were not much affected by enrichment and storage. Daily portion (25-30 g/day) of spreadable fats enriched on the level established in the study may provide 0.2-0.3 g EPA, DHA, significantly increasing the amount of long-chain omega-3 in the diet above those eaten normally.

  14. Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

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    Moreau, M; Troncy, E; Del Castillo, J R E; Bédard, C; Gauvin, D; Lussier, B

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded trial was to compare the effect of a veterinary therapeutic diet (VTD) rich in omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) from fish origin to a regular diet used as control (CTR) over a period of 13 weeks in dogs afflicted by naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty privately owned dogs were selected. Dogs had lameness confirmed by an orthopaedic examination, had stifle/hip OA and had locomotor disability based on the peak of the vertically oriented ground reaction force (PVF) measured using a force platform. At Baseline, all owners were asked to determine 2-5 activities of daily living that were the most impaired. Activities were scores (0-4) in accordance with severity using case-specific outcome measures (CSOM). The PVF was also measured. Dogs (15/group) were then randomly assigned to receive either the CTR or the VTD. The CSOM was completed twice weekly. The recording of PVF was repeated at Week 7 and 13. The VTD-fed dogs showed a significantly higher PVF at Week 7 (p dogs had a mean (± SD) change in PVF recording of 3.5 ± 6.8% of body weight (%BW) compared with 0.5 ± 6.1%BW (p = 0.211) in CTR-fed dogs. This change in primary outcome was consistent with an effect size of 0.5. Conversely, dogs fed the CTR did not show significant change in PVF measurements. At the end of the study, the CSOM was significantly decreased (p = 0.047) only in VTD fed dogs. In lame OA dogs, a VTD that contains high level of omega-3 from fish origin improved the locomotor disability and the performance in activities of daily living. Such nutritional approach appears interesting for the management of OA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Regulation of diet containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on retinal neovascularization in mice

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    Qin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the regulation mechanism of diet containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(ω-3 PUFAson retinal neovascularization in an oxygen-induced retinopathy(OIRmouse model. METHODS: Sixty C57BL /6J mice, seven-day-old, were classified into 3 groups: A the normal control group, B the OIR model group, C the ω-3 PUFAs diet group. Each group has twenty mice and separated fed by their lactating mice. The normal control group was fed in a standard atmosphere environment, B, C groups were first fed in a hyper-oxygen atmosphere of(75±2% oxygen percentage for 5d, then continue fed in a standard atmosphere. The ω-3 PUFAs diet group was fed with dose base on their weight by 7.5mg/kg/d. All mice were sacrificed when they were seventeen-day-old, the relative neovascularization areas(NAwere calculated by fluorescein angiography on flat-mounted retina. The number of endothelial cell nuclei breaking through the inner linmiting membrane(ILMwas counted on hematoxylin and eosin-stained retinal section. The ω-3PUFAs/ω-6PUFAs relative amount and ratio was measured by GC-MS in the retina. A real-time PCR and Western Blot method were used to detect the mRNA, peroxisome proliferator-avtivated receptor–γ(RPAR-γ, vascular endothelial growth factor-A(VEGF-Aand vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR-2in the retina. RESULTS: There was a significant different in all groups on the relative neovascularization areas and the number of endothelial cell nuclei breaking through the ILM(FNA=20.45, PILM=48.66, Pt=8.64, Pt=8.91, Pt=38.51, Pt=19.86, PF=129.86, F=112.44; all Pt=23.15, 25.42; t=16.43, 11.95; PFω-3/6=10.30, FRPAR-γ=138.24, FVEGF-A=69.12, FVEGFR-2=52.45; PPPPCONCLUSION:The diet rich with ω-3 PUFAs uplifts the ω-3PUFAs/ω-6PUFAs ratio and activates RPAR-γ to lower expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 to inhabit oxygen induced retinal neovascularization.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids alter behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in animals subjected to fenproporex administration.

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    Model, Camila S; Gomes, Lara M; Scaini, Giselli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Rezin, Gislaine T; Steckert, Amanda V; Valvassori, Samira S; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-03-01

    Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidences indicate that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids play several important roles in brain development and functioning. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests roles for ω3 fatty acids in BD. Considering these evidences, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ω3 fatty acids on locomotor behavior and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS and protein carbonyl content) in brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by fenproporex. The fenproporex treatment increased locomotor behavior in saline-treated rats under reversion and prevention model, and ω3 fatty acids prevented fenproporex-related hyperactivity. Moreover, fenproporex increased protein carbonyls in the prefrontal cortex and cerebral cortex, and the administration of ω3 fatty acids reversed this effect. Lipid peroxidation products also are increased in prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral after fenproporex administration, but ω3 fatty acids reversed this damage only in the hippocampus. On the other hand, in the prevention model, fenproporex increased carbonyl content only in the cerebral cortex, and administration of ω3 fatty acids prevented this damage. Additionally, the administration of fenproporex resulted in a marked increased of TBARS in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, and prevent this damage in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that fenproporex-induced hyperlocomotion and damage through oxidative stress were prevented by ω3 fatty acids. Thus, the ω3 fatty acids may be important adjuvant therapy of bipolar disorder.

  17. Beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids in gestational diabetes: consequences in macrosomia and adulthood obesity.

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    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

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    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  19. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

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    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose  To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods  The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids , omega-3 , human milk and supplementation ; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results  All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion  Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Is Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Nutrition Support Safe for Critical Ill Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Wei Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effects of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (FA enriched nutrition support on the mortality of critically illness patients. Methods: Databases of Medline, ISI, Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedicine Database were searched and randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified. We enrolled RCTs that compared fish oil enriched nutrition support and standard nutrition support. Major outcome is mortality. Methodological quality assessment was conducted based on Modified Jadad’s score scale. For control heterogeneity, we developed a method that integrated I2 test, nutritional support route subgroup analysis and clinical condition of severity. RevMan 5.0 software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark was used for meta-analysis. Results: Twelve trials involving 1208 patients that met all the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity existed between the trials. A random model was used, there was no significant effect on mortality RR, 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.62, 1.09, p = 0.18. Knowing that the route of fish oil administration may affect heterogeneity, we categorized the trials into two sub-groups: parenteral administration (PN of omega-3 and enteral administration (EN of omega-3. Six trials administered omega-3 FA through PN. Pooled results indicated that omega-3 FA had no significant effect on mortality, RR 0.76, 95% CI (0.52, 1.10, p = 0.15. Six trials used omega-3 fatty acids enriched EN. After excluded one trial that was identified as source of heterogeneity, pooled data indicated omega-3 FA enriched EN significant reduce mortality, RR=0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.91] (p = 0.007. Conclusion: Omega-3 FA enriched nutrition support is safe. Due to the limited sample size of the included trials, further large-scale RCTs are needed.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

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    Jing Hu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004 but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482 or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296. However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047. In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease.

  2. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Elahe Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa-tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure-ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con-centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048 compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.

  3. Hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: prevention with diet therapy and omega-3 fatty acids in the following pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Kiyomi; Miyoshi, Junya; Matsumura, Takeshi; Honda, Ritsuo; Ohba, Takashi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis complicating pregnancy is rare and has previously been associated with high mortality rates. We report a case of repeated hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy. During the patient's first pregnancy, acute pancreatitis was elicited in the third trimester by pregnancy-induced hypertriglyceridemia. The patient was treated successfully with a conservative treatment course. The hypertriglyceridemia recurred during her second pregnancy. She carried the pregnancy to term without incident while maintaining a diet low in fat diet and high in omega-3 fatty acids. Early diagnosis and intensive treatment can help to preserve the lives of the patient and the fetus. Prophylactic diet therapy and omega-3 fatty acids may prevent recurrent hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy.

  4. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2017-06-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  5. Reprint of: Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2018-04-12

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Katherine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, one that is associated with significant psychological disability. The psychological impairments in acne include higher rates of depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal thoughts. Despite a paucity of clinical research, patients with skin conditions and/or mental health disorders are frequent consumers of dietary supplements. An overlap may exist between nutrients that potentially have both anti-acne and mood regulating properties; examples include omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, chromium, zinc and selenium. Here we report on five cases of acne treated with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidant nutrients. Self-administration of these nutrients may have improved inflammatory acne lesions and global aspects of well-being; the observations suggest a need for controlled trials.

  8. Grocery store podcast about omega-3 fatty acids influences shopping behaviors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Deepika; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether listening to a podcast about omega-3 fatty acids (n-3s) while grocery shopping increased shoppers' awareness about and purchases of seafood and other foods rich in n-3s. Repeated-measures design with a convenience sample (n = 56) of grocery shoppers who listened to the podcast while shopping. Pre- and postintervention semistructured interviews were conducted. The Theory of Reasoned Action was the study's framework. Shoppers were primarily females (mean age, 41 ± 15.3 years). Their perceived ability to buy [t(55) = 6.27, P planned future purchases. Podcasts may effectively communicate nutrition information. More research with a larger sample size is needed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on long-term changes in shopping behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in a population at risk for future rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ryan W.; Young, Kendra A.; Zerbe, Gary O.; Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Weisman, Michael H.; Buckner, Jane H.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Mikuls, Ted R.; O’Dell, James R.; Keating, Richard M.; Clare-Salzler, Michael J.; Deane, Kevin D.; Holers, V. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplement use and omega-3 FAs in erythrocyte membranes [omega-3 FA % in erythrocyte membranes (RBC)] and their association with anti-CCP autoantibodies in a population without RA, but who are at genetic risk for RA. Methods. The multicentre Studies of the Etiology of RA (SERA) cohort includes RA-free subjects who are first-degree relatives of RA probands or are enriched with the HLA-DR4 allele. In a nested case-control study, 30 SERA cases were identified who were anti-CCP2 antibody positive. We further identified 47 autoantibody negative controls, frequency matched to cases on age at study visit, sex, race and study site. Anti-CCP2 status, self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs were obtained from a single visit. Results. Anti-CCP2 positive cases were less likely than controls to report omega-3 FA supplement use (odds ratio: 0.14; 95% CI 0.03, 0.68). In addition, the likelihood of anti-CCP2 positivity was inversely associated with total omega-3 FA % in RBCs (odds ratio: 0.47; 95% CI 0.24, 0.92, for a s.d. increase). Conclusion. The inverse association between anti-CCP2 positivity and self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs suggests that omega-3 FAs may protect against the development of RA-related autoimmunity in pre-clinical RA. PMID:26370400

  10. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles.

  11. The effects of olive oil, hydrogenated palm oil, and omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets on megakaryocytes and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, P K; Wojenski, C M; Walker, J

    1993-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are thought to prevent thrombotic and arteriosclerotic disease, whereas saturated fatty acids are thought to increase the incidence of these disorders. However, the effects of these diets on megakaryocytes and platelets are not well understood. We compared the effects of diets enriched with 8.4% olive oil, 8.4% hydrogenated palm oil, or 10.2% omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on guinea pig megakaryocytes and platelets. In plasma, changes in fatty acid composition reflected the composition of each diet. However, in platelets and megakaryocytes, hydrogenated palm oil induced a decrease in 16:0 and an increase in 18:2 while the olive oil diet caused a marked increase in 18:1 and a decrease in most other fatty acids. The differences in the effects of the diets on cellular versus plasma fatty acids suggest that megakaryocytes and platelets have an extensive capacity to regulate their fatty acid composition. Thrombocytosis occurred with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet: 12.9 +/- 1.78 x 10(5) compared with 7.45 +/- 1.08 x 10(5) platelets per microliter of platelet-rich plasma in control animals. There was an increase in megakaryocyte size, ploidy, and morphological stage (cytoplasmic maturation) with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet but not with the other diets. The omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet decreased platelet thromboxane production while the other diets had no effect. Platelet hypersensitivity was suggested in collagen aggregation studies with olive oil but not with the hydrogenated palm oil diet. Although saturated fatty acid diets are thought to be atherogenic, this diet had no affect on platelet function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Update on the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia – focus on free fatty acid forms of omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirillo A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Pirillo,1,2 Alberico Luigi Catapano2,3 1Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 2IRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Abstract: High levels of plasma triglycerides (TG are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, often associated with anomalies in other lipids or lipoproteins. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG, particularly at very high levels, significantly increases also the risk of acute pancreatitis. Thus, interventions to lower TG levels are required to reduce the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies may be adopted for TG reduction, including lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. Among the available drugs, the most commonly used for HTG are fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (usually a mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. These last are available under different concentrated formulations containing high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, including a mixture of EPA and DHA or pure EPA. The most recent formulation contains a free fatty acid (FFA form of EPA and DHA, and exhibits a significantly higher bioavailability compared with the ethyl ester forms contained in the other formulations. This is due to the fact that the ethyl ester forms, to be absorbed, need to be hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to fat intake, while the FFA do not. This higher bioavailability translates into a higher TG-lowering efficacy compared with the ethyl ester forms at equivalent doses. Omega-3 FFA are effective in reducing TG levels and other lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients as well as in high cardiovascular risk patients treated with statins and residual HTG. Currently, omega-3 FFA formulation is under evaluation to establish whether, in high cardiovascular risk

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Curado Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP and other inflammatory mediators. Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795; 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997 were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080 mg EPA + 200 mg DHA, for 12 weeks and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV = pre-treatment (T0 − post-treatment (T1 concentrations] between groups. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The median (interquartile range - IQR of age was 37 (29-48 years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13 years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2. The median (IQR of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p = 0.008. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Conclusions: Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado Borges, Mariane; de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Fabiana; Weiss Telles, Rosa; Melo de Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Toulson Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0)-post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Modulation of cardiac connexin-43 by omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-ester supplementation demonstrated in spontaneously diabetic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radošinská, J.; Kurahara, L. H.; Hiraishi, K.; Viczenczová, C.; Egan Beňová, T.; Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Dosenko, V.; Navarová, J.; Obšitník, B.; Imanaga, I.; Soukup, Tomáš; Tribulová, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2015), s. 795-806 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : diabetes * omega-3 fatty acids * cardiac connexin-43 * PKC * ultrastructure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: summary of the 2016 agency of healthcare research and quality evidence review

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength o...

  17. Tissue Fatty Acid Profile is Differently Modulated from Olive Oil and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in ApcMin/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutino, Valeria; Caruso, Maria G; De Leonardis, Giampiero; De Nunzio, Valentina; Notarnicola, Maria

    2017-11-16

    Fatty acid profile can be considered an appropriate biomarker for investigating the relations between the patterns of fatty acid metabolism and specific diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to test the effects of diets enriched with olive oil and omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid profile in intestinal tissue of ApcMin/+ mice. Three groups of animals were considered: control group, receiving a standard diet; olive oilgroup, receiving a standard diet enriched with olive oil; omega-3 group, receiving a standard diet enriched with salmon fish. Tissue fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography method. Olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs in the diet differently affect the tissue fatty acid profile. Compared to control group, the levels of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were lower in olive oil group, while an increase of SFAs was found in omega-3 group. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) levels were enhanced after olive oil treatment, and in particular, a significant increase of oleic acid levels was detected; MUFAs levels were instead reduced in omega-3 group in line with the decrease of oleic acid levels. The total PUFAs levels were lower in olive oil respect to control group. Moreover, a significant induction of Saturation Index (SI) levels was observed after omega-3 PUFAs treatment, while its levels were reduced in mice fed with olive oil. Our data demonstrated a different effect of olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs on tissue lipid profile in APCMin/+ mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Heinrich, Johanna; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-06-19

    A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% ( p Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8-11%).

  19. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of adipokines in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Schenck, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats. 56 healthy adult client-owned cats. Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. 1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin. EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

  20. Targeting inflammation in the preterm infant: The role of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi H. Fink

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are critical for the normal growth and development of preterm infants. Interest in these compounds rests in their anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical conditions with an inflammatory component such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis are risks to the survival of these infants. Dysregulation of inflammatory responses plays a central role in the aetiology of many of these neonatal disorders. There is evidence to suggest that the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can down-regulate local and systemic inflammation in adults and animal models; however, very little is known about its protective effects in infants, especially preterm infants. Due to their immunological immaturity, preterm infants are particularly sensitive to diseases with an inflammatory aetiology in the early postnatal period. This makes DHA supplementation immediately after birth to combat neonatal inflammation an attractive therapy. Mechanistic data for DHA use in preterm infants are lacking and results from adult and animal studies may not be relevant to this population because of fundamental immune system differences. While there is increasing evidence from randomised controlled trials to support a beneficial effect of DHA for the preterm infant, more evidence is required to establish short and long-term effects of DHA on the immune status of preterm infants.

  1. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and chronic ethanol consumption on reverse cholesterol transport in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmillot, P; Rao, M N; Liu, Q H; Chirtel, S J; Lakshman, M R

    2000-04-01

    We previously showed that chronic ethanol feeding leads to a decrease of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas supplementing this diet with 2.8% of total dietary calories as omega3-fatty acids (omega3FAs) restores HDL-apoE to the control values. Since HDL containing apoE plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), we measured the effects chronic ethanol intake and omega3-FAs on RCT in the present study. Four groups of rats, control normal fat (CN), alcohol-normal fat (AN), control omega3FA fat (CF), and alcohol-omega3FA fat (AF), were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks, after which hepatocytes and HDLs from each group were evaluated for RCT capacity (cholesterol efflux from macrophages and uptake by liver cells). Compared with the control diet (CN), chronic ethanol (AN) feeding inhibited the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL by 21% (P cholesterol uptake by the liver, there were no significant 3-way or 4-way interactions between the 4 factors, HDL-alcohol, HDL-fish oil, hepatocyte-alcohol, and hepatocyte-fish oil. The main effects for HDL-alcohol, HDL-fish oil, and hepatocyte-alcohol were all highly significant (P = .0001, .0001, and .007, respectively). There was a significant HDL-alcohol and HDL-fish oil interaction (P = .0001). Hepatocyte-alcohol was not a factor in any 2-way interactions. Our study indicates no evidence of an interaction between the effects of omega3FAs and the effects of alcohol on hepatocytes in terms of RCT function. Thus, feeding as little as 2.8% of the total dietary calories as omega3FA not only restored the impaired RCT function of HDL caused by chronic ethanol intake, but also enhanced by severalfold the ability of HDL to promote RCT even in normal animals.

  2. Myocardial protection during elective coronary artery bypasses grafting by pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite recent advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, cardioplegic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB are still associated with myocardial injury. Accordingly, the efforts have been made lately to improve the outcome of CPB by glucose-insulinpotassium, adenosine, Ca2+-channel antagonists, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q10, diazoxide, Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors, but with an unequal results. Since omega-3 polyunsatutated fatty acids (PUFAs have shown remarkable cardioprotection in preclinical researches, the aim of our study was to check their effects in prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury in patients with CPB. Methods. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed with parallel groups. The patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to receive preoperative intravenous omega-3 PUFAs infusion (n = 20 or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution infusion (n = 20. Blood samples were collected simultaneously from the radial artery and the coronary sinus before starting CPB and at 10, 20 and 30 min after the release of the aortic cross clamp. Lactate extraction/excretion and myocardial oxygen extraction were calculated and compared between the two groups. The levels of troponin I (TnT and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB were determined before starting CPB and 4 and 24 h postoperatively. Results. Demographic and operative characteristics, including CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, were similar between the two groups of patients. The level of lactate extraction 10 and 20 min after aortic cross-clamp time has shown negative values in the control group, but positive values in the PUFAs group with statistically significant differences (-19.6% vs 7.9%; p < 0.0001 and -19.9% vs 8.2%; p < 0.0008, respectively. The level of lactate extraction 30 minutes after reperfusion was not statistically different between the two groups (6.9% vs 4.2%; p < 0.54. Oxygen extraction in the

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2017-11-02

    A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and CVDs has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of CVDs, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese/overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of CVD risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in CVDs and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

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    Shahida A Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on the lipid profile parameters in rats induced with hyperlipidaemia. Methods and material: In our present study, we supplemented omega-3 oils from the plant source as well as the fish source to hypocholesteraemia induced Wistar albino rats for a period of three months. Wistar albino rats were fed normal chow along with 1% cholesterol for a period of three months to induce hypocholesteraemia. To this 1% flax oil and 0.1% fish oil were mixed separately and fed to two groups of rats for another period of three months to check for hypolipidemic effects if any. Results and conclusions: A significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose levels with increases in HDL levels in the flax oil as well as fish oil groups is observed. Also, a noticeable change though not significant was observed in the plasma triglyceride concentrations after the supplementation period. This significant hypolipemic effect by omega-3 fatty acids from both the sources, demonstrates their possible therapeutic use in patients with cardiac risk.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

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    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T 4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO 2 /kg) was observed in T 4 , which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO 2 /kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of

  6. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    de Lorgeril Michel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  7. Recent findings on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and statins, and their interactions: do statins inhibit omega-3?

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    de Lorgeril Michel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3, whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins. Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins - after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 - are negative (or flawed suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins. Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6, which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, n-3 and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit n-3.

  8. Enriched Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Ameliorate Parenchymal Cell Death After Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    Ren, Huixia; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Chuanming; Zeng, Haitao; Li, Peng; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei; Su, Huanxing

    2017-07-01

    Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window. Fat-1 mice with high endogenous ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited ROS expression and attenuated parenchymal cell death after compression injury during the early injury phase. Elevated generation of glutathione (GSH) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the parenchyma of fat-1 mice could be the contributor to the beneficial role of ω-3 PUFAs in TBI. The results of the study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs is an effective neuroprotectant as an early pharmacological intervention for TBI and the information derived from this study may help guide dietary advice for those who are susceptible to repetitive mild TBI.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice

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    Ying-Hua Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis.

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

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    Michela Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Nutritional armor for the injured warfighter: omega-3 fatty acids in surgery, trauma, and intensive care.

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    McCarthy, Mary S; Morgan, Brian B; Heineman, John T; Martindale, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Nutrients have traditionally been viewed as a means to provide basic energy for cellular homeostasis and amino acids for protein synthesis in all humans. Young, healthy men and women in the military today are presumed to be well nourished and mentally and physically fit to perform their duties in austere environments. Exposure to high-intensity projectiles, blast injuries, and other wounds of war, however, is an everyday occurrence during deployment that potentially challenges all homeostatic mechanisms. After sustaining such devastating injuries, critically ill, surgical, and trauma patients are in a constant dynamic state between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome. Compelling evidence supports both immune and metabolic response modulation by specific nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The concept of providing nutrients as therapeutic rather than supportive agents to meet the basic cellular caloric and metabolic demands requires a major paradigm shift. Although the exact route and dose of these metabolically active lipids has yet to be determined, data from large clinical studies of cellular ex-vivo experiments in patients support the liberal use of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the setting of trauma, surgery, and intensive care. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Lost in Translation?

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    Antigoni Z. Lalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA of marine origin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been long studied for their therapeutic potential in the context of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis. Glaring discordance between observations in animal and human studies precludes, to date, any practical application of n-3 PUFA as nutritional therapeutics against insulin resistance in humans. Our objective in this review is to summarize current knowledge and provide an up-to-date commentary on the therapeutic value of EPA and DHA supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity in humans. We also sought to discuss potential mechanisms of n-3 PUFA action in target tissues, in specific skeletal muscle, based on our recent work, as well as in liver and adipose tissue. We conducted a literature search to include all preclinical and clinical studies performed within the last two years and to comment on representative studies published earlier. Recent studies support a growing consensus that there are beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin sensitivity in rodents. Observational studies in humans are encouraging, however, the vast majority of human intervention studies fail to demonstrate the benefit of n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant non-diabetic people. Nevertheless, there are still several unanswered questions regarding the potential impact of n-3 PUFA on metabolic function in humans.

  13. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cytoskeleton: an open-label intervention study.

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    Schmidt, Simone; Willers, Janina; Riecker, Sabine; Möller, Katharina; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-02-14

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Because of the fact that cytoskeleton dynamics affect almost every cellular process, the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics could be a new pathway by which n-3 PUFAs exert their effects on cellular level. A 12-week open-label intervention study with 12 healthy men was conducted to determine the effects of 2.7 g/d n-3 PUFA on changes in mRNA expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes by quantitative real-time PCR in whole blood. Furthermore, the actin content in red blood cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence imaging. N-3 PUFA supplementation resulted in a significant down-regulation of cytoskeleton-associated genes, in particular three GTPases (RAC1, RHOA, CDC42), three kinases (ROCK1, PAK2, LIMK), two Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASL, WASF2) as well as actin related protein 2/3 complex (ARPC2, ARPC3) and cofilin (CFL1). Variability in F-actin content between subjects was high; reduced actin content was only reduced within group evaluation. Reduced cytoskeleton-associated gene expression after n-3 PUFA supplementation suggests that regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics might be an additional way by which n-3 PUFAs exert their cellular effects. Concerning F-actin, this analysis did not reveal unmistakable results impeding a generalized conclusion.

  14. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Reverse Cholesterol Transport: A Review

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    Alex Pizzini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular disease have been studied extensively. However, it remains unclear to what extent n-3 PUFAs may impact Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT. RCT describes a mechanism by which excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues is transported to the liver for hepatobiliary excretion, thereby inhibiting foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature and to provide an updated overview of the effects of n-3 PUFAs on key players in RCT, including apoliprotein AI (apoA-I, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, ABCG1, apoE, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and ABCG5/G8. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that n-3 PUFAs may beneficially affect RCT, mainly by influencing high-density lipoprotein (HDL remodeling and by promoting hepatobiliary sterol excretion.

  15. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents

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    Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…

  16. Emulsified omega-3 fatty-acids modulate the symptoms of depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a pilot study.

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    Trebatická, Jana; Hradečná, Zuzana; Böhmer, František; Vaváková, Magdaléna; Waczulíková, Iveta; Garaiova, Iveta; Luha, Ján; Škodáček, Igor; Šuba, Ján; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of mood disorders in children is a growing global concern. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are emerging as a promising adjuvant therapy for depressive disorder (DD) in paediatric patients. The primary objective of this pilot, single-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled study was to compare the efficacy of an Omega-3 FA fish oil emulsion with a control oil emulsion alongside standard treatment for depressive symptoms in children and adolescents suffering from depressive disorder (DD) and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD). 38 children (12 patients were treated and diagnosed for at least 1 month before enrolment, 26 patients were first-time diagnosed as DD) aged 11-17 years were randomised 1:1 to the intervention (Omega-3 FA, 19 patients) or active comparator (Omega-6 FA, 19 patients) groups. Children's depression inventory (CDI) ratings were performed at baseline, every 2 weeks for a 12-week intervention period and at 4-week post-intervention. 35 patients (17 in Omega-3 and 18 in Omega-6 groups) who completed the whole intervention period were evaluated. Patients from Omega-3 group were stratified according to diagnosis into two subgroups (DD-10/17 and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD)-7/17 patients) and in the Omega-6 group into DD-10/18 and MADD-8/18 patients. Groups were evaluated separately. Differences between-groups were tested with the Student´s t test or non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to analyse the Treatment effect for response in CDI score. p depressive disorder and mixed anxiety depressive disorder subgroups, the DD subgroup receiving the Omega-3 FA fish oil showed statistically greater improvement (score reduction after 8 week treatment of -9.1 CDI, p = 0.0001) when compared to the MADD subgroup (score reduction after 8 week treatment -4.24 CDI, p = 0.271). CDI scores were reduced in the Omega-3 group and the depression subgroup had greater

  17. Cost-effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in parenteral nutrition therapy in hospitals: a discrete event simulation model.

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    Pradelli, Lorenzo; Eandi, Mario; Povero, Massimiliano; Mayer, Konstantin; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Heller, Axel R; Fries-Schaffner, Eva

    2014-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in parenteral nutrition (PN) regimens is associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in infection rate, and length of hospital stay (LOS) in medical and surgical patients admitted to the ICU and in surgical patients not admitted to the ICU. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of omega-3 fatty acids to standard PN regimens in four European countries (Italy, France, Germany and the UK) from the healthcare provider perspective. Using a discrete event simulation scheme, a patient-level simulation model was developed, based on outcomes from the Italian ICU patient population and published literature. Comparative efficacy data for PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids versus standard PN regimens was taken from the meta-analysis of published randomised clinical trials (n = 23 studies with a total of 1502 patients), and hospital LOS reduction was further processed in order to split the reduction in ICU stay from that in-ward stays for patients admitted to the ICU. Country-specific cost data was obtained for Italian, French, German and UK healthcare systems. Clinical outcomes included in the model were death rates, nosocomial infection rates, and ICU/hospital LOS. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the reliability of results. PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids were more effective on average than standard PN both in ICU and in non-ICU patients in the four countries considered, reducing infection rates and overall LOS, and resulting in a lower total cost per patient. Overall costs for patients receiving PN regimens containing omega-3 fatty acids were between €14 144 to €19 825 per ICU patient and €5484 to €14 232 per non-ICU patient, translating into savings of between €3972 and €4897 per ICU patient and savings of between €561 and €1762 per non

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in major depressive disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders.

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    Liu, Joanne J; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Although lower levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are found in major depressive disorder, less is known about PUFA status and anxiety disorders. Medication-free participants with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder (MDD), with (n = 18) and without (n = 41) comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and healthy volunteers (n = 62) were recruited from October 2006 to May 2010 for mood disorder studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Participants were 18-73 years of age (mean age, 35.8 ± 12.6 years). Depression and anxiety severity was assessed using depression and anxiety subscales from the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA; 22:4n-6) to EPA (AA:EPA) were quantified. This secondary analysis employed analysis of variance with a priori planned contrasts to test for diagnostic group differences in log-transformed PUFA levels (logDHA, logEPA, and logAA:EPA). Plasma levels of logDHA (F(2,118) = 4.923, P = .009), logEPA (F(2,118) = 6.442, P = .002), and logAA:EPA (F(2,118) = 3.806, P = .025) differed across groups. Participants with MDD had lower logDHA (t(118) = 2.324, P = .022) and logEPA (t(118) = 3.175, P = .002) levels and higher logAA:EPA levels (t(118) = -2.099, P = .038) compared with healthy volunteers. Lower logDHA (t(118) = 2.692, P = .008) and logEPA (t(118) = 2.524, P = .013) levels and higher logAA:EPA levels (t(118) = -2.322, P = .022) distinguished anxious from nonanxious MDD. Depression severity was not associated with PUFA plasma levels; however, anxiety severity across the entire sample correlated negatively with logDHA (r(p) = -0.22, P = .015) and logEPA (r(p) = -0.25, P = .005) levels and positively with logAA:EPA levels (r(p) = 0.18, P = .043). The presence and severity of comorbid anxiety were associated with the lowest EPA and DHA levels. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether

  19. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Act as Inhibitors of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity.

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    Nicolai, Eleonora; Sinibaldi, Federica; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Cozza, Paola; Santucci, Roberto; Piro, Maria Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids. Data obtained (both in vitro and on ex-vivo teeth) reveal that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes present in dentin. This observation is of interest since it assigns to these compounds a key role as MMPs inhibitors, and stimulates further study to better define their therapeutic potentialities in carious decay.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  1. Development of food-grade nanoemulsions and emulsions for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids: opportunities and obstacles in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of biologically active amounts of omega-3 fatty acids is linked to improved human health, which has partly been attributed to their important role in brain development and cardiovascular health. Western diets are relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and many consumers turn to supplements or functional foods to increase their intake of these healthy lipids. Fish oil is one of the most widely used sources of omega-3 fatty acid for supplementation and has greater health benefits than plant sources because of its higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into foods and beverages is often challenging due to their low water-solubility, poor oxidative stability, and variable bioavailability. Nanoemulsions offer a promising way to incorporate omega-3 fatty acids into liquid food systems like beverages, dressing, sauces, and dips. Nanoemulsions are colloidal dispersions that contain small oil droplets (rfoods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids. The composition and fabrication of nanoemulsions can be optimized to increase the chemical and physical stability of oil droplets, as well as to increase the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids.

  2. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

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    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

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    Xie H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hai Xie,1 Yan-na Chang2 1Department of Emergency, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate systematically the clinical efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer (CRC patients.Materials and methods: Published articles were identified by using search terms in online databases – PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library – up to March 2016. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in CRC were selected and analyzed through a meta-analysis. Subgroup, sensitivity, and inverted funnel-plot analyses were also conducted. Results: Eleven articles with 694 CRC patients were finally included. Compared with control, omega-3 PUFA-enriched enteral or parenteral nutrition during the perioperative period reduced infectious complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.86; P=0.004, tumor necrosis factor alpha (standard mean difference [SMD] -0.37, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.01, interleukin-6 (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.02, and hospital stay (MD -2.09, 95% CI -3.71 to -0.48; P=0.01. No significant difference was found in total complications, surgical site infection, or CD4+:CD8+ cell ratio. Conclusion: Short-term omega-3 PUFA administration was associated with reduced postoperative infectious complications, inflammatory cytokines, and hospital stay after CRC surgery. Due to heterogeneity and relatively small sample size, the optimal timing and route of administration deserve further study. Keywords: omega-3, fatty acids, fish oil, colorectal surgery, meta-analysis 

  4. 21. Cardiovascular disease risk attributed to blood fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid levels differ significantly in Saudi Men and Women

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    Tayeb Bassam

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: A large proportion of the Saudi population may be at increased CVD risk due to low blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids and low EPA/AA blood level ratio. Females may be at higher risk than males. Future research will investigate the relationship of blood omega-3 blood levels and CHD incidence in the Saudi population.

  5. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals

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    Anton Köhler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in erythrocytes is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index <5%. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a variety of sausages enriched with approximately 250 mg EPA and DHA per 80 g (n = 22 daily for 8 weeks, or matching placebo sausages (n = 22. All sausages contained approximately 250 mg ALA/80 g. In the verum group, the mean Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% (p < 0.001, while it remained unchanged in the placebo group. While ALA levels increased only in the placebo group, DPA levels increased in both groups. Inter-individual variability in the response was large. The mean increase of the Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8–11%.

  6. Cardiac Connexin-43 and PKC Signaling in Rats With Altered Thyroid Status Without and With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Egan Beňová, T.; Viczenczová, C.; Soukup, Tomáš; Rauchová, Hana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Knezl, V.; Barančík, M.; Tribulová, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.1 (2016), S77-S90 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * cardiac arrhythmias * Connexin-43 * omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  7. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet

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    Elaheh Ouladsahebmadarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old. It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats (n=40 were allocated into control (n=10 and test groups (n= 30, test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily; G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM. Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis. Results: Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase, SOD (Superoxide dismutase in groups that received omega-3showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (P

  8. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

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    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  9. Contribution of Golden Apple Snail Flour to Enhance Omega- 3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Contents in Weaning Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsyha, D. D.; Wijayanti, H. S.; Nuryanto; Anjani, G.

    2018-02-01

    The case of undernourished children in Grobogan District (15.3%) is caused by children nutrients intake less than the Recommendation Dietary Allowance (RDA). To enhance children nutrients intake, be required formulation of weaning food using high-nutrient local food such as golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). Golden apple snail flour contains high contents of zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. This study aims to analyze the effect of golden apple snail flour substitution on nutrients content and organoleptic properties of weaning food (baby porridge). This is an experimental research by substitution of golden apple snail flour in the making of weaning food with four treatments of substitution (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%). Substitution of golden apple snails flour could affect the nutrient content levels of fat, zinc, iron (p=0.0001), carbohydrate (p=0.011), water (p=0.003), ash (p=0.001), omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Whereas, it could not affect the content of energy (p=0.678), protein (p=0.129) and fiber (p=0.482). Furthermore, the substitution could affect the organoleptic properties include color, texture and taste (p=0.0001) while not for the aroma (p=0.798). Based on nutrient content analysis, substitution of golden apple snail flour could enhance the zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents of weaning food.

  10. Do Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids Have a Therapeutic Role in Children and Young People with ADHD?

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    E. Derbyshire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. Methods. A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo. Results. Of the studies identified, 13 reported favourable benefits on ADHD symptoms including improvements in hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention, visual learning, word reading, and working/short-term memory. Four studies used supplements containing a 9 : 3 : 1 ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid : docosahexaenoic acid : gamma linolenic acid which appeared effective at improving erythrocyte levels. Supplementation with this ratio of fatty acids also showed promise as an adjunctive therapy to traditional medications, lowering the dose and improving the compliance with medications such as methylphenidate. Conclusion. ADHD is a frequent and debilitating childhood condition. Given disparaging feelings towards psychostimulant medications, omega-3/6 fatty acids offer great promise as a suitable adjunctive therapy for ADHD.

  11. Effect of Vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

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    Ashwitha Shruti Dass

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants can improve glycemic control, lipid profile, and cognitive functions. We assessed the effect of Vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids (OFA on the above parameters. One hundred patients with type 2 DM receiving metformin 500 mg and glimepiride 1 mg were randomized to receive add-on therapy of Vitamin E 400 mg or OFA once daily for 12 weeks and the third group served as control. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, postprandial blood sugar (PPBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, lipid profile, and mini-mental state examination were done at baseline and 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the study. A significant reduction in FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c was observed in all the three groups at 12 weeks. There was significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in patients receiving either of the antioxidants and also significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein in patients receiving OFA at 12 weeks compared to baseline. BMI and WHR were significantly increased in control group. Intergroup analysis showed that in patients receiving Vitamin E and OFA, the reduction of FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c were similar. The patients receiving OFA had significant reduction in TG compared to control. There was no significant effect on cognitive function. Vitamin E and OFA had beneficial effects on lipid profile and anthropometric measurements; however, the glycemic control was similar to the patients in control group.

  12. Anti-inflammatory pro-resolving derivatives of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Jerzy Z. Nowak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological defense reaction of living tissues to injury or infection. An array of mediators, including those derived from omega-6 (ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA e.g. prostaglandins and leukotrienes, promote the inflammatory response. Acute inflammation has several programmed fates, including complete resolution or progression to chronic inflammation, scarring, and eventual loss of tissue function. Studies on AA-derived proinflammatory mediators led to the discovery of AA-derived anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving compounds. These include lipoxins, originating from AA, and resolvins, originating from the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as well as the omega-6 PUFA docosapentaenoic acid (DPA-ω6. DHA is also a substrate for other anti-inflammatory mediators, i.e. neuroprotectin and maresin. Because of their role in the final phase of acute inflammation, i.e. the resolution of inflammation, the above anti-inflammatory mediators were named pro-resolving mediators. They are formed in cooperating cells present in the region of inflammation in a process called transcellular biosynthesis with the aid of specific lipoxygenases (LOX and cyclooxygenases (COX. Pro-resolving anti-inflammatory mediators exert their biological activities in a receptor-dependent manner in the resolution phase of inflammation. Of their various biological effects, the most important include inhibition of leukocyte mobilization and traffic through endothelial or epithelial layers, suppression of proinflammatory cytokine release by different cells present in inflamed tissue, and stimulation of the phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. This article surveys the current knowledge on inflammation and the role of the pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory potential of lipid-derived agonistic mediators.

  13. Neuromuscular adaptations to sprint interval training and the effect of mammalian omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Evan J H; Stucky, Frédéric; Radonic, Peter W; Metherel, Adam H; Wolever, Thomas M S; Wells, Greg D

    2017-03-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid metabolic adaptations within skeletal muscle but the nature of neuromuscular adaptions is unknown. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFA) are suggested to enhance neuromuscular adaptations to exercise. We measured the neuromuscular adaptations to SIT (Study-1) and conducted a placebo-controlled randomized double blinded study to determine the effect of N-3 PUFA supplementation on neuromuscular adaptations to SIT (Study-2). In Study-1, seven active men (24.4 ± 2.6 years, VO 2 peak 43.8 ± 8.7 ml kg min -1 ) completed 2-weeks of SIT with pre- and post-training 10 km cycling time trials (TT). In Study-2, 30 active men (24.5 ± 4.2 years, VO 2 peak 41.0 ± 5.1 ml kg min -1 ) were randomly assigned to receive N-3 PUFA (2330 mg day -1 ) (n = 14) or olive oil (n = 16) during 2-weeks of SIT with pre- and post-training TTs. Four week post-training, a SIT session and TT were also performed. Change in neuromuscular function was assessed from resting twitches, quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, and potentiated twitch force (Q tw ). Study-1 showed that SIT did not elicit significant neuromuscular adaptations. Study-2 showed that N-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant effect on neuromuscular adaptations. Training caused lower MVC force [mean ± SD; N-3 PUFA -9 ± 11%, placebo -9 ± 13% (p training in all groups [Study-1 -10%, Study-2 N-3 PUFA -8%, placebo -12% (p training adaptations.

  14. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on central nervous system remyelination in fat-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Elise; Paul, Friedemann; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2017-01-24

    There is a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are capable of modulating immune function. Some studies have shown that these PUFAs might have a beneficial effect in patients suffering form multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This could be due to increased n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In the present study we tested the effect of an endogenously increased n-3 PUFA status on cuprizone-induced CNS demyelination and remyelination in fat-1 mice versus their wild-type (wt) littermates. Fat-1 mice express an n-3 desaturase, which allows them to convert n-6 PUFAs into n-3 PUFAs. CNS lipid profiles in fat-1 mice showed a significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels but similar docosahexaenoic acid levels compared to wt littermates. This was also reflected in significantly higher levels of monohydroxy EPA metabolites such as 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 brain tissue. Feeding fat-1 mice and wt littermates 0.2% cuprizone for 5 weeks caused a similar degree of CNS demyelination in both groups; remyelination was increased in the fat-1 group after a recovery period of 2 weeks. However, at p = 0.07 this difference missed statistical significance. These results indicate that n-3 PUFAs might have a role in promotion of remyelination after toxic injury to CNS oligodendrocytes. This might occur either via modulation of the immune system or via a direct effect on oligodendrocytes or neurons through EPA-derived lipid metabolites such as 18-HEPE.

  15. Alpha Lipoic Acid Plus Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Vestibulodynia Associated With Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Felice, Raffaele; Gambini, Dania

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in combination with amitriptyline therapy in patients with vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). Women with VBD/PBS were randomly assigned to receive amitriptyline or amitriptyline plus a commercially available preparation (ALAnerv Age; Alfa Wassermann, Bologna, Italy) containing, in 2 capsules, ALA 600 mg plus docosahexaenoic acid 250 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 16.67 mg. Symptoms of burning and pain were assessed using a 10-cm visual analog scale and the short form of the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. Among 84 women who were randomized, the mean ± standard deviation dose of amitriptyline was 21.7 ± 6.6 mg/day, without statistical difference between the two groups. Pain, as assessed using both the pain rating index of the visual analog scale and the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, decreased significantly in both trial groups, with a greater effect seen with the addition of ALA and n-3 PUFAs. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment was also associated with improvements in dyspareunia and pelvic floor muscle tone. The overall incidence of adverse events was low, and none led to treatment discontinuation. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment in patients with VBD/PBS appears to improve outcomes and may allow for a lower dosage of amitriptyline, which may lead to fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  17. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

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    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  18. Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y-H; Karmon, A E; Gaskins, A J; Arvizu, M; Williams, P L; Souter, I; Rueda, B R; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2018-01-01

    Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART. This analysis included a random sample of 100 women from a prospective cohort study (EARTH) at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center who underwent 136 ART cycles within one year of blood collection. Serum fatty acids (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) were measured by gas chromatography in samples taken between Days 3 and 9 of a stimulated cycle. Primary outcomes included the probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth per initiated cycle. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze the association of total and specific PUFAs with ART outcomes adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, use of multivitamins and history of live birth. The median [25th, 75th percentile] serum level of ω3-PUFA was 4.7% [3.8%, 5.8%] of total fatty acids. Higher levels of serum long-chain ω3-PUFA were associated with higher probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Specifically, after multivariable adjustment, the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth increased by 8% (4%, 11%) and 8% (95% CI: 1%, 16%), respectively, for every 1% increase in serum long-chain ω3-PUFA levels. Intake of long-chain ω3-PUFA was also associated with a higher probability of life birth in these women, with RR of 2.37 (95% CI: 1.02, 5.51) when replacing 1% energy of long-chain ω3-PUFA for 1% energy of saturated fatty acids. Serum ω6-PUFA, ratios of ω6 and ω3-PUFA, and total PUFA were not associated with ART outcomes. The

  19. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, H; Osnes, K; Refsum, H; Solberg, D K; Bøhmer, T

    2013-12-17

    Membrane lipid metabolism and redox regulation may be disturbed in schizophrenia. We examined the clinical effect of adding an omega-3 fatty acid and/or vitamins E+C to antipsychotics. It was hypothesized that lower baseline levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would predict more benefit from the add-on treatment. The trial had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients aged 18-39 years with schizophrenia or related psychoses were consecutively included at admission to psychiatric departments in Norway. They received active or placebo ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA) 2 g day⁻¹ and active or placebo vitamin E 364 mg day⁻¹+vitamin C 1000 mg day⁻¹ (vitamins) for 16 weeks. The main outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscales scores, analyzed by linear mixed models. Ninety-nine patients were included. At baseline, erythrocyte PUFA were measured in 97 subjects. Given separately, EPA and vitamins increased drop-out rates, whereas when combined they did not differ from placebo. In low PUFA patients, EPA alone impaired the course of total PANSS (Cohen's d=0.29; P=0.03) and psychotic symptoms (d=0.40; P=0.003), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.48; P=0.0004). Vitamins alone impaired the course of psychotic symptoms (d= 0.37; P=0.005), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.47; P=0.0005). Adding vitamins to EPA neutralized the detrimental effect on psychosis (interaction d=0.31; P=0.02). In high PUFA patients, there were no significant effects of trial drugs on PANSS scales. In conclusion, given separately during an acute episode, EPA and vitamins E+C induce psychotic symptoms in patients with low levels of PUFA. Combined, these agents seem safe.

  20. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 . BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  1. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE DARI Aspergillus niger [Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Oil for Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Using Lipase Derived from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapta Raharja*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the source of important fatty-acid, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA omega-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Lipase catalysis activity of Aspergillus niger is low when it is used in fish oil hydrolysis. The activity of the lipase can be increased by adding organic solvent such as hexane into the media. This research aimed to determine temperature, pH and amount of water which produce the highest degree of hydrolysis of fish oil in the presence of hexane. Correlation between the highest degree of hydrolysis and the amount of omega-3 fatty acid was also investigated. The variables used in this research were temperatures (25-65 oC, pH (5-9, and water addition (1-5 %v/v. The highest degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of fish oil in the media without hexane was 28.07 % that was reached at 45oC and pH 5. In the presence of hexane, the highest degree of hydrolysis was 75.12 % which was reached at 5% water addition, temperature 45oC, and pH 5. GC-MS analysis showed that omega-3 fatty acid content especially EPA and DHA increased along with increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acid produced without hexane addition was 18.42 % with EPA amounted to 12,17% and DHA 0,86%. Meanwhile omega-3 fatty acid content in the presence of hexane reached 21.93 % with EPA amounted to 17.75 % and DHA 1.21 %.

  2. Effects of addition of policosanol to omega-3 fatty acid therapy on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, G; Fernández, L; Mas, R; Illnait, J; Gámez, R; Mendoza, S; Mesa, M; Fernández, J

    2005-01-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from sugar-cane wax. The mixture has cholesterol-lowering efficacy, its specific effects being to reduce serum total (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The effects of policosanol on triglycerides (TG) are modest and inconsistent. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil protect against coronary disease, mainly through antiarrhythmic and antiplatelet effects. Omega-3 FA also have lipid-modifying effects, mostly relating to TG reduction. Thus, potential benefits could be expected from combined therapy with omega-3 FA and policosanol. To investigate whether combined therapy with omega-3 FA + policosanol offers benefits compared with omega-3 FA + placebo with respect to the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia. This randomised, double-blind study was conducted in 90 patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia. After 5 weeks on a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomised to omega-3 FA + placebo, omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 mg/day or omega-3 FA + policosanol 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Omega-3 FA was supplied as 1g capsules (two per day); placebo and policosanol were provided in tablet form. Physical signs and laboratory markers were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks on therapy. Drug compliance and adverse experiences (AEs) were assessed at weeks 4 and 8. The primary efficacy variable was LDL-C reduction; other lipid profile markers were secondary variables. After 8 weeks, omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 and 10 mg/day, but not omega-3 FA + placebo, significantly reduced LDL-C by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 mg/day also significantly lowered TC (12.7%; p < 0.01) and TG (13.6%; p < 0.05), and significantly increased HDL-C (+14.4%; p < 0.001). Omega-3 FA + policosanol 10 mg/day significantly decreased TC (15.3%; p < 0.001) and TG (14.7%; p < 0

  3. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  4. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Developmental Psychopathology: A Systematic Review on Early Psychosis, Autism, and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Agostoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field. Heterogeneity in study designs will be discussed in the light of differences in results and interpretation of studies carried out so far.

  5. Consumption of an omega-3 fatty acids product, INCELL AAFA?, reduced side-effects of CPT-11 (irinotecan) in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman, W E; Moyer, M P; Cameron, I L

    2002-01-01

    INCELL AAFA?, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid product containing a high concentration of long chain fatty acids, was tested for its ability to ameliorate the harmful side effects of CPT-11 chemotherapy including: leukopenia, anaemia, asthenia, weight loss and liver involvement. Four groups of mice were fed an AIN-76 diet modified to contain: 10% w/w corn oil (CO), 0% AAFA?; 9% CO, 1% AAFA?; 8% CO, 2% AAFA?; or 7% CO, 3% AAFA?. After 2 weeks on the diets, half of the mice received CPT-11...

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  8. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

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    Royah Vaezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.

  9. Developmentally dependent and different roles of fatty acids OMEGA-6 and OMEGA-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourek, J; Mourek, J

    2011-01-01

    The developmentally-dependent differences in the biological significances and effects of PUFA-OMEGA-6 (namely of arachidonic acid) and PUFA-OMEGA-3 (namely of docosahexaenoic acid) are discussed. The clinical results as well as developmental experiences are indicating a hypothesis of the evolution...... that created mutual relationship between those two substances (with immunological basis and following recuperation). The anti-inflammatory actions of PUFA-OMEGA-3 are the most visible (and significant) contrasts as compared with the large affects of namely arachidonic acid and its metabolites....

  10. Lipid lowering effect of policosanol and omega-3 fatty acids combined therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    José Illnait; Gladys Castaño; Julio Fernández; Ernesto López; Rosa Más; Lilia Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Melbis Mesa; Rafael Gámez

    2010-01-01

    Aunque el colesterol de las lipoproteinas de baja densidad (LDL-C) continua siendo el principal objetivo en el manejo de la dislipidemia, la prevencion de la enfermedad coronaria incluye ademas, la modificacion de otros indicadores tales como la disminucion del colesterol no unido a las lipoproteinas de alta densidad y los trigliceridos sericos (TG), asi como el incremento de las HDL-C. Se reconoce que los aceites de pescado ricos en acidos grasos omega 3 (AG-OMEGA3), los cuales reducen los T...

  11. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiarrhythmogenic effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in a patient treated with Omacor after a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ardashev

    2014-02-01

    The patient agreed to add omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation (1 g/day to his treatment regimen. Pacemaker analyses 3 months later demonstrated no NSVT and only 215 PVBs daily. In more than 1 year of follow-up, the patient has remained well and has had no further ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation may be beneficial in post-MI patients with pacemakers who develop ventricular arrhythmias.

  13. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! ? A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Soumia; Chopra, Sandeep; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV) health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxi...

  14. Delta 6-desaturase activity in liver microsomes of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol and/or omega 3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, M L; Sebokova, E; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1988-01-01

    The effect of feeding semipurified diets enriched in linseed (rich in C18:3, omega 3 fatty acid) or fish (rich in C20:5, omega 3 and C22:6, omega 3 fatty acid) oil with and without cholesterol supplementation on the desaturation of linoleic acid (C18:2, omega 6) by rat liver microsomal fractions was investigated. Animals fed diets supplemented with beef tallow were used as equal-energy controls. Both linseed-oil and fish-oil diets, without added cholesterol, decrease conversion of C18:2, omeg...

  15. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy to sertraline in controlling suicidal ideation in patients with depression: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan have been gaining attention as promising alternative treatment for depressive illness. These agents are given as as add on treatment to conventional antidepressant drugs. The present study was carried out to evaluate efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy in controlling suicidal ideation in depressive patients on sertraline.Methods: This was a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted in department of Psychiatry. Ninety treatment naïve patients (18-65 years age were divided into 3 groups of 30 each. Group I: Sertraline, Group II: Sertraline plus omega-3 fatty acids, Group III: Sertraline plus 5-hydroxytryptophan. Suicidal ideations were assessed with Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation (BSI at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (SPSS version 20.0. Post hoc analysis was done using Bonferroni test.Results: Baseline parameters in patients of all groups were comparable. Administration of sertraline resulted in reduction of Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation scores as compared to baseline. Addition of omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan also showed reduction in BSI scores. Effect of sertraline monotherapy was more as compared to omega-3 fatty acids or 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy, which was statistically significant (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: Both omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan produce significant effect in controlling suicidal ideations in patients with depression.

  16. Effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 supplementations on phospholipid fatty acid composition in mice uterus during window of pre-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Amir; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Salmassi, Ali; Latifi, Zeinab; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shaaker, Maghsood; Ghasemnejad, Tohid; Roshangar, Leila; Nouri, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2) omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids). Uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition during the pre-implantation window (days 1-5 of pregnancy) was analyzed using gas-chromatography. The implantation rate on the fifth day of pregnancy was also determined. Our results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of pregnancy, the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as total omega-6 fatty acids were significantly higher and the levels of linolenic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids were statistically lower in the omega-6 group compared to the omega-3 group (p omega-6 fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids levels were significantly different between the two dietary supplemented groups (p omega-6 fatty acids, especially ARA, with the implantation rate. The present study showed that diets rich in omega-3 and -6 fatty acids could differently modify uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition and uterine levels of phospholipid ARA, and that the total omega-6 fatty acids had a positive association with the implantation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats Influencia de los ácidos grasos omega-3 de la linaza (Linum usitatissimum) en el desarrollo del cerebro de ratas recién nacidas

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Lenzi Almeida; G. Teles Boaventura; Mª A. Guzmán Silva

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: ...

  18. Influence of Supplementation of Vegetable Oil Blends on Omega-3 Fatty Acid Production in Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Vadivelan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were designed for improved production of mycelial omega-3 fatty acids with particular reference to EPA and DHA from the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 under submerged low temperatures fermentation supplemented with linseed oil and garden cress oil as an additional energy source. The fungus was grown at 20°C temperature for four days initially followed by 12°C temperature for next five days. The basal medium contained starch, yeast extract, and a blend of linseed oil (LSO and garden cress oil (GCO in the ratio 1 : 1. Results of the study revealed that, after nine days of total incubation period, the enhancement of biomass was up to 16.7 g/L dry weight with a total lipid content of 55.4% (v/w. Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids indicated a significant increase in fatty acid bioconversion (ALA 32.2±0.42%, EPA 7.9±0.1%, and DHA 4.09±0.2% by 2.5-fold. The two-stage temperature cultivation alters the fatty acid profile due to activation of the desaturase enzyme in the cellular levels due to which arachidonic acid (AA content reduced significantly. It can be concluded that Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 is a fungal culture suitable for commercial production of PUFAs with enriched EPA and DHA.

  19. Comparative study of fatty-acid composition of table eggs from the Jeddah food market and effect of value addition in omega-3 bio-fortified eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahida Aziz; Khan, Aziz; Khan, Sarah A; Beg, Mohd Amin; Ali, Ashraf; Damanhouri, Ghazi

    2017-05-01

    Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005), diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011), and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004) in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008). Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014) especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acids intake, omega-6/omega-3 ratio and mortality: Findings from two independent nationwide cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Pan; Wang, Wenqiao; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Jiao, Jingjing

    2018-03-03

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pleiotropic protective effects against various chronic diseases. However, epidemiologic evidence linking specific PUFA intake to mortality has been limited and contradictory. We aim to assess the associations between specific dietary PUFA and mortality among adults in China and America, respectively. Participants from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, n = 14,117) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES (n = 36,032)] were prospectively followed up through the year 2011. Cox regression models were used to investigate hypothesized associations. A total of 1007 and 4826 deaths accrued over a median of 14 and 9.1 years of follow-up in CHNS and NHANES, respectively. Dietary marine omega-3 PUFA was robustly associated with a reduced all-cause mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme categories: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89; P omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 6-10 was associated with a lower risk of death in CHNS. Intakes of different specific PUFA show distinct associations with mortality and these relationships also vary between Chinese and US populations. These findings suggest maintaining an omega-6/omega-3 balance diet for overall health promotion outcomes (NCT03155659). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids can reverse the long-term deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Dyer, Roger A; Innis, Sheila M; Christie, Brian R

    2013-09-13

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders result in long-lasting neurological deficits including decreases in synaptic plasticity and deficits in learning and memory. In this study we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, we looked at the capacity for postnatal dietary intervention to rescue deficits in synaptic plasticity. Animals were fed an omega-3 enriched diet from birth until adulthood (PND55-70) and in vivo electrophysiology was performed by stimulating the medial perforant path input to the dentate gyrus and recording field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. LTP was induced by administering bursts of five 400 Hz pulses as a theta-patterned train of stimuli (200 ms inter-burst interval). Ethanol-exposed adult males, but not females, exhibited a significant reduction in LTP. This deficit in male animals was completely reversed with an omega-3 enriched diet. These results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids can have benefits following prenatal neuropathological insults and may be a viable option for alleviating some of the neurological deficits associated with FASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  3. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria I; Mazzucco, Sara; Biolo, Gianni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Monti, Massimo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC) patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition. Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day). Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 10 days of supplementation (T1) to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in red blood cells (RBC) membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P -value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group), 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group), 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group), and 10 healthy controls (C group). DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls ( P < 0.001). No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03). No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as "good seafood consumers" showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to "low seafood consumers" ( P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively). After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was greater in

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tomio

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX-knockout (KO and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Kensuke; Kawana, Kei; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aki; Kojima, Satoko; Mori, Mayuyo; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-knockout (KO) and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  6. Association between omega-3 fatty acids consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cai; Yang, Yan; Yu, Xuefeng; Hu, Shuhong; Shao, Shiying

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence for the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of type 2 diabetes is controversial. A meta-analysis based on prospective cohorts was carried out to evaluate this issue. Pooled diabetic risk was calculated using a fixed or random effects model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by meta-regression analysis. The study showed that consumption of single omega-3 was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] = 1.45, P omega-3 was statistically insignificant. The dose-response curve presented an inverted U-shape of diabetes risk corresponding to the dose of omega-3 consumption. Subanalysis showed that omega-3 was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Asians (RR = 0.82, P omega-3 intake. The present findings suggest that dosage and composition of omega-3, ethnicity, trial duration, and age could influence the effect of omega-3 on type 2 diabetes progression. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Oleñik A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik,1 Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro,1 Nicolás Alejandre-Alba,1 Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Statistics, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain Background: Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods: We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds. Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1 TBUT; (2 Schirmer I test; (3 Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; (4 MG expression; (5 evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6 interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results: After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively. The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per

  8. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

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    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  9. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  10. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

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    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  11. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    J. SEREGI; HOLLÓ GABRIELLA; GABRIELLA ZSARNÓCZAY; ÁGNES KOVÁCS; P. PUSZTAI; Z. HAJDU

    2007-01-01

    The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture). This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous,...

  13. Preventive effects of omega-3 and omega-6 Fatty acids on peroxide mediated oxidative stress responses in primary human trabecular meshwork cells.

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    Theofilos Tourtas

    Full Text Available Pathologic processes in glaucoma include increased apoptosis, accumulation of extracellular material in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve, condensations of the cytoskeleton and precocious cellular senescence. Oxidative stress was shown to generate these alterations in primary ocular cells. Fatty acids omega-3 and -6 are alleged to constitute a prophylaxis against these deleterious effects. Here, we tested actual preventive effects omega-3 and -6 against peroxide induced stress responses in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. Changes of mitochondrial activity, proliferation, heat shock proteins, extracellular matrix components, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Alterations of the cytoskeleton were evaluated by phalloidin labeling. Here we report a repressive effect of omega-6 on metabolic activity and proliferation, which was not detected for omega-3. Both agents were able to prevent the anti-proliferative effect of H₂O₂, but only omega-3 prevented metabolic repression. Expression of heat shock protein 27 was unaltered by both fatty acids, whereas heat shock protein 90 was significantly induced by both. Omega-6 increased fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor synthesis, as well as the amount of secreted fibronectin. Omega-3, instead, induced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 synthesis. H₂O₂ further increased fibronectin production in omega-6 supplemented cells, which was not the case in omega-3 treated cells. H₂O₂ stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and connective tissue growth factor was repressed by both fatty acids. Both fatty acids appeared to abolish H₂O₂ mediated stimulation of nuclear factor κB and IL-6, but not IL-1α and IL-8. H₂O₂ induced formation of cross-linked actin networks and stress fibers, which was reduced by preemptive application of omega-3. Omega-6, in contrast, had no protective effect on that, and even seemed to promote condensation. Based on the observed side

  14. Modulation of blood oxylipin levels by long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in hyper- and normolipidemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schmidt, Simone; Kressel, Gaby; Willenberg, Ina; Hammock, Bruce D; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as EPA and DHA have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, and it is believed that many of their effects are mediated by their oxygenated products (oxylipins). Recently, we have shown that serum levels of several hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FAs are dependent on the individual status of the parent FAs in a cohort of normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects. So far, the effect of an increased dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake on hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FA levels has not been investigated in subjects with mild combined hyperlipidemia. In the present study, we compared oxylipin patterns of 10 hyperlipidemic (cholesterol >200mg/dl; triglyceride >150mg/ml) and 10 normolipidemic men in response to twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA intake (1.14g DHA and 1.56g EPA). Levels of 44 free hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs were analyzed in serum by LC-MS. Additionally, oxylipin levels were compared with their parent PUFA levels in erythrocyte membranes; a biomarker for the individual PUFA status. Differences in the oxylipin pattern between normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects were minor before and after treatment. In all subjects, levels of EPA-derived oxylipins (170-4800pM) were considerably elevated after LC n-3 PUFA intake (150-1400%), the increase of DHA-derived oxylipins (360-3900pM) was less pronounced (30-130%). The relative change of EPA in erythrocyte membranes is strongly correlated (r≥0.5; poxylipin levels (140-27,100pM) was inconsistent. The dietary LC PUFA composition has a direct influence on the endogenous oxylipin profile, including several highly biological active EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators. The shift in oxylipin pattern appears to be dependent on the initial LC PUFA status particularly for EPA. The finding that also levels of other oxylipins derived from ALA, LA or AA are modified by LC n-3 PUFA intake might suggest that at least some of the effects of EPA and DHA could be mediated by a

  15. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  16. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study.

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    Sung-Wan Kim

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids, one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid, and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid, and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids. More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

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    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid obtained from Nannochloropsis oceanica cultures grown under low urea protect against Abeta-induced neural damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, it has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) have been reported to protect against AD. However, these omega-3 fatty acids are frequently obtained from fish oil and may contain heavy metals. In this study, we utilized Nannochloropsis oceanica to produce omega-3 fatty acid. We observed that when urea levels (nitrogen source) were lowered from 2 to 0.2 g/L in Nannochloropsis oceanica cultures, EPA production increased. Moreover, EPA in Nannochloropsis oceanica effectively promoted antioxidant activity to counter the Abeta-induced oxidative stress in Neuro-2A cells. These results indicate that Nannochloropsis oceanica may be potentially used as a therapeutic agent or as a functional food that promotes protection against AD.

  19. [Dyslipidemic patients with coronary cardiopathy. Effect of different doses of OMEGA-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, A; Villanueva, C L; Skorin, C; Guasch, V; Solís de Ovando, F; Velasco, N; Acosta, A M; Leighton, F

    1993-06-01

    Twenty one male patients aged 35 to 70 years, with coronary artery disease and dislipidemia refractory to dietary treatment, were assigned to three parallel groups of 7 individuals each that received a supplemental dose of 2, 4 and 6 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids during 60 days. After a 30 days wash-out period and 60 of supplementation, subjects were weighed, a dietary survey was performed, serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, the lipid content of serum lipoproteins and the content of EPA+DHA in plasma phospholipids were measured. A dose dependent increase in EPA+DHA content of phospholipids and no changes in weight or nutrient intake were observed during the supplementation period. With the 6 g dose, a significant reduction in total cholesterol, with a reduction in VLDL and increase in LDL cholesterol and a decline in VLDL triglycerides was observed. With the 4 g dose a reduction in total cholesterol at the expense of VLDL and HDL cholesterol and a reduction in VLDL triglycerides but no changes in total triglycerides was observed. No changes in serum lipids were observed with 2 g dose. In patients with type IIA hyperlipidemia, a significant positive correlation was observed between DHA+EPA content of plasma phospholipids and LDL cholesterol, this correlation was not observed in patients with IIB or IV phenotypes. It is concluded that omega-3 fatty acids are ineffective as the only treatment for dislipidemias refractory to diet.

  20. Cytoprotection by omega-3 fatty acids as a therapeutic drug vehicle when combined with nephrotoxic drugs in an intravenous emulsion: Effects on intraglomerular mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During therapeutic interventions, blood concentrations of intravenously applied drugs are higher, and their onset of pharmacological action is faster than with other routes of drug administration. However, acute drug therapy often produces nephrotoxic side effects, as commonly seen after treatment with Ketorolac or Gentamicin leading to questions about their use, especially for patients at risk for acute renal failure. Omega-6(n-6 and omega-3(n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA affect eicosanoid metabolism, which plays a role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 FA have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA have anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. We hypothesized that providing such injectable drugs with nephrotoxic potential in combination with n3-PUFAs from the outset, might afford rapid cytoprotection of renal cells, given the recent evidence that intravenously administered n3-PUFAs are rapidly incorporated into cell membranes. We used intraglomerular mesangial cells (MES13 that are sensitive to treatment with Ketorolac or Gentamicin instead of proximal tubular cells which do not respond to Ketorolac. We found a significant inhibition of Ketorolac (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM or Gentamicin (2.5, 5 mM induced cytotoxicity after pretreatment of MES13 cells with 0.01% of 20%w/v LipOmega-3 Emulsion 9/1, containing 90:10 wt/wt mixture of fish oil derived triglycerides to medium chain triglycerides.

  1. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD009002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cordeiro Sousa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and plant sources is commonly prescribed as a nonfarmacological alternative to improve brain functions and slow down the progression of dementia. This use is mostly based on findings of preclinical studies which established the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the development and integrity of the brain, as well as epidemiological research that found evidence of malnutrition in patients with dementia. This Cochrane systematic review included three randomized, placebo-controlled trials at low risk of bias, in which omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were administered to people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease in the form of supplements. Of the main results of this systematic review we highlight the lack of convincing evidence for the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, as well as the low frequency of reported adverse events, with a comparable overall frequency between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the placebo groups. The effects on other populations with dementia remain unclear. This paper aims to summarize and discuss the main results and conclusions of this systematic review, as well as its implications for the daily clinical practice.

  2. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlišová, Jana; Bardová, Kristina; Staňková, B.; Tvrzická, E.; Kopecký, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 124, May (2016), s. 150-162 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09347S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Omega-3 fatty acids * hepatic steatosis * obesity * insulin resistance * Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids promote fatty acid utilization and production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in alternatively activated adipose tissue macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rombaldová, Martina; Janovská, Petra; Kopecký, Jan; Kuda, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 490, č. 3 (2017), s. 1080-1085 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05151S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTAUSA17173 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue * macrophages * omega-3 PUFA * fatty acid re-esterification * lipolysis * lipid mediators Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  4. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  5. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: the EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, John J. P.; Maki, Kevin C.; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Machielse, Ben N.; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms. The aim was to evaluate the safety and lipid-altering efficacy in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia of an investigational pharmaceutical

  6. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; Baia, Leandro C.; Hoogeveen, Ellen K.; Giltay, Erik J.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, Daan; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids

  7. Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Function and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Pediatric Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidreza Firuzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most prevalent type of cardiomyopathy in children, which results in congestive heart failure and causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study, aims to investigate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on heart function and oxidative stress biomarkers in these patients. Methods: The present research was a case-control study on pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, who received n-3 PUFA and anti-failure therapy for 6 months (group 1, n = 6, or anti-failure therapy alone for 6 months (group 2, n = 6, as well as age matched normal individuals (group 3, n = 6, and evaluated the cardiac function and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Results: Echocardiographic parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, shortening fraction, tissue Doppler Ea and Aa waves of lateral annulus of tricuspid valve, and Ea and S wave of septum, were significantly improved in group 1 after n-3 PUFA compared to pre- treatment status, while they were not changed after treatment in group 2. Antioxidant enzymes, including catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were slightly decreased, while plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations were somewhat increased in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3, however these changes were not statistically significant. Total antioxidant capacity of plasma was similar in all 3 groups. Conclusions: The results indicate that some echocardiographic parameters were significantly improved in patients receiving omega-3 fish oil. However, omega-3 had no significant effect on oxidative stress biomarkers.

  8. Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Nijpels, G; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead...... to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies...... that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. RESULTS: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA...

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  10. Exploring the Effects of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Allergy Using a HEK-Blue Cell Line

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    Nayyar Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic reactions can result in life-threatening situations resulting in high economic costs and morbidity. Therefore, more effective reagents are needed for allergy treatment. A causal relationship has been suggested to exist between the intake of omega-3/6 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA, docosapentanoic acid (DPA and arachidonic acid (AA, and atopic individuals suffering from allergies. In allergic cascades, the hallmark cytokine IL-4 bind to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R and IL-13 binds to IL-13 receptor (IL-13R, this activates the STAT6 phosphorylation pathway leading to gene activation of allergen-specific IgE antibody production by B cells. The overall aim of this study was to characterize omega-3/6 fatty acids and their effects on STAT6 signaling pathway that results in IgE production in allergic individuals. Methods: The fatty acids were tested in vitro with a HEK-Blue IL-4/IL-13 reporter cell line model, transfected with a reporter gene that produces an enzyme, secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP. SEAP acts as a substitute to IgE when cells are stimulated with bioactive cytokines IL-4 and/or IL-13. Results: We have successfully used DHA, EPA and DPA in our studies that demonstrated a decrease in SEAP secretion, as opposed to an increase in SEAP secretion with AA treatment. A statistical Student’s t-test revealed the significance of the results, confirming our initial hypothesis. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised DHA, EPA, DPA and AA in our allergy model. While AA was a potent stimulator, DHA, EPA and DPA were potential inhibitors of IL-4R/IL-13R signalling, which regulates the STAT6 induced pathway in allergic cascades. Such findings are significant in the future design of dietary therapeutics for the treatment of allergies.

  11. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

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    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  12. Alpha-Linolenic Acid: An Omega-3 Fatty Acid with Neuroprotective Properties—Ready for Use in the Stroke Clinic?

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    Nicolas Blondeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet. This could explain in part why the severe deficiency in omega-3 intake pointed by numerous epidemiologic studies may increase the brain’s vulnerability representing an important risk factor in the development and/or deterioration of certain cardio- and neuropathologies. The roles of ALA in neurological disorders remain unclear, especially in stroke that is a leading cause of death. We and others have identified ALA as a potential nutraceutical to protect the brain from stroke, characterized by its pleiotropic effects in neuroprotection, vasodilation of brain arteries, and neuroplasticity. This review highlights how chronic administration of ALA protects against rodent models of hypoxic-ischemic injury and exerts an anti-depressant-like activity, effects that likely involve multiple mechanisms in brain, and may be applied in stroke prevention. One major effect may be through an increase in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a widely expressed protein in brain that plays critical roles in neuronal maintenance, and learning and memory. Understanding the precise roles of ALA in neurological disorders will provide the underpinnings for the development of new therapies for patients and families who could be devastated by these disorders.

  13. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

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    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  14. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

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    Tang Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG, ethyl ester (EE, free fatty acid (FFA and phospholipid (PL forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA, DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG, DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain. Result At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P P  0.05, DHA-EE (P  0.05 and DHA-PL (P P P P P P  Conclusion The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.

  15. Recommendations of the Spanish Menopause Society on the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; von Schacky, Clemens; Osorio, María José Alonso; Llaneza, Plácido; Pinto, Xavier; Losa, Fernando; Navarro, Mª Concepción; Lubián, Daniel; Mendoza, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    The consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) has shown a great variety of beneficial effects, including cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory effects, which make them interesting for the postmenopausal woman. Because LCO3-PUFAs could be effective and safe during this period, a panel of experts from the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish a set of recommendations for their use in postmenopausal women based on the best available evidence. The decrease in triglycerides is the most consistent effect observed with LCO3-PUFAs (at doses greater than 3g/day). In addition, LCO3-PUFAs have antiarrhythmic effects, reduce blood pressure, improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, and do not increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of LCO3-PUFAs in the relief of menopause symptoms and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  17. Oiling the Brain: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychopathology across the Lifespan

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    Peter R. C. Howe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues.

  18. Comparative study of fatty-acid composition of table eggs from the Jeddah food market and effect of value addition in omega-3 bio-fortified eggs

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    Shahida Aziz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005, diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011, and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004 in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008. Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014 especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.

  19. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    OpenAIRE

    JACOBSEN Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Due to the polyunsaturated nature of omega-3 fatty acids, lipid oxidation is a major challenge when developing omega-3 enriched foods. In multiphase food systems, several factors can affect lipid oxidation and efficacy of antioxidants, added to prevent lipid oxidation. This review discusses the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched food...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids and mood stabilizers alter behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in animals subjected to fenproporex administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lara M; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Teixeira, Letícia J; Rebelo, Joyce; Mota, Isabella T; Bilesimo, Rafaela; Michels, Monique; Arent, Camila O; Mariot, Edemilson; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are fundamental to maintaining the functional integrity of the central nervous system. The animal model used in this study displayed fenproporex-induced hyperactivity, a symptom similar to manic BD. Our results showed that the administration of fenproporex, in the prevent treatment protocol, increased lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex (143%), hippocampus (58%) and striatum (181%), and ω3 fatty acids alone prevented this change in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, whereas the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids with VPA prevented the lipoperoxidation in all analyzed brain areas, and the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids with Li prevented this increase only in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased in the striatum (54%) in the prevention treatment, and the administration of ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA partially prevented this inhibition. On the other hand, in the reversal treatment protocol, the administration of fenproporex increased carbonyl content in the prefrontal cortex (25%), hippocampus (114%) and striatum (91%), and in prefrontal coxter the administration of ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA reversed this change, whereas in the hippocampus and striatum only ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with VPA reversed this effect. Additionally, the administration of fenproporex resulted in a marked increase of TBARS in the hippocampus and striatum, and ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA reversed this change. Finally, fenproporex administration decreased SOD activity in the prefrontal cortex (85%), hippocampus (52%) and striatum (76%), and the ω3 fatty acids in combination with VPA reversed this change in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, while the co-administration of

  1. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Wu, Yi-Shyuan; Kalueff, Allan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies. As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA:DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear. It is also unknown whether EPA, as a DHA precursor, acts directly or via DHA. Here, we discuss recent evidence of EPA and DHA effects in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease, as well as their potential synergistic action on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neurotrophic processes in the brain. We further analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which EPA, DHA or their combination may benefit these diseases. We also outline the limitations of current studies and suggest new genetic models and novel approaches to overcome these limitations. Finally, we summarize future strategies for translational research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture. This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous, traditional breeds are characteristic. The development and expansion of local breeding methods is of crucial importance for the viable region, the protection (many times the restoration of environment and for the above mentioned human nutritional advantages. With modern control methods of origin, with adherence of food-safety rules, the local commercialization of the traditional foods can be solved, as many positive examples show in different countries. The need for diverse, tasteful and safe products of special quality is also increasing. Our aim is to support and favour the local, traditional breeding for direct commercialization with ensuring the proper conditions, financial support and legislation.

  3. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide during experimental murine paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargi, S C; Dalalio, M M O; Moraes, A G; Visentainer, J E L; Morais, D R; Visentainer, J V

    2013-01-01

    There has recently been increased interest in the potential health effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the immune system. Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most important endemic mycosis in Latin America. Macrophages have a fundamental role and act as first line of organism defense. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of n-3 fatty acids on the production of PGE2 and NO by mice infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched with LNA for 8 weeks. To study the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on macrophage activity during experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, mice were infected with Pb18 and fed a diet supplemented with LNA. PGE2 in the serum of animals was analyzed and NO in the supernatants of macrophages cultured and challenged in vitro with Pb18 was measured. Omega-3 fatty acids seemed to decrease the production of PGE2 in vivo in the infected group fed an LNA-supplemented diet during the 4th and 8th weeks of the experiment. At the same time, we observed an increase in synthesis of NO by peritoneal macrophages in this group. Omega-3 fatty acids thus appear to have an immunomodulatory effect in paracoccidioidomycosis.

  4. Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Production of Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide during Experimental Murine Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sargi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been increased interest in the potential health effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the immune system. Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most important endemic mycosis in Latin America. Macrophages have a fundamental role and act as first line of organism defense. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of n-3 fatty acids on the production of PGE2 and NO by mice infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched with LNA for 8 weeks. To study the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on macrophage activity during experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, mice were infected with Pb18 and fed a diet supplemented with LNA. PGE2 in the serum of animals was analyzed and NO in the supernatants of macrophages cultured and challenged in vitro with Pb18 was measured. Omega-3 fatty acids seemed to decrease the production of PGE2 in vivo in the infected group fed an LNA-supplemented diet during the 4th and 8th weeks of the experiment. At the same time, we observed an increase in synthesis of NO by peritoneal macrophages in this group. Omega-3 fatty acids thus appear to have an immunomodulatory effect in paracoccidioidomycosis.

  5. Pancreatic islet function in omega-3 fatty acid-depleted rats: alteration of calcium fluxes and calcium-dependent insulin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Oguzhan, B; Louchami, K; Chardigny, J-M; Portois, L; Carpentier, Y A; Malaisse, W J; Herchuelz, A; Sener, A

    2006-09-01

    Considering the insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids often prevailing in Western populations, this report deals mainly with alterations of Ca(2+) fluxes and Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretory events in isolated pancreatic islets from omega-3-depleted rats. In terms of (45)Ca(2+) handling, the islets from omega-3-depleted rats, compared with those from normal animals, displayed an unaltered responsiveness to an increase in extracellular K(+) concentration, a lower inflow rate and lower fractional outflow rate of the divalent cation, and higher (45)Ca(2+)-labeled cellular pool(s) at isotopic equilibrium. The latter anomaly was corrected 120 min after intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride-fish oil (MCT:FO) emulsion, distinct from a control omega-3-poor MCT-olive oil (MCT:OO) emulsion. At 8.3 mM D-glucose, insulin release was higher in islets from omega-3-depleted rats vs. control animals, coinciding with a higher cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. The relative magnitude of the increase in insulin output attributable to a rise in D-glucose as well as extracellular Ca(2+) or K(+) concentration, to the absence vs. presence of verapamil and to the presence vs. absence of extracellular Ca(2+), theophylline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or Ba(2+), was always more pronounced in islets from omega-3-depleted rats injected with the MCT:OO compared with the MCT:FO emulsion. A comparable situation prevailed when comparing islets from noninjected omega-3-depleted and normal rats. In light of these and previous findings, we propose that an impairment of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity plays a major, although not an exclusive, role in the perturbation of Ca(2+) fluxes and Ca(2+)-dependent secretory events in the islets from omega-3-depleted rats.

  6. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra S; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulated by increased consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the pig gluteus medius muscle. The transcriptome of the gluteus medius muscle was studied for pigs subjected to either a control diet or a diet supplemented with linseed and rapeseed oil to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the muscle tissue transcriptome database pointing differentially expressed genes (DEG). Comparative expression analyses identified 749 genes significantly differing at least in the twofold of change between two groups of animals fed with divergent level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The expression of 219 genes was upregulated, and the expression of 530 genes was downregulated in the group of pigs supplemented with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in relation to control group pigs. Results of RNA-seq indicated a role of fatty acid in the regulation of the expression of genes which are essential for muscle tissue development and functioning. Functional analysis revealed that the identified genes were important for a number of biological processes including inflammatory response, signaling, lipid metabolism, and homeostasis. Summarizing, obtained results provide strong evidence that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids regulate fundamental metabolic processes in muscle tissue development and functioning.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted incorporation of nano-encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids to enhance the fatty acid profile of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, K Shikha; Perussello, Camila A; García, Carlos Álvarez; Kerry, Joseph P; Pando, Daniel; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2017-10-01

    In this study, ultrasound was employed to enhance the diffusion of microencapsulated fatty acids into pork meat. Nanovesicles of fish oil composed of 42% EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and 16% DHA (docosahexanoic acid) were prepared using two different commercial Pronanosome preparations (Lipo-N and Lipo-CAT; which yield cationic and non-cationic nanovesicles, respectively). The thin film hydration (TFH) methodology was employed for encapsulation. Pork meat (Musculus semitendinosus) was submerged in the nanovesicles suspension and subjected to ultrasound (US) treatment at 25kHz for either 30 or 60min. Samples were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas chromatography-flame ionisation (GC-FID). The content of long-chain PUFAs, especially omega-3, was found to increase following the US treatment which was higher for Lipo-CAT compared to Lipo-N nanovesicles. Samples subjected to Lipo-N had higher atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, indicating higher levels of saturated fatty acids compared to the Lipo-CAT. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio in pork meat was significantly reduced following the US treatment, thus indicating an improved fatty acid profile of pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity, vitamins A, E, and C in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Anis Kouchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Studies showed paraoxonase activity, and vitamin C and A levels are decreased in diabetes. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity and vitamins A, E, C in patients with type 2 diabetes is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on paraoxonase activity, vitamins C, A and E levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 80 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly enrolled into the study. Study subjects received daily 2714 mg of omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 8 weeks. Ten milliliter fasting blood was collected before and after treatments. Serum paraoxonase activity and vitamin C levels were measured by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A and vitamin E were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient intake was estimated using 24-hours dietary recall questionnaire (for 2 days before and after treatments. Dietary data were analyzed using FPII. To compare the means of variables between the two groups, independent t-test was employed. Differences between variables before and after interventions were calculated using paired t-test. Results: Serum levels of paraoxonase activity were significantly increased after omega-3 intake (126.47 IU/ml vs. 180.13 IU/ml. However, omega-3 intake caused no significant change in serum vitamin A, C, and E. Conclusions: Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids was found to increase paraoxonase activity in diabetic patients.

  9. Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-09-15

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ω-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ω-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ω-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

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    Jong-Min Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection.

  11. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Enrichment of wheat chips with omega-3 fatty acid by flaxseed addition: textural and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ferhat; Karaman, Safa; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, wheat chips enriched with flaxseed flour were produced and response surface methodology was used for the studying the simultaneous effects of flaxseed level (10-20%), frying temperature (160-180 °C) and frying time (40-60 s) on some physicochemical, textural and sensorial properties and fatty acid composition of wheat chips. Ridge analysis was conducted to determine the optimum levels of processing variables. Predictive regression equations with adequate coefficients of determination (R² ≥ 0.705) to explain the effect of processing variables were constructed. Addition of flaxseed flour increased the dry matter and protein content of samples and increase of frying temperature decreased the hardness values of wheat chips samples. Increment in flaxseed level provided an increase in unsaturated fatty acid content namely omega-3 fatty acids of wheat chips samples. Overall acceptability of chips increased with the increase of frying temperature. Ridge analysis showed that maximum taste score would be at flaxseed level = 10%, frying temperature = 180 °C and frying time = 50 s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

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    Samantha P Tull

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA, arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2 (PGD(2 by cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

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    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  15. Regulation of the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes.

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    Marte Avranden Kjær

    Full Text Available Limited availability of the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have led to an interest in better understanding of the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The biosynthesis of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA involves several complex reaction steps including desaturation-, elongation- and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. The aims of the present experiments were to gain more knowledge on how this biosynthesis is regulated over time by different doses and fatty acid combinations. Hepatocytes isolated from salmon were incubated with various levels and combinations of oleic acid, EPA and DHA. Oleic acid led to a higher expression of the Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (fad genes Δ6fad_a, Δ6fad_b, Δ6fad_c and the elongase genes elovl2 compared with cells cultured in medium enriched with DHA. Further, the study showed rhythmic variations in expression over time. Levels were reached where a further increase in specific fatty acids given to the cells not stimulated the conversion further. The gene expression of Δ6fad_a_and Δ6fad_b responded similar to fatty acid treatment, suggesting a co-regulation of these genes, whereas Δ5fad and Δ6fad_c showed a different regulation pattern. EPA and DHA induced different gene expression patterns, especially of Δ6fad_a. Addition of radiolabelled alpha-linolenic acid to the hepatocytes confirmed a higher degree of elongation and desaturation in cells treated with oleic acid compared to cells treated with DHA. This study suggests a complex regulation of the conversion process of n-3 fatty acids. Several factors, such as that the various gene copies are differently regulated, the gene expression show rhythmic variations and gene expression only affected to a certain level, determines when you get the maximum conversion of the beneficial n-3 fatty acids.

  16. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  17. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Low Density Lipoprotein Particle Size in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Already under Statin Therapy

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    Myung Won Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Beyond statin therapy for reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve more optimal reduction in cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. To evaluate the effects and the safety of combined treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and statin in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a randomized, open-label study in Korea. Patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL while taking statin for at least 6 weeks were eligible. Fifty-one patients were randomized to receive either omega-3 fatty acid 4, 2 g, or no drug for 8 weeks while continuing statin therapy. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean percentage change of low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and triglyceride (TG level was greater in patients who were prescribed 4 g of omega-3 fatty acid with statin than in patients receiving statin monotherapy (2.8%±3.1% vs. 2.3%±3.6%, P=0.024; -41.0%±24.1% vs. -24.2%±31.9%, P=0.049. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with statin increased LDL particle size and decreased TG level in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. The therapy was well tolerated without significant adverse effects.

  18. Reversal of hepatic steatosis by omega-3 fatty acids measured non-invasively by (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Hendrik A.; Heger, Michal; Kloek, Jaap J.; Nienhuis, Syert L.; van Werven, Jochem R.; Nederveen, Aart J.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Stoker, Jaap; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim:  Living donors with marked (> 33%) macrovesicular steatosis (MaS) are excluded from living donor liver transplantation procedures. Experimental studies have shown that the development of steatosis can be prevented by supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (FA), but no studies

  19. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01


    Background

    The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the

  20. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  1. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, François; Assies, Johanna; Jansen, Eugène H. J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients with major

  2. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients

  3. Supplementation with Eicosapentaenoic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Does Not Influence Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Major Depression : A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients

  4. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  5. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

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    John W Newman

    Full Text Available Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities.To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL. They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3 for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs, ketones (KETEs, epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs.At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI| being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL; 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL; 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003, and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, p<0.0001 and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% |80, 176|, p<0.0001.Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  6. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John W; Pedersen, Theresa L; Brandenburg, Verdayne R; Harris, William S; Shearer, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI|) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, poxylipins (123% |80, 176|, poxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  7. Intentions to consume omega-3 fatty acids: a comparison of protection motivation theory and ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Samuel Christian; Davidson, Graham R; Ho, Robert

    2011-06-01

    There has been limited research to date into methods for increasing people's intentions to use omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which have been linked with decreased risk of suffering from numerous major diseases. The present study employed a cross-sectional design with 380 university students, employees, and visitors to investigate the efficacy of the protection motivation (PM) theory and the ordered protection motivation (OPM) theory, to predict behavioral intention to consume omega-3 rich foods and dietary supplements. Analysis of model fit indicated that both the PM model and the OPM model adequately represented the structural relationships between the cognitive variables and intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Further evaluation of relative fit of the two competing models suggested that the PM model might provide a better representation of decision-making following evaluation of the health threat of n-3 PUFA deficiency. Path analysis indicated that the component of coping appraisal was significantly associated with the behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Threat appraisal was found to be significantly associated with behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA only for the OPM model. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the roles that cognitive appraisal processes play in young and healthy individuals' protective health decision-making regarding consumption of n-3 PUFA. Implications of the findings and recommendations, which include (a) encouraging the consumption of n-3 PUFA as an effective barrier against the incidence of disease, and (b) effective health messaging that focuses on beliefs about the effectiveness of n-3 PUFA in reducing health risks, are discussed.

  8. OMEGA-3 IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ivardava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in several marine and plant oils. The author emphasizes that, being irreplaceable, these fatty acids should enter the body with food. Omega-3 regulate lipid exchange, balance functions of immune, nervous and cardiovascular systems, provide generation of prostaglandins, reduce thrombocyte aggregation, are a structural substance of brain and retina. In case of insufficient consumption of food containing omega-3, their dotation in the form of drugs is necessary. The importance of these compounds for maturation and correct functioning of vital systems both in unborn and newborn children is particularly noted.

  9. Clinical and metabolic response to flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Hashemdokht, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-09-01

    Data on the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with DFU. The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 subjects (aged 40-85years old) with grade 3 DFU. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups (30 subjects each group) to receive either 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil supplements or placebo twice a day for 12weeks. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation resulted in significant decreases in ulcer length (-2.0±2.3 vs. -1.0±1.1cm, P=0.03), width (-1.8±1.7 vs. -1.0±1.0cm, P=0.02) and depth (-0.8±0.6 vs. -0.5±0.5cm, P=0.01). Additionally, significant reductions in serum insulin concentrations (-4.4±5.5 vs. +1.4±8.3 μIU/mL, P=0.002), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.1±3.0 vs. +1.0±5.0, P=0.005) and HbA1c (-0.9±1.5 vs. -0.1±0.4%, P=0.01), and a significant rise in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.005±0.02, P=0.002) were seen following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids compared with the placebo. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation significantly decreased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-25.5±31.5 vs. -8.2±18.9μg/mL, P=0.01), and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+83.5±111.7 vs. -73.4±195.5mmol/L, Pfatty acids supplementation for 12weeks among subjects with DFU had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size, markers of insulin metabolism, serum hs-CRP, plasma TAC and GSH levels. In addition, flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids may have played an indirect role in wound healing due to its effects on improved metabolic profiles. Copyright

  10. Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Complications of Pregnancy and Maternal Risk Factors for Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Phang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials have suggested a potential association of maternal intake of marine n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, there is inconsistency in the literature on whether marine n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy can prevent maternal complications of pregnancy. This narrative literature review summarizes recent evidence on observational and clinical trials of marine n-3 PUFA intake on maternal risk factors and effects on offspring cardio-metabolic health. The current evidence generally does not support a role of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation in altering the incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or pre-eclampsia. It may be that benefits from marine n-3 PUFA supplementation are more pronounced in high-risk populations, such as women with a history of complications of pregnancy, or women with low marine n-3 PUFA intake. Discrepancies between studies may be related to differences in study design, dosage, fatty acid interplay, and length of treatment. Further prospective double-blind studies are needed to clarify the impact of long-chain marine n-3 PUFAs on risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the offspring.

  11. Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-κB activation and enhancing autophagy.

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    Yolanda Williams-Bey

    Full Text Available The omega-3 (ω3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1β production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1β production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1β production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR 4 (also known as GPR120, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein β-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. DHA also reduced IL-1β levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

  12. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

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    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  13. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

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    Giuseppe Grosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation in depressed patients have been suggested to improve depressive symptomatology, previous findings are not univocal. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of omega-3 PUFA treatment of depressive disorders, taking into account the clinical differences among patients included in the studies. METHODS: A search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Database of RCTs using omega-3 PUFA on patients with depressive symptoms published up to August 2013 was performed. Standardized mean difference in clinical measure of depression severity was primary outcome. Type of omega-3 used (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and omega-3 as mono- or adjuvant therapy was also examined. Meta-regression analyses assessed the effects of study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, dose of omega-3, and age of patients. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 11 and 8 trials conducted respectively on patients with a DSM-defined diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD and patients with depressive symptomatology but no diagnosis of MDD demonstrated significant clinical benefit of omega-3 PUFA treatment compared to placebo (standardized difference in random-effects model 0.56 SD [95% CI: 0.20, 0.92] and 0.22 SD [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43], respectively; pooled analysis was 0.38 SD [95% CI: 0.18, 0.59]. Use of mainly EPA within the preparation, rather than DHA, influenced final clinical efficacy. Significant clinical efficacy had the use of omega-3 PUFA as adjuvant rather than mono-therapy. No relation between efficacy and study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, age of patients, and study quality was found. Omega-3 PUFA resulted effective in RCTs on patients with bipolar disorder, whereas no evidence was found for those exploring their efficacy on depressive symptoms in young populations

  14. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers.

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    Keenan, Alison H; Pedersen, Theresa L; Fillaus, Kristi; Larson, Mark K; Shearer, Gregory C; Newman, John W

    2012-08-01

    A subject's baseline FA composition may influence the ability of dietary highly unsaturated omega-3 FAs (n3-HUFA) to change circulating profiles of esterified FAs and their oxygenated metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-oxylipin status on the magnitude of response to n3-HUFA consumption. Blood was collected from fasting subjects (n = 30) before and after treatment (4 weeks; 11 ± 2 mg/kg/day n3-HUFA ethyl esters). Esterified FAs were quantified in erythrocytes, platelets, and plasma by GC-MS. Esterified oxylipins were quantified in plasma by LC-MS/MS. Treatment with n3-HUFAs increased n3-HUFAs and decreased n6-HUFAs in all reservoirs and increased plasma n3-oxylipins without significantly changing n6-oxylipin concentrations. As subject basal n3-HUFAs increased, treatment-associated changes decreased, and this behavior was reflected in the percentage of 20:5n3 + 22:6n3 in red blood cell membrane FAs (i.e., the omega-3 index). To maintain an omega-3 index of 8% and thus reduce cardiovascular disease risk, our analyses suggest a maintenance dose of 7 mg/kg/day n3-HUFA ethyl esters for a 70-kg individual. These results suggest that the basal n3 index may have clinical utility to establish efficacious therapeutic experimental feeding regimens and to evaluate the USDA Dietary Guidelines recommendations for n3-HUFA consumption.

  15. Individual Variation in Lipidomic Profiles of Healthy Subjects in Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Georgi, Katrin; Hegedus Karbowski, Christine; German, J. Bruce; Weiss, Robert H.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Trygg, Johan; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention. Methods The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). Results Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively). There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r2=0.93). However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE) varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase. Conclusions Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be

  16. Individual variation in lipidomic profiles of healthy subjects in response to omega-3 Fatty acids.

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    Malin L Nording

    Full Text Available Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention.The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA].Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively. There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r(2=0.93. However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and thromboxane B2 (TXB2, and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase.Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be used as a means to assess the

  17. Optimization of the carrot leaf dehydration aiming at the preservation of omega-3 fatty acids

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    Vanessa Vivian de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrot leaf dehydration conditions in air circulation oven were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM for minimizing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic (LNA, 18:3n-3. The optimized leaf drying time and temperature were 43 h and 70 ºC, respectively. The fatty acids (FA were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column; FA were identified with standards and based on equivalent-chain-length. LNA and other FA were quantified against C21:0 internal standard. After dehydration, the amount of LNA, quantified in mg/100 g dry matter of dehydrated carrot leaves, were 984 mg.

  18. Are the Adaptogenic Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Mediated via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines?

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    Joanne Bradbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the size of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in psychological stress and the extent to which it is mediated via proinflammatory cytokines. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to analyze data from 194 healthy Australians. Biomarkers used were erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (AA, ex-vivo stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Stress was measured with the perceived stress scale (PSS-10, found to comprise three factors: Coping (items 4, 7, 5, Overwhelm (2, 10, 6 and 8, and Emotional (1, 9 and 3. This modeling demonstrated that the effects of DHA on coping are largely direct effects (0.26, t=2.05 and were not significantly mediated via the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Future modeling should explore whether adding EPA to the model would increase the significance of the mediation pathways.

  19. Lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower docosahexaenoic acid in men with pedophilia.

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    Mincke, Elda; Cosyns, Paul; Christophe, Armand B; De Vriese, Stephanie; Maes, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in plasma phospholipid fatty acids may play a role in aggressive behavior. Recently, it was suggested that a dysfunctional serotonergic turnover in the brain may be involved in the etiopathology of pedophilia. Depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may cause alterations in the serotonergic system that may be related to pedophilia and aggression. This study examines the serum phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA fractions in pedophilia. Twenty-seven pedophilic men and eighteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. In pedophilia there was a significant depletion of the C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), total n-3 fractions and an increase in the total n-6/n-3 and C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 (arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) ratios. Using the NEO Personality Inventory, lower DHA in pedophiles is related to more impulsiveness and lower agreeableness (trust, altruism, straightforwardness, compliance) and conscientiousness (self-discipline). The results of this study suggest that a depletion of the serum phospholipid n-3 higher unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and, in particular, of DHA may take part in the pathophysiology of pedophilia. One hypothesis is that a depletion of n-3 HUFAs and DHA may cause alterations in the serotonergic turnover, which are related to impulse discontrol and aggression-hostility, behaviors which are associated with pedophilia.

  20. [Omega-3 and health].

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    Herbaut, C

    2006-09-01

    N-3 PUFA (omega-3), and the n-6 PUFA (omega-6) are essential fatty acids. They must be absorbed by alimentation and play a very important role in the coagulation (inhibition of platelets aggregation) and in the inflammatory reaction (anti-inflammatory effects). Their effects have been studied in different sicknesses. In cardiovascular diseases, particularly in coronary diseases, studies demonstrated a decreased mortality in populations who eat an omega-3 rich diet or who take an omega-3 supplement. Among others, sudden death after myocardial infarction is decreased. In inflammatory diseases an effect seem to be found in some studies. In rheumatoid arthritis a decrease of different biological markers of inflammation and in some case a clinical improvement has been noticed. It may be the same in COPD. On the other hand, they seem not to give any protection against cancer in general. At this moment the recommendations for healthy people are to eat twice a week fat fish and to take omega-3 rich oils. For pathological cases, recommendations exist only for coronary disease: 1 g of fish oils : mixture of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA/DHA) should be given after a myocardial infarction.

  1. Efficacy of the Omega-3 Index in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese adults: a pilot study.

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    Parker, Helen M; O'Connor, Helen T; Keating, Shelley E; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Garg, Manohar L; Caterson, Ian D; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals. Low n-3 PUFA intake has been associated with the presence of NAFLD; however, the relationship between a biomarker of n-3 status - the Omega-3 Index - and liver fat is yet to be elucidated. A total of eighty overweight adults (fifty-six men) completed the anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including the Omega-3 Index, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of liver fat. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed with reference to prediction of liver fat percentage. The mean Omega-3 Index was high in both NAFLD (intrahepatic lipid concentration≥5·5 %) and non-NAFLD groups. The Omega-3 Index, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, TAG, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively correlated, and HDL and erythrocyte n-6:n-3 ratio negatively correlated with liver fat concentration. Regression analysis found that simple anthropometric and demographic variables (waist, age) accounted for 31 % of the variance in liver fat and the addition of traditional cardiometabolic blood markers (TAG, HDL, hsCRP and ALT) increased the predictive power to 43 %. The addition of the novel erythrocyte fatty acid variable (Omega-3 Index) to the model only accounted for a further 3 % of the variance (P=0·049). In conclusion, the Omega-3 Index was associated with liver fat concentration but did not improve the overall capacity of demographic, anthropometric and blood markers to predict NAFLD.

  2. Effect of treatment with Omega-3 fatty acids on C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alfa in hemodialysis patients

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    Hamid Tayyebi-Khosroshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a strong independent risk marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α, a known pro-inflammatory cytokine, are elevated and have damaging effects in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. Omega-3 fatty acids play an important modulatory role in inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to review the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP and other parameters caused by omega-3 supplementation in dialysis patients. The clinical trial was performed in 37 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis in hemodialysis centers of three university hospitals in Tabriz. Blood samples were obtained from the study patients for hemoglobin, albumin, ferritin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, TNF-α and high specific-CRP (hs-CRP measurement. The patients received 3 g omega-3 per day for 2 months. The side-effects noticed were nausea, diarrhea and dyspepsia and undesired drug smell. The difference noted in hemoglobin, albumin, ferritin, CRP, triglyceride, total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol before and after supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. However, the use of omega-3 decreased the serum levels of TNF-α significantly. We conclude that the use of 3 g of omega-3 per day caused significant decrease in serum levels of TNF-α in the dialysis population, and its use is recommended in such patients.

  3. Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate hepatic pathology.

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    Khadge, Saraswoti; Sharp, John Graham; Thiele, Geoffrey M; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Duryee, Michael J; Britton, Holly C; Dafferner, Alicia J; Beck, Jordan; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate inflammation; however, few studies have focused on the pathobiology of PUFA using isocaloric and isolipidic diets and it is unclear if the associated pathologies are due to dietary PUFA composition, lipid metabolism or obesity, as most studies compare diets fed ad libitum. Our studies used isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets (35% of calories from fat), with differing compositions of omega (ω)-6 or long chain (Lc) ω-3 PUFA that were pair-fed and assessed hepatic pathology, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Consistent with an isocaloric, pair-fed model we observed no significant difference in diet consumption between the groups. In contrast, the body and liver weight, total lipid level and abdominal fat deposits were significantly higher in mice fed an ω-6 diet. An analysis of the fatty acid profile in plasma and liver showed that mice on the ω-6 diet had significantly more arachidonic acid (AA) in the plasma and liver, whereas, in these mice ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were not detected and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was significantly lower. Histopathologic analyses documented that mice on the ω-6 diet had a significant increase in macrovesicular steatosis, extramedullary myelopoiesis (EMM), apoptotic hepatocytes and decreased glycogen storage in lobular hepatocytes, and hepatocyte proliferation relative to mice fed the Lc ω-3 diet. Together, these results support PUFA dietary regulation of hepatic pathology and inflammation with implications for enteral feeding regulation of steatosis and other hepatic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rescue of glucocorticoid-programmed adipocyte inflammation by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the rat.

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    Mark, Peter J; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Zulkafli, Intan S; Mori, Trevor A; Waddell, Brendan J

    2014-05-13

    Adverse fetal environments predispose offspring to pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome. Previously we demonstrated that adult offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers had elevated plasma insulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, effects prevented by a postnatal diet enriched with omega (n)-3 fatty acids. Here we tested whether prenatal glucocorticoid excess also programmed the adipose tissue phenotype, and whether this outcome is rescued by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Offspring of control and dexamethasone-treated mothers (0.75 μg/ml in drinking water, day 13 to term) were cross-fostered to mothers on a standard (Std) or high n-3 (Hn3) diet at birth. Offspring remained on these diets post-weaning, and serum and retroperitoneal fat were obtained at 6 months of age (n = 5-8 per group). Serum was analysed for blood lipids and fatty acid profiles, adipocyte cross sectional area was measured by unbiased stereological analysis and adipose expression of markers of inflammation, glucocorticoid sensitivity and lipid metabolism were determined by RT-qPCR analysis. Serum total fatty acid levels were elevated (P < 0.01) in male offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect prevented by Hn3 consumption. Prenatal dexamethasone also programmed increased adipose expression of Il6, Il1b (both P < 0.05) and Tnfa (P < 0.001) mRNAs regardless of fetal sex, but again this effect was prevented (for Il6 and Il1b) by Hn3 consumption. Offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers had increased adipose expression of Gr (P = 0.008) and Ppara (P < 0.05) regardless of sex or postnatal diet, while 11bHsd1 was upregulated in males only. The Hn3 diet increased Ppard expression and reduced adipocyte size in all offspring (both P < 0.05) irrespective of prenatal treatment. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure programmed increased expression of inflammatory markers and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity of adipose tissue. Partial prevention of this

  5. Rescue of IL-1β-induced reduction of human neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids and antidepressants.

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    Borsini, Alessandra; Alboni, Silvia; Horowitz, Mark A; Tojo, Luis M; Cannazza, Giuseppe; Su, Kuan-Pin; Pariante, Carmine M; Zunszain, Patricia A

    2017-10-01

    Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway. We allowed neural cells to proliferate for 3days and further differentiate for 7days in the presence of IL-1β (10ng/ml) and either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline (1µM), the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine (1µM), or the ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 10µM) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 10µM). Co-incubation with each of these compounds reversed the IL-1β-induced reduction in neurogenesis (DCX- and MAP2-positive neurons), indicative of a protective effect. Moreover, EPA and DHA also reversed the IL-1β-induced increase in kynurenine, as well as mRNA levels of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO); while DHA and sertraline reverted the IL-1β-induced increase in quinolinic acid and mRNA levels of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). Our results show common effects of monoaminergic antidepressants and ω-3 fatty acids on the reduction of neurogenesis caused by IL-1β, but acting through both common and different kynurenine pathway-related mechanisms. Further characterization of their individual properties will be of benefit towards improving a future personalized medicine approach. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

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    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  7. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Oxylipins in Neuroinflammation and Management of Alzheimer Disease.

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    Devassy, Jessay Gopuran; Leng, Shan; Gabbs, Melissa; Monirujjaman, Md; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil. Although interventions have generally used fish oil containing both EPA and DHA, several studies that used either EPA or DHA alone or specific oxylipins derived from these fatty acids indicate that they have distinct effects. Both DHA and EPA can reduce neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, but EPA positively influences mood disorders, whereas DHA maintains normal brain structure. Fewer studies with a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid, suggest that other n-3 PUFAs and their oxylipins also may positively affect AD. Further research identifying the unique anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties of oxylipins from individual n-3 PUFAs will enable the discovery of novel disease-management strategies in AD. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Modulation of the endogenous omega-3 fatty acid and oxylipin profile in vivo—A comparison of the fat-1 transgenic mouse with C57BL/6 wildtype mice on an omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet

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    Ostermann, Annika I.; Waindok, Patrick; Schmidt, Moritz J.; Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Rohwer, Nadine; Weylandt, Karsten-H.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14–30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs. Levels of n3-PUFA achieved by feeding were higher compared to fat-1 mice, particularly for EPA (max. 1.7% in whole blood of fat-1 vs. 7.8% following feeding). Changes in PUFAs were reflected in most oxylipins in plasma, brain and colon: Compared to wild-type mice on a standard diet, arachidonic acid metabolites were overall decreased while EPA and DHA oxylipins increased with feeding more than in fat-1 mice. In plasma of n3-PUFA fed animals, EPA and DHA metabolites from the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways dominated over ARA derived counterparts.Fat-1 mice show n3-PUFA level which can be reached by dietary interventions, supporting the applicability of this model in n3-PUFA research. However, for specific questions, e.g. the role of EPA derived mediators or concentration dependent effects of (individual) PUFA, feeding studies are necessary. PMID:28886129

  9. Modulation of the endogenous omega-3 fatty acid and oxylipin profile in vivo-A comparison of the fat-1 transgenic mouse with C57BL/6 wildtype mice on an omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika I Ostermann

    Full Text Available Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA. In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14-30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs. Levels of n3-PUFA achieved by feeding were higher compared to fat-1 mice, particularly for EPA (max. 1.7% in whole blood of fat-1 vs. 7.8% following feeding. Changes in PUFAs were reflected in most oxylipins in plasma, brain and colon: Compared to wild-type mice on a standard diet, arachidonic acid metabolites were overall decreased while EPA and DHA oxylipins increased with feeding more than in fat-1 mice. In plasma of n3-PUFA fed animals, EPA and DHA metabolites from the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways dominated over ARA derived counterparts.Fat-1 mice show n3-PUFA level which can be reached by dietary interventions, supporting the applicability of this model in n3-PUFA research. However, for specific questions, e.g. the role of EPA derived mediators or concentration dependent effects of (individual PUFA, feeding studies are necessary.

  10. Modulation of the endogenous omega-3 fatty acid and oxylipin profile in vivo-A comparison of the fat-1 transgenic mouse with C57BL/6 wildtype mice on an omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet.

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    Ostermann, Annika I; Waindok, Patrick; Schmidt, Moritz J; Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Rohwer, Nadine; Weylandt, Karsten-H; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14-30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs. Levels of n3-PUFA achieved by feeding were higher compared to fat-1 mice, particularly for EPA (max. 1.7% in whole blood of fat-1 vs. 7.8% following feeding). Changes in PUFAs were reflected in most oxylipins in plasma, brain and colon: Compared to wild-type mice on a standard diet, arachidonic acid metabolites were overall decreased while EPA and DHA oxylipins increased with feeding more than in fat-1 mice. In plasma of n3-PUFA fed animals, EPA and DHA metabolites from the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways dominated over ARA derived counterparts.Fat-1 mice show n3-PUFA level which can be reached by dietary interventions, supporting the applicability of this model in n3-PUFA research. However, for specific questions, e.g. the role of EPA derived mediators or concentration dependent effects of (individual) PUFA, feeding studies are necessary.

  11. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  12. Effect of diet and omega-3 fatty acid intervention on asymmetric dimethylarginine

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    Lyberg Torstein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Impaired vasodilatation has been suggested to be caused by inhibition of nitric oxide generation by the recently described asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. In the present study we wanted to explore whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation and/or diet intervention have beneficial influence on endothelial function assessed as plasma levels of ADMA and L-arginine. Methods A male population (n = 563, age 70 ± 6 yrs with long-standing hyperlipidemia, characterized as high risk individuals in 1970–72, was included, randomly allocated to receive placebo n-3 PUFA capsules (corn oil and no dietary advice (control group, dietary advice (Mediterranean type, n-3 PUFA capsules, or dietary advice and n-3 PUFA combined and followed for 3 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and the end of the study. Results Compliance with both intervention regimens were demonstrated by changes in serum fatty acids and by recordings from a food frequency questionnaire. No influence of either regimens on ADMA levels were obtained. However, n-3 PUFA supplementation was accompanied by a significant increase in L-arginine levels, different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p 2, the decrease in L-arginine on placebo was strengthened (p = 0.01, and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio was also significantly reduced (p = 0.04. Conclusion In this rather large randomized intervention study, ADMA levels were not influenced by n-3 PUFA supplementation or dietary counselling. n-3 PUFA did, however, counteract the age-related reduction in L-arginine seen on placebo, especially in lean individuals, which might be discussed as an improvement of endothelial function.

  13. Diets Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio Decrease Liver Content of Saturated Fatty Acids Across Generations of Wistar Rats

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    Simone Halfen

    Full Text Available Our study evaluated how the consumption of diets with low (LOW group - 0.4/1 or high (CON group - 13.6/1 omega-6/omega-3 ratio across generations (F1 and F2 can modulate liver fatty acid (FA profile and blood biomarkers. Liver content of α-linolenic acid was higher in animals always fed with LOW diet than animals that changed from CON to LOW diet, which by your time was higher than animals always fed with CON diet. Liver saturated FA concentration decreased in both groups from F1 to F2. In conclusion, both diets were efficient in decreasing the saturated FA liver content across generations, the LOW ratio diet was more effective in reducing blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and there was a multigenerational effect of the LOW ratio diet, improving the FA profile even when the offspring start receiving the CON diet.

  14. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literature.

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    Lane, Katie; Derbyshire, Emma; Li, Weili; Brennan, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Presently alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most widely used vegetarian LC3PUFA, but only marginal amounts are converted into eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); both of which are strongly related to human health. Currently, fish oils represent the most prominent dietary sources of EPA and DHA; however, these are unsuitable for vegetarians. Alternative sources include flaxseed, echium, walnut, and algal oil but their conversion to EPA and DHA must be considered. The present systematic review sets out to collate information from intervention studies examining the bioavailability of alternative vegetarian long chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) sources. Ten key papers published over the last 10 years were identified with seven intervention studies reporting that ALA from nut and seed oils was not converted to DHA at all. Three studies showed that ingestion of micro-algae oil led to significant increases in blood erythrocyte and plasma DHA. Further work is now needed to identify optimal doses of alternative vegetarian LC3PUFAs and how these can be integrated within daily diets. The potential role of algal oils appears to be particularly promising and an area in which further research is warranted.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Differentially Modulates the SDF-1/CXCR-4 Cell Homing Axis in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmenschlager, Luiza; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado; Marcadenti, Aline; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the effect of acute and chronic dietary supplementation of ω-3 on lipid metabolism and cardiac regeneration, through its influence on the Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor (CXCR4) axis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated in eight groups (of eight animals each), which received daily orogastric administration of ω-3 (1 g) for 24 h, 72 h or 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of the lipid profile and SDF-1 systemic levels (ELISA). At the end of the treatment period, cardiac tissue was collected for CXCR4 expression analysis (Western blot). The use of ω-3 caused a reduction in total cholesterol levels ( p = 0.044), and acutely activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in normotensive animals ( p = 0.037). In the presence of the ω-3, after 72 h, SDF-1 levels decreased in WKY and increased in SHR ( p = 0.017), and tissue expression of the receptor CXCR4 was higher in WKY than in SHR ( p = 0.001). The ω-3 fatty acid supplementation differentially modulates cell homing mediators in normotensive and hypertensive animals. While WKY rats respond acutely to omega-3 supplementation, showing increased release of SDF-1 and CXCR4, SHR exhibit a weaker, delayed response.

  16. Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea: A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes

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    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g and calcium (65 mg/100 g and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3 (4 mg/g fresh weight of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp. of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.. The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cytokine production and oxidative stress in a mouse model of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulis, Tharwat Stewart; Rochelson, Burton; Novick, Olivia; Xue, Xiangying; Chatterjee, Prodyot K; Gupta, Madhu; Solanki, Malvika H; Akerman, Meredith; Metz, Christine N

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation during pregnancy remains controversial. We sought to examine the effects of ω-3 PUFA on inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo using a model of preterm labor. In vivo. Female Swiss Webster mice were fed a normal diet or a 5% fish oil (FO) diet for 3 weeks then mated with normal-fed males. On gestational day 15, dams were injected with either saline (n=10 per group) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, intrauterine) (n=10 per group). Maternal plasma, amniotic fluid, placentas, and uteri were collected 4 h later and assessed for cytokines; maternal plasma and amniotic fluids were analyzed for oxidative stress. In vitro. RAW264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells were treated with either: vehicle, H2O2, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (0, 0.1-100 μM) and analyzed for oxidative stress. In vivo. Administration of the 5% FO diet enhanced LPS-induced cytokines in the placenta (Pstress than control-fed animals (Pstress were observed in the amniotic fluid. In vitro. Treatment of macrophage-like cells with ω-3 PUFA significantly and dose-dependently increased oxidative stress (Pstress in vivo. Likewise, DHA and EPA induced oxidative stress in macrophage-like cells in vitro.

  18. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia.

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    Eugene Han

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0% patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3% patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001. This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation.

  19. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review

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    Peter R. C. Howe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle and changes in gene expression which shift metabolism toward increased accretion of lean tissue, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure and reduced fat deposition. While LC n-3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity in rodents, evidence in humans is limited. Epidemiological associations between LC n-3 PUFA intakes and obesity are inconclusive but small cross-sectional studies have demonstrated inverse relationships between markers of LC n-3 PUFA status and markers of obesity. Human intervention trials indicate potential benefits of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation, especially when combined with energy-restricted diets or exercise, but more well-controlled and long-term trials are needed to confirm these effects and identify mechanisms of action.

  20. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

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    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  1. Predictors of Australian consumers' intentions to consume conventional and novel sources of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Evans, G; Lease, H J

    2008-01-01

    To elicit predictors of variation in likelihood to purchase foods rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Responses from a community sample (n = 220) were elicited using a computer-administered questionnaire based on an adaptation of Protection Motivation Theory including measures of perceived risk and vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD). Other measures included health status, body mass index (BMI), perceived risk/benefits of novel technologies and sociodemographics. Descriptions of model products were presented, including farmed fish fed fishmeal (FFFF); farmed fish fed genetically modified (GM) oilseed (FFFGM); bread, milk and supplements containing fish oil (SFO) or GM oilseed. It was hypothesised that perceived vulnerability to CHD would enhance acceptance of GM products (H1). Furthermore, information describing the benefits of LCO3FA, limitations to fish supply and potential alternatives was given to a treatment group (50%) and hypothesised to have a positive effect on the acceptance of GM products (H2). No evidence was found to support H1 or H2. FFFF was most likely to be purchased (P consume) was the most important predictor of likelihood to purchase all products.

  2. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): a prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hossain, Md Sabir; Nahar, Most Altaf Un; Ali, Md Eaqub; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671-869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Children to Prevent Asthma: Is It Worthy?—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Prasad Muley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting all age groups. The world is now trying to identify some dietary factors which can play a preventive role. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to assess the effect of intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in infancy and/or childhood on incidence of asthma or wheezing episodes. We searched MEDLINE, EBSCO, Trip, and Google Scholar up to January 31, 2015. All RCTs where infants or children who were given omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and which reported incidence of asthma and/or wheezing episodes as dichotomous outcomes were included in this review. Random effects model was used for pooling the risk estimates. Total five articles were included. Most of them were from Australia. On meta-analysis, the pooled estimate of odds ratios by random effects model showed no significant change in incidence of asthma after supplementation of omega-3 FA in infancy or childhood (OR 0.974; CI 0.646, 1.469; p=0.900. We concluded that a multicentric RCT is required to assess the effect of omega-3 FA supplementation exclusively to infants or children to predict the best time of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent asthmatic or wheezing episodes later in life.

  4. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PREVENTION AFTER SURGICAL MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION

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    A. V. Panov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate an efficacy of therapy with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD before and after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG.Material and methods. 189 patients (125 men, 64 women; aged 64,2±9,4 y.o. with IHD having indications to CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients of the first group (control had standard pre- and postoperative treatment. Patients of the second group received ω-3 PUFA (ОМАCОR, Solvay Pharma 2 g/daily in addition to standard therapy. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics. ω-3 PUFA therapy started 7±4 day before CABG, renewed in early postoperative period (24-36 hours after surgery and lasted next 14 days. Efficacy of the therapy was estimated by atrial fibrillation frequency in postoperative period and time before hospital discharge after CABG. An automatic complex for transesophageal electrophysiological cardiac examination was used for the estimation of atrial conduction before and after CABG.Results. Omacor therapy in patients with ICD before CABG and in the early postoperative period reduces atrial fibrillation risk. It results in reduction of hemodynamic disorders and time before hospital discharge. Conclusion. Omacor therapy is safe and can be recommended to all patients going through CABG.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured Rat Neural Stem Cells

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    Masanori Katakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27kip1 expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs. In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (AA on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD, and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker, indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.

  6. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diet of patients with rheumatic diseases

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    P. Spinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been widely described in the literature in particular those on cardiovascular system. In the last decade there has been an increased interest in the role of these nutrients in the reduction of articular inflammation as well as in the improvement of clinical symptoms in subjects affected by rheumatic diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Nutritional supplementation with ω-3 may represent an additional therapy to the traditional pharmacological treatment due to the anti-inflammatory properties which characterize this class of lipids: production of alternative eicosanoids, reduction of inflammatory cytochines, reduction of T-lymphocytes activation, reduction of catabolic enzymes activity. The encouraging results of dietetic therapy based on ω- 3 in RA are leading researchers to test their effectiveness on patients with other rheumatic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis. Nutritional therapy based on food rich in ω-3 or on supplementation with fish oil capsules, proved to be a valid support to he treatment of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  7. Curcumin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance NK Cell-Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells but Curcumin Inhibits Interferon-γ Production: Benefits of Omega-3 with Curcumin against Cancer

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    Milan Fiala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available STAT-3 and STAT-1 signaling have opposite effects in oncogenesis with STAT-3 acting as an oncogene and STAT-1 exerting anti-oncogenic activities through interferon-γ and interferon-α. The cytokine IL-6 promotes oncogenesis by stimulation of NFκB and STAT-3 signaling. Curcuminoids have bi-functional effects by blocking NFκB anti-apoptotic signaling but also blocking anti-oncogenic STAT-1 signaling and interferon-γ production. In our recent study (unpublished work [1] in pancreatic cancer cell cultures, curcuminoids enhanced cancer cell apoptosis both directly and by potentiating natural killer (NK cell cytotoxic function. The cytotoxic effects of curcuminoids were increased by incubation of cancer cells and NK cells in an emulsion with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (Smartfish, which enhanced cancer cell apoptosis and protected NK cells against degradation. However, as also shown by others, curcuminoids blocked interferon-γ production by NK cells. The combined use of curcuminoids and omega-3 in cancer immunotherapy will require deeper understanding of their in vivo interactions with the immune system.

  8. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  9. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative study of intraperitoneal adhesions associated with the use of meshes of polypropylene and polypropylene coated with omega-3 fatty acid.

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    Kist, Caroline; Manna, Bibiana Borges; Montes, Juliano Hermes Maeso; Bigolin, André Vicente; Grossi, João Vicente Machado; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti

    2012-01-01

    To compare intraperitoneal adhesion formation with placement of polypropylene mesh and use of lightweight polypropylene mesh coated with omega-3 fatty in rats. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were randomized into three groups. In group 0 no mesh was placed; in group 1 we implanted a polypropylene mesh; and in group 2 there was implantation of a polypropylene mesh coated with omega-3 fatty acid. We evaluated adhesions presence and degree, breaking strength, percentage of area covered and retraction of the implanted meshes. Group 0 had no adhesion. Groups 1 and 2 showed adhesions on the surface of the mesh, omentum, liver and intestinal loops. There were grades 1 and 2 adhesions in 100% of the polypropylene coated group and in 60% of the polypropylene group. The remaining were grade 3 adhesions, and differed significantly between groups (p polypropylene coated group was significantly higher than with the polypropylene alone (p = 0.016). There was no difference in mesh retraction or area covered by the mesh. The analysis of the mesh coated with omega-3 fatty acid distribution showed adhesions preferentially located at the edges when compared to polypropylene, predominantly in the center. The type of adhesions, percentage of surface affected and retraction were not significantly different between meshes. The fatty acids coated mesh had a lower degree of adhesions and these required a greater force to rupture, possibly by their occurrence at the edges of the mesh.

  11. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

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    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  12. Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate on Cartilage Metabolism in OA: Outlook on Other Nutrient Partners Especially Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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    Jörg Jerosch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by increasing loss of cartilage, remodeling of the periarticular bone, and inflammation of the synovial membrane. Besides the common OA therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the treatment with chondroprotectives, such as glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, or nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids is a promising therapeutic approach. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that the targeted administration of selected micronutrients leads to a more effective reduction of OA symptoms, with less adverse events. Their chondroprotective action can be explained by a dual mechanism: (1 as basic components of cartilage and synovial fluid, they stimulate the anabolic process of the cartilage metabolism; (2 their anti-inflammatory action can delay many inflammation-induced catabolic processes in the cartilage. These two mechanisms are able to slow the progression of cartilage destruction and may help to regenerate the joint structure, leading to reduced pain and increased mobility of the affected joint.

  13. New Insights into the Role of Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fatty Liver Disease: Modulation by Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acid-derived Lipid Mediators

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    Joan eClària

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is causally linked to a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Prolonged, unremitting inflammation in this tissue has a direct impact on insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. liver and its timely resolution is a critical step toward reducing the prevalence of related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article describes the current state-of-the-art knowledge and novel insights into the role of macrophages in adipose tissue inflammation, with special emphasis on the progressive changes in macrophage polarization observed over the course of obesity. In addition, this article extends the discussion to the contribution of Kupffer cells, the liver resident macrophages, to metabolic liver disease. Special attention is given to the modulation of macrophage responses by omega-3-PUFAs, and more importantly by resolvins, which are potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving autacoids generated from docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In fact, resolvins have been shown to work as endogenous stop signals in inflamed adipose tissue and to return this tissue to homeostasis by inducing a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization toward a pro-resolving phenotype. Collectively, this article offers new views on the role of macrophages in metabolic disease and their modulation by endogenously-generated omega-3-PUFA-derived lipid mediators.

  14. The Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profiles, C-Peptide and Fasting Blood Glucose in Obese Volunteers

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    Majid Mobasseri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obese patients are at high risk of numerous chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, dyslipidemia and stroke. Recently researchers focused on complementary medicine along with routine treatments to reduce obesity complications. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation on serum lipid profiles, C-peptide and fasting blood glucose in obese individuals.   Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 56 obese volunteers with the mean age of 33.94±8.15 years were assigned into the supplemented (n=30 and placebo (n=26 groups, given two omega 3 fatty acids soft gel (360 mg EPA and 240 DHA or placebo respectively for 4 weeks. At the onset and the end of the intervention, blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and serum lipid profiles, C-peptide and fasting blood glucose were measured. Data were analyzed with SPSS program and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.   Results: In comparison with placebo group, omega 3 supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the mean triglyceride (108.37±11.22 mg/dl vs 148.84±59.40 mg/dl. After 4 weeks, the mean C-peptide concentrations increased in both groups but elevation in omega 3 group was more dramatic (p<0.01. However, we didn’t find any significant changes in the mean total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C levels.   Conclusion: Our finding indicated that 4 weeks Omega 3 supplementation leads to amelioration in some of serum lipid profiles indices and insulin secretion in   obese individuals. Although, further studies are needed to achieve precise results.

  15. Influence of low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid on blood lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, S K; Rakha, Aruna

    2005-07-01

    In the recent past, low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid have been developed and are marketed under different brands claiming them as heart friendly. The influence of these eggs (smart eggs) on lipid profile of rats was evaluated in comparison to that of the standard eggs. Data of 4 week dietary treatment revealed that total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol increased only 22% in rats fed on diet containing 4 smart eggs per kg of semi-synthetic diet in contrast to the increase of more than 100 % when fed on diet containing standard eggs. The results suggest that it is not the low cholesterol content alone but also vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids present in smart eggs that act synergically to prevent a substantial change in blood lipid profile and impose no serious risk to the health of the consumers.

  16. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

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    Soumia Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  17. Chemical Composition and Yield of Six Genotypes of Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): An Alternative Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α; Karkanis, Anestis; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Lykas, Christos; Khah, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual weed rich in omega-3 fatty acids which is consumed for its edible leaves and stems. In the present study six different genotypes of common purslane (A-F) were evaluated for their nutritional value and chemical composition. Nutritional value and chemical composition depended on genotype. Oxalic acid content was the lowest for genotype D, whereas genotypes E and F are more promising for commercial cultivation, since they have low oxalic acid content. Genotype E had a very good antioxidant profile and a balanced composition of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Regarding yield, genotype A had the highest yield comparing to the other genotypes, whereas commercial varieties (E and F) did not differ from genotypes B and C. This study provides new information regarding common purslane bioactive compounds as affected by genotype and could be further implemented in food industry for products of high quality and increased added value.

  18. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

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    Chen, Gao; Qu, Shujie; Wang, Qiang; Bian, Fei; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Haitao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping; He, Qingfang

    2014-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs.

  19. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study.

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    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools.493 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven.Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II. Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms was rated using the revised Conners' rating scales (long parent and teacher versions. Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables.DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042 and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001. Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (-0.175, p = <.0001 and -0.178, p = <.0001.In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with Omega-3 LC-PUFA found for ADHD, Dyspraxia, Dyslexia, and

  20. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega?3 to unhealthy levels?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C.; Andersen, J. R.; V?ge, V.; Rajalahti, T.; Mj?s, S. A.; Kvalheim, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11?12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega?3 being similar to ...

  1. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Kallas, Zein; Realini Cujó, Carolina; Gil Roig, José María

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A var...

  2. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemse, Nisha G; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (pvitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  3. The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production and Cell Migration in Human Immune Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

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    Lynne Shinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS, compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity contributes to inflammatory T cell migration into the central nervous system. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is associated with BBB disruption and subsequent T cell migration into the CNS. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on MMP-9 levels and T cell migration. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy controls were pretreated with two types of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Cell supernatants were used to determine MMP-9 protein and activity levels. Jurkat cells were pretreated with EPA and DHA and were added to fibronectin-coated transwells to measure T cell migration. EPA and DHA significantly decreased MMP-9 protein levels, MMP-9 activity, and significantly inhibited human T cell migration. The data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may benefit patients with multiple sclerosis by modulating immune cell production of MMP-9.

  4. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Rheological characterization and stability study of an emulsion made with a dairy by-product enriched with omega-3 fatty acids

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    Angela María Ormaza ZAPATA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a rheological characterization of a W/O emulsion manufactured on a pilot scale using omega-3 fatty acids as part of the oil phase and butter milk as the emulsifier. Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are essential to prevent cardiovascular diseases, improve pulmonary function and also form part of the neurological structure. Buttermilk is a by-product of the dairy industry and has a high organic load which possesses surfactant properties and constitutes a good substitute for conventional emulsifiers in the food industry. The microstructural nature of the emulsion was characterized from the viscoelastic parameters and mechanical spectra. The linear viscoelastic range was determined, from which the maximum stress that the emulsion could withstand from the processing conditions without altering its microstructure was established. In addition, the storage stability of the emulsion was studied to instrumentally predict the rheological behaviour before sensory destabilization of the emulsion was observed. At the frequencies used, a significant decrease in dynamic viscoelastic parameters was periodically observed (G 'and G'', showing a structural change during storage. Furthermore, a coalescence phenomenon was observed after 18 months. The formulation with added omega-3 fatty acids and buttermilk provided a basis for obtaining a functional food as well as adding value to an industrial by-product.

  6. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

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    Jessica A. Grieger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA to meet various national recommendations. Objective: To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24 with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26 to: 1 determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT, 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF recommendation and 2 determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat or higher fat (n=3,≥10% total fat seafood. Design: Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results: Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions: Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood.

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiac surgery patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Pascal L; Hardy, Gil; Manzanares, William

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation is an attractive therapeutic option for patients undergoing open-heart surgery due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-arrhythmic properties. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) have found contradictory results for perioperative ω-3 PUFA administration. Therefore, we conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of perioperative ω-3 PUFA on some clinically important outcomes for cardiac surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted to find RCT evaluating clinical outcomes after ω-3 PUFA therapy in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes were hospital LOS, postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Predefined subgroup analysis and sensibility analysis were performed. A total of 19 RCT including 4335 patients met inclusion criteria. No effect of ω-3 PUFA on ICU LOS was found (weighted mean difference WMD -2.95, 95% confidence interval, CI -10.28 to 4.39, P = 0.43). However, ω-3 PUFA reduced hospital LOS (WMD -1.37, 95% CI -2.41 to -0.33; P = 0.010) and POAF incidence (Odds Ratio OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.90; P = 0.004). No effects were found on mortality or MV duration. Heterogeneity remained in subgroup analysis and we found a significant POAF reduction when ω-3 PUFA doses were administered to patients exposed to extra-corporeal circulation. Oral/enteral administration seemed to further reduce POAF. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, ω-3 PUFA supplementation by oral/enteral and parenteral route reduces hospital LOS and POAF. Nonetheless considerable clinical and statistical heterogeneity weaken our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. We evaluated the relation of n-3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n-3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n-3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk.

  9. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians’ Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. Objective: We evaluated the relation of n−3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. Design: We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n−3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n−3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. Results: The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n−3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ∼0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Conclusions: Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk. PMID:22952185

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate neuroinflammation and mitigate ischemic stroke damage through interactions with astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Adib; Habib, Pardes; Dang, Jon; Lammerding, Leoni; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Beyer, Cordian; Slowik, Alexander

    2015-01-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n3) provide neuroprotection due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties as well as their regulatory function on growth factors and neuronal plasticity. These qualities enable PUFA n3 to ameliorate stroke outcome and limit neuronal damage. Young adult male rats received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). PUFA n3 were intravenously administered into the jugular vein immediately after stroke and 12h later. We analyzed stroke volume and behavioral performance as well as the regulation of functionally-relevant genes in the penumbra. The extent of ischemic damage was reduced and behavioral performance improved subject to applied PUFA n3. Expression of Tau and growth-associated protein-43 genes were likewise restored. Ischemia-induced increase of cytokine mRNA levels was abated by PUFA n3. Using an in vitro approach, we demonstrate that cultured astroglial and microglia directly respond to PUFA n3 administration by preventing ischemia-induced increase of cyclooxygenase 2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1beta. Cultured cortical neurons also appeared as direct targets, since PUFA n3 shifted the Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl 2) ratio towards an anti-apoptotic constellation. Thus, PUFA n3 reveal a high neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory potential in an acute ischemic stroke model by targeting astroglial and microglial function as well as improving neuronal survival strategies. Our findings signify the potential clinical feasibility of PUFA n3 therapeutic treatment in stroke and other acute neurological diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  12. Developmental programming of adult adrenal structure and steroidogenesis: effects of fetal glucocorticoid excess and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Brendan J; Bollen, Maike; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Mori, Trevor A; Mark, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid excess programs a range of detrimental outcomes in the adult phenotype, at least some of which may be due to altered adult adrenocortical function. In this study, we determined the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on offspring adrenal morphology and function, as well as the interactive effects of postnatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. This postnatal dietary intervention has been shown to alleviate many of the programming outcomes in this model, but whether this is via the effects on adrenal function is unknown. Dexamethasone acetate was administered to pregnant rats (0.75 microg/ml drinking water) from day 13 to term. Cross-fostered offspring were raised on either a standard or high-n-3 diet. Adrenal weight (relative to body weight) at 6 months of age was unaffected by prenatal dexamethasone, regardless of postnatal diet, and stereological analysis showed no effect of dexamethasone on the volumes of adrenal components (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata/reticularis or adrenal medulla). Expression of key steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1 and Star) was unaffected by either prenatal dexamethasone or postnatal diet. In contrast, adrenal expression of Mc2r mRNA, which encodes the ACTH receptor, was higher in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect partially attenuated by the Hn3 diet. Moreover, stress-induced levels of plasma and urinary corticosterone and urinary aldosterone were elevated in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, indicative of enhanced adrenal responsiveness. In conclusion, this study shows that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone does not increase basal adrenocortical activity but does result in a more stress-responsive adrenal phenotype, possibly via increased Mc2r expression.

  13. Dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, K E; Kwong, W Y; Hughes, J; Salter, A M; Lea, R G; Garnsworthy, P C; Sinclair, K D

    2010-01-01

    The evidence that omega-3 (n-3) and -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have differential effects on ovarian function, oocytes and embryo quality is inconsistent. We report on the effects of n-3 versus n-6 PUFA-enriched diets fed to 36 ewes over a 6-week period, prior to ovarian stimulation and follicular aspiration, on ovarian steroidogenic parameters and embryo quality. Follicle number and size were unaltered by diet, but follicular-fluid progesterone concentrations were greater in n-3 PUFA-fed ewes than in n-6 PUFA-fed ewes. The percentage of saturated FAs (mostly stearic acid) was greater in oocytes than in either granulosa cells or plasma, indicating selective uptake and/or de novo synthesis of saturated FAs at the expense of PUFAs by oocytes. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) fractionated from sera of these ewes increased granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis relative to the FA-free BSA control during culture, but there was no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on either oestradiol or progesterone production. HDL was ineffective in delivering FAs to embryos during culture, although n-6 PUFA HDL reduced embryo development. All blastocysts, irrespective of the treatment, contained high levels of unsaturated FAs, in particular linoleic acid. Transcripts for HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (SCARB1 and LDLR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) are reported in sheep embryos. HDL reduced the expression of transcripts for LDLR and SCD relative to the BSA control. The data support a differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on ovarian steroidogenesis and pre-implantation development, the latter in the absence of a net uptake of FAs.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Individual Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Youth with Subsyndromal Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A; Young, Andrea S; Vesco, Anthony T; Nader, Elias S; Healy, K Zachary; Gardner, William; Wolfson, Hannah L; Arnold, L Eugene

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study evaluates efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (Ω3), individual family psychoeducational psychotherapy (IF-PEP), and their combination in youth with subsyndromal bipolar disorders (bipolar disorder not otherwise specified [BP-NOS], cyclothymic disorder [CYC]). This study was a 12 week, randomized trial of Ω3 versus placebo and IF-PEP versus active monitoring (AM) using a 2 × 2 design (Ω3 + PEP: n = 5; Ω3 + AM: n = 5; placebo + PEP: n = 7; placebo + AM: n = 6). Twenty-three youth ages 7-14 with BP-NOS or CYC were recruited via community advertisements and clinician referrals. Participants could be taking stable medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep aids, but no other psychotropics. Independent evaluators assessed participants at screen, baseline, and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (K-SADS) Depression (KDRS) and Mania (KMRS) Rating