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Sample records for melting curve analysis

  1. Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, K M; Rasmussen, R P; Wittwer, C T

    1997-02-15

    A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.

  2. Evaluation of PCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidabadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Nili, Hassan; Dadras, Habibollah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Connolly, Joanne; Valcanis, Mary; Raidal, Shane; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hemD gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. HRM curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference strains and tested specimens was also evaluated using a mathematical model without visual interpretation of HRM curves. In addition, the potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis was evaluated for genotyping of additional Salmonella isolates from different avian species. The findings indicate that PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping of Salmonella isolates to determine the serovar/serotype.

  3. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  4. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  5. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decat, E.; van Mechelen, E.; Saerens, B.; Vermeulen, S.J.T.; Boekhout, T.; de Blaiser, S.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Deschaght, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification

  6. Differentiation of minute virus of mice and mouse parvovirus by high resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dan; Wu, Miaoli; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Wen; Zhu, Yujun; Cong, Feng; Xu, Fengjiao; Lian, Yuexiao; Huang, Bihong; Wu, Qiwen; Chen, Meili; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2017-12-01

    Murine parvovirus is one of the most prevalent infectious pathogens in mouse colonies. A specific primer pair targeting the VP2 gene of minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV) was utilized for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. The resulting melting curves could distinguish these two virus strains and there was no detectable amplification of the other mouse pathogens which included rat parvovirus (KRV), ectromelia virus (ECT), mouse adenovirus (MAD), mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV), polyoma virus (Poly), Helicobactor hepaticus (H. hepaticus) and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The detection limit of the standard was 10 copies/μL. This study showed that the PCR-HRM assay could be an alternative useful method with high specificity and sensitivity for differentiating murine parvovirus strains MVM and MPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  8. Differentiation of five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by nested PCR with high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaoli; Rao, Dan; Zhu, Yujun; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2017-04-01

    Enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) are widespread in rodent species around the world. Several studies have demonstrated that infection with EHS can interfere with the outcomes of animal experiments in cancer research and significantly influence the study results. Therefore, it is essential to establish a rapid detection and identification of EHS for biomedical research using laboratory rodents. Our study aimed to develop a rapid and sensitive method to detect and distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Nested PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) was developed for identification of H. bilis, H. rodentium, H. muridarum, H. typhlonius, as well as H. hepaticus. To validate the accuracy of nested PCR-HRM analysis, quantitative real-time PCR methods for five different enterohepatic Helicobacter species were developed. A total of 50 cecal samples were tested using both nested PCR-HRM analysis and qPCR method. The nested PCR-HRM method could distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by different melting temperatures. The melting curve were characterized by peaks of 78.7 ± 0.12°C for H. rodentium, 80.51 ± 0.09°C for H. bilis, 81.6 ± 0.1°C for H. typhlonius, 82.11 ± 0.18°C for H. muridarum, and 82.95 ± 0.09°C for H. hepaticus. The nested PCR-HRM assay is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective assay. This assay could be a useful tool for molecular epidemiology study of enterohepatic Helicobacter infection and an attractive alternative for genotyping of enterohepatic Helicobacter species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of squid species by melting temperature shifts on fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) using single dual-labeled probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunjung; Song, Ha Jeong; Kwon, Na Young; Kim, Gi Won; Lee, Kwang Ho; Jo, Soyeon; Park, Sujin; Park, Jihyun; Park, Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2017-06-01

    Real time PCR is a standard method for identification of species. One of limitations of the qPCR is that there would be false-positive result due to mismatched hybridization between target sequence and probe depending on the annealing temperature in the PCR condition. As an alternative, fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) could be applied for species identification. FMCA is based on a dual-labeled probe. Even with subtle difference of target sequence, there are visible melting temperature (Tm) shift. One of FMCA applications is distinguishing organisms distributed and consumed globally as popular food ingredients. Their prices are set by species or country of origin. However, counterfeiting or distributing them without any verification procedure are becoming social problems and threatening food safety. Besides distinguishing them in naked eye is very difficult and almost impossible in any processed form. Therefore, it is necessary to identify species in molecular level. In this research three species of squids which have 1-2 base pair differences each are selected as samples since they have the same issue. We designed a probe which perfectly matches with one species and the others mismatches 2 and 1 base pair respectively and labeled with fluorophore and quencher. In an experiment with a single probe, we successfully distinguished them by Tm shift depending on the difference of base pair. By combining FMCA and qPCR chip, smaller-scale assay with higher sensitivity and resolution could be possible, andc furthermore, enabling results analysis with smart phone would realize point-of-care testing (POCT).

  10. Role of Melt Curve Analysis in Interpretation of Nutrigenomics' MicroRNA Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E; Gouda, Mostafa M; Hussein, Laila A; Ahmed, Nancy C; Vos, Paul W; Mohammad, Mahmoud A

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of melt curve analysis (MCA) in interpretation of mild nutrogenomic micro(mi)RNA expression data, by measuring the magnitude of the expression of key miRNA molecules in stool of healthy human adults as molecular markers, following the intake of Pomegranate juice (PGJ), functional fermented sobya (FS), rich in potential probiotic lactobacilli, or their combination. Total small RNA was isolated from stool of 25 volunteers before and following a three-week dietary intervention trial. Expression of 88 miRNA genes was evaluated using Qiagen's 96 well plate RT 2 miRNA qPCR arrays. Employing parallel coordinates plots, there was no observed significant separation for the gene expression (Cq) values, using Roche 480® PCR LightCycler instrument used in this study, and none of the miRNAs showed significant statistical expression after controlling for the false discovery rate. On the other hand, melting temperature profiles produced during PCR amplification run, found seven significant genes (miR-184, miR-203, miR-373, miR-124, miR-96, miR-373 and miR-301a), which separated candidate miRNAs that could function as novel molecular markers of relevance to oxidative stress and immunoglobulin function, for the intake of polyphenol (PP)-rich, functional fermented foods rich in lactobacilli (FS), or their combination. We elaborate on these data, and present a detailed review on use of melt curves for analyzing nutigenomic miRNA expression data, which initially appear to show no significant expressions, but are actually more subtle than this simplistic view, necessitating the understanding of the role of MCA for a comprehensive understanding of what the collective expression and MCA data collectively imply. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice

    2009-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) measures dissociation of double stranded DNA of a PCR product amplified in the presence of a saturating fluorescence dye. Recently, HRM proved successful to genotype DNA sequence polymorphisms such as SSRs and SNPs based on the shape of the melting...... curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...

  12. A Real-Time PCR with Melting Curve Analysis for Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peiyan; Wang, Henghui; Luo, Jianyong; Yan, Yong; Chen, Zhongwen

    2018-05-23

    Foodborne disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a serious public health problem in many countries. Molecular typing has a great scientific significance and application value for epidemiological research of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was established for molecular typing of V. parahaemolyticus. Eighteen large variably presented gene clusters (LVPCs) of V. parahaemolyticus which have different distributions in the genome of different strains were selected as targets. Primer pairs of 18 LVPCs were distributed into three tubes. To validate this newly developed assay, we tested 53 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, which were classified in 13 different types. Furthermore, cluster analysis using NTSYS PC 2.02 software could divide 53 V. parahaemolyticus strains into six clusters at a relative similarity coefficient of 0.85. This method is fast, simple, and conveniently for molecular typing of V. parahaemolyticus.

  13. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  14. Multiplex fluorescence melting curve analysis for mutation detection with dual-labeled, self-quenched probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA is a powerful tool for mutation detection based on melting temperature generated by thermal denaturation of the probe-target hybrid. Nevertheless, the color multiplexing, probe design, and cross-platform compatibility remain to be limited by using existing probe chemistries. We hereby explored two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes, TaqMan and shared-stem molecular beacons, in their ability to conduct FMCA. Both probes could be directly used for FMCA and readily integrated with closed-tube amplicon hybridization under asymmetric PCR conditions. Improved flexibility of FMCA by using these probes was illustrated in three representative applications of FMCA: mutation scanning, mutation identification and mutation genotyping, all of which achieved improved color-multiplexing with easy probe design and versatile probe combination and all were validated with a large number of real clinical samples. The universal cross-platform compatibility of these probes-based FMCA was also demonstrated by a 4-color mutation genotyping assay performed on five different real-time PCR instruments. The dual-labeled, self-quenched probes offered unprecedented combined advantage of enhanced multiplexing, improved flexibility in probe design, and expanded cross-platform compatibility, which would substantially improve FMCA in mutation detection of various applications.

  15. High-resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis for C. meleagridis identification in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Hanen; Essid, Rym; Jelassi, Refka; Bouzekri, Nesrine; Zidi, Ines; Ben Salah, Hamza; Mrad, Ilhem; Ben Sghaier, Ines; Abdelmalek, Rym; Aissa, Sameh; Bouratbine, Aida; Aoun, Karim

    2018-02-01

    Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. In the immunocompetent host, the typical watery diarrhea can be self-limiting. However, it is severe and chronic, in the immunocompromised host and may cause death. Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, which complete their life cycle in both humans and animals. The two species C. hominis and C. parvum are the major cause of human infection. Compared to studies on C. hominis and C. parvum, only a few studies have developed methods to identify C. meleagridis. To develop a new real time PCR-coupled High resolution melting assay allowing the detection for C. meleagridis, in addition of the other dominant species (C. hominis and C. parvum). The polymorphic sequence on the dihydrofolate reductase gene (DHFR) of three species was sequenced to design primers pair and establish a sensitive real-time PCR coupled to a high-resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis method, allowing the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. and discrimination between three prevalent species in Tunisia. We analyzed a collection of 42 archived human isolates of the three studied species. Real-time PCR coupled to HRM assay allowed detection of Cryptosporidium, using the new designed primers, and basing on melting profile, we can distinguish C. meleagridis species in addition to C. parvum and C. hominis. We developed a qPCR-HRM assay that allows Cryptosporidium genotyping. This method is sensitive and able to distinguish three Cryptosporidium species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-03

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  17. [Restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis: a new SNP genotyping and its application in traditional Chinese medicine authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Hou, Jing-Yi; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Shu-Fang

    2014-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is an important molecular marker in traditional Chinese medicine research, and it is widely used in TCM authentication. The present study created a new genotyping method by combining restriction endonuclease digesting with melting curve analysis, which is a stable, rapid and easy doing SNP genotyping method. The new method analyzed SNP genotyping of two chloroplast SNP which was located in or out of the endonuclease recognition site, the results showed that when attaching a 14 bp GC-clamp (cggcgggagggcgg) to 5' end of the primer and selecting suited endonuclease to digest the amplification products, the melting curve of Lonicera japonica and Atractylodes macrocephala were all of double peaks and the adulterants Shan-yin-hua and A. lancea were of single peaks. The results indicated that the method had good stability and reproducibility for identifying authentic medicines from its adulterants. It is a potential SNP genotyping method and named restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis.

  18. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  19. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  20. High resolution melt curve analysis based on methylation status for human semen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachet, Caitlyn; Quarino, Lawrence; Karnas, K Joy

    2017-03-01

    A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex ® 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status. When primers designed to amplify the promoter region of the DACT1 gene were used, DNA from semen samples was distinguishable from other fluids by a having a statistically significant lower melting temperature. The assay was found to be sperm-significant since semen from a vasectomized man produced a melting temperature similar to the non-semen body fluids. Blood and semen stains stored up to 5 months and tested at various intervals showed little variation in melt temperature indicating the methylation status was stable during the course of the study. The assay is a more viable method for forensic science practice than most molecular-based methods for body fluid stain identification since it is time efficient and utilizes instrumentation common to forensic biology laboratories. In addition, the assay is advantageous over traditional presumptive chemical methods for body fluid identification since results are confirmatory and the assay offers the possibility of multiplexing which may test for multiple body fluids simultaneously.

  1. Rapid Simultaneous Amplification and Detection of the MBR/JH Chromosomal Translocation by Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Sandra D.; King, Thomas C.; Wittwer, Carl T.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and product analysis for the detection of chromosomal translocations, such as the t(14;18), has traditionally been a two-step process. PCR product detection has generally entailed gel electrophoresis and/or hybridization or sequencing for confirmation of assay specificity. Using a microvolume fluorimeter integrated with a thermal cycler and a PCR-compatible double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding fluorescent dye (SYBR Green I), we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous thermal amplification and detection of MBR/JH translocation products by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We analyzed DNA from 30 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders comprising 19 cases of previously documented MBR/JH-positive follicle center lymphoma and 11 reactive lymphadenopathies. The samples were coded and analyzed blindly for the presence of MBR/JH translocations by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We also performed dilutional assays using the MBR/JH-positive cell line SUDHL-6. Multiplex PCR for MBR/JH and β-globin was used to simultaneously assess sample adequacy. All (100%) of the 19 cases previously determined to be MBR/JH positive by conventional PCR analysis showed a characteristic sharp decrease in fluorescence at ∼90°C by melting curve analysis after amplification. Fluorescence melting peaks obtained by plotting the negative derivative of fluorescence over temperature (−dF/dT) versus temperature (T) showed melting temperatures (Tm) at 88.85 ± 1.15°C. In addition, multiplex assays using both MBR/JH and β-globin primers yielded easily distinguishable fluorescence melting peaks at ∼90°C and 81.2°C, respectively. Dilutional assays revealed that fluorescence melting curve analysis was more sensitive than conventional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet transillumination by as much as 100-fold. Simultaneous amplification and fluorescence melting curve analysis is a simple, reliable, and sensitive method

  2. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor

  3. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppan Gokulan; Katherine Williams; Sangeeta Khare

    2017-01-01

    Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1) the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria; or 2) lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]). This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysi...

  4. Detection of Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Drug Resistance Mutations Based on Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yi; Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Wu, Yuzhen; Xu, Ye; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Zhenxing; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Khan, Saeed; Idrees, Muhammad; Nasir, Muhammad Israr; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2016-11-01

    Detection of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance mutations is critical for therapeutic decisions for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. We describe a real-time PCR-based assay using multicolor melting curve analysis (MMCA) that could accurately detect 24 HBV nucleotide mutations at 10 amino acid positions in the reverse transcriptase region of the HBV polymerase gene. The two-reaction assay had a limit of detection of 5 copies per reaction and could detect a minor mutant population (5% of the total population) with the reverse transcriptase M204V amino acid mutation in the presence of the major wild-type population when the overall concentration was 10 4 copies/μl. The assay could be finished within 3 h, and the cost of materials for each sample was less than $10. Clinical validation studies using three groups of samples from both nucleos(t)ide analog-treated and -untreated patients showed that the results for 99.3% (840/846) of the samples and 99.9% (8,454/8,460) of the amino acids were concordant with those of Sanger sequencing of the PCR amplicon from the HBV reverse transcriptase region (PCR Sanger sequencing). HBV DNA in six samples with mixed infections consisting of minor mutant subpopulations was undetected by the PCR Sanger sequencing method but was detected by MMCA, and the results were confirmed by coamplification at a lower denaturation temperature-PCR Sanger sequencing. Among the treated patients, 48.6% (103/212) harbored viruses that displayed lamivudine monoresistance, adefovir monoresistance, entecavir resistance, or lamivudine and adefovir resistance. Among the untreated patients, the Chinese group had more mutation-containing samples than did the Pakistani group (3.3% versus 0.56%). Because of its accuracy, rapidness, wide-range coverage, and cost-effectiveness, the real-time PCR assay could be a robust tool for the detection if anti-HBV drug resistance mutations in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2016, American Society for

  5. High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random-amplified-polymorphic-DNA markers, for the characterisation of pathogenic Leptospira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Craig, S B; Graham, G C

    2010-01-01

    A new test for pathogenic Leptospira isolates, based on RAPD-PCR and high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis (which measures the melting temperature of amplicons in real time, using a fluorescent DNA-binding dye), has recently been developed. A characteristic profile of the amplicons can be used...... typed against 13 previously published RAPD primers, using a real-time cycler (the Corbett Life Science RotorGene 6000) and the optimised reagents from a commercial kit (Quantace SensiMix). RAPD-HRM at specific temperatures generated defining amplicon melt profiles for each of the tested serovars....... These profiles were evaluated as difference-curve graphs generated using the RotorGene software package, with a cut-off of at least 8 'U' (plus or minus). The results demonstrated that RAPD-HRM can be used to measure serovar diversity and establish identity, with a high degree of stability. The characterisation...

  6. Rapid screening for targeted genetic variants via high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Allison B; Resnick, Molly; Petrides, Athena K; Clarke, William A; Marzinke, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Current methods for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aberrant drug-metabolizing enzyme function are hindered by long turnaround times and specialized techniques and instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve assay for the rapid screening of variant genotypes for targeted genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5. Sequence-specific primers were custom-designed to flank nine SNPs within the genetic regions of aforementioned drug metabolizing enzymes. PCR amplification was performed followed by amplicon denaturation by precise temperature ramping in order to distinguish genotypes by melting temperature (Tm). A standardized software algorithm was used to assign amplicons as 'reference' or 'variant' as compared to duplicate reference sequence DNA controls for each SNP. Intra-assay (n=5) precision of Tms for all SNPs was ≤0.19%, while inter-assay (n=20) precision ranged from 0.04% to 0.21%. When compared to a reference method of Sanger sequencing, the HRM assay produced no false negative results, and overcall frequency ranged from 0% to 26%, depending on the SNP. Furthermore, HRM genotyping displayed accuracy over input DNA concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ng/μL. The presented assay provides a rapid method for the screening for genetic variants in targeted CYP450 regions with a result of 'reference' or 'variant' available within 2 h from receipt of extracted DNA. The method can serve as a screening approach to rapidly identify individuals with variant sequences who should be further investigated by reflexed confirmatory testing for aberrant cytochrome P450 enzymatic activity. Rapid knowledge of variant status may aid in the avoidance of adverse clinical events by allowing for dosing of normal metabolizer patients immediately while identifying the need to wait for confirmatory testing in those patients who are

  7. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Gokulan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1 the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria; or 2 lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]. This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysis and an assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration of silver ions for Salmonella.

  8. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Williams, Katherine; Khare, Sangeeta

    2017-04-01

    Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1) the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria ; or 2) lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]). This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysis and an assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration of silver ions for Salmonella .

  9. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  10. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  11. Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

    2006-01-23

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins), which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples.

  12. Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium head blight (FHB is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins, which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. Results We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. Conclusion PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples.

  13. High resolution melting curve analysis as a new tool for rapid identification of canine parvovirus type 2 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingga, Gali; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yujun; Lin, Lifeng; Ding, Shuangyang; Guo, Pengju

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution melting (HRM) curve method was developed to identify canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains by nested PCR. Two sets of primers, CPV-426F/426R and CPV-87R/87F, were designed that amplified a 52 bp and 53 bp product from the viral VP2 capsid gene. The region amplified by CPV-426F/426R included the A4062G and T4064A mutations in CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. The region amplified by CPV-87F/87R included the A3045T mutation in the vaccine strains of CPV-2 and CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Faecal samples were obtained from 30 dogs that were CPV antigen-positive. The DNA was isolated from the faecal samples and PCR-amplified using the two sets of primers, and genotyped by HRM curve analysis. The PCR-HRM assay was able to distinguish single nucleotide polymorphisms between CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c using CPV-426F/426R. CPV-2a was distinguished from CPV-2b and CPV-2c by differences in the melting temperature. CPV-2b and CPV-2c could be distinguished based on the shape of the melting curve after generating heteroduplexes using a CPV-2b reference sample. The vaccine strains of CPV-2 were identified using CPV-87F/87R. Conventional methods for genotyping CPV strains are labor intensive, expensive or time consuming; the present PCR-based HRM assay might be an attractive alternative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by use of melting-curve analysis and real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Chase E; Ochoa, Theresa J; Walker, Christopher M; Barletta, Francesca; Cleary, Thomas G

    2008-05-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are important causes of diarrhea in children from the developing world and are now being recognized as emerging enteropathogens in the developed world. Current methods of detection are too expensive and labor-intensive for routine detection of these organisms to be practical. We developed a real-time fluorescence-based multiplex PCR for the detection of all six of the currently recognized classes of diarrheagenic E. coli. The primers were designed to specifically amplify eight different virulence genes in the same reaction: aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli, stIa/stIb and lt for enterotoxigenic E. coli, eaeA for enteropathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), stx(1) and stx(2) for STEC, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and daaD for diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC). Eighty-nine of ninety diarrheagenic E. coli and 36/36 nonpathogenic E. coli strains were correctly identified using this approach (specificity, 1.00; sensitivity, 0.99). The single false negative was a DAEC strain. The total time between preparation of DNA from E. coli colonies on agar plates and completion of PCR and melting-curve analysis was less than 90 min. The cost of materials was low. Melting-point analysis of real-time multiplex PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detection of diarrheagenic E. coli.

  15. Decoding DNA labels by melting curve analysis using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, József A; Fehér, Liliána Z; Puskás, László G

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic DNA has been used as an authentication code for a diverse number of applications. However, existing decoding approaches are based on either DNA sequencing or the determination of DNA length variations. Here, we present a simple alternative protocol for labeling different objects using a small number of short DNA sequences that differ in their melting points. Code amplification and decoding can be done in two steps using quantitative PCR (qPCR). To obtain a DNA barcode with high complexity, we defined 8 template groups, each having 4 different DNA templates, yielding 158 (>2.5 billion) combinations of different individual melting temperature (Tm) values and corresponding ID codes. The reproducibility and specificity of the decoding was confirmed by using the most complex template mixture, which had 32 different products in 8 groups with different Tm values. The industrial applicability of our protocol was also demonstrated by labeling a drone with an oil-based paint containing a predefined DNA code, which was then successfully decoded. The method presented here consists of a simple code system based on a small number of synthetic DNA sequences and a cost-effective, rapid decoding protocol using a few qPCR reactions, enabling a wide range of authentication applications.

  16. High-resolution melting curve analysis for rapid detection of mutations in a Medaka TILLING library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguchi Tomonori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last two decades, DNA sequencing has led to the identification of numerous genes in key species; however, in most cases, their functions are still unknown. In this situation, reverse genetics is the most suitable method to assign function to a gene. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a reverse-genetic strategy that combines random chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput discovery of the induced mutations in target genes. The method has been applied to a variety of plant and animal species. Screening of the induced mutations is the most important step in TILLING. Currently, direct sequencing or nuclease-mediated screening of heteroduplexes is widely used for detection of mutations in TILLING. Both methods are useful, but the costs are substantial and turnaround times are relatively long. Thus, there is a need for an alternative method that is of higher throughput and more cost effective. Results In this study, we developed a high resolution melting (HRM assay and evaluated its effectiveness for screening ENU-induced mutations in a medaka TILLING library. We had previously screened mutations in the p53 gene by direct sequencing. Therefore, we first tested the efficiency of the HRM assay by screening mutations in p53, which indicated that the HRM assay is as useful as direct sequencing. Next, we screened mutations in the atr and atm genes with the HRM assay. Nonsense mutations were identified in each gene, and the phenotypes of these nonsense mutants confirmed their loss-of-function nature. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the HRM assay is useful for screening mutations in TILLING. Furthermore, the phenotype of the obtained mutants indicates that medaka is an excellent animal model for investigating genome stability and gene function, especially when combined with TILLING.

  17. A novel method of multiple nucleic acid detection: Real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Shao-Yang; Ji, Shang-Zhi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; He, Li-Juan; Ye, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Yi-Min; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2017-11-15

    A novel method, real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) coupled with probe-melting curve analysis, has been established to detect two kinds of samples within one fluorescence channel. Besides a conventional TaqMan probe, this method employs another specially designed melting-probe with a 5' terminus modification which meets the same label with the same fluorescent group. By using an asymmetric PCR method, the melting-probe is able to detect an extra sample in the melting stage effectively while it almost has little influence on the amplification detection. Thus, this method allows the availability of united employment of both amplification stage and melting stage for detecting samples in one reaction. The further demonstration by simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in one channel as a model system is presented in this essay. The sensitivity of detection by real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis was proved to be equal to that detected by conventional real-time RT-PCR. Because real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis can double the detection throughputs within one fluorescence channel, it is expected to be a good solution for the problem of low-throughput in current real-time PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High resolution melting curve analysis, a rapid and affordable method for mutation analysis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin eLiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetic alterations with prognostic significance have been described in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML. The aim of this study was to establish cost-effective techniques to detect mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, and a partial tandem duplication within the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL-PTD genes in childhood AML. Procedure: Ninety-nine children with newly diagnosed AML were included in this study. We developed a fluoresent dye SYTO-82 based high resolution melting curve (HRM anaylsis to detect FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD, FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD and NPM1 mutations. MLL-PTD was screened by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The HRM methodology correlated well with gold standard Sanger sequencing with less cost. Among the 99 patients studied, the FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with significantly worse event free survival (EFS. Patients with the NPM1 mutation had significantly better EFS and overall survival. However, HRM was not sensitive enough for minimal residual disease monitoring. Conclusions: HRM was a rapid and efficient method for screening of FLT3 and NPM1 gene mutations. It was both affordable and accurate, especially in resource underprivileged regions. Our results indicated that HRM could be a useful clinical tool for rapid and cost effective screening of the FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients.

  19. Detecting differential allelic expression using high-resolution melting curve analysis: application to the breast cancer susceptibility gene CHEK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinilnikova Olga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene CHEK2 encodes a checkpoint kinase playing a key role in the DNA damage pathway. Though CHEK2 has been identified as an intermediate breast cancer susceptibility gene, only a small proportion of high-risk families have been explained by genetic variants located in its coding region. Alteration in gene expression regulation provides a potential mechanism for generating disease susceptibility. The detection of differential allelic expression (DAE represents a sensitive assay to direct the search for a functional sequence variant within the transcriptional regulatory elements of a candidate gene. We aimed to assess whether CHEK2 was subject to DAE in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs from high-risk breast cancer patients for whom no mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 had been identified. Methods We implemented an assay based on high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis and developed an analysis tool for DAE assessment. Results We observed allelic expression imbalance in 4 of the 41 LCLs examined. All four were carriers of the truncating mutation 1100delC. We confirmed previous findings that this mutation induces non-sense mediated mRNA decay. In our series, we ruled out the possibility of a functional sequence variant located in the promoter region or in a regulatory element of CHEK2 that would lead to DAE in the transcriptional regulatory milieu of freely proliferating LCLs. Conclusions Our results support that HRM is a sensitive and accurate method for DAE assessment. This approach would be of great interest for high-throughput mutation screening projects aiming to identify genes carrying functional regulatory polymorphisms.

  20. Miltenberger blood group typing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis in Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsakulyanon, A; Kitpoka, P; Kunakorn, M; Srikhirin, T

    2015-12-01

    To develop reliable and convenient methods for Miltenberger (Mi(a) ) blood group typing. To apply real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis to Mi(a) blood group typing. The Mi(a) blood group is the collective set of glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi(a+) blood is common among East Asians and is also found in the Thai population. Incompatible Mi(a) blood transfusions pose the risk of life-threatening haemolysis; therefore, Mi(a) blood group typing is necessary in ethnicities where the Mi(a) blood group is prevalent. One hundred and forty-three blood samples from Thai blood donors were used in the study. The samples included 50 Mi(a+) samples and 93 Mi(a-) samples, which were defined by serology. The samples were typed by Mi(a) typing qPCR, and 50 Mi(a+) samples were sequenced to identify the Mi(a) subtypes. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was performed to define GP.Mur. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping were tested on a conventional PCR platform. The results of Mi(a) typing qPCR were all concordant with serology. Sequencing of the 50 Mi(a+) samples revealed 47 GP.Mur samples and 3 GP.Hop or Bun samples. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was the supplementary test used to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping performed well using a conventional PCR platform. Mi(a) typing qPCR correctly identified Mi(a) blood groups in a Thai population with the feasibility of Mi(a) subtype discrimination, and Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was able to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  2. Melting curve of materials: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfe, D; Vocadlo, L; Price, G D; Gillan, M J

    2004-01-01

    A number of melting curves of various materials have recently been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically, but the agreement between different groups is not always good. We discuss here some of the problems which may arise in both experiments and theory. We also report the melting curves of Fe and Al calculated recently using quantum mechanics techniques, based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximations. For Al our results are in very good agreement with both low pressure diamond-anvil-cell experiments (Boehler and Ross 1997 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153 223, Haenstroem and Lazor 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 305 209) and high pressure shock wave experiments (Shaner et al 1984 High Pressure in Science and Technology ed Homan et al (Amsterdam: North-Holland) p 137). For Fe our results agree with the shock wave experiments of Brown and McQueen (1986 J. Geophys. Res. 91 7485) and Nguyen and Holmes (2000 AIP Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 505 81) and the recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments of Shen et al (1998 Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 373). Our results are at variance with the recent calculations of Laio et al (2000 Science 287 1027) and, to a lesser extent, with the calculations of Belonoshko et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3638). The reasons for these disagreements are discussed

  3. Assessment of genetic mutations in the XRCC2 coding region by high resolution melting curve analysis and the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is the major pathway for repairing double strand breaks (DSBs in eukaryotes and XRCC2 is an essential component of the HR repair machinery. To evaluate the potential role of mutations in gene repair by HR in individuals susceptible to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC we used high resolution melting (HRM analysis, a recently introduced method for detecting mutations, to examine the entire XRCC2 coding region in an Iranian population. HRM analysis was used to screen for mutations in three XRCC2 coding regions in 50 patients and 50 controls. There was no variation in the HRM curves obtained from the analysis of exons 1 and 2 in the case and control groups. In exon 3, an Arg188His polymorphism (rs3218536 was detected as a new melting curve group (OR: 1.46; 95%CI: 0.432-4.969; p = 0.38 compared with the normal melting curve. We also found a new Ser150Arg polymorphism in exon 3 of the control group. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the XRCC2 coding region have no potential effects on susceptibility to DTC. However, further studies with larger populations are required to confirm this conclusion.

  4. Development and inter-laboratory validation of unlabeled probe melting curve analysis for detection of JAK2 V617F mutation in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xinju; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Wei; Guan, Ming

    2011-01-01

    JAK2 V617F, a somatic point mutation that leads to constitutive JAK2 phosphorylation and kinase activation, has been incorporated into the WHO classification and diagnostic criteria of myeloid neoplasms. Although various approaches such as restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplification refractory mutation system and real-time PCR have been developed for its detection, a generic rapid closed-tube method, which can be utilized on routine genetic testing instruments with stability and cost-efficiency, has not been described. Asymmetric PCR for detection of JAK2 V617F with a 3'-blocked unlabeled probe, saturate dye and subsequent melting curve analysis was performed on a Rotor-Gene® Q real-time cycler to establish the methodology. We compared this method to the existing amplification refractory mutation systems and direct sequencing. Hereafter, the broad applicability of this unlabeled probe melting method was also validated on three diverse real-time systems (Roche LightCycler® 480, Applied Biosystems ABI® 7500 and Eppendorf Mastercycler® ep realplex) in two different laboratories. The unlabeled probe melting analysis could genotype JAK2 V617F mutation explicitly with a 3% mutation load detecting sensitivity. At level of 5% mutation load, the intra- and inter-assay CVs of probe-DNA heteroduplex (mutation/wild type) covered 3.14%/3.55% and 1.72%/1.29% respectively. The method could equally discriminate mutant from wild type samples on the other three real-time instruments. With a high detecting sensitivity, unlabeled probe melting curve analysis is more applicable to disclose JAK2 V617F mutation than conventional methodologies. Verified with the favorable inter- and intra-assay reproducibility, unlabeled probe melting analysis provided a generic mutation detecting alternative for real-time instruments.

  5. Development and inter-laboratory validation of unlabeled probe melting curve analysis for detection of JAK2 V617F mutation in polycythemia vera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: JAK2 V617F, a somatic point mutation that leads to constitutive JAK2 phosphorylation and kinase activation, has been incorporated into the WHO classification and diagnostic criteria of myeloid neoplasms. Although various approaches such as restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplification refractory mutation system and real-time PCR have been developed for its detection, a generic rapid closed-tube method, which can be utilized on routine genetic testing instruments with stability and cost-efficiency, has not been described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Asymmetric PCR for detection of JAK2 V617F with a 3'-blocked unlabeled probe, saturate dye and subsequent melting curve analysis was performed on a Rotor-Gene® Q real-time cycler to establish the methodology. We compared this method to the existing amplification refractory mutation systems and direct sequencing. Hereafter, the broad applicability of this unlabeled probe melting method was also validated on three diverse real-time systems (Roche LightCycler® 480, Applied Biosystems ABI® 7500 and Eppendorf Mastercycler® ep realplex in two different laboratories. The unlabeled probe melting analysis could genotype JAK2 V617F mutation explicitly with a 3% mutation load detecting sensitivity. At level of 5% mutation load, the intra- and inter-assay CVs of probe-DNA heteroduplex (mutation/wild type covered 3.14%/3.55% and 1.72%/1.29% respectively. The method could equally discriminate mutant from wild type samples on the other three real-time instruments. CONCLUSIONS: With a high detecting sensitivity, unlabeled probe melting curve analysis is more applicable to disclose JAK2 V617F mutation than conventional methodologies. Verified with the favorable inter- and intra-assay reproducibility, unlabeled probe melting analysis provided a generic mutation detecting alternative for real-time instruments.

  6. High-pressure melting curve of KCl: Evidence against lattice-instability theories of melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Wolf, G.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the large curvature in the T-P melting curve of KCl is the result of a reordering of the liquid to a more densely packed arrangement. As a result theories of melting, such as the instability model, which do not take into account the structure of the liquid fail to predict the correct pressure dependence of the melting curve

  7. Vacancies und melting curves of metals at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, T.

    1977-01-01

    The vacancy mechanism of the melting process is utilized as a starting point in derivation of the pressure dependence of melting temperature for metals. The results obtained for the initial slope of the melting curve are compared with experimental data for 45 metals (including U, Np, Pu, rare earths) and in most cases the agreement is very good. An on-linearity of the fusion curve and appearence of the maximum on the melting curve at a pressure approximately equal to the bulk modulus is also predicted with qualitative agreement with existing experimental data. (orig./GSC) [de

  8. The Melting Curve and Premelting of MgO

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R. E.; Weitz, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The melting curve for MgO was obtained using molecular dynamics and a non-empirical, many-body potential. We also studied premelting effects by computing the dynamical structure factor in the crystal on approach to melting. The melting curve simulations were performed with periodic boundary conditions with cells up to 512 atoms using the ab-initio Variational Induced Breathing (VIB) model. The melting curve was obtained by computing $% \\Delta H_m$ and $\\Delta V_m$ and integrating the Clapeyro...

  9. Quantitative detection and typing of hepatitis D virus in human serum by real-time polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Joerg; Frenzel, Katrin; Minh, Bui Q; von Haeseler, Arndt; Edelmann, Anke; Ross, Stefan R; Berg, Thomas; Krüger, Detlev H; Meisel, Helga

    2010-06-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is an important etiologic agent of fulminant hepatitis and may aggravate the clinical course of chronic hepatitis B infection resulting in cirrhosis and liver failure. This report describes the establishment of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method that allows the quantitative detection of HDV-1 and HDV-3 with a sensitivity in a linear range of 2 x 10(3) to 10(8) copies/mL. Additionally, the new assay provides the opportunity to distinguish HDV-1 from HDV-3 by a subsequent melting curve analysis, an important option because these HDV types are highly associated with severe clinical outcome. The results of the melting curve analysis of 42 HDV sequences obtained in this study and the phylogenetic analysis based on 139 full-length sequences from GenBank were consistent and showed that all sequences described here cluster within the HDV-1 clade. Therefore, this assay is useful for monitoring of antiviral treatment and molecular epidemiologic studies of HDV distribution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vacancies and a generalised melting curve of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, T.

    1979-01-01

    The vacancy mechanism of the melting process is used as a starting point for deriving an expression for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals. The results obtained for the initial slope of the melting curve are compared with experimental data for 45 metals and in most cases the agreement is very good. The nonlinearity of the melting curve and the appearance of a maximum on the melting curve at a pressure approximately equal to the bulk modules is also predicted, with qualitative agreement with experimental data. A relation between bonding energy, atomic volume, and bulk modulus of metals is established. On the basis of this relation and the proposed vacancy mechanism, a generalised equation for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals is derived. (author)

  11. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-12-01

    Human opisthorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is an endemic disease in Southeast Asian countries including the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Infection with the soil-transmitted roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis is an important problem worldwide. In some areas, both parasitic infections are reported as co-infections. A duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis was developed for the rapid detection of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis in human fecal samples. Duplex real-time FRET PCR is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid of amplicons generated from two genera of DNA elements: the 162 bp pOV-A6 DNA sequence specific to O. viverrini and the 244 bp 18S rRNA sequence specific to S. stercoralis, and two pairs of specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Both O. viverrini and S. stercoralis can be differentially detected in infected human fecal samples by this process through their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures. Detection limit of the method was as little as two O. viverrini eggs and four S. stercoralis larvae in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasite materials, as well as from the DNA of human leukocytes and other control parasites. The technique showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The introduced duplex real-time FRET PCR can reduce labor time and reagent costs and is not prone to carry over contamination. The method is important for simultaneous detection especially in areas where both parasites overlap incidence and is useful as the screening tool in the returning travelers and immigrants to industrialized countries where number of samples in the diagnostic units will become increasing.

  12. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhong-Li; Li Rui; Sun Jun-Sheng; Zhang Xiu-Lu; Cai Ling-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. (paper)

  13. A comparison of PCR assays for beak and feather disease virus and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of replicase associated protein and capsid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhagata; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2016-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) threatens a wide range of endangered psittacine birds worldwide. In this study, we assessed a novel PCR assay and genetic screening method using high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis for BFDV targeting the capsid (Cap) gene (HRM-Cap) alongside conventional PCR detection as well as a PCR method that targets a much smaller fragment of the virus genome in the replicase initiator protein (Rep) gene (HRM-Rep). Limits of detection, sensitivity, specificity and discriminatory power for differentiating BFDV sequences were compared. HRM-Cap had a high positive predictive value and could readily differentiate between a reference genotype and 17 other diverse BFDV genomes with more discriminatory power (genotype confidence percentage) than HRM-Rep. Melt curve profiles generated by HRM-Cap correlated with unique DNA sequence profiles for each individual test genome. The limit of detection of HRM-Cap was lower (2×10 -5 ng/reaction or 48 viral copies) than that for both HRM-Rep and conventional BFDV PCR which had similar sensitivity (2×10 -6 ng or 13 viral copies/reaction). However, when used in a diagnostic setting with 348 clinical samples there was strong agreement between HRM-Cap and conventional PCR (kappa=0.87, PHRM-Cap demonstrated higher specificity (99.9%) than HRM-Rep (80.3%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ling-Cang, Cai

    2009-01-01

    The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the melting curve of polymorphic material Sn. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  15. Detection and characterization of Newcastle disease virus in clinical samples using real time RT-PCR and melting curve analysis based on matrix and fusion genes amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sharawi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease is still one of the major threats for poultry industry allover the world. Therefore, attempt was made in this study to use the SYBR Green I real-time PCR with melting curves analysis as for detection and differentiation of NDV strains in suspected infected birds. Materials and Methods: Two sets of primers were used to amplify matrix and fusion genes in samples collected from suspectly infected birds (chickens and pigeons. Melting curve analysis in conjunction with real time PCR was conducted for identifying different pathotypes of the isolated NDVs. Clinical samples were propagated on specific pathogen free ECE and tested for MDT and ICIP. Results: The velogenic NDVs isolated from chickens and pigeons were distinguished with mean T 85.03±0.341 and m 83.78±0.237 respectively for M-gene amplification and for F-gene amplification the mean T were 84.04±0.037 and m 84.53±0.223. On the other hand the lentogenic NDV isolates including the vaccinal strains (HB1 and LaSota have a higher mean T (86.99±0.021 for M-gene amplification and 86.50±0.063 for F-gene amplification. The test showed no reaction with m unrelated RNA samples. In addition, the results were in good agreement with both virus isolation and biological pathotyping (MDT and ICIP. The assay offers an attractive alternative method for the diagnosis of NDV that can be easily applied in laboratory diagnosis as a screening test for the detection and differentiation of NDV infections. Conclusion: As was shown by the successful rapid detection and pathotyping of 15 NDV strains in clinical samples representing velogenic and lentogenic NDV strains, and the agreement with the results of virus isolation , biological pathotyping and pathogenicity indices. The results of this report suggests that the described SybrGreen I real-time RT-PCR assay in conjunction with Melting curve analysis used as a rapid, specific and simple diagnostic tools for detection and pathotyping of

  16. Appearance of minimum on the curve of cerium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskij, Yu.Ya.; Grigor'ev, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown by means of simple and obvious thermodynamical considerations that the reduced stability line continues up to the solid phase boundary. The existence of this line causes the appearance of minimum on the fcc cerium melting curve

  17. Evaluation of the Capacity of PCR and High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis for Identification of Mixed Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A Ghorashi

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity and presentation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection may differ from one strain to another and this may have implications on control measures. Infection of individual birds with more than one MG strain has been reported. A PCR followed by high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis has been developed in our laboratory and routinely used for detection and differentiation of MG strains. However the potential of this test for identification of MG strains in a mixed specimen has not been evaluated. In the present study, the capability of PCR-HRM curve analysis technique, targeting vlhA and pvpA genes was assessed for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed population. Different DNA ratios of two MG strains from 1 to 10(-4 ng were tested with some generated conventional and normalized curves distinct from those of individual strains alone. Using genotype confidence percentages (GCP generated from HRM curve analysis, it was found that vlhA PCR-HRM was more consistent than pvpA PCR-HRM for the detection of MG ts-11 vaccine strain mixed with any of the MG strains 6/85, F, S6 or a field isolate. The potential of vlhA PCR-HRM to detect mixed MG strains in a specimen was found to be primarily dependent on quantity and proportion of the target DNAs in the mixture. This is the first study examining the capacity of PCR-HRM technique for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed strain population.

  18. Melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle as a highly sensitive and reliable method for detecting the JAK2V617F mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soji Morishita

    Full Text Available Detection of the JAK2V617F mutation is essential for diagnosing patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. However, detection of the low-frequency JAK2V617F mutation is a challenging task due to the necessity of discriminating between true-positive and false-positive results. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive and accurate assay for the detection of JAK2V617F and named it melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle. MelcaTle comprises three steps: 1 two cycles of JAK2V617F allele enrichment by PCR amplification followed by BsaXI digestion, 2 selective amplification of the JAK2V617F allele in the presence of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA probe, and 3 a melting curve assay using a BODIPY-FL-labeled oligonucleotide. Using this assay, we successfully detected nearly a single copy of the JAK2V617F allele, without false-positive signals, using 10 ng of genomic DNA standard. Furthermore, MelcaTle showed no positive signals in 90 assays screening healthy individuals for JAK2V617F. When applying MelcaTle to 27 patients who were initially classified as JAK2V617F-positive on the basis of allele-specific PCR analysis and were thus suspected as having MPNs, we found that two of the patients were actually JAK2V617F-negative. A more careful clinical data analysis revealed that these two patients had developed transient erythrocytosis of unknown etiology but not polycythemia vera, a subtype of MPNs. These findings indicate that the newly developed MelcaTle assay should markedly improve the diagnosis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs.

  19. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of the 16S Ribosomal Gene to Detect and Identify Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Colombian Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez Sánchez, Ronald G; Quintero, Juan Álvaro López; Pereira, Martha María; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractIt is important to identify the circulating Leptospira agent to enhance the performance of serodiagnostic tests by incorporating specific antigens of native species, develop vaccines that take into account the species/serovars circulating in different regions, and optimize prevention and control strategies. The objectives of this study were to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for differentiating between species of the genus Leptospira and to verify its usefulness in identifying unknown samples to species level. A set of primers from the initial region of the 16S ribosomal gene was designed to detect and differentiate the 22 species of Leptospira . Eleven reference strains were used as controls to establish the reference species and differential melting curves. Twenty-five Colombian Leptospira isolates were studied to evaluate the usefulness of the PCR-HRM assay in identifying unknown samples to species level. This identification was confirmed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. Eleven Leptospira species were successfully identified, except for Leptospira meyeri / Leptospira yanagawae because the sequences were 100% identical. The 25 isolates from humans, animals, and environmental water sources were identified as Leptospira santarosai (twelve), Leptospira interrogans (nine), and L. meyeri / L. yanagawae (four). The species verification was 100% concordant between PCR-HRM and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. The PCR-HRM assay designed in this study is a useful tool for identifying Leptospira species from isolates.

  20. Rapid detection of most frequent Slovenian germ-line mutations in BRCA1 gene using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.; Stegel, V.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Detection of inherited mutations in cancer susceptibility genes is of great importance in some types of cancers including the colorectal cancer (mutations of APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis - FAP, mutations in mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - HNPCC), malignant melanoma (mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 genes) and breast cancer (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes). Methods. This article presents the technical data for the detection of five mutations in BRCA1 gene in breast cancer patients and their relatives. The mutations - 1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 310G>A, 5382insC - were determined by the real-time PCR and the melting curve analysis. Results and conclusion. In comparison to direct sequencing, this method proved to be sensitive and rapid enough for the routine daily determination of mutations in DNA isolated from the peripheral blood. (author)

  1. Theoretical Melt Curves of Al, Cu, Ta and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.

    2006-01-01

    Melt curves of a number of metals are computed using simple models of the solid and liquid phases in conjunction with a minimal amount of experimental data. Ionic motion is modelled using a mean field approximation and a modified CRIS model in the solid and liquid phases respectively. By correcting the liquid Helmholtz free energy to reproduce experimental measurements of various melting quantities at atmospheric pressure, it is found that the melt curve remains in reasonable agreement with experiment and more advanced calculations to high pressure

  2. Shock melting method to determine melting curve by molecular dynamics: Cu, Pd, and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A melting simulation method, the shock melting (SM) method, is proposed and proved to be able to determine the melting curves of materials accurately and efficiently. The SM method, which is based on the multi-scale shock technique, determines melting curves by preheating and/or prepressurizing materials before shock. This strategy was extensively verified using both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). First, the SM method yielded the same satisfactory melting curve of Cu with only 360 atoms using classical MD, compared to the results from the Z-method and the two-phase coexistence method. Then, it also produced a satisfactory melting curve of Pd with only 756 atoms. Finally, the SM method combined with ab initio MD cheaply achieved a good melting curve of Al with only 180 atoms, which agrees well with the experimental data and the calculated results from other methods. It turned out that the SM method is an alternative efficient method for calculating the melting curves of materials

  3. Shock melting method to determine melting curve by molecular dynamics: Cu, Pd, and Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-09-21

    A melting simulation method, the shock melting (SM) method, is proposed and proved to be able to determine the melting curves of materials accurately and efficiently. The SM method, which is based on the multi-scale shock technique, determines melting curves by preheating and/or prepressurizing materials before shock. This strategy was extensively verified using both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). First, the SM method yielded the same satisfactory melting curve of Cu with only 360 atoms using classical MD, compared to the results from the Z-method and the two-phase coexistence method. Then, it also produced a satisfactory melting curve of Pd with only 756 atoms. Finally, the SM method combined with ab initio MD cheaply achieved a good melting curve of Al with only 180 atoms, which agrees well with the experimental data and the calculated results from other methods. It turned out that the SM method is an alternative efficient method for calculating the melting curves of materials.

  4. Candidate DNA Barcode Tags Combined With High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM Curve Analysis for Authentication of Senna alexandrina Mill. With Validation in Crude Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mishra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Senna alexandrina (Fabaceae is a globally recognized medicinal plant for its laxative properties as well as the only source of sennosides, and is highly exported bulk herb from India. Its major procurement is exclusively from limited cultivation, which leads to risks of deliberate or unintended adulteration. The market raw materials are in powdered or finished product form, which lead to difficulties in authentication. Here, DNA barcode tags based on chloroplast genes (rbcL and matK and intergenic spacers (psbA-trnH and ITS were developed for S. alexandrina along with the allied species. The ability and performance of the ITS1 region to discriminate among the Senna species resulted in the present proposal of the ITS1 tags as successful barcode. Further, these tags were coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis in a real-time PCR genotyping method to derive Bar-HRM (Barcoding-HRM assays. Suitable HRM primer sets were designed through SNP detection and mutation scanning in genomic signatures of Senna species. The melting profiles of S. alexandrina and S. italica subsp. micrantha were almost identical and the remaining five species were clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The sensitivity of the method was utilized to authenticate market samples [Herbal Sample Assays (HSAs]. HSA01 (S. alexandrina crude drug sample from Bangalore and HSA06 (S. alexandrina crude drug sample from Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India were found to be highly contaminated with S. italica subsp. micrantha. Species admixture samples mixed in varying percentage was identified sensitively with detection of contamination as low as 1%. The melting profiles of PCR amplicons are clearly distinct, which enables the authentic differentiation of species by the HRM method. This study reveals that DNA barcoding coupled with HRM is an efficient molecular tool to authenticate Senna herbal products in the market for quality control in the drug

  5. Candidate DNA Barcode Tags Combined With High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) Curve Analysis for Authentication of Senna alexandrina Mill. With Validation in Crude Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priyanka; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2018-01-01

    Senna alexandrina (Fabaceae) is a globally recognized medicinal plant for its laxative properties as well as the only source of sennosides, and is highly exported bulk herb from India. Its major procurement is exclusively from limited cultivation, which leads to risks of deliberate or unintended adulteration. The market raw materials are in powdered or finished product form, which lead to difficulties in authentication. Here, DNA barcode tags based on chloroplast genes ( rbcL and matK ) and intergenic spacers ( psbA-trnH and ITS ) were developed for S. alexandrina along with the allied species. The ability and performance of the ITS1 region to discriminate among the Senna species resulted in the present proposal of the ITS1 tags as successful barcode. Further, these tags were coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis in a real-time PCR genotyping method to derive Bar-HRM (Barcoding-HRM) assays. Suitable HRM primer sets were designed through SNP detection and mutation scanning in genomic signatures of Senna species. The melting profiles of S. alexandrina and S . italica subsp. micrantha were almost identical and the remaining five species were clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The sensitivity of the method was utilized to authenticate market samples [Herbal Sample Assays (HSAs)]. HSA01 ( S. alexandrina crude drug sample from Bangalore) and HSA06 ( S. alexandrina crude drug sample from Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India) were found to be highly contaminated with S . italica subsp. micrantha . Species admixture samples mixed in varying percentage was identified sensitively with detection of contamination as low as 1%. The melting profiles of PCR amplicons are clearly distinct, which enables the authentic differentiation of species by the HRM method. This study reveals that DNA barcoding coupled with HRM is an efficient molecular tool to authenticate Senna herbal products in the market for quality control in the drug supply

  6. Rapid screening of rpoB and katG mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by high-resolution melting curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haeili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential to prevent its transmission in the community and initiate effective anti-TB treatment regimen. Materials and Methods: High-resolution melting curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for rapid detection of resistance conferring mutations in rpoB and katG genes. We screened 95 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates including 20 rifampin resistant (RIF-R, 21 isoniazid resistant (INH-R and 54 fully susceptible (S isolates determined by proportion method of drug susceptibility testing. Nineteen M. tuberculosis isolates with known drug susceptibility genotypes were used as references for the assay validation. The nucleotide sequences of the target regions rpoB and katG genes were determined to investigate the frequency and type of mutations and to confirm HRM results. Results: HRM analysis of a 129-bp fragment of rpoB allowed correct identification of 19 of the 20 phenotypically RIF-R and all RIF-S isolates. All INH-S isolates generated wild-type HRM curves and 18 out of 21 INH-R isolates harboured any mutation in 109-bp fragment of katG exhibited mutant type HRM curves. However, 1 RIF-R and 3 INH-R isolates were falsely identified as susceptible which were confirmed for having no mutation in their target regions by sequencing. The main mutations involved in RIF and INH resistance were found at codons rpoB531 (60% of RIF-R isolates and katG315 (85.7% of INH-R isolates, respectively. Conclusion: HRM was found to be a reliable, rapid and low cost method to characterise drug susceptibility of clinical TB isolates in resource-limited settings.

  7. Equation for the melting curve of solids under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskii, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Simon's equation of the melting curve is obtained using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in the linear approximation of the pressure dependence of the melting entropy and the volume change at the melting point. The constants in Simon's equation are calculated in this approximation for the alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and also for hydrogen, H 2 , and argon. It is shown that one can obtain the constants of Simon's equation in a pressure range which is wider than the region of the thermodynamical validity of Simon's equation by averaging the values of the constants determined in different points of the melting curves. The constants obtained by this manner agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  8. The melting curve of tetrahydrofuran hydrate in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, H.J.M.; Meyers, G.J.; White, J.W.; Sloan, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Melting points for the tetrahydrofuran/D 2 O hydrate in equilibrium with the air-saturated liquid at atmospheric pressure are reported. The melting points were measured by monitoring the absorbance of the solution. Overall, the melting-point phase boundary curve is about 2.5 K greater than the corresponding curve for the H 2 O hydrate, with a congruent melting temperature of 281 ± 0.5 K at a D 2 O mole fraction of 0.936. The phase boundary is predicted to within 5% if the assumption is made that the THF occupancy in the D 2 O and H 2 O hydrates is the same. The authors measure an occupancy of 99.9%. The chemical potential of the empty lattice in D 2 O is estimated to be 5% greater than in H 2 O

  9. Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013)]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.

  10. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes using melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-05-01

    Real-time PCR melt curve assays for the detection of β-lactamase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes in Gram-negative bacteria were developed. Two multiplex real-time PCR melt curve assays were developed for the detection of ten common β-lactamase genes: blaKPC-like, blaOXA-48-like, blaNDM-like, blaVIM-like, blaIMP-like, blaCTX-M-1+2-group, blaCMY-like, blaACC-like, blaSHV-like and blaTEM-like. The assays were evaluated using 25 bacterial strains and 31 DNA samples (total n=56) comprising different Enterobacteriaceae genera and Pseudomonas spp. These strains were previously characterized at five research institutes. Each resistance gene targeted in this study generated a non-overlapping and distinct melt curve peak. The assay worked effectively and detected the presence of additional resistance genes in 23 samples. The assays developed in this study offer a simple, low cost method for the detection of prevalent β-lactamase, ESBL and carbapenemase genes among Gram-negative pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Melting-curve extrema from a repulsive ''step'' potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.; Alder, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations in two dimensions for particles interacting with a repulsive ''step'' potential show melting-curve maxima and minima as well as solid-solid phase transitions. These features are similar to those observed in the phase diagram of cesium and cerium

  12. Peptide nucleic acid probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis for rapid screening of common JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhong; Song, Minsik; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, KyungTak; Park, Heekyung; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2017-02-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) to detect common mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We have set up two separate reactions of PNA-based FMCA: JAK2 V617F &CALR p.Leu367fs*46 (set A) and MPL W515L/K &CALR p.Lys385fs*47 (set B). Clinical usefulness was validated with allele-specific real-time PCR, fragment analysis, Sanger sequencing in 57 BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-based FMCA was approximately 10% for each mutation and interference reactions using mixtures of different mutations were not observed. Non-specific amplification was not observed in normal control. PNA-based FMCA was able to detect all JAK2 V617F (n=20), CALR p.Leu367fs*46 (n=10) and p.Lys385fs*47 (n=8). Three of six MPL mutations were detected except three samples with low mutant concentration in out of LOD. JAK2 exon 12 mutations (n=7) were negative without influencing V617F results. Among six variant CALR exon 9 mutations, two were detected by this method owing to invading of probe binding site. PNA-based FMCA for detecting common JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations is a rapid, simple, and sensitive technique in BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs with >10% mutant allele at the time of initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The shape of the melting curve and phase transitions in the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahel, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    The phase diagram of elemental liquids has been found to be surprisingly rich, including variations in the melting curve and transitions in the liquid phase. The effect of these transitions on the shape of the melting curve is reviewed and analyzed. First-order phase transitions intersecting the melting curve imply piecewise continuous melting curves, with solid-solid transitions generating upward kinks or minima and liquid-liquid transitions generating downward kinks or maxima

  14. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  15. Electrical resistivity discontinuity of iron along the melting curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Fabian; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2018-04-01

    Discontinuous changes of electrical resistivity ρel (increase), density ϱ and isothermal compressibility βT (decrease) occur across the melting temperature of metals and can be directly related by Ziman's theory in the long-wavelength approximation. By evaluating experimental data at ambient pressure, we show that Ziman's approximation holds for iron and other simple and transition metals. Using a thermodynamic model to determine βT for γ-, ɛ- and liquid Fe and a previously published model for ρel of liquid Fe, we apply Ziman's approximation to calculate ρel of solid Fe along the melting curve. For pure Fe, we find the discontinuity in ρel to decrease with pressure and to be negligibly small at inner core boundary conditions. However, if we account for light element enrichment in the liquid outer core, the electrical resistivity decrease across the inner core boundary is predicted to be as large as 36 per cent.

  16. Melting curve of helium from 4 to 25 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, J K; Swenson, C A [Ames Lab., Iowa (USA)

    1976-07-01

    New data for the melting curve of He/sup 4/ for temperatures between 4 and 25 K agree with earlier results by Mills and Grilly (Phys. Rev.; 99:480 (1955)) and by Crawford and Daniels (J. Chem. Phys.; 55:5651 (1971)), but disagree with the relationship given by Glassford and Smith (Cryogenics; 6:193 (1966) who carried out equation of state studies on fluid and solid He/sup 4/. The reasons for the disagreement are not clear, but can be interpreted in terms of temperature scale inaccuracies which could have influenced all of their results.

  17. Routine calculation of ab initio melting curves: application to aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple, fast, and reliable method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of [Lin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and its improved version given by [Desjarlais, Phys. Rev. E, 88, 062145 (2013)]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find t...

  18. Evaluation of errors in determination of DNA melting curve registered with differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, D.Y.; Fridman, A.S.; Galyuk, E.N.; Dalyan, Y.B.; Grigoryan, I.E.; Haroutiunian, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is more sensitive than UV absorption spectrophotometry as a tool for the measurement of DNA melting curves. The advantage of DSC is a direct determination of differential melting curves (DMC) obtained without numerical differentiation. However, the difference between the helix-coil transition enthalpies of AT and GC base pairs can cause distortions in the shape of melting curve. Up to date, the errors caused by those distortions were not evaluated. In this study, a simple procedure of recalculation of a calorimetric DMC into a real DMC is developed. It demonstrates that the 'real' melting curve and differential melting curve deviate very slightly from the same two curves calculated from DSC data. The melting temperature and the temperature melting range are usually the same even if the difference in the enthalpies is several times higher than a real one

  19. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of eight Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples by melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2015-12-23

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that can cause bloody diarrhea and kidney failure. Seven STEC serogroups, O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are responsible for more than 71% of the total infections caused by this group of pathogens. All seven serogroups are currently considered as adulterants in non-intact beef products in the U.S. In this study, two multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assays with internal amplification controls (IACs) were standardized for the detection of eight STEC serogroups. The first multiplex assay targeted E. coli serogroups O145, O121, O104, and O157; while the second set detected E. coli serogroups O26, O45, O103 and O111. The applicability of the assays was tested using 11 different meat and produce samples. For food samples spiked with a cocktail of four STEC serogroups with a combined count of 10 CFU/25 g food, all targets of the multiplex assays were detected after an enrichment period of 6h. The assays also worked efficiently when 325 g of food samples were spiked with 10 CFU of STECs. The assays are not dependent on fluorescent-labeled probes or immunomagnetic beads, and can be used for the detection of eight STEC serogroups in less than 11h. Routine preliminary screening of STECs in food samples is performed by testing for the presence of STEC virulence genes. The assays developed in this study can be useful as a first- or second-tier test for the identification of the eight O serogroup-specific genes in suspected food samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluation of methods for characterizing the melting curves of a high temperature cobalt-carbon fixed point to define and determine its melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David; Machin, Graham

    2012-06-01

    The future mise en pratique for the realization of the kelvin will be founded on the melting temperatures of particular metal-carbon eutectic alloys as thermodynamic temperature references. However, at the moment there is no consensus on what should be taken as the melting temperature. An ideal melting or freezing curve should be a completely flat plateau at a specific temperature. Any departure from the ideal is due to shortcomings in the realization and should be accommodated within the uncertainty budget. However, for the proposed alloy-based fixed points, melting takes place over typically some hundreds of millikelvins. Including the entire melting range within the uncertainties would lead to an unnecessarily pessimistic view of the utility of these as reference standards. Therefore, detailed analysis of the shape of the melting curve is needed to give a value associated with some identifiable aspect of the phase transition. A range of approaches are or could be used; some purely practical, determining the point of inflection (POI) of the melting curve, some attempting to extrapolate to the liquidus temperature just at the end of melting, and a method that claims to give the liquidus temperature and an impurity correction based on the analytical Scheil model of solidification that has not previously been applied to eutectic melting. The different methods have been applied to cobalt-carbon melting curves that were obtained under conditions for which the Scheil model might be valid. In the light of the findings of this study it is recommended that the POI continue to be used as a pragmatic measure of temperature but where required a specified limits approach should be used to define and determine the melting temperature.

  1. Real-time RT-PCR high-resolution melting curve analysis and multiplex RT-PCR to detect and differentiate grapevine leafroll-associated associated virus 3 variant groups I, II, III and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bester Rachelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3 is the main contributing agent of leafroll disease worldwide. Four of the six GLRaV-3 variant groups known have been found in South Africa, but their individual contribution to leafroll disease is unknown. In order to study the pathogenesis of leafroll disease, a sensitive and accurate diagnostic assay is required that can detect different variant groups of GLRaV-3. Methods In this study, a one-step real-time RT-PCR, followed by high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis for the simultaneous detection and identification of GLRaV-3 variants of groups I, II, III and VI, was developed. A melting point confidence interval for each variant group was calculated to include at least 90% of all melting points observed. A multiplex RT-PCR protocol was developed to these four variant groups in order to assess the efficacy of the real-time RT-PCR HRM assay. Results A universal primer set for GLRaV-3 targeting the heat shock protein 70 homologue (Hsp70h gene of GLRaV-3 was designed that is able to detect GLRaV-3 variant groups I, II, III and VI and differentiate between them with high-resolution melting curve analysis. The real-time RT-PCR HRM and the multiplex RT-PCR were optimized using 121 GLRaV-3 positive samples. Due to a considerable variation in melting profile observed within each GLRaV-3 group, a confidence interval of above 90% was calculated for each variant group, based on the range and distribution of melting points. The intervals of groups I and II could not be distinguished and a 95% joint confidence interval was calculated for simultaneous detection of group I and II variants. An additional primer pair targeting GLRaV-3 ORF1a was developed that can be used in a subsequent real-time RT-PCR HRM to differentiate between variants of groups I and II. Additionally, the multiplex RT-PCR successfully validated 94.64% of the infections detected with the real-time RT-PCR HRM

  2. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Effective mass of liquid 3He using the melting curve data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddah, P.; Simmons, R.O.; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of dp/dt and of the liquid and solid molar volumes along the melting curve of 3 He can be used to obtain information about the Fermi liquid parameter Esub(f) = p 2 sub(f)/2m* of liquid 3 He. Data at temperatures reasonably far above the Neel temperature of the solid, but low enough so that the first finite-temperature correction term in Fermi liquid theory is not large are used. It is shown that in spite of uncertainties in the solid 3 He entropy because of uncertainties in the knowledge of the exchange mechanism, the melting curve data provide a check on the different sets of values for m* quoted in literature. The possible effect of ground state vacancies, whose existence in BCC 3 He has been speculated on this analysis is also discussed. (author)

  4. Theoretical study of melting curves on Ta, Mo, and W at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Feng [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang (China)], E-mail: hawk_0816@yahoo.com.cn; Cai Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang (China)

    2008-06-01

    The melting curves of tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W) are calculated using a dislocation-mediated melting model. The calculated melting curves are in good agreement with shock-wave data, and partially in agreement with wire explosion and piston-cylinder data, but show large discrepancies with diamond-anvil cell (DAC) data. We propose that the melting mechanism caused by shock-wave and laser-heated DAC techniques are probably different, and that a systematic difference exists in the two melting processes.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of the melting curve of NiAl alloy under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjin Zhang; Yufeng Peng; Zhongli Liu

    2014-01-01

    The melting curve of B2-NiAl alloy under pressure has been investigated using molecular dynamics technique and the embedded atom method (EAM) potential. The melting temperatures were determined with two approaches, the one-phase and the two-phase methods. The first one simulates a homogeneous melting, while the second one involves a heterogeneous melting of materials. Both approaches reduce the superheating effectively and their results are close to each other at the applied pressures. By fit...

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of the melting curve of NiAl alloy under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Peng, Yufeng; Liu, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    The melting curve of B2-NiAl alloy under pressure has been investigated using molecular dynamics technique and the embedded atom method (EAM) potential. The melting temperatures were determined with two approaches, the one-phase and the two-phase methods. The first one simulates a homogeneous melting, while the second one involves a heterogeneous melting of materials. Both approaches reduce the superheating effectively and their results are close to each other at the applied pressures. By fitting the well-known Simon equation to our melting data, we yielded the melting curves for NiAl: 1783(1 + P/9.801) 0.298 (one-phase approach), 1850(1 + P/12.806) 0.357 (two-phase approach). The good agreement of the resulting equation of states and the zero-pressure melting point (calc., 1850 ± 25 K, exp., 1911 K) with experiment proved the correctness of these results. These melting data complemented the absence of experimental high-pressure melting of NiAl. To check the transferability of this EAM potential, we have also predicted the melting curves of pure nickel and pure aluminum. Results show the calculated melting point of Nickel agrees well with experiment at zero pressure, while the melting point of aluminum is slightly higher than experiment

  7. Improved detection of genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance by hybridization probe-based melting curve analysis using primers to mask proximal mutations: examples include the influenza H275Y substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, David M; Jacob, Kevin; Nakos, Jennifer; Bletchly, Cheryl; Nimmo, Graeme R; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P

    2012-06-01

    Numerous real-time PCR assays have been described for detection of the influenza A H275Y alteration. However, the performance of these methods can be undermined by sequence variation in the regions flanking the codon of interest. This is a problem encountered more broadly in microbial diagnostics. In this study, we developed a modification of hybridization probe-based melting curve analysis, whereby primers are used to mask proximal mutations in the sequence targets of hybridization probes, so as to limit the potential for sequence variation to interfere with typing. The approach was applied to the H275Y alteration of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 strain, as well as a Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutation associated with antimicrobial resistance. Assay performances were assessed using influenza A and N. gonorrhoeae strains characterized by DNA sequencing. The modified hybridization probe-based approach proved successful in limiting the effects of proximal mutations, with the results of melting curve analyses being 100% consistent with the results of DNA sequencing for all influenza A and N. gonorrhoeae strains tested. Notably, these included influenza A and N. gonorrhoeae strains exhibiting additional mutations in hybridization probe targets. Of particular interest was that the H275Y assay correctly typed influenza A strains harbouring a T822C nucleotide substitution, previously shown to interfere with H275Y typing methods. Overall our modified hybridization probe-based approach provides a simple means of circumventing problems caused by sequence variation, and offers improved detection of the influenza A H275Y alteration and potentially other resistance mechanisms.

  8. Theoretical study of the aluminum melting curve to very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, J.A.; Young, D.A.; Ross, M.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed theoretical study of the Al melting curve from normal melting conditions to pressures in the vicinity of 2 Mbar is presented. The analysis is based on two parallel, but distinct, treatments of the metal: the first from rigorous generalized pseudopotential theory involving first-principles nonlocal pseudopotentials and the second from a parametrized local pseudopotential model which has been accurately fit to first-principles band-theory and experimental equation-of-state data. Both treatments utilize full lattice-dynamical calculations of the phonon free energy in the solid, within the harmonic approximation, and fluid variational theory to obtain the free energy of the liquid. Particular attention is focused on the choice of the reference system in implementing the fluid variational theory. It is shown that in Al the soft-sphere model of Ross produces a lower (and hence more accurate) liquid free energy than either the hard-sphere or one-component-plasma reference systems, and is, moreover, necessary to obtain a reasonable quantitative description of the melting properties. With the soft-sphere system, the two theoretical treatments give results in good overall agreement with each other and with experiment. In particular, melting on the shock Hugoniot is predicted to begin at about 1.2 Mbar and to end at about 1.55 Mbar, in excellent agreement with the recent preliminary measurements of McQueen

  9. Fluid–fluid–solid triple point on melting curves at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, G E; Saitov, I M

    2016-01-01

    An analysis is presented of experimental data where fluid-fluid phase transitions are observed for different substances at high temperatures with triple points on melting curves. Viscosity drops point to the structural character of the transition, whereas conductivity jumps remind of both semiconductor-to-metal and plasma nature. The slope of the phase equilibrium dependencies of pressure on temperature and the consequent change of the specific volume, which follows from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation, are discussed. P(V, T) surfaces are presented and discussed for the phase transitions considered in the vicinity of the triple points. The cases of abnormal P(T) dependencies on curves of phase equilibrium are in the focus of discussion. In particular, a P(V, T) surface is presented when both fluid-fluid and melting P(T) curves are abnormal. Particular attention is paid to warm dense hydrogen and deuterium, where remarkable contradictions exist between data of different authors. The possible connection of the P(V, T) surface peculiarities with the experimental data uncertainties is outlined. (paper)

  10. Microcanonical Monte Carlo approach for computing melting curves by atomistic simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    We report microcanonical Monte Carlo simulations of melting and superheating of a generic, Lennard-Jones system starting from the crystalline phase. The isochoric curve, the melting temperature $T_m$ and the critical superheating temperature $T_{LS}$ obtained are in close agreement (well within the microcanonical temperature fluctuations) with standard molecular dynamics one-phase and two-phase methods. These results validate the use of microcanonical Monte Carlo to compute melting points, a ...

  11. A singleplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR with melting curve analysis for the differential detection of Paragonimus heterotremus, Echinostoma malayanum and Fasciola gigantica eggs in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Manochantr, Sirikul; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    Because the eggs of Paragonimus, Echinostoma and Fasciola are very similar in size and shape, it is difficult to distinguish and accurately identify species by the morphology of their eggs, which is a standard diagnostic method. In this study, a novel assay combining a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis using one set of primers and fluorophore-labelled hybridization probes specific for the 28S rDNA region was developed for the molecular detection of Paragonimus heterotremus, Echinostoma malayanum and Fasciola gigantica eggs. This assay could detect and distinguish P. heterotremus, E. malayanum and F. gigantica DNA with the distinct melting temperature (Tm) values of 57.99±0.08, 62.12±0.15 and 74.10±0.18, respectively. The assay can also be used to detect and distinguish DNA from P. bangkokensis, P. harinasutai, P. machorchis, E. revolutum, Hypodereum conoideum and F. hepatica, which have different Tm values. The sensitivity of this assay enabled the detection of one egg of P. heterotremus, E. malayanum or F. gigantica per 100 mg of faeces. In addition, the specificity testing showed no fluorescence signal for other parasites. Due to the sensitivity and specificity of our assay in detecting P. heterotremus, E. malayanum and F. gigantica, our method could be used to accurately diagnose these three medically important parasitic groups and has potential implications for molecular epidemiological investigations of human and/or animal infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  13. High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) for the characterisation of pathogenic leptospires: intra-serovar divergence, inter-serovar convergence, and evidence of attenuation in Leptospira reference collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsiani, S M; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Cobbold, R C; Dohnt, M F; Burns, M-A; Jansen, C C; Leung, L K-P; Field, H E; Smythe, L D

    2010-07-01

    High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) is a novel technology that has emerged as a possible method to characterise leptospires to serovar level. RAPD-HRM has recently been used to measure intra-serovar convergence between strains of the same serovar as well as inter-serovar divergence between strains of different serovars. The results indicate that intra-serovar heterogeneity and inter-serovar homogeneity may limit the application of RAPD-HRM in routine diagnostics. They also indicate that genetic attenuation of aged, high-passage-number isolates could undermine the use of RAPD-HRM or any other molecular technology. Such genetic attenuation may account for a general decrease seen in titres of rabbit hyperimmune antibodies over time. Before RAPD-HRM can be further advanced as a routine diagnostic tool, strains more representative of the wild-type serovars of a given region need to be identified. Further, RAPD-HRM analysis of reference strains indicates that the routine renewal of reference collections, with new isolates, may be needed to maintain the genetic integrity of the collections.

  14. UGT1A1 (TA)n genotyping in sickle-cell disease: high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis or direct sequencing, what is the best way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Mazard, Blandine; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude; Joly, Philippe

    2013-09-23

    Minucci et al. have proposed in 2010 a rapid, simple and cost-effective HRM method on the LightCycler 480® apparatus (Roche) for the determination of the 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes of the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism. However, they have not studied the n=5 and n=8 alleles which can be quite frequent in sickle-cell disease patients. The aim of our study was to test this HRM protocol to all the 10 possible (TA)n UGT1A1 genotypes (i.e. 5/5, 5/6, 5/7, 5/8, 6/6, 6/7, 6/8, 7/7, 7/8 and 8/8) by using our SCD cohort of patients. All genotypes could be unambiguously identified except 6/7 and 6/8 which give a similar HRM profile. For those two genotypes, the differentiation necessitates either a direct Sanger sequencing or a second PCR protocol followed by a 3% agarose gel migration. For the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter genotyping of African patients, each lab has to wonder what is the best way between (i) direct Sanger sequencing of all patients and (ii) HRM protocol for all patients followed by a complementary analysis to differentiate the 6/7 and 6/8 genotypes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The melting curve of MgSiO3 perovskite from molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zijiang; Zhang Cairong; Sun Xiaowei; Song Ting; Chu Yandong; Hu Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    The high-pressure melting curve of MgSiO 3 perovskite is simulated by using the constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics method combined with effective pair potentials. The simulated structural properties of MgSiO 3 perovskite at ambient conditions reproduce the experiments and agree well with other theoretical works. The calculated equation of state is very successful in reproducing accurately the recent experimental data over wide pressure ranges. The predicted high-pressure melting curve is in good agreement with the recent experimental and the latest theoretical ones, and the melting curve up to the core-mantle boundary pressure, being very steep at lower pressures, rapidly flattens on increasing pressure. The present results also suggest the validity of the experimental data of Zerr and Boehler (1993 Science 262 553) and Shen and Lazor (1995 J. Geophys. Res. 100 17699).

  16. Observation of mass flux through hcp 4He off the melting curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M W; Hallock, R B

    2009-01-01

    Solid hcp 4 He has been created off the melting curve using two growth techniques. In an effort to observe the flow of 4 He through the solid, rather than squeezing the solid directly, the experimental apparatus allows injection of 4 He atoms from superfluid in porous Vycor directly into the solid. We will describe the apparatus and our observations. Evidence for the transport of mass through a sample cell filled with hcp solid 4 He off the melting curve is found. The temperature and pressure dependence of this behavior will be presented.

  17. Identification of a new genetic marker in Mycoplasma synoviae vaccine strain MS-H and development of a strategy using polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting curve analysis for differentiating MS-H from field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Konsak, Barbara M; Olaogun, Olusola M; Agnew-Crumptona, Rebecca; Kanci, Anna; Marenda, Marc S; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an economically important avian pathogen worldwide, causing subclinical respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. A temperature-sensitive (ts + ) live attenuated vaccine MS-H, derived from the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is now widely used in many countries to control the disease induced by MS. Differentiation of MS-H vaccine from field strains is crucial for monitoring vaccination programs in commercial poultry. Comparison of genomic sequences of MS-H and its parent strain revealed an adenine deletion at nucleotide position 468 of the MS-H oppF-1 gene. This mutation was shown to be unique to MS-H in further comparative analyses of oppF-1 genes of MS-H re-isolates and field strains from Australia and other countries. Based on this single nucleotide, a combination of nested PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis was used to evaluate its potential for use in differentiation of MS-H from field strains. The mean genotype confidence percentages of 99.27 and 48.20 for MS-H and field strains, respectively, demonstrated the high discriminative power of the newly developed assay (oppF PCR-HRM). A set of 13 tracheal swab samples collected from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free birds and commercial chicken flocks infected with MS were tested using the oppF PCR-HRM test and results were totally consistent with those obtained using vlhA genotyping. The nested-PCR HRM method established in this study proved to be a rapid, simple and cost effective tool for discriminating the MS-H vaccine strain from Australian and international strains in pure cultures and on tracheal swabs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative PCR high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) curve analysis, a new approach to simultaneously screen point mutations and large rearrangements: application to MLH1 germline mutations in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Etienne; Lefol, Cédrick; Bourdon, Violaine; Coulet, Florence; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Soubrier, Florent; Bièche, Ivan; Olschwang, Sylviane; Sobol, Hagay; Lidereau, Rosette

    2009-06-01

    Several techniques have been developed to screen mismatch repair (MMR) genes for deleterious mutations. Until now, two different techniques were required to screen for both point mutations and large rearrangements. For the first time, we propose a new approach, called "quantitative PCR (qPCR) high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis (qPCR-HRM)," which combines qPCR and HRM to obtain a rapid and cost-effective method suitable for testing a large series of samples. We designed PCR amplicons to scan the MLH1 gene using qPCR HRM. Seventy-six patients were fully scanned in replicate, including 14 wild-type patients and 62 patients with known mutations (57 point mutations and five rearrangements). To validate the detected mutations, we used sequencing and/or hybridization on a dedicated MLH1 array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). All point mutations and rearrangements detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC)+multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were successfully detected by qPCR HRM. Three large rearrangements were characterized with the dedicated MLH1 array-CGH. One variant was detected with qPCR HRM in a wild-type patient and was located within the reverse primer. One variant was not detected with qPCR HRM or with dHPLC due to its proximity to a T-stretch. With qPCR HRM, prescreening for point mutations and large rearrangements are performed in one tube and in one step with a single machine, without the need for any automated sequencer in the prescreening process. In replicate, its reagent cost, sensitivity, and specificity are comparable to those of dHPLC+MLPA techniques. However, qPCR HRM outperformed the other techniques in terms of its rapidity and amount of data provided.

  19. Experimental platform utilising melting curve technology for detection of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Agnieszka; Nikolayevskyy, Vlad; Casali, Nicki; Khan, Huma; Bowker, Richard; Blackwell, Gemma; Patel, Bhakti; Hume, James; Hussain, Waqar; Drobniewski, Francis

    2018-04-20

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB. Firstly, we developed and evaluated the prototype MDR-TB assay using specimens extracted from well-characterised TB isolates with a variety of distinct rifampicin and isoniazid resistance conferring mutations and nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) strains. Secondly, we validated the experimental platform using 98 clinical sputum samples from pulmonary TB patients collected in high MDR-TB settings. The sensitivity of the platform for TB detection in clinical specimens was 75% for smear-negative and 92.6% for smear-positive sputum samples. The sensitivity of detection for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance was 88.9 and 96.0% and specificity was 87.5 and 100%, respectively. Observed limitations in sensitivity and specificity could be resolved by adjusting the sample preparation methodology and melting curve recognition algorithm. Overall technology could be considered a promising PoC methodology especially in resource-constrained settings based on its combined accuracy, convenience, simplicity, speed, and cost characteristics.

  20. Melting curves of molecular hydrogen and molecular deuterium under high pressures between 20 and 373 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatschenko, V.; Chu, C.W.; Liebenberg, D.H.; Young, D.A.; Ross, M.; Mills, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    We determined the melting curve of molecular hydrogen and molecular deuterium at closely spaced intervals from 20 to 373 K by two different techniques using high-pressure diamond cells. The cells were loaded with liquid at low temperature or with compressed gas at room temperature. Empirical functions for the melting curves were evaluated from least-squares fits of the data. Values of the compressibility and Debye temperature were computed at melting, and the results are compared with those calculated from various theoretical models. The good agreement shows that the models are generally valid, although small systematic deviations may point the way toward refinements in modeling. Our study also demonstrates the need to determine a one-piece intermolecular potential valid over a wide pressure range by refitting all experimental data, including the shock data recently made available

  1. Three-Phase Melting Curves in the Binary System of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E. H.

    2017-10-01

    Invariant, three-phase melting curves, of ice VI in equilibrium with solid CO2, of ice VII in equilibrium with solid CO2, and of solid CO2 in simultaneous equilibrium with a majority aqueous and a majority CO2 fluid, were explored in the binary system of carbon dioxide and water. Diamond-anvil cells were used to develop pressures of 5 GPa. Water exhibits a large melting temperature depression (73°C less than its pure melting temperature of 253°C at 5 GPa) indicative of large concentrations of CO2 in the aqueous solution. The melting point of water-saturated CO2 does not show a measureable departure from that of the pure system at temperatures lower than ∼200°C and only 10°C at 5 GPa (from 327°C).

  2. High Resolution Melting Analysis for fast and cheap polymorphism screening of marine populations

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Isabelle Calves, Sébastien Artigaud, Carolyn S. Friedman, Christine Paillard, Jean Laroche & Claude Ferec ### Abstract This protocol permits the mutation scanning of PCR products by high-resolution DNA melting analysis requiring the inclusion of a saturating intercalating dye in the PCR mix without labelled probe. During a scanning process, fluorescent melting curves of PCR amplicons are analyzed. Mutations modifying melting curve shapes, are allowed...

  3. Image analysis as an improved melting criterion in laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ran; Matityahu, Shlomi; Melchior, Aviva; Nikolaevsky, Mark; Noked, Ori; Sterer, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The precision of melting curve measurements using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) is largely limited by the correct and reliable determination of the onset of melting. We present a novel image analysis of speckle interference patterns in the LHDAC as a way to define quantitative measures which enable an objective determination of the melting transition. Combined with our low-temperature customized IR pyrometer, designed for measurements down to 500K, our setup allows studying the melt...

  4. The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

  5. Scanning the melting curve of tungsten by a submicrosecond wire-explosion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, A.; Hess, H.; Schneidenbach, H.; Grossjohann, R.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and density during a wire-explosion experiment at atmospheric pressure are described. The measurements encompass a parameter range from the solid to near the critical point. The influence of a polytetra-fluoroethylene coating of the wire, necessary to prevent surface discharges, on the temperature and density measurements is investigated. The melting curve of tungsten up to 4,000 K is determined

  6. High resolution melting curve analysis targeting the HBB gene mutational hot-spot offers a reliable screening approach for all common as well as most of the rare beta-globin gene mutations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Tarikul; Sarkar, Suprovath Kumar; Sultana, Nusrat; Begum, Mst Noorjahan; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Talukder, Shezote; Muraduzzaman, A K M; Alauddin, Md; Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Biswas, Pritha Promita; Biswas, Aparna; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Shirin, Tahmina; Banu, Bilquis; Sadya, Salma; Hussain, Manzoor; Sarwardi, Golam; Khan, Waqar Ahmed; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin; Chowdhury, Emran Kabir; Sajib, Abu Ashfaqur; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Qadri, Syed Saleheen; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2018-01-02

    Bangladesh lies in the global thalassemia belt, which has a defined mutational hot-spot in the beta-globin gene. The high carrier frequencies of beta-thalassemia trait and hemoglobin E-trait in Bangladesh necessitate a reliable DNA-based carrier screening approach that could supplement the use of hematological and electrophoretic indices to overcome the barriers of carrier screening. With this view in mind, the study aimed to establish a high resolution melting (HRM) curve-based rapid and reliable mutation screening method targeting the mutational hot-spot of South Asian and Southeast Asian countries that encompasses exon-1 (c.1 - c.92), intron-1 (c.92 + 1 - c.92 + 130) and a portion of exon-2 (c.93 - c.217) of the HBB gene which harbors more than 95% of mutant alleles responsible for beta-thalassemia in Bangladesh. Our HRM approach could successfully differentiate ten beta-globin gene mutations, namely c.79G > A, c.92 + 5G > C, c.126_129delCTTT, c.27_28insG, c.46delT, c.47G > A, c.92G > C, c.92 + 130G > C, c.126delC and c.135delC in heterozygous states from the wild type alleles, implying the significance of the approach for carrier screening as the first three of these mutations account for ~85% of total mutant alleles in Bangladesh. Moreover, different combinations of compound heterozygous mutations were found to generate melt curves that were distinct from the wild type alleles and from one another. Based on the findings, sixteen reference samples were run in parallel to 41 unknown specimens to perform direct genotyping of the beta-thalassemia specimens using HRM. The HRM-based genotyping of the unknown specimens showed 100% consistency with the sequencing result. Targeting the mutational hot-spot, the HRM approach could be successfully applied for screening of beta-thalassemia carriers in Bangladesh as well as in other countries of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The approach could be a useful supplement of hematological and

  7. High-resolution melting-curve analysis of ligation-mediated real-time PCR for rapid evaluation of an epidemiological outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E; Schön, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE.

  8. High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR for Rapid Evaluation of an Epidemiological Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Schön, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE. PMID:21956981

  9. Genotyping of a tri-allelic polymorphism by a novel melting curve assay in MTHFD1L: an association study of nonsyndromic Cleft in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minguzzi, Stefano

    2012-04-20

    AbstractBackgroundPolymorphisms within the MTHFD1L gene were previously associated with risk of neural tube defects in Ireland. We sought to test the most significant MTHFD1L polymorphisms for an association with risk of cleft in an Irish cohort. This required the development of a new melting curve assay to genotype the technically challenging MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406).MethodsMelting curve analysis was used to genotype the MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs17080476 in an Irish cohort consisting of 981 Irish case-parent trios and 1,008 controls. Tests for association with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate included case\\/control analysis, mother\\/control analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Tests of case-parent trios.ResultsA successful melting curve genotyping assay was developed for the deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406). The TDT analysis initially showed that the rs3832406 polymorphism was associated with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate. However, corrected p-values indicated that this association was not significant.ConclusionsMelting Curve Analysis can be employed to successfully genotype challenging polymorphisms such as the MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (DIP) reported here (rs3832406) and is a viable alternative to capillary electrophoresis. Corrected p-values indicate no association between MTHFD1L and risk of cleft in an Irish cohort.

  10. Atomistic simulation of the premelting of iron and aluminum : Implications for high-pressure melting-curve measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starikov, Sergey V.; Stegailov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    Using atomistic simulations we show the importance of the surface premelting phenomenon for the melting-curve measurements at high pressures. The model under consideration mimics the experimental conditions deployed for melting studies with diamond-anvil cells. The iron is considered in this work

  11. Determination of melting curves of irradiated DNA preparations and of preparations isolated from irradiated calf lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska, B.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of melting curves enabled to establish differences of melting temperature, hyperchromic effect and breadth of the helix - coil phase transition dependent on dose of the ionizing radiation applied and on kind of the irradiated object. Changes of the investigated parameters of DNA irradiated after isolation were detectably more pronounced that of DNA from irradiated lymph nodes. The obtained results suggest a protective role of tissue to the secondary structure of DNA. (author)

  12. High pressure and temperature structure of liquid and solid Cd: implications for the melting curve of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S V; Williams, Q; Geballe, Z M; Godwal, B K; Jeanloz, R; Kalkan, B

    2014-01-01

    The structure of cadmium was characterized in both the solid and liquid forms at pressures to 10 GPa using in situ x-ray diffraction measurements in a resistively heated diamond anvil cell. The distorted hexagonal structure of solid cadmium persists at high pressures and temperatures, with anomalously large c/a ratio of Cd becoming larger as the melting curve is approached. The measured structure factor S(Q) for the melt reveals that the cadmium atoms are spaced about 0.6 Angstroms apart. The melt structure remains notably constant with increasing pressure, with the first peak in the structure factor remaining mildly asymmetric, in accord with the persistence of an anisotropic bonding environment within the liquid. Evolution of powder diffraction patterns up to the temperature of melting revealed the stability of the ambient-pressure hcp structure up to a pressure of 10 GPa. The melting curve has a positive Clausius–Clapeyron slope, and its slope is in good agreement with data from other techniques. We find deviations in the melting curve from Lindemann law type behavior for pressures above 1 GPa. (paper)

  13. Salt melt synthesis of curved nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures: ORR kinetics boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Maria K.; Gontarek, Emilia; Lieder, Marek; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    Implementing metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and revealing crucial chemical or topographical parameters driving their activity are vital for the development of power cells. The carbon-based catalysts are very often synthesized through carbonization of biopolymers, in particular, those one containing nitrogen groups such as chitosan. Unfortunately, the resulting carbonaceous materials usually lack specific porosity and exhibit low catalytic activity. Here, we demonstrate that pyrolysis of chitosan in a ZnCl2 melt assisted by the presence of LiCl results not only in a highly porous activated carbon material with a specific surface area of 1317.97 m2/g and the total nitrogen content of 6.5%, but also induces unexpected curvature in the grown graphitic layers. This is the first work that shows curved graphene layers obtained from a biopolymer precursor by its pyrolytic decomposition in the melted salt media. On the other hand, a carbonaceous material obtained from chitosan but without the salts has very low specific surface area of 7.8 m2/g, possesses no specific structural features, and contains 4.7% of nitrogen. The electrochemical studies show, that the former material is highly active towards four-electron pathway of the ORR in terms of an onset potential (0.89 V vs RHE) and the turnover frequency (TOFmax = 0.095 e site-1 s-1). We attribute this high catalytic performance to the presence of the pyridinic and pyrrolic sites in the structure. The ORR kinetics is probably further promoted by curvature in the graphitic layers.

  14. On determination of melt composition by liquidus curves for a number of oxide systems for crystal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soboleva, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to liquidus curves in 31 phase diagrams of a series of borate, aluminate, silicate, germanate, titanate and other systems with unlimited mutual solubility in liquid state. Proposed optimal compositions of melts for preparation of crystals of compounds, forming in these systems, were calculated

  15. Image analysis of speckle patterns as a probe of melting transitions in laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ran; Matityahu, Shlomi; Melchior, Aviva; Nikolaevsky, Mark; Noked, Ori; Sterer, Eran

    2015-09-01

    The precision of melting curve measurements using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) is largely limited by the correct and reliable determination of the onset of melting. We present a novel image analysis of speckle interference patterns in the LHDAC as a way to define quantitative measures which enable an objective determination of the melting transition. Combined with our low-temperature customized IR pyrometer, designed for measurements down to 500 K, our setup allows studying the melting curve of materials with low melting temperatures, with relatively high precision. As an application, the melting curve of Te was measured up to 35 GPa. The results are found to be in good agreement with previous data obtained at pressures up to 10 GPa.

  16. Theoretical Understanding the Relations of Melting-point Determination Methods from Gibbs Thermodynamic Surface and Applications on Melting Curves of Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, K.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Zhou, H.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The melting temperatures of materials in the interior of the Earth has significant implications in many areas of geophysics. The direct calculations of the melting point by atomic simulations would face substantial hysteresis problem. To overcome the hysteresis encountered in the atomic simulations there are a few different melting-point determination methods available nowadays, which are founded independently, such as the free energy method, the two-phase or coexistence method, and the Z method, etc. In this study, we provide a theoretical understanding the relations of these methods from a geometrical perspective based on a quantitative construction of the volume-entropy-energy thermodynamic surface, a model first proposed by J. Willard Gibbs in 1873. Then combining with an experimental data and/or a previous melting-point determination method, we apply this model to derive the high-pressure melting curves for several lower mantle minerals with less computational efforts relative to using previous methods only. Through this way, some polyatomic minerals at extreme pressures which are almost unsolvable before are calculated fully from first principles now.

  17. Analysis of HIV using a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay: automation of HRM data analysis enhances the utility of the assay for analysis of HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Matthew M; Swan, David; Magaret, Craig A; Hoover, Donald R; Eshleman, Susan H

    2012-01-01

    HIV diversity may be a useful biomarker for discriminating between recent and non-recent HIV infection. The high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was developed to quantify HIV diversity in viral populations without sequencing. In this assay, HIV diversity is expressed as a single numeric HRM score that represents the width of a melting peak. HRM scores are highly associated with diversity measures obtained with next generation sequencing. In this report, a software package, the HRM Diversity Assay Analysis Tool (DivMelt), was developed to automate calculation of HRM scores from melting curve data. DivMelt uses computational algorithms to calculate HRM scores by identifying the start (T1) and end (T2) melting temperatures for a DNA sample and subtracting them (T2 - T1 =  HRM score). DivMelt contains many user-supplied analysis parameters to allow analyses to be tailored to different contexts. DivMelt analysis options were optimized to discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infection and to maximize HRM score reproducibility. HRM scores calculated using DivMelt were compared to HRM scores obtained using a manual method that is based on visual inspection of DNA melting curves. HRM scores generated with DivMelt agreed with manually generated HRM scores obtained from the same DNA melting data. Optimal parameters for discriminating between recent and non-recent HIV infection were identified. DivMelt provided greater discrimination between recent and non-recent HIV infection than the manual method. DivMelt provides a rapid, accurate method of determining HRM scores from melting curve data, facilitating use of the HRM diversity assay for large-scale studies.

  18. Equations of state and melting curve of boron carbide in the high-pressure range of shock compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodets, A. M., E-mail: molodets@icp.ac.ru; Golyshev, A. A.; Shakhrai, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    We have constructed the equations of state for crystalline boron carbide B{sub 11}C (C–B–C) and its melt under high dynamic and static pressures. A kink on the shock adiabat for boron carbide has been revealed in the pressure range near 100 GPa, and the melting curve with negative curvature in the pressure range 0–120 GPa has been calculated. The results have been used for interpreting the kinks on the shock adiabat for boron carbide in the pressure range of 0–400 GPa.

  19. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  20. Numerical analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ros, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs

  1. Light Curve Analysis of SAO23229

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We have made UBV light curves of a newly discovered eclipsing binary, SAO23229 at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory. We determined a minimum light time of HJD2448636.1170+/-0.0005 that is 3 minutes later than predicted time, and founda peculiar light variation at phase 0.75 that may not be secondary eclipse. Orbital period of SAO23229 would be 4.2 days rather than 2.1 days. Our analysis of the light curves shows that SAO23229 has a detached configuration consisting of two almost identical F type main sequence stars.

  2. Noise Pollution Status in a Metal Melting Industry and the Map of Its Isosonic Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouharmajd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Steel industry is one of the most important industries of each country and noise pollution is one of the very annoying factors in this industry that causes various diseases; above all, the damage to the auditory system of the work force is high. Therefore, the assessment of noise pollution and the identification of the sources and causes of its creation are inevitable for controlling and teaching the prevention programs and hearing protection. Objectives This study aimed to draw the noise map of isosonic curves and assess the noise pollution using Surfer modeling software. Materials and Methods In the present study, first, preliminary maps and stationing were drawn, and then, the measurement of the sound pressure level and the octave band analysis were performed by a noise measurement device called Casella-CEL 445; then, after recording the data in software of Surfer version 8, they were used for drawing the isosonic curves. Results The results of the peripheral measurements showed that the maximum sound pressure of level 109 dBA was related to the electric arc furnace. A map of the graphic isosonic curves showed most of the noise pollution in the following areas: furnace, casting, tundishes, and the cooling beds. Conclusions According to the factory noise map, except for the control rooms with 81 dBA noise, other cases of measuring stations were higher than the standard exposure of 85 dBA noise. As a result, the implementation of control strategies, such as inspection and performance of control systems and insulation of the control room to prevent unnecessary exposure noise, are necessary.

  3. Detection and discrimination of two Brucella species by multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis curve from human blood and comparison of results using RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahhab Piranfar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that this technique, which scans gene segments and creates an analysis pattern for detection of clinical samples, is useful and more dominant compared with PCR-RFLP. Thus, this method can be used for brucellosis detection, and clinical and epidemiological research.

  4. Electrochemistry of cations in diopsidic melt - Determining diffusion rates and redox potentials from voltammetric curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.; Crane, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on determinations of reduction potentials and their temperature dependence of selected ions in diopsidic melt, by using linear sweep voltammetry. Diffusion coefficients were measured for cations of Eu, Mn, Cr, and In. Enthalpies and entropies of reduction were determined for the cations V(V), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Mn(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Mo(VI), Sn(IV), and Eu(3+). Reduction potentials were used to study the structural state of cations in the melt.

  5. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  6. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieu, Ho Khac

    2014-01-01

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100 GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.

  7. Analysis of characteristic performance curves in radiodiagnosis by an observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossovoj, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and ways of construction of performance characteristic curves (PX-curves) in roentgenology, their qualitative and quantitative estimation are described. Estimation of PX curves application for analysis of scintigraphic and sonographic images is presented

  8. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  9. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    OpenAIRE

    Fat'yanov, Oleg V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority ...

  10. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  11. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ~800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  12. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ∼800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  13. Development of a real-time PCR melt curve assay for simultaneous detection of virulent and antibiotic resistant Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-12-01

    Multiple drug resistance in Salmonella is an emerging problem in the area of food safety. Depending on the virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics of the Salmonella strain, infections of varying severity could result. In this study, a multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assay for the detection of virulent and antibiotic resistance strains of Salmonella was developed with two primer sets. The first set targets the virulence gene, invasin (invA), and tetracycline (tetG), streptomycin (aadA2) and sulphonamide (sulI) antibiotic resistance genes, and the second set amplifies ampicillin (blaPSE,blaTEM) and chloramphenicol (floR) resistance genes. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 41 Salmonella strains and was further tested on eight different artificially inoculated food samples. The fluorescent DNA intercalating dye, SYTO9, generated high resolution melt curve peaks and, hence, was used for the development of the assay. This multiplex assay worked efficiently over a DNA concentration range of 20 ng-200 fg and showed a sensitivity of 290 CFU/mL with serially diluted broth cultures. The detection limit for un-enriched artificially inoculated food samples was 10(4) CFU/g, but an enrichment period of 6 h allowed for detection of 10 CFU/g of cells in the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of core melt accident in Fukushima Daiichi-Unit 1 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a profound understanding of the serious situation in Unit 1 and Unit 2/3 reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereafter abbreviated as 1F1 and 1F2/3, respectively), which was directly caused by tsunami due to a huge earthquake on 11 March 2011, analyses of severe core damage are performed. In the present report, the analysis method and 1F1 analysis are described. The analysis is essentially based on the total energy balance in the core. In the analysis, the total energy vs. temperature curve is developed for each reactor, which is based on the estimated core materials inventory and material property data. Temperature and melt fraction are estimated by comparing the total energy curve with the total stored energy in the core material. The heat source is the decay heat of fission products and actinides together with reaction heat from the zirconium steam reaction. (author)

  15. Microstructure analysis of magnesium alloy melted by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.Y.; Hu, J.D.; Yang, Y.; Guo, Z.X.; Wang, H.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of laser surface melting (LSM) on microstructure of magnesium alloy containing Al8.57%, Zn 0.68%, Mn0.15%, Ce0.52% were investigated. In the present work, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to melt and rapidly solidify the surface of the magnesium alloy with the objective of changing microstructure and improving the corrosion resistance. The results indicate that laser-melted layer contains the finer dendrites and behaviors good resistance corrosion compared with the untreated layer. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient of the magnesium alloy has been estimated according to the numeral simulation of the thermal conditions. The formation process of fine microstructure in melted layers was investigated based on the experimental observation and the theoretical analysis. Some simulation results such as the re-solidification velocities are obtained. The phase constitutions of the melted layers determined by X-ray diffraction were β-Mg 17 Al 12 and α-Mg as well as some phases unidentified

  16. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  17. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  18. Rapid identification and classification of bacteria by 16S rDNA restriction fragment melting curve analyses (RFMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Knut; Kleiberg, Gro H; Heiberg, Ragnhild; Rosnes, Jan T

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate restriction fragment melting curve analyses (RFMCA) as a novel approach for rapid classification of bacteria during food production. RFMCA was evaluated for bacteria isolated from sous vide food products, and raw materials used for sous vide production. We identified four major bacterial groups in the material analysed (cluster I-Streptococcus, cluster II-Carnobacterium/Bacillus, cluster III-Staphylococcus and cluster IV-Actinomycetales). The accuracy of RFMCA was evaluated by comparison with 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains satisfying the RFMCA quality filtering criteria (73%, n=57), with both 16S rDNA sequence information and RFMCA data (n=45) gave identical group assignments with the two methods. RFMCA enabled rapid and accurate classification of bacteria that is database compatible. Potential application of RFMCA in the food or pharmaceutical industry will include development of classification models for the bacteria expected in a given product, and then to build an RFMCA database as a part of the product quality control.

  19. Precision-Recall-Gain Curves:PR Analysis Done Right

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Peter; Kull, Meelis

    2015-01-01

    Precision-Recall analysis abounds in applications of binary classification where true negatives do not add value and hence should not affect assessment of the classifier's performance. Perhaps inspired by the many advantages of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under such curves for accuracy-based performance assessment, many researchers have taken to report Precision-Recall (PR) curves and associated areas as performance metric. We demonstrate in this paper that thi...

  20. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual

  1. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina

    2017-01-01

    specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection...

  2. Genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from poultry carcasses using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaridis, Ioannis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2014-01-02

    An outbreak situation of human listeriosis requires a fast and accurate protocol for typing Listeria monocytogenes . Existing techniques are either characterized by low discriminatory power or are laborious and require several days to give a final result. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was investigated in this study as an alternative tool for a rapid and precise genotyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. Fifty-five isolates of L. monocytogenes isolated from poultry carcasses and the environment of four slaughterhouses were typed by HRM analysis using two specific markers, internalin B and ssrA genes. The analysis of genotype confidence percentage of L. monocytogenes isolates produced by HRM analysis generated dendrograms with two major groups and several subgroups. Furthermore, the analysis of the HRM curves revealed that all L. monocytogenes isolates could easily be distinguished. In conclusion, HRM was proven to be a fast and powerful tool for genotyping isolates of L. monocytogenes .

  3. Melt pool and keyhole behaviour analysis for deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, R

    2010-01-01

    One usually defines the main characteristic of the welding performances of a given laser system by its 'penetration curve' that corresponds to the welding depth as a function of the welding speed V w for a given set of operating parameters. Analysis of a penetration curve is interesting and gives very fruitful results. Coupled with high-speed video imaging of melt pool surface and ejected plume behaviour, the analysis of this penetration curve on a very large range of welding speeds, typically from 0 to 50 m min -1 , has allowed us to observe very different and characteristic regimes. These regimes are mainly characterized by the physical processes by which they impede the laser beam penetration inside the material. We show that it is only at rather high welding speeds that these limiting processes are reduced. Consequently, the scaling law of welding depth with welding speed is in agreement with adapted modelling of this process. On the other hand, as the welding speed is reduced, different effects depending on the weld pool dynamics and plume interaction strongly disturb the keyhole stability and are responsible for the deviation of the penetration curve from the previous modelling that agrees with a 1/V w scaling law. A corresponding criterion for the occurrence of this effect is defined.

  4. High resolution melting analysis (HRM) for the assessment of clonality in feline B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Manfred; Scheffold, Svenja; Hecht, Werner; Reinacher, Manfred

    2018-06-01

    Analysis of clonality is gaining importance in diagnosing lymphomas in veterinary medicine. Usually, PCR for the analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) is followed by electrophoretic separation of the PCR products. Aim of this study was to test the feasibility of HRM for the assessment of clonality in B-cell lymphomas of cats. High resolution melting analysis differentiates PCR products by their different melting point using the decrease in fluorescence of an intercalating dye during melting of the PCR product. Additionally, the method is easy to use with no post-PCR manipulation of the samples. Forty-seven feline B-cell lymphomas and 31 reactive lymphatic proliferations of cats were investigated by PARR followed either by capillary electrophoresis or an HRM assay. To objectify the interpretation of the HRM results a recently published mathematical approach was applied to the melting curve. To overcome discrepancies between the visual interpretation and the mathematical approach, the latter was modified to include testing of reproducibility and recognition of pseudoclonality. In 11 of 47 lymphoma cases clonal populations were detectable by HRM assay compared to 14 of 47 lymphomas in which clonal populations were detected by capillary electrophoresis assay. Neither of the methods showed a clonal pattern in any of the reactive samples. However, the HRM assay showed a unique pattern in cases of follicular lymphatic hyperplasia that had no corresponding pattern in capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electrophoresis assay could identify 3 lymphomas that were not detected by the HRM assay and is therefore regarded superior to the HRM assay. The comparison however, was hampered by the overall bad performance of the PARR, that might be the consequence of insufficient primer binding due to somatic hypermutation of the binding sites during antigen stimulated proliferation of the B lymphocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Equation of liquidus curve of primary crystallization of congruently melting of Asub(m)Bsub(n) compound in regular solutions approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Pavlova, L.M.; Moskvinova, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    A general solution was obtained for the Prigozhin and Defey equation on the basis of which a liquidus equation was derived describing the primary crystallization of Asub(m)Bsub(n)-type compounds. The Prigozhin and Defey equation described a general case of the melting process of having a narrow homogeneity region at a certain temperature T:(Asub(m)Bsub(n))sub(s) reversible m(A)sub(L) n(B)sub(L). They have obtained a differential equation for the liquids curve describing the equilibrium state between the primary Asub(m)Bsub(n) crystals and the liquid solution. The obtained equation was tested by a comparison with the experimental liquidus curves corresponding to the primary crystallization of gallium and indium sesquitellurides in Ga-Te and In-Te systems. The liquidus curves were made more precise by means of a detailed thermographic study of a series of melts located to the right and left of Ga 2 Te 3 and In 2 Te 3 compounds. Computer calculations of liquidus curves corresponding to the primary crystallization of Ga 2 Te 3 and In 2 Te 3 were carried out with the aid of the last of the above-mentioned equations. The obtained results show that the derived equations can be used in studying the nature of intermolecular reactions in systems in which congruent intermediate phases of complex composition are present

  6. Seismic Fragility Curves of Industrial Buildings by Using Nonlinear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the steel fragility curves and performance curves of industrial buildings of different geometries. The fragility curves were obtained for different building geometries, and the performance curves were developed based on lateral load, which is affected by the geometry of the building. Three records of far-field ground motion were used for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, and the design lateral loads for pushover analysis (POA. All designs were based on British Standard (BS 5950; however, Eurocode 8 was preferred for seismic consideration in the analysis because BS 5950 does not specify any seismic provision. The five levels of performance stated by FEMA-273, namely, operational phase, immediate occupancy, damage control, life safety, and collapse prevention (CP were used as main guidelines for evaluating structural performance. For POA, Model 2 had highest base shear, followed by Model 1 and Model 3, even though Model 2 has a smaller structure compared with Model 3. Meanwhile, the fragility curves showed that the probability of reaching or exceeding the CP level of Model 2 is the highest, followed by that of Models 1 and 3.

  7. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  8. Analysis of power curves of Danish and foreign wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes an analysis of power curves for a number of wind turbines, 30 Danish and 17 foreign - European - wind turbines. The investigation is limited to wind turbines of 150 kW capacity and greater, and to wind turbines for which a power curve is available. The power curves are transformed into a common, uniform presentation in order to facilitate the succeeding treatment, which primarily is the calculation of the production of electrical energy yielded per year. From the known data of the wind turbine, equipped generator power and rotor area and the area swept by the blades, the specific electrical production is calculated in three terms: yield per square meter of rotor area, yield per kW generator power and yield per square meter and per kilowatt generator power. Based on these findings a number of comparisons are established, such as comparisons of conceptual designs and technical- economical evaluations. (au)

  9. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  10. Ceramic filters analysis for aluminium melting through microtomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Henrique de Souza; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Duhm, Rainer; Feiste, Karsten L.; Reichert, Christian; Reimche, Wilfried; Stegemann, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    In this work a ceramic filters analysis is done through the microtomography for improvement of the aluminium melting process through the filter porosity control. Microtomography were obtained of ceramic filters with pore dimensions of 10, 20 and 30 ppi. The data were calculated by using an reconstruction algorithm for divergent beam implemented in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory of COPPE/UFRJ and analysed through cells and windows separation according to the defined by Ray. For the analyses the Image Pro program were used where the cells have been detached by sphere inserted, adjusting by nine points, in the filter cavities. So, the size of the answer sphere were considered as the cell size. The windows were measured by straight lines secant to the window intersections

  11. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA--its role and potential in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2014-09-01

    DNA based methods play an increasing role in food safety control and food adulteration detection. Recent papers show that high resolution melting (HRM) analysis is an interesting approach. It involves amplification of the target of interest in the presence of a saturation dye by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent melting of the amplicons by gradually increasing the temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, sequence and strand complementarity of the product, HRM analysis is highly suitable for the detection of single-base variants and small insertions or deletions. The review gives an introduction into HRM analysis, covers important aspects in the development of an HRM analysis method and describes how HRM data are analysed and interpreted. Then we discuss the potential of HRM analysis based methods in food analysis, i.e. for the identification of closely related species and cultivars and the identification of pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PMAnalyzer: a new web interface for bacterial growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Daniel A; Edwards, Robert A

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial growth curves are essential representations for characterizing bacteria metabolism within a variety of media compositions. Using high-throughput, spectrophotometers capable of processing tens of 96-well plates, quantitative phenotypic information can be easily integrated into the current data structures that describe a bacterial organism. The PMAnalyzer pipeline performs a growth curve analysis to parameterize the unique features occurring within microtiter wells containing specific growth media sources. We have expanded the pipeline capabilities and provide a user-friendly, online implementation of this automated pipeline. PMAnalyzer version 2.0 provides fast automatic growth curve parameter analysis, growth identification and high resolution figures of sample-replicate growth curves and several statistical analyses. PMAnalyzer v2.0 can be found at https://edwards.sdsu.edu/pmanalyzer/ . Source code for the pipeline can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzer . Source code for the online implementation can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzerWeb . dcuevas08@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. High-resolution melt PCR analysis for genotyping of Ureaplasma parvum isolates directly from clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Tabone, Tania; Kemp, Matthew W; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Spiller, O Brad; Newnham, John P

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasma sp. infection in neonates and adults underlies a variety of disease pathologies. Of the two human Ureaplasma spp., Ureaplasma parvum is clinically the most common. We have developed a high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR assay for the differentiation of the four serovars of U. parvum in a single step. Currently U. parvum strains are separated into four serovars by sequencing the promoter and coding region of the multiple-banded antigen (MBA) gene. We designed primers to conserved sequences within this region for PCR amplification and HRM analysis to generate reproducible and distinct melt profiles that distinguish clonal representatives of serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14. Furthermore, our HRM PCR assay could classify DNA extracted from 74 known (MBA-sequenced) test strains with 100% accuracy. Importantly, HRM PCR was also able to identify U. parvum serovars directly from 16 clinical swabs. HRM PCR performed with DNA consisting of mixtures of combined known serovars yielded profiles that were easily distinguished from those for single-serovar controls. These profiles mirrored clinical samples that contained mixed serovars. Unfortunately, melt curve analysis software is not yet robust enough to identify the composition of mixed serovar samples, only that more than one serovar is present. HRM PCR provides a single-step, rapid, cost-effective means to differentiate the four serovars of U. parvum that did not amplify any of the known 10 serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum tested in parallel. Choice of reaction reagents was found to be crucial to allow sufficient sensitivity to differentiate U. parvum serovars directly from clinical swabs rather than requiring cell enrichment using microbial culture techniques.

  14. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  15. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  16. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene.

  17. Identification of the GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes using high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobná, Zuzana; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2012-01-13

    Glutathione S-transferases, including GST-T1 and GST-M1, are known to be involved in the phase II detoxification pathways for xenobiotics as well as in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis and associated with risk factors that predispose to certain inflammatory diseases. In addition, GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes have been shown to be responsible for interindividual variations in the metabolism of arsenic, a known human carcinogen. To assess the specific GST genotypes in the Mexican population chronically exposed to arsenic, we have developed a multiplex High Resolution Melting PCR (HRM-PCR) analysis using a LightCycler480 instrument. This method is based on analysis of the PCR product melting curve that discriminates PCR products according to their lengths and base sequences. Three pairs of primers that specifically recognize GST-T1, GST-M1, and β-globin, an internal control, to produce amplicons of different length were designed and combined with LightCycler480 High Resolution Melting Master Mix containing ResoLight, a completely saturating DNA dye. Data collected from melting curve analysis were evaluated using LightCycler480 software to determine specific melting temperatures of individual melting curves representing target genes. Using this newly developed multiplex HRM-PCR analysis, we evaluated GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotypes in 504 DNA samples isolated from the blood of individuals residing in Zimapan, Lagunera, and Chihuahua regions in Mexico. We found that the Zimapan and Lagunera populations have similar GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotype frequencies which differ from those of the Chihuahua population. In addition, 14 individuals have been identified as carriers of the double null genotype, i.e., null genotypes in both GST-T1 and GST-M1 genes. Although this procedure does not distinguish between biallelic (+/+) and monoallelic (+/-) genotypes, it can be used in an

  18. The Kepler Light Curves of AGN: A Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Malkan, Matt; Howell, Steve B.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of 21 light curves of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Kepler spacecraft. First, we describe the necessity and development of a customized pipeline for treating Kepler data of stochastically variable sources like AGN. We then present the light curves, power spectral density functions (PSDs), and flux histograms. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors, many of which would not be detected in ground-based studies, including switching between distinct flux levels. Six objects exhibit PSD flattening at characteristic timescales that roughly correlate with black hole mass. These timescales are consistent with orbital timescales or free-fall accretion timescales. We check for correlations of variability and high-frequency PSD slope with accretion rate, black hole mass, redshift, and luminosity. We find that bolometric luminosity is anticorrelated with both variability and steepness of the PSD slope. We do not find evidence of the linear rms–flux relationships or lognormal flux distributions found in X-ray AGN light curves, indicating that reprocessing is not a significant contributor to optical variability at the 0.1%–10% level.

  19. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  20. Empirical Analysis on The Existence of The Phillips Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaari Mohd Shahidan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Phillips curve shows the trade-off relationship between the inflation and unemployment rates. A rise in inflation due to the high economic growth, more jobs are available and therefore unemployment will fall. However, the existence of the Phillips curve in high-income countries has not been much discussed. Countries with high income should have low unemployment rate, suggesting a high inflation. However, some high-income countries, the United States in 1970s for example, could not avert stagflation whereby high unemployment rate and inflation occurred in the same time. This situation is contrary to the Phillips curve. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the existence of the Phillips curve in high-income countries for the period 1990-2014 using the panel data analysis. The most interesting finding of this study is the existence of a bidirectional relationship between unemployment rate and inflation rate in both long and short runs. Therefore, the governments should choose to stabilize inflation rate or reduce unemployment rate

  1. Rapid detection and identification of four major Schistosoma species by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Lin, RuiQing; Blair, David; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes belonging to several species of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious and widespread parasitic disease. Accurate and rapid differentiation of these etiological agents of animal and human schistosomiasis to species level can be difficult. We report a real-time PCR assay coupled with a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay targeting a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA to detect, identify, and distinguish between four major blood fluke species (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mekongi). Using this system, the Schistosoma spp. was accurately identified and could also be distinguished from all other trematode species with which they were compared. As little as 10(-5) ng genomic DNA from a Schistosoma sp. could be detected. This process is inexpensive, easy, and can be completed within 3 h. Examination of 21 representative Schistosoma samples from 15 geographical localities in seven endemic countries validated the value of the HRM detection assay and proved its reliability. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 83.65 °C for S. japonicum and S. mekongi, 85.65 °C for S. mansoni, and 85.85 °C for S. haematobium. The present study developed a real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis assay for detection and differential identification of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi. This method is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive. It has important implications for epidemiological studies of Schistosoma.

  2. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Detection of somatic mutations by high-resolution DNA melting (HRM) analysis in multiple cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Calcei, Jacob; Wei, Jun S; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E; Hewitt, Stephen; Vockley, Joseph; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P; Khan, Javed; Chanock, Stephen

    2011-01-17

    Identification of somatic mutations in cancer is a major goal for understanding and monitoring the events related to cancer initiation and progression. High resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis represents a fast, post-PCR high-throughput method for scanning somatic sequence alterations in target genes. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis for tumor mutation screening in a range of tumor samples, which included 216 frozen pediatric small rounded blue-cell tumors as well as 180 paraffin-embedded tumors from breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers (60 of each). HRM analysis was performed in exons of the following candidate genes known to harbor established commonly observed mutations: PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, TP53, EGFR, BRAF, GATA3, and FGFR3. Bi-directional sequencing analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the HRM analysis. For the 39 mutations observed in frozen samples, the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis were 97% and 87%, respectively. There were 67 mutation/variants in the paraffin-embedded samples, and the sensitivity and specificity for the HRM analysis were 88% and 80%, respectively. Paraffin-embedded samples require higher quantity of purified DNA for high performance. In summary, HRM analysis is a promising moderate-throughput screening test for mutations among known candidate genomic regions. Although the overall accuracy appears to be better in frozen specimens, somatic alterations were detected in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded samples.

  4. Detection of somatic mutations by high-resolution DNA melting (HRM analysis in multiple cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Bosquet

    Full Text Available Identification of somatic mutations in cancer is a major goal for understanding and monitoring the events related to cancer initiation and progression. High resolution melting (HRM curve analysis represents a fast, post-PCR high-throughput method for scanning somatic sequence alterations in target genes. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis for tumor mutation screening in a range of tumor samples, which included 216 frozen pediatric small rounded blue-cell tumors as well as 180 paraffin-embedded tumors from breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers (60 of each. HRM analysis was performed in exons of the following candidate genes known to harbor established commonly observed mutations: PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, TP53, EGFR, BRAF, GATA3, and FGFR3. Bi-directional sequencing analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the HRM analysis. For the 39 mutations observed in frozen samples, the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis were 97% and 87%, respectively. There were 67 mutation/variants in the paraffin-embedded samples, and the sensitivity and specificity for the HRM analysis were 88% and 80%, respectively. Paraffin-embedded samples require higher quantity of purified DNA for high performance. In summary, HRM analysis is a promising moderate-throughput screening test for mutations among known candidate genomic regions. Although the overall accuracy appears to be better in frozen specimens, somatic alterations were detected in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded samples.

  5. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  6. A Bayesian hierarchical model for demand curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Yi; Nhu Vo, Tien; Chu, Haitao; Luo, Xianghua; Le, Chap T

    2018-07-01

    Drug self-administration experiments are a frequently used approach to assessing the abuse liability and reinforcing property of a compound. It has been used to assess the abuse liabilities of various substances such as psychomotor stimulants and hallucinogens, food, nicotine, and alcohol. The demand curve generated from a self-administration study describes how demand of a drug or non-drug reinforcer varies as a function of price. With the approval of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, demand curve analysis provides crucial evidence to inform the US Food and Drug Administration's policy on tobacco regulation, because it produces several important quantitative measurements to assess the reinforcing strength of nicotine. The conventional approach popularly used to analyze the demand curve data is individual-specific non-linear least square regression. The non-linear least square approach sets out to minimize the residual sum of squares for each subject in the dataset; however, this one-subject-at-a-time approach does not allow for the estimation of between- and within-subject variability in a unified model framework. In this paper, we review the existing approaches to analyze the demand curve data, non-linear least square regression, and the mixed effects regression and propose a new Bayesian hierarchical model. We conduct simulation analyses to compare the performance of these three approaches and illustrate the proposed approaches in a case study of nicotine self-administration in rats. We present simulation results and discuss the benefits of using the proposed approaches.

  7. High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis for mutation screening of RGSL1,RGS16 and RGS8 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechec, Emilia; Wiuf, Carsten Henrik; Overgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    coding exons of RGSL1, RGS16, and RGS8 in tumors from 200 breast cancer patients. All sequence variants detected by HRM resulted in abnormal shape of the melting curves. The identified mutations and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were subsequently confirmed by sequencing, and distribution...... cancer patients. In addition, a total of seven known SNPs were identified in this study. Genotype distributions were not significantly different between breast cancer patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT: Identification of novel mutations within RGSL1 provides a new insight...... into the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Moreover, the HRM analysis represents a reliable and highly sensitive method for mutation scanning of multiple exons....

  8. Statistical analysis of the W Cyg light curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyus, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the light curve of W Cygni has been carried out. The process of brightness variations brightness of the star is shown to be a stationary stochastic one. The hypothesis of stationarity of the process was checked at the significance level of α=0.05. Oscillations of the brightness with average durations of 131 and 250 days have been found. It is proved that oscillations are narrow-band noise, i.e. cycles. Peaks on the power spectrum corresponding to these cycles exceed 99% confidence interval. It has been stated that the oscillations are independent

  9. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennessier, M.O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules

  10. MeltMan: Optimization, Evaluation, and Universal Application of a qPCR System Integrating the TaqMan qPCR and Melting Analysis into a Single Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Alexander; Černíková, Lenka; Vitásková, Eliška; Křivda, Vlastimil; Dán, Ádám; Dirbáková, Zuzana; Jiřincová, Helena; Procházka, Bohumír; Sedlák, Kamil; Havlíčková, Martina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we optimised and evaluated a qPCR system integrating 6-FAM (6-carboxyfluorescein)-labelled TaqMan probes and melting analysis using the SYTO 82 (S82) DNA binding dye in a single reaction. We investigated the influence of the S82 on various TaqMan and melting analysis parameters and defined its optimal concentration. In the next step, the method was evaluated in 36 different TaqMan assays with a total of 729 paired reactions using various DNA and RNA templates, including field specimens. In addition, the melting profiles of interest were correlated with the electrophoretic patterns. We proved that the S82 is fully compatible with the FAM-TaqMan system. Further, the advantages of this approach in routine diagnostic TaqMan qPCR were illustrated with practical examples. These included solving problems with flat or other atypical amplification curves or even false negativity as a result of probe binding failure. Our data clearly show that the integration of the TaqMan qPCR and melting analysis into a single assay provides an additional control option as well as the opportunity to perform more complex analyses, get more data from the reactions, and obtain analysis results with higher confidence. PMID:27031831

  11. Scintiscanning of arthritis and analysis of build-up curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tsuneo; Omori, Shigeo; Miyawaki, Haruo; Maniwa, Masato; Yoshizaki, Kenichi

    1975-01-01

    In the present study 40 knee joints with rheumatoid arthritis, 23 knee joints with osteoarthrosis deformans, 3 knee joints with non-synovitis, one knee joint with pyogenic arthritis and 4 normal knee joints were scanned. By analysis of build-up curves obtained immediately after the intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, the rate of accumulation of radioactivity (t 1/2) in the affected joints was simultaneously estimated in order to compare them with clinical findings. 1. Scintiscanning of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans of the knee joint, non-specific synovitis, and pyogenic arthritis of the knee joint, yielded a positive scan for all of the joint diseases. 2. In the scintigram of healthy knee joints, there are no areas of RI accumulation or right to left difference. 3. In some instances abnormal uptake of RI was seen on scintigrams of arthritis even after normal clinical and laboratory findings had been achieved with therapy. 4. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, a radionuclide with a short half-life, allows repeated scans and provides a useful radiologic means of evaluating therapeutic course and effectiveness. 5. Analysis of build-up curves revealed that the rate of accumulation of RI was faster in rheumatoid arthritis than in osteoarthrosis deformans. (auth.)

  12. Analysis of velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    To reduce interpolation time and Max interpolation error in NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) inter-polation caused by planning Velocity. This paper proposed a velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve. Firstly, the second-order Taylor expansion is applied on the numerator in NURBS curve representation with parameter curve. Then, velocity planning interpolation algorithm can meet with NURBS curve interpolation. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished.

  13. Crystallization and Melt Removal at Arenal Volcano, Polytopic Vector Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, P. J.; Vogel, T. A.; Bolge, L. L.; Ehrlich, R.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Tephra sequences ET3 and ET4 from Arenal volcano in Costa Rica have recently been interpreted to be a product of crystal fractionation by Bolge and coworkers in a series of papers (2004, 2006). The two tephra units are part of a sequence of 22 tephra units that represent a 7000 year span of the Arenal volcano activity. The tephro- stratigraphy has been described extensively by Melson (1982; 1994). The ET3 and ET4 tephras were interpreted (based on major- and trace-element, isotopic analyses of whole rocks and microchemical analyses of individual phases) as clear evidence of crystal separation by gravity settling (Bolge et al., 2004, 2006). The lower ET4 tephra sequence (andesitic and crystal poor) and the upper ET3 tephra (basaltic and crystal rich) represent an inverted snapshot of the magma chamber with contrasting geochemical properties. The ET3 sequence (deeper part of the magma chamber) has nearly constant composition with only a few elements varying stratigraphically (best represented by CaO). This is consistent with gradually decreasing amounts of melt in the upper part of ET3. The lower ET4 tephra (upper part of the magma chamber) contains large chemical gradients in both incompatible and compatible elements. In the present study we use whole-rock geochemical data from the recent tephra sequences ET3 and ET4 as inputs to Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) (for a review of this method see Vogel and coworkers, in press). With this method we produce a three end member solution that is consistent with crystallization of Olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene from the most mafic end member (EM1) resulting in a crystal rich mush zone. As crystallization progresses the compositions of the liquids are driven towards an intermediate end member (EM3), which has an intermediate composition liquid. At EM3 composition, rapid depletion of FeO, MgO and TiO2 by crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides, rapidly drives the liquid composition towards the silicic EM1 (incompatible element

  14. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables, XXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present paper will be to evaluate numerically Jacobian and other functions which have been discussed in more detail in a previous paper of this series, and also choose the most convenient moments to obtain a good determination for the unknown eclipse parameters a and c 0 . More than 12 different pairs of g-functions for real values of m have been investigated numerically and diagrammatically. The behaviour of g-functions depends but very little on different combination of the moments, and related diagrams are approximately the same as g 2 and g 4 . The behaviour of the vanishing Jacobian, arising from different pairs of g-functions for real values of m>= 0 . Accordingly, the author obtains the optimum combination of the moments (i.e., A 6 , A 7 , A 8 and A 9 ) in g-functions g 7 and g 8 . It has been noted that the behaviour of the g-functions which depend on the combinations of the higher order moments (i.e., m>= 5) have been ruled out, because the proportional error of the moments Asub(2m) increases with increasing values of real m. The automated method has been tested successfully on the light curve of RT Per. Finally, a comparison is given of the elements of RT Per arising from two different pairs of g-functions, i.e. g 2 , g 4 and g 7 , g 8 for the light curves analysis. (Auth.)

  15. Electromagnetic and structural interaction analysis of curved shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.; Niho, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a finite element formulation of the eddy current and structure coupled problem for curved shell structures. Coupling terms produced by curved geometry as well as flat plate geometry were obtained. Both matrix equations for eddy current and structure were solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. TEAM Workshop bench mark problem 16 was solved to verify the formulation and the computer code. Agreement with experimental results was very good for such plate problem. A coupled problem for cylindrical shell structure was also analyzed. Influence of each coupling term was examined. The next topic is the eigenvalues of the coupled equations. Although the coupled matrix equations are not symmetric, symmetry was obtained by introducing a symmetrizing variable. The eigenvalues of the coupled matrix equations are different from those obtained from the uncoupled equations because of the influence of the coupling sub-matrix components. Some parameters obtained by the eigenvalue analysis have characteristics of parameters which indicate the intensity of electromagnetic structural coupling effect. (author)

  16. Analysis of interacting quantum field theory in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Taylor, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed analysis of interacting quantized fields propagating in a curved background spacetime is given. Reduction formulas for S-matrix elements in terms of vacuum Green's functions are derived, special attention being paid to the possibility that the ''in'' and ''out'' vacuum states may not be equivalent. Green's functions equations are obtained and a diagrammatic representation for them given, allowing a formal, diagrammatic renormalization to be effected. Coordinate space techniques for showing renormalizability are developed in Minkowski space, for lambdaphi 3 /sub() 4,6/ field theories. The extension of these techniques to curved spacetimes is considered. It is shown that the possibility of field theories becoming nonrenormalizable there cannot be ruled out, although, allowing certain modifications to the theory, phi 3 /sub( 4 ) is proven renormalizable in a large class of spacetimes. Finally particle production from the vacuum by the gravitational field is discussed with particular reference to Schwarzschild spacetime. We shed some light on the nonlocalizability of the production process and on the definition of the S matrix for such processes

  17. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  18. The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, E.

    2008-09-15

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.

  19. The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, E.

    2008-09-01

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.

  20. High resolution melting analysis: a rapid and accurate method to detect CALR mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bilbao-Sieyro

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of CALR mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients without JAK2/MPL mutations has emerged as a relevant finding for the molecular diagnosis of these myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. We tested the feasibility of high-resolution melting (HRM as a screening method for rapid detection of CALR mutations.CALR was studied in wild-type JAK2/MPL patients including 34 ET, 21 persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN and 98 suspected secondary thrombocytosis. CALR mutation analysis was performed through HRM and Sanger sequencing. We compared clinical features of CALR-mutated versus 45 JAK2/MPL-mutated subjects in ET.Nineteen samples showed distinct HRM patterns from wild-type. Of them, 18 were mutations and one a polymorphism as confirmed by direct sequencing. CALR mutations were present in 44% of ET (15/34, 14% of persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN (3/21 and none of the secondary thrombocytosis (0/98. Of the 18 mutants, 9 were 52 bp deletions, 8 were 5 bp insertions and other was a complex mutation with insertion/deletion. No mutations were found after sequencing analysis of 45 samples displaying wild-type HRM curves. HRM technique was reproducible, no false positive or negative were detected and the limit of detection was of 3%.This study establishes a sensitive, reliable and rapid HRM method to screen for the presence of CALR mutations.

  1. Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel J.T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Arian; Huiskes, Cindy; Benes, Nieck E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile temperature calibration method for thermo-ellipsometric analysis. • The melting point of thin films of indium, lead, zinc, and water can be detected by ellipsometry. • In-situ calibration of ellipsometry hot stage, without using any external equipment. • High-accuracy temperature calibration (±1.3 °C). - Abstract: Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well developed for thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry instruments, and is based on probing a transition temperature. Indium, lead, and zinc could be spread on a substrate, and the phase transition of these metals could be detected by a change in the Ψ signal of the ellipsometer. For water, the phase transition could be detected by a loss of signal intensity as a result of light scattering by the ice crystals. The combined approach allowed for construction of a linear calibration curve with an accuracy of 1.3 °C or lower over the full temperature range

  2. Learning curve analysis of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Patrick J; Robbins, Tom; Rodriguez, Evilio; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, Randolph W

    2011-08-01

    To determine if the time required to perform mitral valve repairs using telemanipulation technology decreases with experience and how that decrease is influenced by patient and procedure variables. A single-center retrospective review was conducted using perioperative and outcomes data collected contemporaneously on 458 mitral valve repair surgeries using telemanipulative technology. A regression model was constructed to assess learning with this technology and predict total robot time using multiple predictive variables. Statistical analysis was used to determine if models were significantly useful, to rule out correlation between predictor variables, and to identify terms that did not contribute to the prediction of total robot time. We found a statistically significant learning curve (P learning percentage∗ derived from total robot times† for the first 458 recorded cases of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology is 95% (R(2) = .40). More than one third of the variability in total robot time can be explained through our model using the following variables: type of repair (chordal procedures, ablations, and leaflet resections), band size, use of clips alone in band implantation, and the presence of a fellow at bedside (P Learning in mitral valve repair surgery using telemanipulative technology occurs at the East Carolina Heart Institute according to a logarithmic curve, with a learning percentage of 95%. From our regression output, we can make an approximate prediction of total robot time using an additive model. These metrics can be used by programs for benchmarking to manage the implementation of this new technology, as well as for capacity planning, scheduling, and capital budget analysis. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  4. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Heat transfer modelling and stability analysis of selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.V.; Yadroitsev, I.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-01-01

    The process of direct manufacturing by selective laser melting basically consists of laser beam scanning over a thin powder layer deposited on a dense substrate. Complete remelting of the powder in the scanned zone and its good adhesion to the substrate ensure obtaining functional parts with improved mechanical properties. Experiments with single-line scanning indicate, that an interval of scanning velocities exists where the remelted tracks are uniform. The tracks become broken if the scanning velocity is outside this interval. This is extremely undesirable and referred to as the 'balling' effect. A numerical model of coupled radiation and heat transfer is proposed to analyse the observed instability. The 'balling' effect at high scanning velocities (above ∼20 cm/s for the present conditions) can be explained by the Plateau-Rayleigh capillary instability of the melt pool. Two factors stabilize the process with decreasing the scanning velocity: reducing the length-to-width ratio of the melt pool and increasing the width of its contact with the substrate

  6. Melting of Dense Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure

  7. ESTIMATING TORSION OF DIGITAL CURVES USING 3D IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Blankenburg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Curvature and torsion of three-dimensional curves are important quantities in fields like material science or biomedical engineering. Torsion has an exact definition in the continuous domain. However, in the discrete case most of the existing torsion evaluation methods lead to inaccurate values, especially for low resolution data. In this contribution we use the discrete points of space curves to determine the Fourier series coefficients which allow for representing the underlying continuous curve with Cesàro’s mean. This representation of the curve suits for the estimation of curvature and torsion values with their classical continuous definition. In comparison with the literature, one major advantage of this approach is that no a priori knowledge about the shape of the cyclic curve parts approximating the discrete curves is required. Synthetic data, i.e. curves with known curvature and torsion, are used to quantify the inherent algorithm accuracy for torsion and curvature estimation. The algorithm is also tested on tomographic data of fiber structures and open foams, where discrete curves are extracted from the pore spaces.

  8. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  10. Magneto-electro-elastic buckling analysis of nonlocal curved nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent curved beam model is developed to take into account the effects of nonlocal stresses on the buckling behavior of curved magneto-electro-elastic FG nanobeams for the first time. The governing differential equations are derived based on the principle of virtual work and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The power-law function is employed to describe the spatially graded magneto-electro-elastic properties. By extending the radius of the curved nanobeam to infinity, the results of straight nonlocal FG beams can be rendered. The effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, opening angle, nonlocal parameter, power-law index and slenderness ratio on buckling loads of curved MEE-FG nanobeams are studied.

  11. Detonation waves in melt-coolant interaction. Part 2. Applied analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.; Hulin, H.

    2001-01-01

    Making use of the detonation theory presented in part 1 for melt-water interaction, detonation solutions for different melt-water pairs at different conditions are compared to each other. Discussion is provided on the existence of detonation solutions for water droplet - melt droplet - gas systems. The conclusion is made that even if such solution can be realized in the nature, which is highly questionable, the resulting detonation pressures will be below 200 bar. This is an important result for judging the risk of the melt-water disperse mixtures in nuclear safety analysis. In addition, the detonation pressures for alumna-continuous water systems have been found to be stronger then those for urania-continuous water systems, in agreement with the experimental observations and seems to give finally the searched for a long time explanation why alumna-water systems detonate much more violent than urania-water systems. (orig.) [de

  12. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  13. Analysis of elementary process steps in industrial glass melting tanks: some ideas on innovations in industrial glass melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional industrial glass furnaces show broad glass melt residence time distributions in the melting tanks and average residence times may be up to more than two days for high quality glass products, such as float glass or TV glass, despite the minimum residence times of 8-10 hours (or even less

  14. Simultaneity modeling analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Youssef, Adel; Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Omri, Anis

    2016-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has been recognized in the environmental economics literature since the 1990's. Various statistical tests have been used on time series, cross section and panel data related to single and groups of countries to validate this hypothesis. In the literature, the validation has always been conducted by using a single equation. However, since both the environment and income variables are endogenous, the estimation of a single equation model when simultaneity exists produces inconsistent and biased estimates. Therefore, we formulate simultaneous two-equation models to investigate the EKC hypothesis for fifty-six countries, using annual panel data from 1990 to 2012, with the end year is determined by data availability for the panel. To make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we investigate this issue for a three income-based panels (namely, high-, middle-, and low-income panels) given several explanatory variables. Our results indicate that there exists a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions in the overall panels. We also find that the relationship is nonlinear and has an inverted U-shape for all the considered panels. Policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • We have given a new look for the validity of the EKC hypothesis. • We formulate two-simultaneous equation models to validate this hypothesis for fifty-six countries. • We find a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions. • We also discover an inverted U-shaped between environmental degradation and economic growth. • This relationship varies at different stages of economic development.

  15. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products tested

  16. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  17. Phase Curve Analysis of Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabel; Hu, Renyu

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary questions when characterizing Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets is whether they have a substantial atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or a bare-rock surface that may come with a tenuous atmosphere like Mercury. Phase curves of the planets in thermal emission provide clues to this question, because a substantial atmosphere would transport heat more efficiently than a bare-rock surface. Analyzing phase curve photometric data around secondary eclipse has previously been used to study energy transport in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. Here we use phase curve, Spitzer time-series photometry to study the thermal emission properties of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e. We utilize a previously developed semi-analytical framework to fit a physical model to infrared photometric data of host star 55 Cancri from the Spitzer telescope IRAC 2 band at 4.5 μm. The model uses various parameters of planetary properties including Bond albedo, heat redistribution efficiency (i.e., the ratio between the radiative timescale and advective timescale of the photosphere), and atmospheric greenhouse factor. The phase curve of 55 Cancri e is dominated by thermal emission with an eastward-shifted hot spot located on the planet surface. We determine the heat redistribution efficiency to be ≈1.47, which implies that the advective timescale is on the same order as the radiative timescale. This requirement from the phase curve cannot be met by the bare-rock planet scenario, because heat transport by currents of molten lava would be too slow. The phase curve thus favors the scenario with a substantial atmosphere. Our constraints on the heat redistribution efficiency translate to a photosphere pressure of ~1.4 bar. The Spitzer IRAC 2 band is thus a window into the deep atmosphere of the planet 55 Cancri e.

  18. Bayesian inference as a tool for analysis of first-principles calculations of complex materials: an application to the melting point of Ti2GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic implementation of the recently developed Z-method for computing melting points of solids, augmented by a Bayesian analysis of the data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The use of Bayesian inference allows us to extract valuable information from limited data, reducing the computational cost of drawing the isochoric curve. From this Bayesian Z-method we obtain posterior distributions for the melting temperature T m , the critical superheating temperature T LS and the slopes dT/dE of the liquid and solid phases. The method therefore gives full quantification of the errors in the prediction of the melting point. This procedure is applied to the estimation of the melting point of Ti 2 GaN (one of the so-called MAX phases), a complex, laminar material, by density functional theory molecular dynamics, finding an estimate T m of 2591.61 ± 89.61 K, which is in good agreement with melting points of similar ceramics. (paper)

  19. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  20. Semiparametric analysis to estimate the deal effect curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerde, Harald J. van; Leeflang, Peter S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.

    1999-01-01

    The marketing literature suggests several phenomena that may contribute to the shape of the relationship between sales and price discounts. These phenomena can produce severe nonlinearities and interactions in the curves, and we argue that those are best captured with a flexible approach. Since a

  1. Semiparametric analysis to estimate the deal effect curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Heerde, HJ; Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR

    The marketing literature suggests several phenomena that may contribute to the nature of the relationship between sales and price discounts. These phenomena can produce complex nonlinearities and interactions in the deal effect curve that are best captured with a flexible approach. Because a fully

  2. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  3. An algorithm for unified analysis on the thermoluminescence glow curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.; Park, C.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to integrally handle excitation by radiation, relaxation and luminescence by thermal or optical stimulation in thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) processes. This algorithm reflects the mutual interaction between traps through a conduction band. Electrons and holes are created by radiation in the beginning, and these electrons move to the trap through the conduction band. These holes move to the recombination center through a valence band. The ratio of the electrons allocated to each trap differs with the recombination probability and these values also relevant to the process of luminescence. Accordingly, the glow curve can be interpreted by taking the rate of electron–hole pairs created by ionizing radiation as a unique initial condition. This method differs from the conventional method of interpreting the measured glow curve with the initial electron concentration allocated to each trap at the end of irradiation. A program using the Visual Studio's C# subsystem was made to realize such a developed algorithm. To verify this algorithm it was applied to LiF:Mg,Cu,Si. The TL glow curve was deconvoluted with a model of five traps, one deep trap and one recombination center (RC). - Highlights: • TL glow curve deconvolution employing interacting model. • Simulation both irradiation and TL readout stages for various dose level. • Application in the identification TL kinetics of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si TLD

  4. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  5. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Betancourt, M., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  6. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST

  7. Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiss, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The learning curve: implications of a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Charles R; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter

    2004-09-07

    The negatively accelerated, gradually increasing learning curve is an artifact of group averaging in several commonly used basic learning paradigms (pigeon autoshaping, delay- and trace-eye-blink conditioning in the rabbit and rat, autoshaped hopper entry in the rat, plus maze performance in the rat, and water maze performance in the mouse). The learning curves for individual subjects show an abrupt, often step-like increase from the untrained level of responding to the level seen in the well trained subject. The rise is at least as abrupt as that commonly seen in psychometric functions in stimulus detection experiments. It may indicate that the appearance of conditioned behavior is mediated by an evidence-based decision process, as in stimulus detection experiments. If the appearance of conditioned behavior is taken instead to reflect the increase in an underlying associative strength, then a negligible portion of the function relating associative strength to amount of experience is behaviorally visible. Consequently, rate of learning cannot be estimated from the group-average curve; the best measure is latency to the onset of responding, determined for each subject individually.

  9. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1978-01-01

    A new general expression for the theoretical moments Asub(2m) of the light curves of eclipsing systems has been presented in the form of infinite series expansion. In this expansion, the terms have been given as the product of two different polynomials which satisfy certain three-term recursion formulae, and the coefficients diminish rapidly with increasing number of terms. Thus, the numerical values of the theoretical moments Asub(2m) can be generated recursively up to four significant figures for any given set of eclipse elements. This can be utilized to solve the eclipse elements in two ways: (i) with an indirect method, (ii) with a direct method as minimization to the observational moments Asub(2m) (area fitting). The procedures for obtaining the elements of any eclipsing system consisting of spherical stars have been automated by making use of the new expression for the moments Asub(2m) of the light curves. The theoretical functions f 0 , f 2 , f 4 , f 6 , g 2 and g 4 which are the functions of a and c 0 , have been used to solve the eclipse elements from the observed photometric data. The closed-form expressions for the functions f 2 , f 4 and f 6 have also been derived in terms of Kopal's I-integrals. The automated methods for obtaining the eclipse elements from one minimum alone have been tested on the light curves of YZ (21) Cassiopeiae under the spherical model assumptions. The results of these applications are given. (Auth.)

  10. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  11. Multivariate data analysis for finding the relevant fatty acids contributing to the melting fractions of cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    :0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) in milk fat, whereas it decreased the amount of stearic acid (C18:0) and C18:1 trans fatty acid. Average data on the melting behaviour of cream separated the farms into two groups where the main differences in feeding were the amounts of maize silage and rapeseed cake used. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: The melting behaviour and fatty acid composition of cream from a total of 33 cows from four farms were analysed. Multivariate data analysis was used to identify the fatty acids that contributed most to the melting points and to differentiate between creams from different practical...... feeding regimes. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that the melting point of the medium melting fraction of milk fat was positively correlated with palmitic acid (C16:0), whereas it was negatively correlated with oleic acid (C18:1 cis9), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA cis9 trans11), vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans11...

  12. Greenland inland ice melt-off: Analysis of global gravity data from the GRACE satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Svendsen, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an introductory analysis of gravity data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) twin satellites. The data consist of gravity data in the form of 10-day maximum values of 1◦ by 1◦ equivalent water height (EWH) in meters starting at 29 July 2002 and ending at 25...... August 2010. Results focussing on Greenland show statistically significant mass loss interpreted as inland ice melt-off to the SE and NW with an acceleration in the melt-off occurring to the NW and a possible deceleration to the SE. Also, there are strong indications of a transition taking place...

  13. Melt analysis of mismatch amplification mutation assays (Melt-MAMA: a functional study of a cost-effective SNP genotyping assay in bacterial models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn N Birdsell

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA, is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ~50% to ~80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (~100 ng to ~0.1 pg. Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of

  14. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High......-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized...... that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide...

  15. High-resolution melting analysis for detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism and the genotype of the myostatin gene in warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Priscila B S; Garbade, Petra; Natalini, Cláudio C; Pires, Ananda R; Tisotti, Tainor M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a high-resolution melting (HRM) assay to detect the g.66493737C>T polymorphism in the myostatin gene (MSTN) and determine the frequency of 3 previously defined g.66493737 genotypes (T/T, T/C, and C/C) in warmblood horses. SAMPLES Blood samples from 23 horses. PROCEDURES From each blood sample, DNA was extracted and analyzed by standard PCR methods and an HRM assay to determine the MSTN genotype. Three protocols (standard protocol, protocol in which a high-salt solution was added to the reaction mixture before the first melting cycle, and protocol in which an unlabeled probe was added to the reaction mixture before analysis) for the HRM assay were designed and compared. Genotype results determined by the HRM protocol that generated the most consistent melting curves were compared with those determined by sequencing. RESULTS The HRM protocol in which an unlabeled probe was added to the reaction mixture generated the most consistent melting curves. The genotypes of the g.66493737C>T polymorphism were determined for 22 horses (16 by HRM analysis and 20 by sequencing); 14, 7, and 1 had the T/T, T/C, and C/C genotypes, respectively. The genotype determined by HRM analysis agreed with that determined by sequencing for 14 of 16 horses. The frequency of alleles T and C was 79.5% and 20.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM analysis may be a faster and more economical alternative than PCR methods for genotyping. Genotyping results might be useful as predictors of athletic performance for horses.

  16. The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainability: A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhani, Sahbi; Mrizak, Sana; Chaibi, Anissa; Rault, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has represented one of the most important policy goals explored in the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) literature. But related hypotheses, performance measures and results continue to present a challenge. The present paper contributes to this ongoing literature by studying two different EKC specifications for 10 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries over the period 1990–2010 using panel data methods. For the first specification, namely EKC, we show that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between environmental degradation and income; while for the second specification, namely modified EKC (MEKC), we show that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between sustainability and human development (HD). The relationships are shaped by other factors such as energy, trade, manufacture added value and the role of law. More interestingly, findings from the estimation show that EKC hypothesis, HD and sustainability are crucial to build effective environmental policies. - Highlights: • Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and modified EKC models are examined for 10 MENA countries. • We attempt to include energy, trade, human development and sustainability in our approach. • The inverted U-shape relationship is verified for two models. • Human development positively affects the pollution and sustainability level

  17. Usage of energy- dispersial analysis in studying rocks melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudelas Dušan

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available EDS analysis of constituent minerals of nefelitic basanite from locality Konrádovce – lava stream of ceric basalt formation of upper Phocene-Pleistocene age was carried out using the electron microscope JEOL JSM-840 and the energy-dispersive microanalyser KEVEX DELTA+ with MIRROR QUANTEX+ software.Based on the results of EDS microanalysis, the primary rock can be, from the petrographic point of view, described as nefelitic basanite. The following substances were determined in the primer matter and porfiric phenocrysts:- isometric grainsof pyroxene-augite (point A1,- grainsof nepheline-kalsite (point A2,- cryptocrystallic glassy matter (point A3,- grainsof olivine (point A4,- microlite of basic plagioclase (point A5.The energy-dispersive analysis is fast and full spectrum is taken at the same time. In common, a required time is less than one minute. Results of the measurement donot depend significantly on the topography of sample and it is also possible to analyze a rough surface which makes easier the preparation of samples. A very important aspect of the mentioned method is the precision of obtained results in order to identify the chemical composition of analyzed point which, in a subsequent step, allows to determine the type of mineral. EDS is a convenient and powerful supplement of microscopic studies which are, sometime, unable to distinguish exactly the complete composition of the analyzed rocks.

  18. A novel typing method for Listeria monocytogenes using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of tandem repeat regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Iwakawa, Ai; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-07-17

    Listeria monocytogenes, which is responsible for causing food poisoning known as listeriosis, infects humans and animals. Widely distributed in the environment, this bacterium is known to contaminate food products after being transmitted to factories via raw materials. To minimize the contamination of products by food pathogens, it is critical to identify and eliminate factory entry routes and pathways for the causative bacteria. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a method that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequences and PCR product lengths that are reflected by the disassociation temperature. Through our research, we have developed a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) using HRMA as a simple and rapid method to differentiate L. monocytogenes isolates. While evaluating our developed method, the ability of MLVA-HRMA, MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was compared for their ability to discriminate between strains. The MLVA-HRMA method displayed greater discriminatory ability than MLST and MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, suggesting that the variation in the number of repeat units, along with mutations within the DNA sequence, was accurately reflected by the melting curve of HRMA. Rather than relying on DNA sequence analysis or high-resolution electrophoresis, the MLVA-HRMA method employs the same process as PCR until the analysis step, suggesting a combination of speed and simplicity. The result of MLVA-HRMA method is able to be shared between different laboratories. There are high expectations that this method will be adopted for regular inspections at food processing facilities in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Establishment and validation of a dose-effect curve for γ-rays by cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquinero, Joan F.; Caballin, Maria Rosa; Barrios, Leonardo; Ribas, Montserrat; Miro, Rosa; Egozcue, Josep

    1995-01-01

    A dose-effect curve obtained by analysis of dicentric chromosomes after irradiation of peripheral blood samples, from one donor, at 11 different doses of γ-rays is presented. For the elaboration of this curve, more than 18,000 first division metaphases have been analyzed. The results fit very well to the linear-quadratic model. To validate the curve, samples from six individuals (three controls and three occupationally exposed persons) were irradiated at 2 Gy. The results obtained, when compared with the curve, showed that in all cases the 95% confidence interval included the 2 Gy dose, with estimated dose ranges from 1.82 to 2.19 Gy

  20. Curve-of-growth analysis of M-type giants. beta. and. beta. Peg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanni, L.; Kipper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The curve-of-growth analysis is carried out with high-dispersion spectrograms of the region lambda lambda 5050--6150 for two M-type stars ..beta.. And (MOIII) and ..beta.. Peg (M2II-III) by using the newest oscillator strengths available. It has been found that the form of our empirical curve of growth is consistent with that of the theoretical curve by Wrubel. By making use of the data derived from the curve-of-growth analyses, atmospheric parameters such as THETA/sub ex/, rho/sub e/, ..nu../sub t/ and the abundances of the elements have been determined.

  1. Fourier techniques for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves. Pt. 6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1980-01-01

    This is a continuation of a previous paper which appeared in this journal (Demircan, 1980b) and aims at ascertaining some other relations between the integral transforms of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems. The appropriate use of these relations should facilitate the numerical computations for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves by different Fourier techniques. (orig.)

  2. p-y-ẏ curves for dynamic analysis of offshore wind turbine monopile foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A two-dimensional analysis of a monopile segment moving horizontally through saturated soil is analyzed. •A p−y−ẏ curve accounting for the rate of pile motion is proposed as an alternative to static p−y curves. •The stiffness and damping properties related to soil structure interaction...

  3. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  4. Constraints on the Parental Melts of Enriched Shergottites from Image Analysis and High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Peslier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian basalts can be classified in at least two geochemically different families: enriched and depleted shergottites. Enriched shergottites are characterized by higher incompatible element concentrations and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and lower initial Nd-143/Nd-144 and Hf-176/Hf-177 than depleted shergottites [e.g. 1, 2]. It is now generally admitted that shergottites result from the melting of at least two distinct mantle reservoirs [e.g. 2, 3]. Some of the olivine-phyric shergottites (either depleted or enriched), the most magnesian Martian basalts, could represent primitive melts, which are of considerable interest to constrain mantle sources. Two depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789, are in equilibrium with their most magnesian olivine (Fig. 1) and their bulk rock compositions are inferred to represent primitive melts [4, 5]. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 [3, 6, 7] and NWA 1068 [8], the most magnesian enriched basalts, have bulk Mg# that are too high to be in equilibrium with their olivine megacryst cores. Parental melt compositions have been estimated by subtracting the most magnesian olivine from the bulk rock composition, assuming that olivine megacrysts have partially accumulated [3, 9]. However, because this technique does not account for the actual petrography of these meteorites, we used image analysis to study these rocks history, reconstruct their parent magma and understand the nature of olivine megacrysts.

  5. Study on elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, Toshihide; Setoguchi, Katsuya; Yamauchi, Masafumi

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve with an intention to apply this method for predicting the low-cycle fatigue life. Uniaxial plastic cycling tests were performed on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to investigate the correspondence between the cyclic stress-strain curve and the hysteresis loop, and also to determine what mathematical model should be used for analysis of deformation at stress reversal. Furthermore, a cyclic in-plane bending test was performed on a flat plate to clarify the validity of the cyclic stress-strain curve-based theoretical analysis. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The cyclic stress-strain curve corresponds nearly to the ascending curve of hysteresis loop scaled by a factor of 1/2 for both stress and strain. Therefore, the cyclic stress-strain curve can be determined from the shape of hysteresis loop, for simplicity. (2) To perform the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using the cyclic stress-strain curve is both practical and effective for predicting the cyclic elastic-plastic deformation of structures at the stage of advanced cycles. And Masing model can serve as a suitable mathematical model for such a deformation analysis. (author)

  6. Effect Of Turbulence Modelling In Numerical Analysis Of Melting Process In An Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliński P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the velocity field and turbulence effects that occur inside a crucible of a typical induction furnace were investigated. In the first part of this work, a free surface shape of the liquid metal was measured in a ceramic crucible. Then a numerical model of aluminium melting process was developed. It took into account coupling of electromagnetic and thermofluid fields that was performed using commercial codes. In the next step, the sensitivity analysis of turbulence modelling in the liquid domain was performed. The obtained numerical results were compared with the measurement data. The performed analysis can be treated as a preliminary approach for more complex mathematical modelling for the melting process optimisation in crucible induction furnaces of different types.

  7. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  8. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  9. Downstream processing from melt granulation towards tablets: In-depth analysis of a continuous twin-screw melt granulation process using polymeric binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpré, W; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C

    2018-03-01

    The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG. A first part of the study dealt with the screening of various amorphous polymers as binder for producing high-dosed melt granules of two model drug (i.e. acetaminophen and hydrochlorothiazide). The second part of this study described a quality-by-design (QbD) approach for melt granulation of hydrochlorothiazide in order to thoroughly evaluate TSMG, milling and tableting stage of the continuous TSMG line. Using amorphous polymeric binders resulted in melt granules with high milling efficiency due to their brittle behaviour without producing excessive amounts of fines, providing high granule yields with low friability. Therefore, it makes them extremely suitable for further downstream processing. One of the most important CPP during TSMG with polymeric binders was the granulation-torque, which - in case of polymers with high T g - increased during longer granulation runs to critical levels endangering the continuous process flow. However, by optimizing both screw speed and throughput or changing to polymeric binders with lower T g it was possible to significantly reduce this risk. This research paper highlighted that TSMG must be considered as a viable option during formulation development of solid oral dosage forms based on the robustness of the CQA of both melt granules and tablets. Copyright © 2017

  10. Numerical analysis of the heating phase and densification mechanism in polymers selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrane, Aoulaiche; Boutaous, M'hamed; Xin, Shihe

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work is to address a modeling of the SLS process at the scale of the part in PA12 polymer powder bed. The powder bed is considered as a continuous medium with homogenized properties, meanwhile understanding multiple physical phenomena occurring during the process and studying the influence of process parameters on the quality of final product. A thermal model, based on enthalpy approach, will be presented with details on the multiphysical couplings that allow the thermal history: laser absorption, melting, coalescence, densification, volume shrinkage and on numerical implementation using FV method. The simulations were carried out in 3D with an in-house developed FORTRAN code. After validation of the model with comparison to results from literature, a parametric analysis will be proposed. Some original results as densification process and the thermal history with the evolution of the material, from the granular solid state to homogeneous melted state will be discussed with regards to the involved physical phenomena.

  11. Analysis and Design of Stimulus Response Curves of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kremling

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism and signalling are tightly coupled in bacteria. Combining several theoretical approaches, a core model is presented that describes transcriptional and allosteric control of glycolysis in Escherichia coli. Experimental data based on microarrays, signalling components and extracellular metabolites are used to estimate kinetic parameters. A newly designed strain was used that adjusts the incoming glucose flux into the system and allows a kinetic analysis. Based on the results, prediction for intracelluar metabolite concentrations over a broad range of the growth rate could be performed and compared with data from literature.

  12. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1 gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01. In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays.

  13. A method of non-destructive quantitative analysis of the ancient ceramics with curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wenquan; Xiong Yingfei

    2002-01-01

    Generally the surface of the sample should be smooth and flat in XRF analysis, but the ancient ceramics and hardly match this condition. Two simple methods are put forward in fundamental method and empirical correction method of XRF analysis, so the analysis of little sample or the sample with curved surface can be easily completed

  14. First report of Tasmanian sheep strain (G2) genotype isolated from Iranian goat using the high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad; Mohag Hegh, Mohammad Ali; Pestechian, Nader; Ganji, Maryam; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mahmoudi Lamouki, Reza; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate E. granulosus genotypes isolated from goats using HRM analysis in Isfahan province. Cystic echincoccosis, so-called hydatidosis, is widespread infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus . This is an important zoonotic disease worldwide, especially in the developing countries such as Iran. To date, molecular studies mainly based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified distinct genotypes termed G1-G10 which can differ in some characteristics such as the growth and infectivity to different intermediate hosts or the survival rate in the definitive hosts that are important for the development of control strategies. From August to December 2014, 1341 goats were investigated and hydatid cysts were collected from the liver and lungs of 43 infected goats in Isfahan province abattoirs, Isfahan, Iran. Total genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, amplified for the presence of polymorphism of mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), using high resolution melting curve (HRM) method. the results of HRM analysis using the sequence of CO1 gene for 43 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from goats showed 31, 2 and 10 isolates were identified as G1, G2, and G3 genotypes, respectively. G1 is the predominant genotype in the isolated goat samples in Isfahan province, and the presence of G2 strain was reported for the first time in goat in Iran.

  15. Integrated System of Thermal/Dimensional Analysis for Quality Control of Metallic Melt and Ductile Iron Casting Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Stelian; Chisamera, Mihai; Riposan, Iulian; Neacsu, Loredana; Cojocaru, Ana Maria; Stan, Iuliana

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to introduce a specific experimental instrument and technique for simultaneously evaluating cooling curves and expansion or contraction of cast metals during solidification. Contraction/expansion analysis illustrates the solidification parameters progression, according to the molten cast iron characteristics, which are dependent on the melting procedure and applied metallurgical treatments, mold media rigidity and thermal behavior [heat transfer parameters]. The first part of the paper summarizes the performance of this two-mold device. Its function is illustrated by representative shrinkage tendency results in ductile cast iron as affected by mold rigidity (green sand and furan resin sand molds) and inoculant type (FeSi-based alloys), published in part previously. The second part of the paper illustrates an application of this equipment adapted for commercial foundry use. It conducts thermal analysis and volume change measurements in a single ceramic cup so that mold media as well as solidification conditions are constants, with cast iron quality as the variable. Experiments compared gray and ductile cast iron solidification patterns. Gray iron castings are characterized by higher undercooling at the beginning and at the end of solidification and lower graphitic expansion. Typically, ductile cast iron exhibits higher graphitic, initial expansion, conducive for shrinkage formation in soft molds.

  16. Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošt'áková, Zuzana; Rosipal, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects' age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

  17. Identification and Differentiation of Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Pome and Stone Fruit using High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasileiou, Antonios; Madesis, Panagiotis B; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2016-09-01

    Brown rot is a devastating disease of stone fruit caused by Monilinia spp. Among these species, Monilinia fructicola is a quarantine pathogen in Europe but has recently been detected in several European countries. Identification of brown rot agents relies on morphological differences or use of molecular methods requiring fungal isolation. The current study was initiated to develop and validate a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the identification of the Monilinia spp. and for the detection of M. fructicola among other brown rot pathogens. Based on the sequence of the cytb intron from M. laxa, M. fructicola, M. fructigena, M. mumecola, M. linhartiana, and M. yunnanensis isolates originating from several countries, a pair of universal primers for species identification and a pair of primers specific to M. fructicola were designed. The specificity of the primers was verified to ensure against cross-reaction with other fungal species. The melting curve analysis using the universal primers generated six different HRM curve profiles, each one specific for each species. Τhe HRM analysis primers specific to M. fructicola amplified a 120-bp region with a distinct melt profile corresponding to the presence of M. fructicola, regardless of the presence of other species. HRM analysis can be a useful tool for rapid identification and differentiation of the six Monilinia spp. using a single primer pair. This novel assay has the potential for simultaneous identification and differentiation of the closely related Monilinia spp. as well as for the differentiation of M. fructicola from other common pathogens or saprophytes that may occur on the diseased fruit.

  18. Methodology of demand forecast by market analysis of electric power and load curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, C.J.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for demand forecast of consumer classes and their aggregation is presented. An analysis of the actual attended market can be done by appropriate measures and load curves studies. The suppositions for the future market behaviour by consumer classes (industrial, residential, commercial, others) are shown, and the actions for optimise this market are foreseen, obtained by load curves modulations. The process of future demand determination is obtained by the appropriate aggregation of this segmented demands. (C.G.C.)

  19. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT-CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHK s SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(M J ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(M H ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(M Ks ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms -1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  20. The system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb2Ln composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalova, M.A.; Chamanova, M.; Dodkhoev, E.S.; Badalov, A.; Abdusalyamova, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb 2 Ln composition. The melting enthalpy was estimated. The temperature value was determined.

  1. A phenomenological analysis of melt progression in the lower head of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M., E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tourniaire, B. [EDF/Septen, Lyon (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We propose a phenomenological description of melt progression into the lower head. • We examine changes in heat loads on the vessel. • Heat loads are more severe than emphasized by the bounding situation assumption. • Both primary circuit and ex-vessel reflooding are necessary for in-vessel retention. • Vessel failure conditions are examined. - Abstract: The analysis of in-vessel corium cooling (IVC) and retention (IVR) involves the description of very complex and transient physical phenomena. To get round this difficulty, “bounding” situations are often emphasized for the demonstration of corium coolability, by vessel flooding and/or by reactor pit flooding. This approach however comes up against its own limitations. More realistic melt progression scenarios are required to provide plausible corium configurations and vessel failure conditions. Work to develop more realistic melt progression scenarios has been done at CEA, in collaboration with EDF. Development has concentrated on the French 1300 MWe PWR, considering both dry scenarios and the possibility of flooding of the RPC (reactor primary circuit) and/or the reactor pit. The models used for this approach have been derived from the analysis of the TMI2 accident and take benefit from the lessons derived from several programs related to pool thermal hydraulics (BALI, COPO, ACOPO, etc.), material interactions (RASPLAV, MASCA), critical heat flux (CHF) on the external surface of the vessel (KAIST, SULTAN, ULPU), etc. Important conclusions of this work are as follows: (a)After the start of corium melting and onset of melt formation in the core at low pressure (∼1 to 5 bars), it seems questionable that RPV (reactor pressure vessel) reflooding alone would be sufficient to achieve corium retention in the vessel; (b)If the vessel is not cooled externally, it may fail due to local heat-up before the whole core fuel inventory is relocated in the lower head; (c)Even if the vessel is

  2. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  3. Fitness analysis method for magnesium in drinking water with atomic absorption using quadratic curve calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez-López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of quantitative chemical analysis in research, quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest , and the limiting of some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve, sometimes because the short linear dynamic ranges of the analyte, and sometimes by limiting the technique itself, is that there is a need to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic curves for analytical quantification, which seeks demonstrate that it is a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. To this was taken as an analysis method based on the technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy in particular a determination of magnesium in a sample of drinking water Tacares sector Northern Grecia, employing a nonlinear calibration curve and a curve specific quadratic behavior, which was compared with the test results obtained for the same analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results show that the methodology is valid for the determination referred to, with all confidence, since the concentrations are very similar, and as used hypothesis testing can be considered equal.

  4. Characterization of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves Using Principal Component Analysis of Sparse Functional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiyuan; Wang, Lifan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2018-04-01

    With growing data from ongoing and future supernova surveys, it is possible to empirically quantify the shapes of SNIa light curves in more detail, and to quantitatively relate the shape parameters with the intrinsic properties of SNIa. Building such relationships is critical in controlling systematic errors associated with supernova cosmology. Based on a collection of well-observed SNIa samples accumulated in the past years, we construct an empirical SNIa light curve model using a statistical method called the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for sparse and irregularly sampled functional data. Using this method, the entire light curve of an SNIa is represented by a linear combination of principal component functions, and the SNIa is represented by a few numbers called “principal component scores.” These scores are used to establish relations between light curve shapes and physical quantities such as intrinsic color, interstellar dust reddening, spectral line strength, and spectral classes. These relations allow for descriptions of some critical physical quantities based purely on light curve shape parameters. Our study shows that some important spectral feature information is being encoded in the broad band light curves; for instance, we find that the light curve shapes are correlated with the velocity and velocity gradient of the Si II λ6355 line. This is important for supernova surveys (e.g., LSST and WFIRST). Moreover, the FPCA light curve model is used to construct the entire light curve shape, which in turn is used in a functional linear form to adjust intrinsic luminosity when fitting distance models.

  5. Thermal analysis as an aid to forensics: Alkane melting and oxidative stability of wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan Riga, D.

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary methods and thermal analytical techniques in particular are effective tools in aiding the identification and characterization of materials in question involved in civil or criminal law. Forensic material science uses systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through analysis, observation and experimentation. Thermal analytical data can be used to aid the legal system in interpreting technical variations in quite often a complex system.Calorimetry and thermal microscopic methods helped define a commercial product composed of alkanes that was involved in a major law suit. The solid-state structures of a number of normal alkanes have unique crystal structures. These alkanes melt and freeze below room temperature to more than 60C below zero. Mixtures of specific alkanes have attributes of pure chemicals. The X-ray diffraction structure of a mixture of alkanes is the same as a pure alkane, but the melting and freezing temperature are significantly lower than predicted. The jury ruled that the product containing n-alkanes had the appropriate melting characteristics. The thermal-physical properties made a commercial fluid truly unique and there was no advertising infringement according to the law and the jury trialA combination of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and macrophotography were used to conduct an extensive modeling and analysis of physical evidence obtained in a mobile home fire and explosion. A person's death was allegedly linked to the misuse of a kerosene space heater. The thermal analytical techniques showed that external heating was the cause of the space heater's deformation, not a firing of the heater with gasoline and kerosene. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Thermal analysis as an aid to forensics: Alkane melting and oxidative stability of wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Riga, D. [Professor of Chemistry, Cleveland State University and TechCon Inc., 6325 Aldenham Dr., Cleveland, OH 44143-3331 (United States)

    1998-12-21

    Interdisciplinary methods and thermal analytical techniques in particular are effective tools in aiding the identification and characterization of materials in question involved in civil or criminal law. Forensic material science uses systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through analysis, observation and experimentation. Thermal analytical data can be used to aid the legal system in interpreting technical variations in quite often a complex system.Calorimetry and thermal microscopic methods helped define a commercial product composed of alkanes that was involved in a major law suit. The solid-state structures of a number of normal alkanes have unique crystal structures. These alkanes melt and freeze below room temperature to more than 60C below zero. Mixtures of specific alkanes have attributes of pure chemicals. The X-ray diffraction structure of a mixture of alkanes is the same as a pure alkane, but the melting and freezing temperature are significantly lower than predicted. The jury ruled that the product containing n-alkanes had the appropriate melting characteristics. The thermal-physical properties made a commercial fluid truly unique and there was no advertising infringement according to the law and the jury trialA combination of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and macrophotography were used to conduct an extensive modeling and analysis of physical evidence obtained in a mobile home fire and explosion. A person's death was allegedly linked to the misuse of a kerosene space heater. The thermal analytical techniques showed that external heating was the cause of the space heater's deformation, not a firing of the heater with gasoline and kerosene. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Analysis of soft wall AdS/QCD potentials to obtain the melting temperature of scalar hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Alfredo; Ibanez, Adolfo [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We consider an analysis of potentials related to Schroedinger-type equations for scalar fields in a 5D AdS black hole background with dilaton in order to obtain melting temperatures for different hadrons in a thermal bath. The approach does not consider calculations of spectral functions, and it is easy to yield results for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. We present results for scalar mesons, glueballs, hybrid mesons and tetraquarks, and we show that mesons are more resistant to being melted in a thermal bath than other scalar hadrons, and in general the melting temperature increases when hadrons contain heavy quarks. (orig.)

  8. Melted Paraffin Wax as an Innovative Liquid and Solid Extractant for Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papai, Rodrigo; Sato, Roseli Hiromi; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Krug, Francisco José; Gaubeur, Ivanise

    2017-03-07

    This work proposes a new development in the use of melted paraffin wax as a new extractant in a procedure designed to aggregate the advantages of liquid phase extraction (extract homogeneity, fast, and efficient transfer, low cost and simplicity) to solid phase extraction. As proof of concept, copper(II) in aqueous samples was converted into a hydrophobic complex of copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate and subsequently extracted into paraffin wax. Parameters which affect the complexation and extraction (pH, DDTC, and Triton X-100 concentration, vortex agitation time and complexation time) were optimized in a univariate way. The combination of the extraction proposed procedure with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allowed the precise copper determination (coefficient of variation = 3.1%, n = 10) and enhanced detectability because of the concentration factor of 18 times. A calibration curve was obtained with a linear range of 0.50-10.00 mg L -1 (R 2 = 0.9990, n = 7), LOD = 0.12 mg L -1 , and LOQ = 0.38 mg L -1 under optimized conditions. An extraction procedure efficiency of 94% was obtained. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the analysis of a reference material of human blood serum, by the spike and recovery trials with seawater, tap water, mineral water, and alcoholic beverages and by comparing with those results obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia-derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook Jin; Yang, Sungyu; Choi, Goya; Moon, Byeong Cheol

    2017-11-07

    Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales) is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra) and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia -derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  11. Analysis of a Lennard-Jones fcc structure melting to the corresponding frozen liquid: Differences between the bulk and the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivi-Tran, N.; Faivre, A.

    2009-01-01

    We computed a Lennard-Jones frozen liquid with a free surface using classical molecular dynamics. The structure factor curves on the free surface of this sample were calculated for different depths knowing that we have periodic boundary conditions on the other parts of the sample. The resulting structure factor curves show an horizontal shift of their first peak depending on how deep in the sample the curves are computed. We analyze our resulting curves in the light of spatial correlation functions during melting. The conclusion is that the differences between bulk and surface are quite small during melting and that at the end of melting, only the very surface happens to be less dense than the bulk. This result is intrinsic to the shape of the Lennard-Jones potential and does not depend on any other parameter.

  12. Numerical analysis of melting/solidification phenomena using a moving boundary problem analysis method X-FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    A numerical analysis method for melting/solidification phenomena has been developed to evaluate a feasibility of several candidate techniques in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our method is based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) which has been used for moving boundary problems. Key technique of the X-FEM is to incorporate signed distance function into finite element interpolation to represent a discontinuous gradient of the temperature at a moving solid-liquid interface. Construction of the finite element equation, the technique of quadrature and the method to solve the equation are reported here. The numerical solutions of the one-dimensional Stefan problem, solidification in a two-dimensional square corner and melting of pure gallium are compared to the exact solutions or to the experimental data. Through these analyses, validity of the newly developed numerical analysis method has been demonstrated. (author)

  13. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  14. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-01-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh

  15. Origin of migmatites by deformation-enhanced melt infiltration of orthogneiss: a new model based on quantitative microstructural analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasalová, P.; Schulmann, K.; Lexa, O.; Štípská, P.; Hrouda, F.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Haloda, J.; Týcová, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2008), s. 29-53 ISSN 0263-4929 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3111401; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/2065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : crystal size distribution * melt infiltration * melt topology * migmatites * quantitative textural analysis Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2008

  16. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  17. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  18. A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) method for WinREMS thermoluminescent dosimeter data using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, John A.; Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2011-01-01

    A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) program for handling of thermoluminescence data originating from WinREMS is presented. The MATLAB program fits the glow peaks using the first-order kinetics model. Tested materials are LiF:Mg,Ti, CaF 2 :Dy, CaF 2 :Tm, CaF 2 :Mn, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaSO 4 :Dy, with most having an average figure of merit (FOM) of 1.3% or less, with CaSO 4 :Dy 2.2% or less. Output is a list of fit parameters, peak areas, and graphs for each fit, evaluating each glow curve in 1.5 s or less. - Highlights: → Robust algorithm for performing thermoluminescent dosimeter glow curve analysis. → Written in MATLAB so readily implemented on variety of computers. → Usage of figure of merit demonstrated for six different materials.

  19. Diagnosis of genetic predisposition for lactose intolerance by high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Hervé; Leduc, Amandine; Louçano-Perdriat, Andréa; Plantamura, Julie; Ceppa, Franck

    2017-02-01

    Lactose, the principle sugar in milk, is a disaccharide hydrolyzed by intestinal lactase into glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly by diffusion in the intestine. The decline of lactase expression (or hypolactasia) in intestinal microvilli after weaning is a normal phenomenon in mammals known as lactase deficiency. It is observed in nearly 75% of the world population and is an inherited autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance. It is caused by SNPs in a regulatory element for lactase gene. In Indo-European, lactase deficiency is associated with rs4982235 SNP (or -13910C>T). The aim of this study is to describe a method based on high resolution melting for rapidly detecting genetic predisposition to lactose intolerance. Analytical performance of the assay was assessed by evaluating within and betwwen-run precision and by comparing the results (n = 50 patients) obtained with the HRM assay to those obtained with the gold standard (Sanger sequencing of the region of interest). In silico prediction of HRM curves was performed to evaluate the potential impact of the other SNPs described within the PCR product on the HRM analytical performances. The assay has good performance (CV lactose intolerance.

  20. A retrospective analysis of compact fluorescent lamp experience curves and their correlations to deployment programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah Josephine; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Experience curves are useful for understanding technology development and can aid in the design and analysis of market transformation programs. Here, we employ a novel approach to create experience curves, to examine both global and North American compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) data for the years 1990–2007. We move away from the prevailing method of fitting a single, constant, exponential curve to data and instead search for break points where changes in the learning rate may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a learning rate of approximately 21% for the period of 1990–1997, and 51% and 79% in global and North American datasets, respectively, after 1998. We use price data for this analysis; therefore our learning rates encompass developments beyond typical “learning by doing”, including supply chain impacts such as market competition. We examine correlations between North American learning rates and the initiation of new programs, abrupt technological advances, and economic and political events, and find an increased learning rate associated with design advancements and federal standards programs. Our findings support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective technology analysis, and may imply that investments in technology programs have contributed to an increase of the CFL learning rate. - Highlights: • We develop a segmented regression technique to estimate historical CFL learning curves. • CFL experience curves do not have a constant learning rate. • CFLs exhibited a learning rate of approximately 21% from 1990 to 1997. • The CFL learning rate significantly increased after 1998. • Increased CFL learning rate is correlated to technology deployment programs.

  1. Electrochemistry of uranium in sodium chloroaluminate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'olieslager, W.; Meuris, F.; Heerman, L.

    1990-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in basic, NaCl-saturated NaAlCl 4 melts at 175 deg C. Solutions of UO 3 exhibit two oxidation/reduction waves (cyclic voltammetry). Analysis of the peak currents (cyclic voltammetry), the limiting currents (pulse polarography) and the non-linear log i-t curves (anodic controlled potential coulometry) leads to the conclusion that uranium(IV) in the basic chloroaluminate melt exists as two different species in slow equilibrium with one another, of which only one species can be oxidized to U(VI). (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Numerical analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves; Analisis numerico de las cruvas de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Ros, J M; Delgado, A

    1989-07-01

    This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs.

  3. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  4. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  5. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of grain refiner, modifier, and combination of grain refiner cum modifier was studied on Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys using computer aided cooling curve analysis. For combined grain refinement and modification effect, Al-Ti-B-Sr single master alloy was developed that acted as both grain refiner and modifier.

  6. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  7. The spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi, Yasser; Fooladi, Saba; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Emaneini, Mohammad; Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Davood

    2017-09-06

    Molecular typing is an important tool for control and prevention of infection. A suitable molecular typing method for epidemiological investigation must be easy to perform, highly reproducible, inexpensive, rapid and easy to interpret. In this study, two molecular typing methods including the conventional PCR-sequencing method and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis were used for staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing of 30 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered from clinical samples. Based on PCR-sequencing method results, 16 different spa types were identified among the 30 MRSA isolates. Among the 16 different spa types, 14 spa types separated by HRM method. Two spa types including t4718 and t2894 were not separated from each other. According to our results, spa typing based on HRM analysis method is very rapid, easy to perform and cost-effective, but this method must be standardized for different regions, spa types, and real-time machinery.

  8. Light curve analysis of the late type binary V523 Cassiopeiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of V and R light curves of the late type contact binary V523 Cas for the season of 2006. These observations make part of the monitoring program aimed at studying the long-term light curve variability in this system. Our results confirm that the system is in an over contact configuration, and include a bright spot in the neck region of the cooler and larger primary. We compare these results with the previous solution, obtained for the season 2005 dataset and discuss the differences.

  9. IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David, E-mail: kamil.danek@utf.mff.cuni.cz, E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-10

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  11. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon...... and of a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented......, it is shown that the coupling forces exchanged by the wagons significantly affect their dynamics in a curve, reducing the amplitude of vibration....

  12. Analysis of the radial distribution curves of partially ordered condensed carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatnik, L.S.; Derevyanchenko, A.S.; Nechitajlo, A.A.; Stetsenko, A.N.; Gorbenko, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    The Fourier analysis of the electron scattering curves has been carried out to determine the short-range order structure of carbon condensates. The intensity curves for carbon films condensed in a approximately 10 -6 Torr vacuum upon a substrate heated up to 600 deg C were obtained by diffraction techniques with filtration of the inelastic scattered electron background. The radial distribution curve errors were analyzed and quantified with the aid of a computer to determine the short-range order of the condensed carbon. It has been shown that carbon films consist of regions measuring approximately 20 A formed by parallelly packed graphite nets with azimuthal orientation different from that in ideal graphite crystals

  13. A semi-analytical three-dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded curved panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedinejad, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Persian Gulf University Boulevard, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farid, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5285 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory, free vibration analysis of functionally graded (FG) curved thick panels under various boundary conditions is studied. Panel with two opposite edges simply supported and arbitrary boundary conditions at the other edges are considered. Two different models of material properties variations based on the power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents and the exponential distribution of the material properties through the thickness are considered. Differential quadrature method in conjunction with the trigonometric functions is used to discretize the governing equations. With a continuous material properties variation assumption through the thickness of the curved panel, differential quadrature method is efficiently used to discretize the governing equations and to implement the related boundary conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the curved panel and in strong form. The convergence of the method is demonstrated and to validate the results, comparisons are made with the solutions for isotropic and FG curved panels. By examining the results of thick FG curved panels for various geometrical and material parameters and subjected to different boundary conditions, the influence of these parameters and in particular, those due to functionally graded material parameters are studied.

  14. Study on characteristic points of boiling curve by using wavelet analysis and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huiming; Su Guanghui; Qiu Suizheng; Yang Xingbo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the wavelet analysis theory of signal singularity detection,the critical heat flux (CHF) and minimum film boiling starting point (q min ) of boiling curves can be detected and analyzed by using the wavelet multi-resolution analysis. To predict the CHF in engineering, empirical relations were obtained based on genetic algorithm. The results of wavelet detection and genetic algorithm prediction are consistent with experimental data very well. (authors)

  15. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  16. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  17. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  18. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  19. Relationship between the curve of Spee and craniofacial variables: A regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this regression analysis was to identify the determining factors, which impact the curve of Spee during its genesis, its therapeutic reconstruction, and its stability, within a continuously evolving craniofacial morphology throughout life. We selected a total of 107 patients, according to the inclusion criteria. A morphological and functional clinical examination was performed for each patient: plaster models, tracing of the curve of Spee, crowding, Angle's classification, overjet and overbite were thus recorded. Then, we made a cephalometric analysis based on the standardized lateral cephalograms. In the sagittal dimension, we measured the values of angles ANB, SNA, SNB, SND, I/i; and the following distances: AoBo, I/NA, i/NB, SE and SL. In the vertical dimension, we measured the values of angles FMA, GoGn/SN, the occlusal plane, and the following distances: SAr, ArD, Ar/Con, Con/Gn, GoPo, HFP, HFA and IF. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software with a significance level of 0.05. Our sample including 107 subjects was composed of 77 female patients (71.3%) and 30 male patients (27.8%) 7 hypodivergent patients (6.5%), 56 hyperdivergent patients (52.3%) and 44 normodivergent patients (41.1%). Patients' mean age was 19.35±5.95 years. The hypodivergent patients presented more pronounced curves of Spee compared to the normodivergent and the hyperdivergent populations; patients in skeletal Class I presented less pronounced curves of Spee compared to patients in skeletal Class II and Class III. These differences were non significant (P>0.05). The curve of Spee was positively and moderately correlated with Angle's classification, overjet, overbite, sellion-articulare distance, and breathing type (P0.05). Seventy five percent (75%) of the hyperdivergent patients with an oral breathing presented an overbite of 3mm, which is quite excessive given the characteristics often admitted for this typology; this parameter could explain the overbite

  20. Analysis of the deconvolution of the thermoluminescent curve of the zirconium oxide doped with graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas C, P.; Estrada G, R.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Mendoza A, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical analysis of the behavior of the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) induced by gamma radiation in samples made of zirconium oxide doped with different amounts of graphite. In accordance with the results gamma radiation induces a Tl curve with two maximum of emission localized in the temperatures at 139 and 250 C, the area under the curve is increasing as a function of the time of exposition to the radiation. The analysis of curve deconvolution, in accordance with the theory which indicates that this behavior must be obey a Boltzmann distribution, we found that each one of them has a different growth velocity as the time of exposition increase. In the same way, we observed that after the irradiation was suspended each one of the maximum decrease with different velocity. The behaviour observed in the samples is very interesting because the zirconium oxide has attracted the interest of many research groups, this material has demonstrated to have many applications in thermoluminescent dosimetry and it can be used in the quantification of radiation. (Author)

  1. Ex-Vessel Steam Explosion Analysis of Central Melt Pour Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursic, M.; Leskovar, M.

    2008-01-01

    gained at 2 bar primary system overpressure and water sub-cooling of 50 degree C. The purpose of the work presented in the paper is to perform a detailed analysis of the central melt pour scenario at 2 bar primary system overpressure and water sub-cooling of 50 degree C, where the strongest steam explosion occurred. The steam explosion analysis will be performed with the computer code MC3D, which is build mainly for the simulation of the complex FCI phenomena. The MC3D is being developed by IRSN, France. The reasons for the obtained so high pressure loads during the steam explosion in the selected scenario will be highlighted and discussed in details.(author)

  2. Design and analysis of high current DC power supply for vacuum arc melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Santu; Sharma, Vishnu Kumar; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum Arc furnace (VAR), is used for melting of ingot in many industrial units. Till now in many industries the existing power supply for VAR is based on magnetic amplifier, which is a lossy component. Thus an efficient topology is needed to develop as a suitable alternative for the existing power supply. Basically Arc in electrical furnace is an unstable phenomena, it has drooping characteristic in nature so to stabilize the arc we need a power supply across the load (arc), which is more drooping in nature than arc characteristics. So this paper highlights the stability and response analysis of several alternative topologies and Stabilization of arc using the feedback and firing angle control in MATLAB. The work also covers comparison among those topologies to choose the optimized topology as a suitable alternative of the existing magnetic amplifier based power supply and the detail design of the proposed topology with a tested trail circuit in PROTEUS. (author)

  3. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Genome-wide SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa using 454 sequencing and high resolution melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Patrick X

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common type of sequence variation among plants and are often functionally important. We describe the use of 454 technology and high resolution melting analysis (HRM for high throughput SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a species with high economic value but limited genomic resources. Results The alfalfa genotypes selected from M. sativa subsp. sativa var. 'Chilean' and M. sativa subsp. falcata var. 'Wisfal', which differ in water stress sensitivity, were used to prepare cDNA from tissue of clonally-propagated plants grown under either well-watered or water-stressed conditions, and then pooled for 454 sequencing. Based on 125.2 Mb of raw sequence, a total of 54,216 unique sequences were obtained including 24,144 tentative consensus (TCs sequences and 30,072 singletons, ranging from 100 bp to 6,662 bp in length, with an average length of 541 bp. We identified 40,661 candidate SNPs distributed throughout the genome. A sample of candidate SNPs were evaluated and validated using high resolution melting (HRM analysis. A total of 3,491 TCs harboring 20,270 candidate SNPs were located on the M. truncatula (MT 3.5.1 chromosomes. Gene Ontology assignments indicate that sequences obtained cover a broad range of GO categories. Conclusions We describe an efficient method to identify thousands of SNPs distributed throughout the alfalfa genome covering a broad range of GO categories. Validated SNPs represent valuable molecular marker resources that can be used to enhance marker density in linkage maps, identify potential factors involved in heterosis and genetic variation, and as tools for association mapping and genomic selection in alfalfa.

  5. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  6. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  7. GEOMETRIC COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS IN AN INTEGRATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION MODEL (ITEM FOR SELECTIVE LASER MELTING (SLM#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Merkt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Selective laser melting (SLM is becoming an economically viable choice for manufacturing complex serial parts. This paper focuses on a geometric complexity analysis as part of the integrative technology evaluation model (ITEM presented here. In contrast to conventional evaluation methodologies, the ITEM considers interactions between product and process innovations generated by SLM. The evaluation of manufacturing processes that compete with SLM is the main goal of ITEM. The paper includes a complexity analysis of a test part from Festo AG. The paper closes with a discussion of how the expanded design freedom of SLM can be used to improve company operations, and how the complexity analysis presented here can be seen as a starting point for feature-based complexity analysis..

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Selektiewe lasersmelting word geleidelik ’n gangbare ekonomiese keuse vir die vervaar-diging van opeenvolgende komplekse onderdele. Die navorsing is toegespits op die ontleding van meetkundige kompleksiteit as ’n gedeelte van ’n integrerende tegnologiese evalueringsmodel. Gemeet teen konvensionele evalueringsmodelle behandel die genoemde metode interaksies tussen produkte- en prosesinnovasies wat gegenereer word. Die navorsing behandel ’n kompleksiteitsontleding van ’n toetsonderdeel van die firma FESTO AG. Die resultaat toon hoe kompleksiteits-analise gebruik kan word as die vertrekpunt vir eienskapsgebaseerde analise.

  8. DETERMINATION ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE REGIMES, FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SLIDING CURVES OF A HYDRODYNAMIC CLUTCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar V Krstić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of output quality of power transmitters is possible in position when characteristics are determined earlier. This is the reason why we focused on determination of these characteristics for a concrete power hydro-transmitter. This means that the investigation task primarily consisted of determination of functional characteristics, defining of the sliding curves and temperature regimes of a concrete hydrodynamic clutch. Results of velocity and pressure field investigations in the working space of this clutch, obtained by use of the same test setup, are the basis for determination and analysis of the functional characteristics, sliding curves and temperature regimes. In this work we also analyzed function of the hydrodynamic transmitter in assembly with an internal combustion engine, as well as a process of acceleration and deceleration of a vehicle with this assembly in it.

  9. Maximum likelihood fitting of FROC curves under an initial-detection-and-candidate-analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Darrin C.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Metz, Charles E.; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model for FROC curve fitting that relates the observer's FROC performance not to the ROC performance that would be obtained if the observer's responses were scored on a per image basis, but rather to a hypothesized ROC performance that the observer would obtain in the task of classifying a set of 'candidate detections' as positive or negative. We adopt the assumptions of the Bunch FROC model, namely that the observer's detections are all mutually independent, as well as assumptions qualitatively similar to, but different in nature from, those made by Chakraborty in his AFROC scoring methodology. Under the assumptions of our model, we show that the observer's FROC performance is a linearly scaled version of the candidate analysis ROC curve, where the scaling factors are just given by the FROC operating point coordinates for detecting initial candidates. Further, we show that the likelihood function of the model parameters given observational data takes on a simple form, and we develop a maximum likelihood method for fitting a FROC curve to this data. FROC and AFROC curves are produced for computer vision observer datasets and compared with the results of the AFROC scoring method. Although developed primarily with computer vision schemes in mind, we hope that the methodology presented here will prove worthy of further study in other applications as well

  10. Analysis of axisymmetric shells subjected to asymmetric loads using field consistent shear flexible curved element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, C; Sarma, B S [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    1989-02-01

    A formulation for axisymmetric shell analysis under asymmetric load based on Fourier series representation and using field consistent 3 noded curved axisymmetric shell element is presented. Different field inconsistent/consistent interpolations for an element based on shear flexible theory have been studied for thick and thin shells under asymmetric loads. Various examples covering axisymmetric as well as asymmetric loading cases have been analyzed and numerical results show a good agreement with the available results in the case of thin shells. 12 refs.

  11. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  12. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Deliano

    Full Text Available Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning.

  13. The Use of Statistically Based Rolling Supply Curves for Electricity Market Analysis: A Preliminary Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Larson, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ben [U.S. Department of Energy; Spitsen, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-03-27

    In light of the changing electricity resource mixes across the United States, an important question in electricity modeling is how additions and retirements of generation, including additions in variable renewable energy (VRE) generation could impact markets by changing hourly wholesale energy prices. Instead of using resource-intensive production cost models (PCMs) or building and using simple generator supply curves, this analysis uses a 'top-down' approach based on regression analysis of hourly historical energy and load data to estimate the impact of supply changes on wholesale electricity prices, provided the changes are not so substantial that they fundamentally alter the market and dispatch-order driven behavior of non-retiring units. The rolling supply curve (RSC) method used in this report estimates the shape of the supply curve that fits historical hourly price and load data for given time intervals, such as two-weeks, and then repeats this on a rolling basis through the year. These supply curves can then be modified on an hourly basis to reflect the impact of generation retirements or additions, including VRE and then reapplied to the same load data to estimate the change in hourly electricity price. The choice of duration over which these RSCs are estimated has a significant impact on goodness of fit. For example, in PJM in 2015, moving from fitting one curve per year to 26 rolling two-week supply curves improves the standard error of the regression from 16 dollars/MWh to 6 dollars/MWh and the R-squared of the estimate from 0.48 to 0.76. We illustrate the potential use and value of the RSC method by estimating wholesale price effects under various generator retirement and addition scenarios, and we discuss potential limits of the technique, some of which are inherent. The ability to do this type of analysis is important to a wide range of market participants and other stakeholders, and it may have a role in complementing use of or providing

  14. Identification of Uvaria sp by barcoding coupled with high-resolution melting analysis (Bar-HRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, M; Madesis, P; Ounjai, S; Pumiputavon, K; Somboonchai, R; Lithanatudom, P; Chaowasku, T; Wipasa, J; Suwannapoom, C

    2016-01-13

    DNA barcoding, which was developed about a decade ago, relies on short, standardized regions of the genome to identify plant and animal species. This method can be used to not only identify known species but also to discover novel ones. Numerous sequences are stored in online databases worldwide. One of the ways to save cost and time (by omitting the sequencing step) in species identification is to use available barcode data to design optimized primers for further analysis, such as high-resolution melting analysis (HRM). This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the hybrid method Bar-HRM (DNA barcoding combined with HRM) to identify species that share similar external morphological features, rather than conduct traditional taxonomic identification that require major parts (leaf, flower, fruit) of the specimens. The specimens used for testing were those, which could not be identified at the species level and could either be Uvaria longipes or Uvaria wrayias, indicated by morphological identification. Primer pairs derived from chloroplast regions (matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, and trnL) were used in the Bar-HRM. The results obtained from psbA-trnH primers were good enough to help in identifying the specimen while the rest were not. Bar-HRM analysis was proven to be a fast and cost-effective method for plant species identification.

  15. Application of high-resolution melting analysis for authenticity testing of valuable Dendrobium commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoman; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Daiyin; Luo, Yuqin; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2018-01-01

    The accurate identification of botanical origin in commercial products is important to ensure food authenticity and safety for consumers. The Dendrobium species have long been commercialised as functional food supplements and herbal medicines in Asia. Three valuable Dendrobium species, namely Dendrobium officinale, D. huoshanense and D. moniliforme, are often mutually adulterated in trade products in pursuit of higher profit. In this paper, a rapid and reliable semi-quantitative method for identifying the botanical origin of Dendrobium products in terminal markets was developed using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis with specific primer pairs to target the trnL-F region. The HRM analysis method detected amounts of D. moniliforme adulterants as low as 1% in D. huoshanense or D. officinale products. The results have demonstrated that HRM analysis is a fast and effective tool for the differentiation of these Dendrobium species both for their authenticity as well as for the semi-quantitative determination of the purity of their processed products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansanarez, Valentin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel; Pierrefeu, Gilles; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pobanz, Karine

    2016-04-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. Building on existing Bayesian approaches, we introduce an original hydraulics-based method for developing SFD rating curves used at twin gauge stations and estimating their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used, and transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The difference between the reference levels at the two stations is estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The method proposed in this presentation incorporates information from both the hydraulic knowledge (equations of channel or section controls) and the information available in the stage-fall-discharge observations (gauging data). The obtained total uncertainty combines the parametric uncertainty and the remnant uncertainty related to the model of rating curve. This method provides a direct estimation of the physical inputs of the rating curve (roughness, width, slope bed, distance between twin gauges, etc.). The performance of the new method is tested using an application case affected by the variable backwater of a run-of-the-river dam: the Rhône river at Valence, France. In particular, a sensitivity analysis to the prior information and to the gauging dataset is performed. At that site, the stage-fall-discharge domain is well documented with gaugings conducted over a range of backwater affected and unaffected conditions. The performance of the new model was deemed to be satisfactory. Notably, transition to uniform flow when the overall range of the auxiliary stage is gauged is correctly simulated. The resulting curves are in good agreement with the observations (gaugings) and their uncertainty envelopes are acceptable for computing streamflow records. Similar

  17. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis and CGCD method for erbium doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ratnesh, E-mail: 31rati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Raipur, 493661 (India); Chopra, Seema [Department Physics, G.D Goenka Public School (India)

    2016-05-06

    The manuscript report the synthesis, thermoluminescence study at fixed concentration of Er{sup 3+} (1 mol%) doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. The phosphors were prepared by modified solid state reaction method. The powder sample was characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve analysis. In TL glow curve the optimized concentration in 1mol% for UV irradiated sample. The kinetic parameters were calculated by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniaue. Trapping parameters gives the information of dosimetry loss in prepared phosphor and its usability in environmental monitoring and for personal monitoring. CGCD is the advance tool for analysis of complicated TL glow curves.

  18. Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

  19. A new method for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) using real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Recavarren, M; Pagnuco, I; Späth, E; Pérez, S; Odeón, A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are antigenically and genetically similar. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable one-step real time PCR assay with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Optimization of assay conditions was performed with DNA from reference strains. Then, DNA from field isolates, clinical samples and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals were studied by real time PCR-HRM. An efficient amplification of real time PCR products was obtained, and a clear melting curve and appropriate melting peaks for both viruses were achieved in the HRM curve analysis for BoHV type identification. BoHV was identified in all of the isolates and clinical samples, and BoHV types were properly differentiated. Furthermore, viral DNA was detected in 12/18 and 7/18 samples from BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves, respectively. Real time PCR-HRM achieved a higher sensitivity compared with virus isolation or conventional PCR. In this study, HRM was used as a novel procedure. This method provides rapid, sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine alpha-herpesviruses DNA. Thus, this technique is an excellent tool for diagnosis, research and epidemiological studies of these viruses in cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of normalized-characteristic curves and determination of the granulometric state of dissolved uranium dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Neumann, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are presented for the analysis of normalized-characteristic curves, which make it possible to determine the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion - the cumulative mass distribution of particles - as a function of the relative particle size. If the size of the largest particle in the dissolved polydispersion is known, these methods allow the determination of the dependence of cumulative mass ratios of particles on their absolute sizes. In the inverse method of the geometrical model for determining the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion, the polydispersion is represented by a finite number of monodispersions. An accurate analysis of normalized-characteristic equations leads to the Akselrud dissolution model. As against the other two methods, the latter allows the determination of the granulometric composition for an arbitrary number of particle sizes. The method of the granulometric atlas is a method for estimating the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion and is based on comparison of a normalized-characteristic curve for an unknown granulometric composition with an atlas of normalized-characteristic curves for selected granulometric spectra of polydispersions. (author)

  1. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  2. MCNP calculation for calibration curve of X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chunming; Wu Zhifang; Guo Xiaojing; Xing Guilai; Wang Zhentao

    2011-01-01

    Due to the compositional variation of the sample, linear relationship between the element concentration and fluorescent intensity will not be well maintained in most X-ray fluorescence analysis. To overcome this, we use MCNP program to simulate fluorescent intensity of Fe (0∼100% concentration range) within binary mixture of Cr and O which represent typical strong absorption and weak absorption conditions respectively. The theoretic calculation shows that the relationship can be described as a curve determined by parameter p and value of p can be obtained with given absorption coefficient of substrate elements and element under detection. MCNP simulation results are consistent with theoretic calculation. Our research reveals that MCNP program can calculate the Calibration Curve of X-ray fluorescence very well. (authors)

  3. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Sara; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2009-01-01

    , situated near Copenhagen in Denmark. For rainfall extracted using method 2, the marginal distribution of depth was found to fit the Generalized Pareto distribution while duration was found to fit the Gamma distribution, using the method of L-moments. The volume was fit with a generalized Pareto...... with duration for a given return period and name them DDF (depth-duration-frequency) curves. The copula approach does not assume the rainfall variables are independent or jointly normally distributed. Rainfall series are extracted in three ways: (1) by maximum mean intensity; (2) by depth and duration...... distribution and the duration was fit with a Pearson type III distribution for rainfall extracted using method 3. The Clayton copula was found to be appropriate for bivariate analysis of rainfall depth and duration for both methods 2 and 3. DDF curves derived using the Clayton copula for depth and duration...

  4. Mathematical analysis of 51Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasfiki, A.G.; Antipas, S.E.; Dimitriou, P.A.; Gritzali, F.A.; Melissinos, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of 51 Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-β-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-β-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the learning curve for external cephalic version using cumulative sum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yun; Han, Jung Yeol; Chang, Eun Hye; Kwak, Dong Wook; Ahn, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hyun Mi; Kim, Moon Young

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the learning curve for external cephalic version (ECV) using learning curve-cumulative sum (LC-CUSUM) analysis. This was a retrospective study involving 290 consecutive cases between October 2013 and March 2017. We evaluated the learning curve for ECV on nulli and over para 1 group using LC-CUSUM analysis on the assumption that 50% and 70% of ECV procedures succeeded by description a trend-line of quadratic function with reliable R 2 values. The overall success rate for ECV was 64.8% (188/290), while the success rate for nullipara and over para 1 groups was 56.2% (100/178) and 78.6% (88/112), respectively. 'H' value, that the actual failure rate does not differ from the acceptable failure rate, was -3.27 and -1.635 when considering ECV success rates of 50% and 70%, respectively. Consequently, in order to obtain a consistent 50% success rate, we would require 57 nullipara cases, and in order to obtain a consistent 70% success rate, we would require 130 nullipara cases. In contrast, 8 to 10 over para 1 cases would be required for an expected success rate of 50% and 70% on over para 1 group. Even a relatively inexperienced physician can experience success with multipara and after accumulating experience, they will manage nullipara cases. Further research is required for LC-CUSUM involving several practitioners instead of a single practitioner. This will lead to the gradual implementation of standard learning curve guidelines for ECV.

  6. Simplifying the detection of MUTYH mutations by high resolution melting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Villar, Isabel; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Ayala, Rosa; Wesselink, Jan; Morillas, Juan Diego; López, Elena; Marín, José Carlos; Díaz-Tasende, José; González, Sara; Robles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a disorder caused by bi-allelic germline MUTYH mutation, characterized by multiple colorectal adenomas. In order to identify mutations in MUTYH gene we applied High Resolution Melting (HRM) genotyping. HRM analysis is extensively employed as a scanning method for the detection of heterozygous mutations. Therefore, we applied HRM to show effectiveness in detecting homozygous mutations for these clinically important and frequent patients. In this study, we analyzed phenotype and genotype data from 82 patients, with multiple (>= 10) synchronous (19/82) or metachronous (63/82) adenomas and negative APC study (except one case). Analysis was performed by HRM-PCR and direct sequencing, in order to identify mutations in MUTYH exons 7, 12 and 13, where the most prevalent mutations are located. In monoallelic mutation carriers, we evaluated entire MUTYH gene in search of another possible alteration. HRM-PCR was performed with strict conditions in several rounds: the first one to discriminate the heteroduplex patterns and homoduplex patterns and the next ones, in order to refine and confirm parameters. The genotypes obtained were correlated to phenotypic features (number of adenomas (synchronous or metachronous), colorectal cancer (CRC) and family history). MUTYH germline mutations were found in 15.8% (13/82) of patients. The hot spots, Y179C (exon 7) and G396D (exon 13), were readily identified and other mutations were also detected. Each mutation had a reproducible melting profile by HRM, both heterozygous mutations and homozygous mutations. In our study of 82 patients, biallelic mutation is associated with being a carrier of ≥10 synchronous polyps (p = 0.05) and there is no association between biallelic mutation and CRC (p = 0.39) nor family history (p = 0.63). G338H non-pathogenic polymorphism (exon 12) was found in 23.1% (19/82) of patients. In all cases there was concordance between HRM (first and subsequent rounds) and sequencing

  7. First-order reversal curve analysis in the hysteretic behavior of boron-rich nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccone, F.D. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) and CONICET (Argentina)]. E-mail: fsaccon@fi.uba.ar; Pampillo, L.G. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliva, M.I. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Bercoff, P.G. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Bertorello, H.R. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Sirkin, H.R.M. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)

    2007-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of melt-spun Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72}Co{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} ribbons were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Moessbauer effect spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-order reversal curve distributions. The presence of a solid solution (Fe, Co) in ribbons annealed at 685 C for 10 min was detected from Moessbauer spectra. Correlations between the observed structural changes at higher annealing temperatures and modifications in the interaction fields of precipitated phases are discussed.

  8. First-order reversal curve analysis in the hysteretic behavior of boron-rich nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccone, F.D.; Pampillo, L.G.; Oliva, M.I.; Bercoff, P.G.; Bertorello, H.R.; Sirkin, H.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of melt-spun Nd 4.5 Fe 72 Co 3 Cr 2 Al 1 B 17.5 ribbons were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Moessbauer effect spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-order reversal curve distributions. The presence of a solid solution (Fe, Co) in ribbons annealed at 685 C for 10 min was detected from Moessbauer spectra. Correlations between the observed structural changes at higher annealing temperatures and modifications in the interaction fields of precipitated phases are discussed

  9. Ammonia-water mixtures at high pressures - Melting curves of ammonia dihydrate and ammonia monohydrate and a revised high-pressure phase diagram for the water-rich region. [in primordial solar system ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S.; Nicol, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The phase relations of some mixtures of ammonia and water are investigated to create a phase diagram in pressure-temperature-composition space relevant to the geophysical study of bodies in the outer solar system. The mixtures of NH3(x)H2O(1-x), where x is greater than 0.30 but less than 0.51, are examined at pressures and temperatures ranging from 0-6.5 GPa and 125-400 K, respectively. The ruby luminescence technique monitors the pressure and a diamond-anvil cell compresses the samples, and the phases are identified by means of normal- and polarized-light optical microscopy. The melting curve for NH3H2O(2) is described by the equation T = 176 + 60P - 8.5P squared for the ranges of 0.06-1.4 GPa and 179-243 K. The equation for NH3H2O is T = 194 + 37P - P squared, which represents a minor correction of a previous description by Johnson et al. (1985). Observed phase transitions are consistent with the high-pressure stability limit of NH3H2O(2), and the transition boundary is found to be linear.

  10. Double melting in polytetrafluoroethylene γ-irradiated above its melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, S.A.; Khatipov, S.A.; Sadovskaya, N.V.; Tereshenkov, A.V.; Chukov, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTFE irradiation leads to formation of double melting peaks in DSC curves. ► This is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE. ► Two crystalline types exist in the PTFE irradiated in the melt. - Abstract: PTFE irradiation above its melting point leads to formation of double melting and crystallization peaks in DSC curves. Splitting of melting peaks is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE irradiated in the melt. According to electron microscopy, two crystalline types with different size and packing density exist in the irradiated PTFE.

  11. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  12. High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

  13. Whole-genome amplified DNA from stored dried blood spots is reliable in high resolution melting curve and sequencing analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo G; Hollegaard, Mads V; Olesen, Morten S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of dried blood spots (DBS) samples in genomic workup has been limited by the relative low amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) they contain. It remains to be proven that whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA) from stored DBS samples, constitutes a reliable alternative to gDNA.We wanted...

  14. Global collapse and J integral analysis for inner-diameter defected curved plates in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; Verstraete, Matthias; Denys, Rudi; De Waele, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Reference stress equations are widely used to predict both the limit load and the J integral response of defected structures. Their validity is key to performing a safe assessment of structural integrity (plastic collapse and fracture). An analytical reference stress equation based upon global collapse has recently been developed for curved plates with a part-through defect located at the inner diameter surface. This equation predicts decreasing reference stress values as plate curvature increases. To qualify the predictions, the authors have performed a series of finite element analyses covering a wide range of possible geometries. This paper compares the numerically obtained limit loads and J integral responses with the analytical predictions of the reference stress equation. The finite element results generally confirm the decrease of reference stress with increasing plate curvature. Highly pronounced differences may occur between flat plates and slightly curved plates. Overall, the analytically predicted decrease in reference stress is overestimated for small defects but is representative for larger defects. -- Highlights: • A reference stress equation for inner-diameter defected curved plates in tension was developed earlier. • The equation predicts a lower reference stress as plate curvature increases. • The analytical predictions are validated through finite element analysis. • Collapse and J integral are insensitive to curvature for small defects. • For large defects, the analytically predicted trend is confirmed

  15. Diagnostic tests’ decision-making rules based upon analysis of ROC-curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Батюк

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the model which substantiates diagnostics decision making based on the analysis of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC-curves and predicts optimal values of diagnostic indicators of biomedical information. To assess the quality of the test result prediction the standard criteria of the sensitivity and specificity of the model were used. Values of these criteria were calculated for the cases when the sensitivity of the test was greater than specificity by several times, when the number of correct diagnoses was maximal, when the sensitivity of the test was equal to its specificity and the sensitivity of the test was several times greater than the specificity of the test. To assess the significance of the factor characteristics and to compare the prognostic characteristics of models we used mathematical modeling and plotting the ROC-curves. The optimal value of the diagnostic indicator was found to be achieved when the sensitivity of the test is equal to its specificity. The model was adapted to solve the case when the sensitivity of the test is greater than specificity of the test.

  16. Numerical analysis of transient heat conduction in downward-facing curved sections during quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Pool boiling from downward-facing surfaces is of interest in many applications such as cooling of electric cables, handling of containers of hazardous liquids and external cooling of nuclear reactor vessels. Here, a two-dimensional numerical analysis was performed to determine pool boiling curves from downward-facing curved stainless-steel and copper surfaces during quenching in saturated water. To ensure stability and accuracy of the numerical solution, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on finite control volume representations was employed. A time dependent boundary condition was provided by the measured temperature at nine interior locations near the boiling surface. Best results were obtained using a grid of 20x20 CVs and a non-iterative approach. Calculated temperatures near the top surface of the metal sections agreed with measured values to within 0.5 K and 2.5 K for the copper and stainless-steel sections, respectively. The running time on a Pentium 90 MHz PC for the entire boiling curve was 7% of the real transient time and 4% of that of a simplified Gaussian elimination (SGE) method for the Crank-Nicolson scheme

  17. X-ray and DSC studies on the melt-recrystallization process of poly(butylene naphthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuniwa, Munehisa; Tsubakihara, Shinsuke; Fujioka, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Melt-recrystallization in the heating process of poly(butylene naphthalate) (PBN) was studied with X-ray analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC melting curve of an isothermally crystallized sample showed double endothermic peaks. With increasing the temperature, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns of the sample were obtained successively. Crystal structure did not change during the double melting process. The X-ray diffraction intensity decreased gradually in the temperature region up to about 200 deg. C, and then increased distinctly before steep decrease due to the final melting. This increase is interpreted as a proof of recrystallization. The temperature derivative curve of the diffraction intensity was similar to the DSC melting curve

  18. The high resolution melting analysis (HRM) as a molecular tool for monitoring parasites of the wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héritier, Laurent; Verneau, Olivier; Breuil, Gregory; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila

    2017-04-01

    In an interconnected world, the international pet trade on wild animals is becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, non-native parasite species are introduced, which affect the health of wildlife and contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Because the investigation of parasite diversity within vulnerable host species implies the molecular identification of large samples of parasite eggs, the sequencing of DNA barcodes is time-consuming and costly. Thereby, the objectives of our study were to apply the high resolution melting (HRM) approach for species determination from pools of parasite eggs. Molecular assays were validated on flatworm parasites (polystomes) infecting the Mediterranean pond turtle Mauremys leprosa and the invasive red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans in French natural environments. HRM analysis results indicated that double or multiple parasitic infections could be detected from wild animal populations. They also showed that the cycle of parasite eggs production was not regular over time and may depend on several factors, among which the ecological niche and the target species. Thereby, monitoring parasites from wild endangered animals implies periodic parasitological surveys to avoid false negative diagnostics, based solely on eggs production.

  19. A custom-made temporomandibular joint prosthesis for fabrication by selective laser melting: Finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangliang; Luo, Danmei; Guo, Chuanbin; Rong, Qiguo

    2017-08-01

    A novel and custom-made selective laser melting (SLM) 3D-printed alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthesis is proposed. The titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) condyle component and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fossa component comprised the total alloplastic TMJ replacement prosthesis. For the condyle component, an optimized tetrahedral open-porous scaffold with combined connection structures, i.e. an inlay rod and an onlay plate, between the prosthesis and remaining mandible was designed. The trajectory of movement of the intact condyle was assessed via kinematic analysis to facilitate the design of the fossa component. The behaviours of the intact mandible and mandible with the prosthesis were compared. The biomechanical behaviour was analysed by assessing the stress distribution on the prosthesis and strain distribution on the mandible. After muscle force was applied, the magnitude of the compressive strain on the condyle neck of the mandible with the prosthesis was lower than that on the condyle neck of the intact mandible, with the exception of the area about the screws; additionally, the magnitude of the strain at the scaffold-bone interface was relatively high. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  1. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Analysis of stripped-envelope supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Bersten, M.; Baron, E.; Burns, C.; Contreras, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    Stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) include H-poor (Type IIb), H-free (Type Ib), and He-free (Type Ic) events thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars. The exact nature of their progenitors is a matter of debate with several lines of evidence pointing towards intermediate mass (MinitCarnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) that are unparalleled in terms of photometric accuracy and wavelength range. Light-curve parameters are estimated through the fits of an analytical function and trends are searched for among the resulting fit parameters. Detailed inspection of the dataset suggests a tentative correlation between the peak absolute B-band magnitude and Δm15(B), while the post maximum light curves reveals a correlation between the late-time linear slope and Δm15. Making use of the full set of optical and near-IR photometry, combined with robust host-galaxy extinction corrections, comprehensive bolometric light curves are constructed and compared to both analytic and hydrodynamical models. This analysis finds consistent results among the two different modeling techniques and from the hydrodynamical models we obtained ejecta masses of 1.1-6.2M⊙, 56Ni masses of 0.03-0.35M⊙, and explosion energies (excluding two SNe Ic-BL) of 0.25-3.0 × 1051 erg. Our analysis indicates that adopting κ = 0.07 cm2 g-1 as the mean opacity serves to be a suitable assumption when comparing Arnett-model results to those obtained from hydrodynamical calculations. We also find that adopting He I and O I line velocities to infer the expansion velocity in He-rich and He-poor SNe, respectively, provides ejecta masses relatively similar to those obtained by using the Fe II line velocities, although the use of Fe II as a diagnostic does imply higher explosion energies. The inferred range of ejecta masses are compatible with intermediate mass (MZAMS ≤ 20M⊙) progenitor stars in binary systems for the majority of SE SNe. Furthermore, our hydrodynamical modeling of the

  2. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography according to ROC curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Seo, J. W.; Cho, N. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) has been shown to be a useful diagnostic test in the detection of breast cancer and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provides detailed information of a diagnostic test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative indices of SMM in the detection of malignant breast lesions according to ROC analysis. Prone anterior, lateral planar and supine SPECT imagings were performed on 75 female patients (mean age=43.4 yr) with breast mass (size≥0.8cm) after intravenous injection of 20-30 mCi 99mTc-sestamibi. 45 Malignant (Invasive ductal ca(36), Inv lobular ca(5), Inv duc + lob (1), Inv tubular ca (3)) and 30 benign (fibroadenoma (13), fib cyst(12), Fat necrosis(3), papilloma(1), paraffinoma (1)) lesions were histologically proven. Data were analyzed by creating three regions of interest (ROIs) over designated areas: lesion, normal breast and right chest wall. Lesion to normal (L/NL) and lesion to chest wall (L/CW) ratios were calculated for each patient both on the planar and SPECT. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and compared among four semiquantitative indices and an average scintimammographic index (SMM(mean)) from arithmatic mean. ROC curve analysis revealed planar L/N, SPECT L/N and L/CW ratios provide comparable better diagnostic accuracies for detection of breast cancer than planar L/CW ratio (p<0.05), respectively. For quantitative SMM of 75 lesions, malignancy rate was 60%, and Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value and Accuracy were 0.78, 0.77, 0.84, 0.72 and 0.77, respectively. Quantitative SMM is an useful objective method for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography according to ROC curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Seo, J. W.; Cho, N. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, T. H. [Gachon Medical College, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) has been shown to be a useful diagnostic test in the detection of breast cancer and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provides detailed information of a diagnostic test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative indices of SMM in the detection of malignant breast lesions according to ROC analysis. Prone anterior, lateral planar and supine SPECT imagings were performed on 75 female patients (mean age=43.4 yr) with breast mass (size{>=}0.8cm) after intravenous injection of 20-30 mCi 99mTc-sestamibi. 45 Malignant (Invasive ductal ca(36), Inv lobular ca(5), Inv duc + lob (1), Inv tubular ca (3)) and 30 benign (fibroadenoma (13), fib cyst(12), Fat necrosis(3), papilloma(1), paraffinoma (1)) lesions were histologically proven. Data were analyzed by creating three regions of interest (ROIs) over designated areas: lesion, normal breast and right chest wall. Lesion to normal (L/NL) and lesion to chest wall (L/CW) ratios were calculated for each patient both on the planar and SPECT. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and compared among four semiquantitative indices and an average scintimammographic index (SMM(mean)) from arithmatic mean. ROC curve analysis revealed planar L/N, SPECT L/N and L/CW ratios provide comparable better diagnostic accuracies for detection of breast cancer than planar L/CW ratio (p<0.05), respectively. For quantitative SMM of 75 lesions, malignancy rate was 60%, and Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value and Accuracy were 0.78, 0.77, 0.84, 0.72 and 0.77, respectively. Quantitative SMM is an useful objective method for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions.

  5. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyot Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. Methods We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. Results The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. Conclusion The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  6. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-02-01

    The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios) with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  7. Composite beam analysis linear analysis of naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Marco; Ghiringhelli, Gian L.; Merlini, Teodoro

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present a consistent theory for the deformation of a naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beam. The proposed formulation naturally extends the classical Saint-Venant approach to the case of curved and twisted anisotropic beams. The mathematical model developed under the assumption of span-wise uniform cross-section, curvature and twist, can take into account any kind of elastic coupling due to the material properties and the curved geometry. The consistency of the presented math-model and its generality about the cross-sectional shape, make it a useful tool even in a preliminary design optimization context such as the aeroelastic tailoring of helicopter rotor blades. The advantage of the present procedure is that it only requires a two-dimensional discretization; thus, very detailed analyses can be performed and interlaminar stresses between laminae can be evaluated. Such analyses would be extremely time consuming if performed with standard finite element codes: that prevents their recursive use as for example when optimizing a beam design. Moreover, as a byproduct of the proposed formulation, one obtains the constitutive law of the cross-section in terms of stress resultant and moment and their conjugate strain measures. This constitutive law takes into account any kind of elastic couplings, e.g., torsion-tension, tension-shear, bending-shear, and constitutes a fundamental input in aeroelastic analyses of helicopter blades. Four simple examples are given in order to show the principal features of the method.

  8. Polygonal approximation and scale-space analysis of closed digital curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Kumar S

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the most important topics in the area of pattern recognition, object recognition, computer vision, robot vision, medical computing, computational geometry, and bioinformatics systems. Students and researchers will find a comprehensive treatment of polygonal approximation and its real life applications. The book not only explains the theoretical aspects but also presents applications with detailed design parameters. The systematic development of the concept of polygonal approximation of digital curves and its scale-space analysis are useful and attractive to scholars in many fi

  9. Optimized curve design for image analysis using localized geodesic distance transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Billy; Niska, Harri; Pöllänen, Irene; Ikonen, Tiia; Haataja, Keijo; Toivanen, Pekka; Tolonen, Teemu

    2015-03-01

    We consider geodesic distance transformations for digital images. Given a M × N digital image, a distance image is produced by evaluating local pixel distances. Distance Transformation on Curved Space (DTOCS) evaluates shortest geodesics of a given pixel neighborhood by evaluating the height displacements between pixels. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for geodesic distance transformations in a pattern recognition scheme, yielding more accurate machine learning based image analysis, exemplifying initial experiments using complex breast cancer images. Furthermore, we will outline future research work, which will complete the research work done for this paper.

  10. Measurement and analysis of field-induced crystallographic texture using curved position-sensitive diffraction detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines measurement and analysis methodologies created for determining the structural responses of electroceramics to an electric field. A sample stage is developed to apply electric fields to ceramic materials at elevated temperatures during neutron diffraction experiments. The tested...... employing a curved positive sensitive detector. Methodologies are proposed to account for the geometrical effects when vector fields are applied to textured materials with angularly dispersive detector geometries. Representative results are presented for the ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (BNT-6BT...

  11. Analyzing Multiple-Choice Questions by Model Analysis and Item Response Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakasiwich, P.; Ananta, S.

    2010-07-01

    In physics education research, the main goal is to improve physics teaching so that most students understand physics conceptually and be able to apply concepts in solving problems. Therefore many multiple-choice instruments were developed to probe students' conceptual understanding in various topics. Two techniques including model analysis and item response curves were used to analyze students' responses from Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). For this study FMCE data from more than 1000 students at Chiang Mai University were collected over the past three years. With model analysis, we can obtain students' alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts. The model analysis consists of two algorithms—concentration factor and model estimation. This paper only presents results from using the model estimation algorithm to obtain a model plot. The plot helps to identify a class model state whether it is in the misconception region or not. Item response curve (IRC) derived from item response theory is a plot between percentages of students selecting a particular choice versus their total score. Pros and cons of both techniques are compared and discussed.

  12. Cooling curve analysis in binary Al-Cu alloys: Part II- Effect of Cooling Rate and Grain Refinement on The Thermal and Thermodynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehnavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Cu alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and airplane applications. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys for grain refinement. The cooling curve analysis (CCA has been used extensively in metal casting industry to predict microstructure constituents, grain refinement and to calculate the latent heat of solidification. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling rate and grain refinement on the thermal and thermodynamic characteristics of Al-Cu alloys by cooling curve analysis. To do this, Al-Cu alloys containing 3.7, and 4.8 wt.% Cu were melted and solidified with 0.04, 0.19, 0.42, and 1.08 K/s cooling rates. The temperature of the samples was recorded using a K thermocouple and a data acquisition system connected to a PC. Some samples were Grain refined by Al-5Ti-1B to see the effect of grain refinement on the aforementioned properties. The results show that, in a well refined alloy, nucleation will occur in a shorter time, and a undercooling approximately decreases to zero. The other results show that, with considering the cooling rate being around 0.1 °C/s, the Newtonian method is efficient in calculating the latent heat of solidification.

  13. Analysis of demand curves in the stock and financial markets of monopolistic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Geras’kin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify patterns of monopolistic competition as applied to markets of household appliances consumer loans and insurance products in Russia. Methods econometric modeling trending regression analysis analysis of statistical significance. Results the statistical analysis of trends in the market of household appliances insurance and credit markets has been carried out the statistical significance and adequacy of the models has been assessed adequate and accurate regression models of price trends of household appliances and electronics have been developed as well as of the interest rates of consumer loans and insurance rates for loan debts. Scientific novelty the actual patterns of decreasing demand curves for household appliances consumer loans and insurance products were found for the relevant markets in the Russian Federation in 2009ndash2014. Practical significance the model can be used for solving problems of optimal planning strategies of retailers insurers and banks. nbsp

  14. Microwave melt and offgas analysis results from a Ferro Corporation reg-sign glass frit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Hoffman, C.R.; Knutson, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    In support of the Residue Treatment Technology (RTT) Microwave Solidification project, Waste Projects and Surface Water personnel conducted a series of experiments to determine the feasibility of encapsulating a surrogate sludge waste using the microwave melter. The surrogate waste was prepared by RTT and melted with five varying compositions of low melting glass frit supplied by the Ferro Corporation. Samples were melted using a 50% waste/50% glass frit and a 47.5% waste/47.5% glass frit/5% carbon powder. This was done to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon at reducing a sulfate-based surface scale which has been observed in previous experiments and in full-scale testing. These vitrified samples were subsequently submitted to Environmental Technology for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. Two of the five frits tested in this experiment merit further evaluation as raw materials for the microwave melter. Ferro frit 3110 with and without carbon powder produced a crystalline product which passed TCLP testing. The quality of the melt product could be improved by increasing the melting temperature from 900 degrees C to approximately 1150-1200 degrees C. Ferro frit 3249 produced the optimal quality of glass based on visual observations, but failed TCLP testing for silver when melted without carbon powder. This frit requires a slightly higher melting temperature (≥ 1200 degrees C) compared to frit 3110 and produces a superior product. In conjunction with this work, Surface Water personnel conducted offgas analyses using a Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometer (TDMS) on selected formulations. The offgas analyses identified and quantified water vapor (H 2 O), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon oxides (CO and CO 2 ), sulfur (S) and sulfur oxides (SO and SO 2 ), and nitrogen (N 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO 2 ) that volatilized during glass formation

  15. Detection of sdhB Gene Mutations in SDHI-Resistant Isolates of Botrytis cinerea Using High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Anastasios; Madesis, Panagiotis; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea , is a high risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development. Pathogen' resistance to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in sdh gene. The diversity of mutations and their differential effect on cross-resistance patterns among SDHIs and the fitness of resistant strains necessitate the availability of a tool for their rapid identification. This study was initiated to develop and validate a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the identification of P225H/F/L//T, N230I, and H272L/R/Y mutations. Based on the sequence of sdh B subunit of resistant and sensitive isolates, a universal primer pair was designed. The specificity of the HRM analysis primers was verified to ensure against the cross-reaction with other fungal species and its sensitivity was evaluated using concentrations of known amounts of mutant's DNA. The melting curve analysis generated nine distinct curve profiles, enabling the discrimination of all the four mutations located at codon 225, the N230I mutation, the three mutations located in codon 272, and the non-mutated isolates (isolates of wild-type sensitivity). Similar results were obtained when DNA was extracted directly from artificially inoculated strawberry fruit. The method was validated by monitoring the presence of sdh B mutations in samples of naturally infected strawberry fruits and stone fruit rootstock seedling plants showing damping-off symptoms. HRM analysis data were compared with a standard PIRA-PCR technique and an absolute agreement was observed suggesting that in both populations the H272R mutation was the predominant one, while H272Y, N230I, and P225H were detected in lower frequencies. The results of the study suggest that HRM analysis can be a useful tool for sensate, accurate, and rapid identification of several sdh B mutations in B. cinerea and it is expected to contribute in routine fungicide resistance monitoring or assessments of the effectiveness of anti-resistance strategies implemented in

  16. Detection of sdhB gene mutations in SDHI-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea using high resolution melting (HRM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Samaras

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, is a high-risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development. Pathogen` resistance to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in sdh gene. The diversity of mutations and their differential effect on cross-resistance patterns among SDHIs and the fitness of resistant strains necessitate the availability of a tool for their rapid identification. This study was initiated to develop and validate a high-resolution melting (HRM analysis for the identification of P225H/F/L//T, N230I and H272L/R/Y mutations. Based on the sequence of sdhB subunit of resistant and sensitive isolates, a universal primer pair was designed. The specificity of the HRM analysis primers was verified to ensure against the cross-reaction with other fungal species and its sensitivity was evaluated using concentrations of known amounts of mutant`s DNA. The melting curve analysis generated nine distinct curve profiles, enabling the discrimination of all the 4 mutations located at codon 225, the N230I mutation, the 3 mutations located in codon 272 and the non mutated isolates (isolates of wild type sensitivity. Similar results were obtained when DNA was extracted directly from artificially inoculated strawberry fruit. The method was validated by monitoring the presence of sdhB mutations in samples of naturally infected strawberry fruits and stone fruit rootstock seedling plants showing damping off symptoms. HRM analysis data were compared with a standard PIRA-PCR technique and an absolute agreement was observed suggesting that in both populations the H272R mutation was the predominant one, while H272Y, N230I and P225H were detected in lower frequencies. The results of the study suggest that HRM analysis can be a useful tool for sensate, accurate and rapid identification of several sdhB mutations in B. cinerea and it is expected to contribute in routine fungicide resistance monitoring or assessments of the effectiveness of antiresistance strategies implemented in

  17. On melting of boron phosphide under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Solozhenko, Vladimir; Mukhanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Melting of cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied at pressures to 9 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that above 2.6 GPa BP melts congruently, and the melting curve exhibits negative slope (–60 ± 7 K/GPa), which is indicative of a higher density of the melt as compared to the solid phase.

  18. Chrono-amperometric studies in melt alkaline nitrates and chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmelin, Jean-Claude

    1969-01-01

    This research thesis proposes a large overview of the electrochemical behaviour of a number of metals and alloys in melt alkaline chlorides and nitrates at various temperatures. These salts are generally pure but, in some experiments, contain humidity or gases. The author addresses and discusses all the reactions which may occur at the electrode between the salt decomposition potentials. After having recalled and commented some definitions and fundamental principles of thermodynamics and electrochemical kinetics, presented the methods (polarization curves, measurements and additional analysis), the experimental apparatus and the reference electrodes in melt salts, the author reports the results obtained with the studied melt salts, and proposes an interpretation of Log i/U curves

  19. Numerical analysis of the induction melting process of oxide fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondala Rao, R.; Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    For the experimental simulation of Molten Fuel-Coolant Interaction (MFCI) phenomenon under hypothetical core meltdown accident scenario in a nuclear reactor, it is required to generate the molten pool of core materials. For this purpose, a laboratory scale Cold wall Crucible induction melting system has been developed. To optimize the system for efficient and reliable melting process, it is required to have comprehensive knowledge on the heat and mass transfer processes along with electromagnetic process that occur during the melting of core materials. Hence, a 2D axi-symmetric numerical model has been developed using a multiphysics software to simulate the induction melting process. The phase change phenomenon is taken into account by using enthalpy formulation. The experimental data available in literature for magnetic field and flow field are used for model validation. The model predicted temperatures are also in good agreement with experimentally measured values. The validated model has been used to study the induction melting behavior of UO_2 fuel material. (author)

  20. Parametric analysis of the curved slats fixed mirror solar concentrator for medium temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol-Nadal, Ramon; Martínez-Moll, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We thermally modeled the Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC). • A parametric analysis for three climates and two axial orientations are given. • The optimum values are determined for a range of the design parameters. • The CSFMSC has been well characterized for medium range temperature operation. - Abstract: The Curved Slats Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (CSFMSC) is a solar concentrator with a static reflector and a moving receiver. An optical analysis using ray-tracing tools was presented in a previous study in function of three design parameters: the number of mirrors N, the ratio of focal length and reflector width F/W, and the aperture concentration C a . However, less is known about the thermal behavior of this geometry. In this communication, the integrated thermal output of the CSFMSC has been determined in order to find the optimal values for the design parameters at a working temperature of 200 °C. The results were obtained for three different climates and two axial orientations (North–South, and East–West). The results show that CSFMSC can produce heat at 200 °C with an annual thermal efficiency of 41, 47, and 51%, dependent of the location considered (Munich, Palma de Mallorca, and Cairo). The best FMSC geometries in function of the design parameters are exhibited for medium temperature applications

  1. Application of a logistic function to the analysis of contrast-detail curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumma, C.G.; Prince, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A general logistic function has been applied to the regression analysis of radioscintigraphic contrast-detail (CD) curves obtained in the authors' laboratory and to previously published results in assorted imaging modalities. Regression analysis is based on the logistic function: d/sub min/ = d/sub min//sup sat/(1 - EXP - (K + CX)), where d/sub min/ is the minimum perceptible detail diameter at a primary contrast X, and d/sub min//sup sat/ is the saturation value of d/sub min/. K and C are regression parameters. Logistic regression in assorted imaging modalities yielded r 2 values ranging from 0.95 to 0.99. A figure of merit (FOM), the area under the CD curve (AUC), is obtained by integrating the logistic function over mathematically and clinically acceptable limits. For count densities of 200 countscm 2 and 1,000 countscm 2 , the AUC differed approximately by a factor of 2. Thus, the AUC may be a sensitive FOM

  2. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  3. Probing Birth-Order Effects on Narrow Traits Using Specification-Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2017-12-01

    The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e.g., whether to control for age effects or to exclude participants on the basis of sibling spacing). Although specification-curve analysis clearly confirmed the previously reported birth-order effect on intellect, we found no meaningful effects on life satisfaction, locus of control, interpersonal trust, reciprocity, risk taking, patience, impulsivity, or political orientation. The lack of meaningful birth-order effects on self-reports of personality was not limited to broad traits but also held for more narrowly defined characteristics.

  4. Antigen-antibody biorecognition events as discriminated by noise analysis of force spectroscopy curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-08-22

    Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f (α) noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.

  5. Testing and Analysis of the First Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.

    2005-01-01

    A half scale Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The half scale prototype unit will lead to the development of a full scale Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype that is representative of flight hardware that would be used on near and far term space missions. This report details the testing being done on the prototype Plastic Melt Waste Compactor by the Solid Waste Management group at NASA Ames Research Center. The tests are designed to determine the prototype's functionality, simplicity of operation, ability to contain and control noxious off-gassing, biological stability of the processed waste, and water recovery potential using a waste composite that is representative of the types of wastes produced on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab missions.

  6. Spectral analysis of stellar light curves by means of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, R.; Ciaramella, A.; Milano, L.; Barone, F.; Longo, G.

    1999-06-01

    Periodicity analysis of unevenly collected data is a relevant issue in several scientific fields. In astrophysics, for example, we have to find the fundamental period of light or radial velocity curves which are unevenly sampled observations of stars. Classical spectral analysis methods are unsatisfactory to solve the problem. In this paper we present a neural network based estimator system which performs well the frequency extraction in unevenly sampled signals. It uses an unsupervised Hebbian nonlinear neural algorithm to extract, from the interpolated signal, the principal components which, in turn, are used by the MUSIC frequency estimator algorithm to extract the frequencies. The neural network is tolerant to noise and works well also with few points in the sequence. We benchmark the system on synthetic and real signals with the Periodogram and with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. This work was been partially supported by IIASS, by MURST 40\\% and by the Italian Space Agency.

  7. Incorporating Measurement Non-Equivalence in a Cross-Study Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B; Curran, Patrick J; Hussong, Andrea M; Edwards, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    A large literature emphasizes the importance of testing for measurement equivalence in scales that may be used as observed variables in structural equation modeling applications. When the same construct is measured across more than one developmental period, as in a longitudinal study, it can be especially critical to establish measurement equivalence, or invariance, across the developmental periods. Similarly, when data from more than one study are combined into a single analysis, it is again important to assess measurement equivalence across the data sources. Yet, how to incorporate non-equivalence when it is discovered is not well described for applied researchers. Here, we present an item response theory approach that can be used to create scale scores from measures while explicitly accounting for non-equivalence. We demonstrate these methods in the context of a latent curve analysis in which data from two separate studies are combined to create a single longitudinal model spanning several developmental periods.

  8. Molecular identification of broomrape species from a single seed by High Resolution Melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Rolland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes are holoparasitic plants spreading through seeds. Each plant produces hundreds of thousands of seeds which remain viable in the soils for decades. To limit their spread, drastic measures are being taken and the contamination of a commercial seed lot by a single broomrape seed can lead to its rejection. Considering that broomrapes species identification from a single seed is extremely difficult even for trained botanists and that among all the described species, only a few are really noxious for the crops, numerous seed lots are rejected because of the contamination by seeds of non-noxious broomrape species. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a High Resolution Melting assay identifying the eight most noxious and common broomrape species (P. aegyptiaca, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. cumana, O. foetida, O. hederae, O. minor, and P. ramosa from a single seed. Based on trnL and rbcL plastidial genes amplification, the designed assay successfully identifies O. cumana, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. minor, O. hederae, and O. foetida; P. ramosa and P. aegyptiaca can be differentiated from other species but not from each other. Tested on 50 seed lots, obtained results perfectly matched identifications performed by sequencing. Through the analysis of common seed lots by different analysts, the reproducibility of the assay was evaluated at 90 %. Despite an original sample preparation process it was not possible to extract enough DNA from some seeds (10% of the samples. The described assay fulfils its objectives and allows an accurate identification of the targeted broomrape species. It can be used to identify contaminants in commercial seed lots or for any other purpose. The assay might be extended to vegetative material.

  9. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA...

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of UO2 nanocrystals melting under isolated and periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchenkov, A.S.; Potashnikov, S.I.; Nekrasov, K.A.; Kupryazhkin, A.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We perform MD simulation of UO 2 nanocrystals melting (in range of 768–49 152 ions). ► T(P) melting curves intersect zero near −20 GPa and saturate near 25 GPa. ► Reciprocal size dependences of nanocrystal melting point decrease nonlinearly. ► Linear and parabolic extrapolations to macroscopic values are considered. ► Melting point and density jump are reproduced, but heat of fusion is underestimated. - Abstract: Melting of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) nanocrystals has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Ten recent and widely used sets of pair potentials were assessed in the rigid ion approximation. Both isolated (in vacuum) and periodic boundary conditions (PBC) were explored. Using barostat under PBC the pressure dependences of melting point were obtained. These curves intersected zero near −20 GPa, saturated near 25 GPa and increased nonlinearly in between. Using simulation of surface under isolated boundary conditions (IBC) recommended melting temperature and density jump were successfully reproduced. However, the heat of fusion is still underestimated. These melting characteristics were calculated for nanocrystals of cubic shape in the range of 768–49 152 particles (volume range of 10–1000 nm 3 ). The obtained reciprocal size dependences decreased nonlinearly. Linear and parabolic extrapolations to macroscopic values are considered. The parabolic one is found to be better suited for analysis of the data on temperature and heat of melting.

  12. The analysis of environmental impact in electromagnetic radiation of melting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozeng; Xia Zitong

    2012-01-01

    High or medium-frequency electromagnetic melting equipment is always used in metals refining, but it will creates electromagnetic fields of powerful high-frequency in operation. With the development of our national economy and the raising of environmental awareness among the people, the electromagnetic pollution of industrial electromagnetic has aroused great concern in administrative department, analyzing the effects scope and influencing depth of electromagnetic radiation by field monitoring for the electromagnetic melting equipment in a steel mills, this paper discussed the protective key for this project on radiation and putforward some corresponding preventive measures. (authors)

  13. Vibrational Analysis of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, Amin

    2012-01-01

    . By utilizing He’s Energy Balance Method (HEBM), the relationships of the nonlinear amplitude and frequency were expressed for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The amplitude frequency response curves of the nonlinear free vibration were obtained for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube embedded...

  14. Development of a two-step high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for screening sequence variants associated with resistance to the QoIs, benzimidazoles and dicarboximides in airborne inoculum of Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimopoulos, Michael; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Vellios, Evangelos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pappas, Athanassios C

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis protocol was developed to detect sequence variations associated with resistance to the QoIs, benzimidazoles and dicarboximides in Botrytis cinerea airborne inoculum. HRM analysis was applied directly in fungal DNA collected from air samplers with selective medium. Three and five different genotypes were detected and classified according to their melting profiles in BenA and bos1 genes associated with resistance to benzimidazoles and dicarboximides, respectively. The sensitivity of the methodology was evident in the case of the QoIs, where genotypes varying either by a single nucleotide polymorphism or an additional 1205-bp intron were separated accurately with a single pair of primers. The developed two-step protocol was completed in 82 min and showed reduced variation in the melting curves' formation. HRM analysis rapidly detected the major mutations found in greenhouse strains providing accurate data for successfully controlling grey mould. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of the Learning Curve Analysis to the LHC Main Dipole Production First Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Rossi, L

    2006-01-01

    About two third of the LHC main dipoles have been delivered by the three suppliers charged of the production. The training of the staff, mostly hired just for this manufacture, and the natural improvement of the procedures with the acquired experience, decrease naturally the time necessary for the assembly of a unit. The aim of this paper is to apply methodologies like the cost-based learning curves and the time-based learning curves to the LHC Main Dipole comparing the estimated learning percentage to the ones experienced in other industries. This type of analysis, still in a preliminary phase and here applied to about 40% of the total production of the LHC magnets that will end by 2006, shows that our production has a relatively high learning percentage and it is similar to aerospace and complex machine tools for new models. Therefore with the LHC project, accelerator magnets seem to have reached industrial maturity and this production can be used as bench mark for other large scientific projects implying s...

  16. Pressure and pressure derivative analysis for injection tests with variable temperature without type-curve matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Freddy Humberto; Martinez, Javier Andres; Montealegre Matilde

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of injection tests under nonisothermic conditions is important for the accurate estimation of the reservoir permeability and the well's skin factor; since previously an isothermical system was assumed without taking into account a moving temperature front which expands with time plus the consequent changes in both viscosity and mobility between the cold and the hot zone of the reservoir which leads to unreliable estimation of the reservoir and well parameters. To construct the solution an analytical approach presented by Boughrara and Peres (2007) was used. That solution was initially introduced for the calculation of the injection pressure in an isothermic system. It was later modified by Boughrara and Reynolds (2007) to consider a system with variable temperature in vertical wells. In this work, the pressure response was obtained by numerical solution of the anisothermical model using the Gauss Quadrature method to solve the integrals, and assuming that both injection and reservoir temperatures were kept constant during the injection process and the water saturation is uniform throughout the reservoir. For interpretation purposes, a technique based upon the unique features of the pressure and pressure derivative curves were used without employing type-curve matching (TDS technique). The formulation was verified by its application to field and synthetic examples. As expected, increasing reservoir temperature causes a decrement in the mobility ratio, then estimation of reservoir permeability is some less accurate from the second radial flow, especially, as the mobility ratio increases

  17. Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin; Mohd, Saidatulakmal

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish a long-run as well as causal relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for Malaysia. Using data for the years from 1980 to 2009, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested utilizing the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The empirical results suggest the existence of a long-run relationship between per capita CO 2 emissions and real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) when the CO 2 emissions level is the dependent variable. We found an inverted-U shape relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP in both short and long-run, thus supporting the EKC hypothesis. The Granger Causality test based on the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) presents an absence of causality between CO 2 emissions and economic growth in the short-run while demonstrating uni-directional causality from economic growth to CO 2 emissions in the long-run. - Highlights: ► We tested the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions. ► The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was tested using bounds testing approach. ► The empirical analysis confirms the existence of EKC for Malaysia. ► Causality results in an absence of causality between CO 2 and income in the short-run. ► There is uni-directional causality from income to CO 2 emissions in the long-run.

  18. Genetic algorithm using independent component analysis in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting of periodic layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Tilli, J-M; Sormunen, J; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    A novel genetic algorithm (GA) utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) was developed for x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting. EFICA was used to reduce mutual information, or interparameter dependences, during the combinatorial phase. The performance of the new algorithm was studied by fitting trial XRR curves to target curves which were computed using realistic multilayer models. The median convergence properties of conventional GA, GA using principal component analysis and the novel GA were compared. GA using ICA was found to outperform the other methods with problems having 41 parameters or more to be fitted without additional XRR curve calculations. The computational complexity of the conventional methods was linear but the novel method had a quadratic computational complexity due to the applied ICA method which sets a practical limit for the dimensionality of the problem to be solved. However, the novel algorithm had the best capability to extend the fitting analysis based on Parratt's formalism to multiperiodic layer structures

  19. Calibration curves of a PGNAA system for cement raw material analysis using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos; Salgado, Jose

    1998-01-01

    In large samples, the γ-ray count rate of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis system is a multi-variable function of the elemental dry composition, density, water content and thickness of the material. The experimental calibration curves require tremendous laboratory work, using a great number of standards with well-known compositions. Although a Monte Carlo simulation study does not avoid the experimental calibration work, it reduces the number of experimental calibration standards. This paper is part of a feasibility study for a PGNAA system for on-line continuous characterisation of cement raw material conveyed on a belt (Oliveira, C., Salgado, J. and Carvalho, F. G. (1997) Optimisation of PGNAA instrument design for cement raw materials using the MCNP code. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 216(2), 191-198; Oliveira, C., Salgado, J., Goncalves, I. F., Carvalho, F. G. and Leitao, F. (1997a) A Monte Carlo study of the influence of geometry arrangements and structural materials on a PGNAA system performance for cement raw materials analysis. Appl. Radiat. Isot. (accepted); Oliveira, C., Salgado, J. and Leitao, F. (1997b) Density and water content corrections in the gamma count rate of a PGNAA system for cement raw material analysis using the MCNP code. Appl. Radiat. Isot. (accepted).]. It reports on the influence of the density, mass water content and thickness on the calibration curves of the PGNAA system. The MCNP-4A code, running in a Pentium-PC and in a DEC workstation, was used to simulate the PGNAA configuration system

  20. XCT analysis of the influence of melt strategies on defect population in Ti–6Al–4V components manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammas-Williams, S.; Zhao, H.; Léonard, F.; Derguti, F.; Todd, I.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) is a promising powder bed Additive Manufacturing technique for near-net-shape manufacture of high-value titanium components. However without post-manufacture HIPing the fatigue life of SEBM parts is currently dominated by the presence of porosity. In this study, the size, volume fraction, and spatial distribution of the pores in model samples have been characterised in 3D, using X-ray Computed Tomography, and correlated to the process variables. The average volume fraction of the pores (< 0.2%) was measured to be lower than that usually observed in competing processes, such as selective laser melting, but a strong relationship was found with the different beam strategies used to contour, and infill by hatching, a part section. The majority of pores were found to be small spherical gas pores, concentrated in the infill hatched region; this was attributed to the lower energy density and less focused beam used in the infill strategy allowing less opportunity for gas bubbles to escape the melt pool. Overall, increasing the energy density or focus of the beam was found to correlate strongly to a reduction in the level of gas porosity. Rarer irregular shaped pores were mostly located in the contour region and have been attributed to a lack of fusion between powder particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Vast majority of defects detected were small spherical gas pores. • Gas bubbles trapped in the powder granules expand and coalesce in the melt pool. • Pores have been shown not to be randomly distributed. • Larger and deeper melt pools give more opportunity for gas to escape. • Minor changes to melt strategy result in significant reductions in pore population

  1. XCT analysis of the influence of melt strategies on defect population in Ti–6Al–4V components manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammas-Williams, S., E-mail: Samuel.tammas-wiliams@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Zhao, H. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Léonard, F. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Derguti, F.; Todd, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Prangnell, P.B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) is a promising powder bed Additive Manufacturing technique for near-net-shape manufacture of high-value titanium components. However without post-manufacture HIPing the fatigue life of SEBM parts is currently dominated by the presence of porosity. In this study, the size, volume fraction, and spatial distribution of the pores in model samples have been characterised in 3D, using X-ray Computed Tomography, and correlated to the process variables. The average volume fraction of the pores (< 0.2%) was measured to be lower than that usually observed in competing processes, such as selective laser melting, but a strong relationship was found with the different beam strategies used to contour, and infill by hatching, a part section. The majority of pores were found to be small spherical gas pores, concentrated in the infill hatched region; this was attributed to the lower energy density and less focused beam used in the infill strategy allowing less opportunity for gas bubbles to escape the melt pool. Overall, increasing the energy density or focus of the beam was found to correlate strongly to a reduction in the level of gas porosity. Rarer irregular shaped pores were mostly located in the contour region and have been attributed to a lack of fusion between powder particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Vast majority of defects detected were small spherical gas pores. • Gas bubbles trapped in the powder granules expand and coalesce in the melt pool. • Pores have been shown not to be randomly distributed. • Larger and deeper melt pools give more opportunity for gas to escape. • Minor changes to melt strategy result in significant reductions in pore population.

  2. Environment Kuznets curve for CO{sub 2} emissions. A cointegration analysis for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, Abdul [Centre for Economic Development Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 437002 (China); Mahmud, Syed F. [Department of Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO{sub 2} emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO{sub 2} emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  3. Environment Kuznets curve for CO{sub 2} emissions: A cointegration analysis for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, Abdul, E-mail: jalil.hanif@gmail.co [Centre for Economic Development Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 437002 (China); Mahmud, Syed F., E-mail: syed@bilkent.edu.t [Department of Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO{sub 2} emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO{sub 2} emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO{sub 2} emissions.

  4. Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A cointegration analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, Abdul; Mahmud, Syed F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO 2 emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO 2 emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO 2 emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO 2 emissions.

  5. Radionuclide Angiocardiographic Evaluation of Left-to-Right Cardiac Shunts: Analysis of Time-Active Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Chi Kyung

    1987-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the radionuclide angiocardiography provided a useful approach for the evaluation of left-to-right cardiac shunts (LRCS). While the qualitative information can be obtained by inspection of serial radionuclide angiocardiograms, the quantitative information of radionuclide angiocardiography can be obtained by the analysis of time-activity curves using advanced computer system. The count ratios method and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) by gamma variate fit method were used to evaluate the accuracy of detection and localization of LRCS. One hundred and ten time-activity curves were analyzed. There were 46 LRCS (atrial septal defects 11, ventricular septal defects 22, patent ductus arteriosus 13) and 64 normal subjects. By computer analysis of time-activity curves of the right atriurn, ventricle and the lungs separately, the count ratios modified by adding the mean cardiac transit time were calculated in each anatomic site. In normal subjects the mean count ratios in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs were 0.24 on average. In atrial septal defects, the count ratios were high in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs, whereas in ventricular septal defects the count ratios were higher only in the right ventricle and lungs. Patent ductus arteriosus showed normal count ratios in the heart but high count ratios were obtained in the lungs. Thus, this count ratios method could be separated normal from those with intracardiac or extracardiac shunts, and moreover, with this method the localization of the shunt level was possible in LRCS. Another method that could differentiate the intracardiac shunts from extracardiac shunts was measuring QP/QS in the left and right lungs. In patent ductus arteriosus, the left lung QP/QS was higher than those of the right lung, whereas in atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects QP/ QS ratios were equal in both lungs. From this study, it was found that by measuring QP/QS separately in the lungs

  6. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  7. Experience curve analysis on South Korean nuclear technology and comparative analysis with South Korean renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chang, Hyun Joon

    2012-01-01

    Increasing awareness on environmental damage and climate change has induced many nations to engage in green growth. South Korea, as one of the largest consumers of energy, is no exception and has shown its determination to pursue green growth in the future. In order to do so, South Korea plans to substitute fossil fuel with alternative sources in electricity generation. However, the key constraint to green growth is the high cost faced by renewable electricity generation. Fortunately, nuclear energy can serve as an economic alternative to fossil fuel. To achieve CO 2 emission reduction and faster economic growth, it is wise to analyze prospects of alternatives using experience curve framework. The results and industry background are consistent for nuclear technology, and the results suggest that nuclear should serve as the main substitute. Consideration of policy risk inherent in renewable also strengthens the argument. Renewable technologies, on the other hand, showed overstated learning capacity that is partially inconsistent with technological background. Nevertheless, the renewable (photovoltaic and fuel cell) should help nuclear marginally in substituting fossil fuel in South Korea's Electricity Generation. - Highlights: ► Progress ratios of renewable energy show great prospect. ► The policy risk is inherent in renewable and may overestimate its prospect. ► Nuclear sources are economic and less affected by policy risk. ► Fuel cell and photovoltaic should help nuclear marginally in green growth.

  8. Transmission and selection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections detected by rapid high resolution melt analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Twin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG causes urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. The MG treatment failure rate using 1 g azithromycin at an Australian Sexual Health clinic in 2007-9 was 31% (95%CI 23-40%. We developed a rapid high resolution melt analysis (HRMA assay targeting resistance mutations in the MG 23S rRNA gene, and validated it against DNA sequencing by examining pre- and post-treatment archived samples from MG-infected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Available MG-positive pre-treatment (n = 82 and post-treatment samples from individuals with clinical treatment failure (n = 20 were screened for 23S rRNA gene mutations. Sixteen (20% pre-treatment samples possessed resistance mutations (A2058G, A2059G, A2059C, which were significantly more common in patients with symptomatic azithromycin-treatment failure (12/26; 44% than in those clinically cured (4/56; 7%, p<0.001. All 20 patients experiencing azithromycin-failure had detectable mutations in their post-treatment samples. In 9 of these cases, the same mutational types were present in both pre- and post-treatment samples indicating transmitted resistance, whilst in 11 of these cases (55%, mutations were absent in pre-treatment samples indicating likely selection of resistant isolates have occurred. HRMA was able to detect all mutational changes determined in this study by DNA sequencing. An additional HRMA assay incorporating an unlabelled probe was also developed to detect type 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in other populations, with a slightly lower sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment failure is associated with the detection of macrolide resistance mutations, which appear to be almost equally due to selection of resistant isolates following exposure to 1 g azithromycin and pre-existing transmitted resistance. The application of a rapid molecular assay to detect resistance at the time of initial detection of infection allows

  9. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Jang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air, the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer.

  10. Rapid Identification of Echinococcus granulosus and E. canadensis Using High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis by Focusing on a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Ahmad Hosseini; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Tajaddini, Mohammadhasan; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Mohtashami-Pour, Mehdi; Pestehchian, Nader

    2016-07-22

    High-resolution melting (HRM) is a reliable and sensitive scanning method to detect variation in DNA sequences. We used this method to better understand the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus granulosus. We tested the use of HRM to discriminate the genotypes of E. granulosus and E. canadensis. One hundred forty-one hydatid cysts were collected from slaughtered animals in different parts of Isfahan-Iran in 2013. After DNA extraction, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was amplified using PCR coupled with the HRM curve. The result of HRM analysis using partial the sequences of cox1 gene revealed that 93, 35, and 2 isolates were identified as G1, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in locus 9867 of the cox1 gene. This is a critical locus for the differentiation between the G6 and G7 genotypes. In the phylogenic tree, the sample with a SNP was located between the G6 and G7 genotypes, which suggest that this isolate has a G6/G7 genotype. The HRM analysis developed in the present study provides a powerful technique for molecular and epidemiological studies on echinococcosis in humans and animals.

  11. Identification of Brucella spp. isolated from human brucellosis in Malaysia using high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zahidi, Jama'ayah; Bee Yong, Tay; Hashim, Rohaidah; Mohd Noor, Azura; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah

    2015-04-01

    Molecular approaches have been investigated to overcome difficulties in identification and differentiation of Brucella spp. using conventional phenotypic methods. In this study, high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis was used for rapid identification and differentiation of members of Brucella genus. A total of 41 Brucella spp. isolates from human brucellosis were subjected to HRM analysis using 4 sets of primers, which identified 40 isolates as Brucella melitensis and 1 as Brucella canis. The technique utilized low DNA concentration and was highly reproducible. The assay is shown to be a useful diagnostic tool, which can rapidly differentiate Brucella up to species level. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  13. Applying of isoconversional analysis to calorimetric data on the gel melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranca, I.; Lupascu, T.; Povar, I.

    2012-02-01

    The present study is concerned to the thermal stability of gelatin gels that is defined that their resistance to melting or, in other words, to the thermally stimulated transitions from gel to sol. The both sol-gel and gel-sol transitions were followed by regular Mettler-Toledo DSC 823e and stochastically modulated multi-frequency DSC (TOPEM® by Mettler-Toledo). The DSC data have been treated by using an advanced isoconversional method developed by Vyazovkin [1,2]. The method allows revealing a variation in the effective activation energy (Eα) with the extent of conversion (α). It has been discovered that an increase in the concentration of gelatin solutions causes an increase in the energy barrier to melting of non-isothermally prepared gels.

  14. Analysis and optimisation of vertical surface roughness in micro selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, Eberhard; Kniepkamp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness is a major disadvantage of many additive manufacturing technologies like selective laser melting (SLM) compared to established processes like milling or drilling. With recent advancements the resolution of the SLM process could be increased to layer heights of less than 10 μm leading to a new process called micro selective laser melting (μSLM). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of the μSLM process parameters and exposure strategies on the morphology of vertical surfaces. Contour scanning using varying process parameters was used to increase the surface quality. It is shown that it is possible to achieve average surface roughness of less than 1.7 μm using low scan speeds compared to 8–10 μm without contour scanning. Furthermore it is shown that a contour exposure prior to the core exposure leads to surface defects and thus increased roughness. (paper)

  15. A study on structural analysis of highly corrosive melts at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtori, N

    2002-01-01

    When sodium is burned at high temperature in the atmosphere, it reacts simultaneously with H sub 2 O in the atmosphere so that it can produce high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion (O sub 2 sup 2 sup -), it will be a considerably active and corrosive for iron so that several sodium iron double oxides will be produced as corrosion products after the reaction with steel structures. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature and that of identification of the several corrosion products using laser Raman spectroscopy. The measurement system with ultraviolet laser was developed simultaneously in the present work to improve the ability of the measurement at high temperature. As results from the measurements, the possibility of the presence of peroxide ion was shown up to 823K in sodium peroxide and 823K in the melt of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. A...

  16. Melt Inclusion Analysis of RBT 04262 with Relationship to Shergottites and Mars Surface Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. A.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Martian meteorite RBT 04262 is in the shergottite class. It displays the two lithologies typically found in "lherzolitic shergottites": one with a poikilitic texture of large pyroxene enclosing olivine and another with non-poikilitic texture. In the case of RBT 04262, the latter strongly ressembles an olivine- phyric shergottite which led the initial classification of this meteorite in that class. RBT 04262 has been studied with regards to its petrology, geochemistry and cosmic ray exposure and belongs to the enriched oxidized end-member of the shergottites. Studies on RBT 04262 have primarily focused on the bulk rock composition or each of the lithologies independently. To further elucidate RBT 04262's petrology and use it to better understand Martian geologic history, an in-depth study of its melt inclusions (MI) is being conducted. The MI chosen for this study are found within olivine grains. MI are thought to be trapped melts of the crystallizing magma preserved by the encapsulating olivine and offer snapshots of the composition of the magma as it evolves. Some MI, in the most Mg-rich part of the olivine of olivine-pyric shergottites, may even be representative of the meteorite parent melt.

  17. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  18. Fitness of the analysis method of magnesium in drinking water using atomic absorption with quadratic calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative chemical analysis has been importance in research. Also, aspects like: quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest. Some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve have presented limitations, because the short liner dynamic ranges of the analyte, or sometimes, by limiting the technique itself. The need has been to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic calibration curves for analytical quantification, with which it has seeked demonstrate that has been a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. An analysis base method is used on the technique of atomic absorption spectroscopy and in particular a determination of magnesium in a drinking water sample of the Tacares sector North of Grecia. A nonlinear calibration curve was used and specifically a curve with quadratic behavior. The same was compared with the test results obtained for the equal analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results have showed that the methodology has been valid for the determination referred with all confidence, since the concentrations have been very similar and, according to the used hypothesis testing, can be considered equal. (author) [es

  19. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-01-01

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds

  20. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T. [European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); McFall, M., E-mail: ignace@etsu.edu [Department of Physics, 191 W. Woodruff Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  1. Reliability assessment of a manual-based procedure towards learning curve modeling and fmea analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rech

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation procedures in drug Distribution Centers (DC are manual-based activities prone to failures such as shipping exchanged, expired or broken drugs to the customer. Two interventions seem as promising in improving the reliability in the separation procedure: (i selection and allocation of appropriate operators to the procedure, and (ii analysis of potential failure modes incurred by selected operators. This article integrates Learning Curves (LC and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis aimed at reducing the occurrence of failures in the manual separation of a drug DC. LCs parameters enable generating an index to identify the recommended operators to perform the procedures. The FMEA is then applied to the separation procedure carried out by the selected operators in order to identify failure modes. It also deployed the traditional FMEA severity index into two sub-indexes related to financial issues and damage to company´s image in order to characterize failures severity. When applied to a drug DC, the proposed method significantly reduced the frequency and severity of failures in the separation procedure.

  2. [Multiple linear regression and ROC curve analysis of the factors of lumbar spine bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yinxia; Hu, Shaoyong; Hao, Shuai; Yan, Jiewen; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shaolin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) and age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, waistline, hipline, bone marrow and abdomen fat, and to explore the key factor affecting the BMD. A total of 72 cases were randomly recruited. All the subjects underwent a spectroscopic examination of the third lumber vertebra with single-voxel method in 1.5T MR. Lipid fractions (FF%) were measured. Quantitative CT were also performed to get the BMD of L3 and the corresponding abdomen subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The statistical analysis were performed by SPSS 19.0. Multiple linear regression showed except the age and FF% showed significant difference (P0.05). The correlation of age and FF% with BMD was statistically negatively significant (r=-0.830, -0.521, P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 81.8% and 86.9%, with a threshold of 58.5 years old. And it showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 90.9% and 55.7%, with a threshold of 52.8% for FF%. The lumbar vertebra BMD was significantly and negatively correlated with age and bone marrow FF%, but it was not significantly correlated with gender, height, weight, BMI, waistline, hipline, SAT and VAT. And age was the critical factor.

  3. STRESS - STRAIN CURVE ANALYSIS OF WOVEN FABRICS MAD E FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE WOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÎLCU Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is carried out based on the tensile testing, using certain indexes specific to the stress-strain curve. The paper considers an experimental matrix based on woven fabrics of different yarn counts, different or equal yarn count for warp and weft systems and different structures. The fabrics were tested using a testing machine and the results were then compared in order to determine the fabrics’ tensile behavior and the factors of influence that affect it.From the point of view of tensile testing, the woven materials having twill weave are preferable because this type of structure is characterized by higher durability and better yarn stability in the fabric. In practice, the woven material must exhibit an optimum behavior to repeated strains, flexions and abrasions during wearing process. The analysis of fabrics tensile properties studied by investigation of stress-strain diagrams reveals that the main factors influencing the tensile strength are: yarns fineness, technological density of those two systems of yarns and the weaving type.

  4. Verification of IVA5 computer code for melt-water interaction analysis. Pt. 2. Three-phase flows with melt fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to qualify IVA5 for applications in the field of the melt-water interactions in nuclear reactor safety, we analyzed the achievable accuracy by predicting phenomena that are within this class. Comparison with FARO and PREMIX experiments characterized with dynamic fragmentation of the participating materials together With the comparison with the variety of experiments documented in part 1 of this work qualified IVA5 as a code representing the state-of-the-art in the field of the multiphase flows. The code is capable of predicting multi-phase flow behavior in complicated 3D geometries and industrial networks. The code is able to predict melt-water interaction in well quantified uncertainty region. Reducing the uncertainty band needs future sophistication in the directions specified in this work. (author)

  5. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  6. Measurement of activated rCBF by the 133Xe inhalation technique: a comparison of total versus partial curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli, D.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Hazelrig, J.B.; Falgout, J.C.; Hannay, H.J.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133 Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders

  7. Identification of TNIP1 Polymorphisms by High Resolution Melting Analysis with Unlabelled Probe: Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3 interacting with protein 1 (TNIP1 acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB and plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of immune system. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS showed that the polymorphism of TNIP1 was associated with the disease risk of SLE in Caucasian. In this study, we investigated whether the association of TNIP1 with SLE was replicated in Chinese population. Methods. The association of TNIP1 SNP rs7708392 (G/C was determined by high resolution melting (HRM analysis with unlabeled probe in 285 SLE patients and 336 healthy controls. Results. A new SNP rs79937737 located on 5 bp upstream of rs7708392 was discovered during the HRM analysis. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was found. Furthermore, rs7708392 and rs79937737 were in weak linkage disequilibrium (LD. Hypotypes analysis of the two SNPs also showed no association with SLE in Chinese population. Conclusions. High resolution melting analysis with unlabeled probes proves to be a powerful and efficient genotyping method for identifying and screening SNPs. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was observed in Chinese population.

  8. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  9. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  10. A Literature-Based Analysis of the Learning Curves of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Good

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend for the increased adoption of minimally invasive techniques of radical prostatectomy (RP – laparoscopic (LRP and robotic assisted (RARP – from the traditional open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP, popularised by Partin et al. Recently there has been a dramatic expansion in the rates of RARP being performed, and there have been many early reports postulating that the learning curve for RARP is shorter than for LRP. The aim of this study was to review the literature and analyse the length of the LRP learning curves for the various outcome measures: perioperative, oncologic, and functional outcomes. A broad search of the literature was performed in November 2013 using the PubMed database. Only studies of real patients and those from 2004 until 2013 were included; those on simulators were excluded. In total, 239 studies were identified after which 13 were included. The learning curve is a heterogeneous entity, depending entirely on the criteria used to define it. There is evidence of multiple learning curves; however the length of these is dependent on the definitions used by the authors. Few studies use the more rigorous definition of plateauing of the curve. Perioperative learning curve takes approximately 150-200 cases to plateau, oncologic curve approximately 200 cases, and the functional learning curve up to 700 cases to plateau (700 for potency, 200 cases for continence. In this review, we have analysed the literature with respect to the learning curve for LRP. It is clear that the learning curve is long. This necessitates centralising LRP to high volume centres such that surgeons, trainees, and patients are able to utilise the benefits of LRP.

  11. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yi; Lu, Xiang-long; Zhao, Qiu-wen; Dong, Dian-qiao; Lao, Bao-qiang; Lu, Yang; Wei, Yan-heng; Wu, Xiao-cong; An, Tao

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  12. On the analysis of the activation mechanisms of sub-melt laser anneals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Goosens, J.

    2008-01-01

    electrically active concentration level as well as the concurrent mobility is dependent on the dopant concentration level. This implies that the activation of B through the laser anneal process in the explored temperature–time space is governed by kinetic processes (i.e. the dissolution of B–I pairs......In order to fabricate carrier profiles with a junction depth (15 nm) and sheet resistance value suited for sub-32 nm Si-CMOS technology, the usage of sub-melt laser anneal is a promising route to explore. As laser annealed junctions seem to outperform standard anneal approaches, a detailed......) and not by the (temperature related) solid solubility....

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

    2010-10-01

    The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the

  14. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  15. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  17. The application of latent curve analysis to testing developmental theories in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P J; Muthén, B O

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a prevention or intervention program has traditionally been assessed using time-specific comparisons of mean levels between the treatment and the control groups. However, many times the behavior targeted by the intervention is naturally developing over time, and the goal of the treatment is to alter this natural or normative developmental trajectory. Examining time-specific mean levels can be both limiting and potentially misleading when the behavior of interest is developing systematically over time. It is argued here that there are both theoretical and statistical advantages associated with recasting intervention treatment effects in terms of normative and altered developmental trajectories. The recently developed technique of latent curve (LC) analysis is reviewed and extended to a true experimental design setting in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment intervention or a control condition. LC models are applied to both artificially generated and real intervention data sets to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program. Not only do the LC models provide a more comprehensive understanding of the treatment and control group developmental processes compared to more traditional fixed-effects models, but LC models have greater statistical power to detect a given treatment effect. Finally, the LC models are modified to allow for the computation of specific power estimates under a variety of conditions and assumptions that can provide much needed information for the planning and design of more powerful but cost-efficient intervention programs for the future.

  18. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  19. Left ventricular time volume curve analysis in the detection of limited ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liechtenstein, M.; Blanchett, W.; Andrews, J.; Hunt, D.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether limited coronary artery disease (CAD) could be accurately detected using the Cardiac Gated Blood Pool (CGBP) scan with exercise. Regional left ventricular time volume curves (RLTVD) were generated from 52 studies (46 patients: 22 normals, 24 abnormals). The parameters assessed both globally and regionally and at rest (R) and exercise (Ex) were: (1) the ejection fraction (EF) (2) the change in ejection fraction from R to Ex (δEF) (3) an early contraction index (ECI) (4) a maximal emptying index (DR) and (5) a maximal refilling index (AR). After careful analysis of these parameters it was decided that our diagnostic criteria would rely on the following: (1) the EF at R and Ex (2) the δ EF (3) the ECI at Ex (4) the AR at Ex This study showed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of the CGBP scan can be improved considerably with the inclusion of RLTVC from the levels obtained when the EF parameters alone are considered. It is possible with this technique to accurately diagnose limited CAD. (Author)

  20. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression in Young Adults: An ROC Curves Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Imperatori, Claudio; Sergi, Maria Rita; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Continisio, Massimo; Tamburello, Antonino; Innamorati, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and Methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, whether cognitive vulnerabilities (CV), as measured by three well-known instruments (the Beck Hopelessness Scale, BHS; the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R; and the Attitudes Toward Self-Revised, ATS-R), independently discriminate between subjects with different severities of depression. Participants were 467 young adults (336 females and 131 males), recruited from the general population. The subjects were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results. Four first-order (BHS Optimism/Low Standard; BHS Pessimism; Generalized Self-Criticism; and LOT Optimism) and two higher-order factors (Pessimism/Negative Attitudes Toward Self, Optimism) were extracted using Principal Axis Factoring analysis. Although all first-order and second-order factors were able to discriminate individuals with different depression severities, the Pessimism factor had the best performance in discriminating individuals with moderate to severe depression from those with lower depression severity. Conclusion. In the screening of young adults at risk of depression, clinicians have to pay particular attention to the expression of pessimism about the future.

  1. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia. An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to 1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to 3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run. (author)

  2. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez, E-mail: fodha@univ-paris1.f [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  3. On the applicability of numerical image mapping for PIV image analysis near curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masullo, Alessandro; Theunissen, Raf

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the general suitability of image mapping for particle image velocimetry (PIV) applications. Image mapping can improve PIV measurement accuracy by eliminating overlap between the PIV interrogation windows and an interface, as illustrated by some examples in the literature. Image mapping transforms the PIV images using a curvilinear interface-fitted mesh prior to performing the PIV cross correlation. However, degrading effects due to particle image deformation and the Jacobian transformation inherent in the mapping along curvilinear grid lines have never been deeply investigated. Here, the implementation of image mapping from mesh generation to image resampling is presented in detail, and related error sources are analysed. Systematic comparison with standard PIV approaches shows that image mapping is effective only in a very limited set of flow conditions and geometries, and depends strongly on a priori knowledge of the boundary shape and streamlines. In particular, with strongly curved geometries or streamlines that are not parallel to the interface, the image-mapping approach is easily outperformed by more traditional image analysis methodologies invoking suitable spatial relocation of the obtained displacement vector. (paper)

  4. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodha, Mouez; Zaghdoud, Oussama

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO 2 emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  5. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose- effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Achkar, W.

    2002-01-01

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, blood from eight healthy people were studied. Samples were irradiated in tubes with 0.15-2.5 gray of gamma ray.Irradiated and control samples were incubated for cell cultures. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics+ rings and total numbers of breaks were drawn. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Simulation and analysis of the transmission properties of curved-straight neutron guide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copley, J.R.D.; Mildner, D.F.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the spatial intensity distribution of neutrons emerging from a curved guide is far from uniform, particularly at short wavelengths, and curved guides are sometimes followed by a straight section of guide to make the intensity distribution more uniform. The behavior of neutrons within curved-straight neutron guide systems is examined using both ray-tracing and analytical approaches to the problem. The intensity distribution within the straight guide tends to wash from one side of the guide to the other. The amplitude of this transverse wave decreases with increasing guide length, and the characteristic length of the wave decreases with increasing neutron wavelength

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE SECONDARY CURVES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SELECTIVE ARTHRODESIS LENKE I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TADEU GERVAZONI DEBOM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To radiographically evaluate the behavior of the secondary curves in the coronal and sagittal planes in patients with AIS classified as Lenke I, who underwent surgical treatment of selective arthrodesis by posterior approach. Methods : Retrospective study which analyzed 40 patients with AIS, being 33 female. The measurement of the radiographic parameters used followed the recommendations by Cobb. Results : The average correction of the thoracic proximal, primary and lumbar curves was 34.73%, 75.06% and 64.64%, respectively. Conclusion : Surgical treatment by selective arthrodesis in cases of AIS Lenke type I provide correction of compensatory curves in the coronal and maintenance in the sagittal plane.

  8. Bounding analysis of containment of high pressure melt ejection in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Fontana, M.H.; Carter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the loadings on containment due to direct containment heating (DCH) as a result of high pressure melt ejection (HPME) in advanced light water reactors (ALWR) which were estimated using conservative, bounding analyses. The purpose of the analyses was to scope the magnitude of the possible loadings and to indicate the performance needed from potential mitigation methods, such as a cavity configuration that limits energy transfer to the upper containment volume. Analyses were performed for three cases which examined the effect of availability of high pressure reactor coolant system water at the time of reactor vessel melt through and the effect of preflooding of the reactor cavity. The amount of core ejected from the vessel was varied from 100% to 0% for all cases. Results indicate that all amounts of core debris dispersal could be accommodated by the containment for the case where the reactor cavity was preflooded. For the worst case, all the energy from in-vessel hydrogen generation and combustion plus that from 45% of the entire molten core would be required to equilibrate with the containment upper volume in order to reach containment failure pressure

  9. Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramón-Laca

    Full Text Available Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species. In New Zealand, 10 species of ungulate (Order: Artiodactyla have established wild populations and are managed as pests because of their impacts on native ecosystems. However, identifying the ungulate species present within a management area based on pellet morphology is unreliable. We present a method that enables reliable identification of 10 ungulate species (red deer, sika deer, rusa deer, fallow deer, sambar deer, white-tailed deer, Himalayan tahr, Alpine chamois, feral sheep, and feral goat from swabs of faecal pellets. A high resolution melting (HRM assay, targeting a fragment of the 12S rRNA gene, was developed. Species-specific primers were designed and combined in a multiplex PCR resulting in fragments of different length and therefore different melting behaviour for each species. The method was developed using tissue from each of the 10 species, and was validated in blind trials. Our protocol enabled species to be determined for 94% of faecal pellet swabs collected during routine monitoring by the New Zealand Department of Conservation. Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

  10. Cold Spray Deposition of Freestanding Inconel Samples and Comparative Analysis with Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifard, Sara; Roscioli, Gianluca; Zuccoli, Maria Vittoria; Hadi, Mehdi; D'Elia, Gaetano; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Kondás, Ján; Guagliano, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Cold spray offers the possibility of obtaining almost zero-porosity buildups with no theoretical limit to the thickness. Moreover, cold spray can eliminate particle melting, evaporation, crystallization, grain growth, unwanted oxidation, undesirable phases and thermally induced tensile residual stresses. Such characteristics can boost its potential to be used as an additive manufacturing technique. Indeed, deposition via cold spray is recently finding its path toward fabrication of freeform components since it can address the common challenges of powder-bed additive manufacturing techniques including major size constraints, deposition rate limitations and high process temperature. Herein, we prepared nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 samples with cold spray technique and compared them with similar samples fabricated by selective laser melting method. The samples fabricated using both methods were characterized in terms of mechanical strength, microstructural and porosity characteristics, Vickers microhardness and residual stresses distribution. Different heat treatment cycles were applied to the cold-sprayed samples in order to enhance their mechanical characteristics. The obtained data confirm that cold spray technique can be used as a complementary additive manufacturing method for fabrication of high-quality freestanding components where higher deposition rate, larger final size and lower fabrication temperatures are desired.

  11. On the analysis of glycomics mass spectrometry data via the regularized area under the ROC curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebrilla Carlito B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel molecular and statistical methods are in rising demand for disease diagnosis and prognosis with the help of recent advanced biotechnology. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS is one of those biotechnologies that are highly promising to improve health outcome. Previous literatures have identified some proteomics biomarkers that can distinguish healthy patients from cancer patients using MS data. In this paper, an MS study is demonstrated which uses glycomics to identify ovarian cancer. Glycomics is the study of glycans and glycoproteins. The glycans on the proteins may deviate between a cancer cell and a normal cell and may be visible in the blood. High-resolution MS has been applied to measure relative abundances of potential glycan biomarkers in human serum. Multiple potential glycan biomarkers are measured in MS spectra. With the objection of maximizing the empirical area under the ROC curve (AUC, an analysis method was considered which combines potential glycan biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer. Results Maximizing the empirical AUC of glycomics MS data is a large-dimensional optimization problem. The technical difficulty is that the empirical AUC function is not continuous. Instead, it is in fact an empirical 0–1 loss function with a large number of linear predictors. An approach was investigated that regularizes the area under the ROC curve while replacing the 0–1 loss function with a smooth surrogate function. The constrained threshold gradient descent regularization algorithm was applied, where the regularization parameters were chosen by the cross-validation method, and the confidence intervals of the regression parameters were estimated by the bootstrap method. The method is called TGDR-AUC algorithm. The properties of the approach were studied through a numerical simulation study, which incorporates the positive values of mass spectrometry data with the correlations between measurements within person

  12. Parametric and quantitative analysis of MR renographic curves for assessing the functional behaviour of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michoux, N.; Montet, X.; Pechere, A.; Ivancevic, M.K.; Martin, P.-Y.; Keller, A.; Didier, D.; Terrier, F.; Vallee, J.-P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to refine the description of the renal function based on MR images and through transit-time curve analysis on a normal population and on a population with renal failure, using the quantitative model of the up-slope. Thirty patients referred for a kidney MR exam were divided in a first population with well-functioning kidneys and in a second population with renal failure from ischaemic kidney disease. The perfusion sequence consisted of an intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA and of a fast GRE sequence T1-TFE with 90 deg. magnetisation preparation (Intera 1.5 T MR System, Philips Medical System). To convert the signal intensity into 1/T1, which is proportional to the contrast media concentration, a flow-corrected calibration procedure was used. Following segmentation of regions of interest in the cortex and medulla of the kidney and in the abdominal aorta, outflow curves were obtained and filtered to remove the high frequency fluctuations. The model of the up-slope method was then applied. Significant reduction of the cortical perfusion (Q{sub c}=0.057{+-}0.030 ml/(s 100 g) to Q{sub c}=0.030{+-}0.017 ml/(s 100 g), P<0.013), of the medullary perfusion (Q{sub m}=0.023{+-}0.018 ml/(s 100 g) to Q{sub m}=0.011{+-}0.006 ml/(s 100 g), P<0.046) and of the accumulation of contrast media in the medulla (Q{sub a}=0.005{+-}0.003 ml/(s 100 g) to Q{sub a}=0.0009{+-}0.0008 ml/(s 100 g), P<0.001) were found in presence of renal failure. High correlations were found between the creatinine level and the accumulation Q{sub a} in the medulla (r{sup 2}=0.72, P<0.05), and between the perfusion ratio Q{sub c}/Q{sub m} and the accumulation Q{sub a} in the medulla (r{sup 2}=0.81, P<0.05). No significant difference was found in times to peak between both populations despite a trend showing T{sub a} the time to the end of the increasing contrast accumulation period in the medulla, arriving later for renal failure. Advances in MR signal calibration with the building of

  13. A Computerized QC Analysis of TLD Glow Curves for Personal Dosimetry Measurements Using Tag QC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, S.; Datz, H.; Dar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Lab (EDL) at the Radiation Safety Division at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC) is ISO 17025 certified and provides its services to approximately 13,000 users throughout the country from various sectors such as medical, industrial and academic. About 95% of the users are monitored monthly for X-rays, radiation using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) cards that contain three LiF:Mg,Ti elements and the other users, who work also with thermal neutrons, use TLD cards that contain four LiF:Mg,Ti elements. All TLD cards are measured with the Thermo 8800pc reader. Suspicious TLD glow curve (GC) can cause wrong dose estimation so the EDL makes great efforts to ensure that each GC undergoes a careful QC procedure. The current QC procedure is performed manually and through a few steps using different softwares and databases in a long and complicated procedure: EDL staff needs to export all the results/GCs to be checked to an Excel file, followed by finding the suspicious GCs, which is done in a different program (WinREMS), According to the GC shapes (Figure 1 illustrates suitable and suspicious GC shapes) and the ratio between the elements result values, the inspecting technician corrects the data. The motivation for developing the new program is the complicated and time consuming process of our the manual procedure to the large amount of TLDs each month (13,000), similarly to other Dosimetry services that use computerized QC GC analysis. it is important to note that only ~25% of the results are above the EDL recorded level (0.10 mSv) and need to be inspected. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a new program, TagQC, which allows a computerized QC GC analysis that identifies automatically, swiftly, and accurately suspicious TLD GC

  14. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  15. Size-dependent analysis of a sandwich curved nanobeam integrated with piezomagnetic face-sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Zenkour

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop nonlocal transient magneto-electro-elastic formulation of a sandwich curved nanobeam including a nano-core and two piezo-magnetic face-sheets subjected to transverse mechanical loads and applied electric and magnetic potentials rest on Pasternak’s foundation. Nonlocal magneto-electro-elastic relations and Hamilton’s principle are used for derivation of the governing equations of motion. The analytical solution based on Fourier solution is presented for a simply-supported sandwich curved nanobeam. The numerical results are presented to investigate influence of significant parameters such as nonlocal parameter, radius of curvature, applied electric and magnetic potentials and two parameters of Pasternak's foundation on the dynamic responses of sandwich curved nanobeam. Keywords: Sandwich curved nanobeam, Dynamic responses, Piezo-magnetic face-sheets, Pasternak’s foundation, Radius of curvature, Nonlocal parameter

  16. New Light Curves and Analysis of the Overcontact Binaries PP Lac and DK Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    As a by-product of the ongoing work with the Catalog and AtLas of Eclipsing Binaries database (CALEB; Bradstreet et al. 2004), several hundred eclipsing binary systems have been identified that have either unpublished or poor quality light curves. We present new V & Rc light curves for the overcontact systems PP Lac and DK Sge, both chosen because their deep eclipses (peak-to-peak amplitudes of nearly 0.7 mag) help constrain the light curve modelling. Data were obtained using the 41-cm telescope at the Eastern University Observatory equipped with an SBIG ST-10XME CCD. PP Lac (P= 0.40116 d) is a W-type contact binary with only one previously published light curve (Dumont & Maraziti 1990), but the data are sparse and almost non-existent at primary eclipse. Modelling of these data gave varying results; the published mass ratios differ by nearly 0.3. Our data confirms the noted differing eclipse depths but we find the primary eclipse to be total. We present a new light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 (Bradstreet & Steelman 2002) and Wilson-Devinney, finding the mass ratio to be well-constrained by the duration of total eclipse. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light. DK Sge (P=0.62182 d) appears to be an A-type contact binary with no published light curve. The eclipses are partial, with the primary eclipse being deeper by about 0.08 mag. The maxima show evidence of a slight asymmetry, although the light curve appears to be repeatable over the 1 month of observations. We present the first light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 and Wilson-Devinney, but have limited mass ratio constraints due to the absence of radial velocity data. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light.

  17. Integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelasticity of curved panels based on a modified local piston theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhichun; Zhou, Jian; Gu, Yingsong

    2014-10-01

    A flow field modified local piston theory, which is applied to the integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelastic behaviors of curved panels, is proposed in this paper. The local flow field parameters used in the modification are obtained by CFD technique which has the advantage to simulate the steady flow field accurately. This flow field modified local piston theory for aerodynamic loading is applied to the analysis of static aeroelastic deformation and flutter stabilities of curved panels in hypersonic flow. In addition, comparisons are made between results obtained by using the present method and curvature modified method. It shows that when the curvature of the curved panel is relatively small, the static aeroelastic deformations and flutter stability boundaries obtained by these two methods have little difference, while for curved panels with larger curvatures, the static aeroelastic deformation obtained by the present method is larger and the flutter stability boundary is smaller compared with those obtained by the curvature modified method, and the discrepancy increases with the increasing of curvature of panels. Therefore, the existing curvature modified method is non-conservative compared to the proposed flow field modified method based on the consideration of hypersonic flight vehicle safety, and the proposed flow field modified local piston theory for curved panels enlarges the application range of piston theory.

  18. Multilevel Models for the Analysis of Angle-Specific Torque Curves with Application to Master Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Humberto M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to outline a multilevel modeling approach to fit individual angle-specific torque curves describing concentric knee extension and flexion isokinetic muscular actions in Master athletes. The potential of the analytical approach to examine between individual differences across the angle-specific torque curves was illustrated including between-individuals variation due to gender differences at a higher level. Torques in concentric muscular actions of knee extension and knee extension at 60°·s-1 were considered within a range of motion between 5°and 85° (only torques “truly” isokinetic. Multilevel time series models with autoregressive covariance structures with standard multilevel models were superior fits compared with standard multilevel models for repeated measures to fit anglespecific torque curves. Third and fourth order polynomial models were the best fits to describe angle-specific torque curves of isokinetic knee flexion and extension concentric actions, respectively. The fixed exponents allow interpretations for initial acceleration, the angle at peak torque and the decrement of torque after peak torque. Also, the multilevel models were flexible to illustrate the influence of gender differences on the shape of torque throughout the range of motion and in the shape of the curves. The presented multilevel regression models may afford a general framework to examine angle-specific moment curves by isokinetic dynamometry, and add to the understanding mechanisms of strength development, particularly the force-length relationship, both related to performance and injury prevention.

  19. Bootstrap-based procedures for inference in nonparametric receiver-operating characteristic curve regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Tahoces, Pablo G

    2018-03-01

    Prior to using a diagnostic test in a routine clinical setting, the rigorous evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy is essential. The receiver-operating characteristic curve is the measure of accuracy most widely used for continuous diagnostic tests. However, the possible impact of extra information about the patient (or even the environment) on diagnostic accuracy also needs to be assessed. In this paper, we focus on an estimator for the covariate-specific receiver-operating characteristic curve based on direct regression modelling and nonparametric smoothing techniques. This approach defines the class of generalised additive models for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The main aim of the paper is to offer new inferential procedures for testing the effect of covariates on the conditional receiver-operating characteristic curve within the above-mentioned class. Specifically, two different bootstrap-based tests are suggested to check (a) the possible effect of continuous covariates on the receiver-operating characteristic curve and (b) the presence of factor-by-curve interaction terms. The validity of the proposed bootstrap-based procedures is supported by simulations. To facilitate the application of these new procedures in practice, an R-package, known as npROCRegression, is provided and briefly described. Finally, data derived from a computer-aided diagnostic system for the automatic detection of tumour masses in breast cancer is analysed.

  20. High-resolution melting analysis using unlabeled probe and amplicon scanning simultaneously detects several lactase persistence variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Vestergaard, Else M; Ladefoged, Søren A

    2010-01-01

    Lactase persistence and thereby tolerance to lactose is a common trait in people of Northern European descent. It is linked to the LCT -13910C>T variant located in intron 13 of the MCM6 gene 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene. In people of African and Middle Eastern descent, lactase...... persistence can be associated with other variants nearby the -13910C>T variant, limiting the use of the -13910C>T-based SNP analysis, e.g. TaqMan assays for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Using high-resolution melting analysis, we identified five samples that were heterozygous for the -13915T>G variant...... the -13910C>T and -13915T>G variants in addition to rarer variants surrounding the -13910 site. This new method may contribute to improve the diagnostic performance of the genetic analysis for lactose intolerance....

  1. [Energy dispersive spectrum analysis of surface compositions of selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by different processing parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liang; Zeng, Li; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2015-06-01

    To fabricate selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples by different processing parameters, and to analyze the changes of energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) on their surface. Nine groups were set up by orthogonal experimental design according to different laser powers,scanning speeds and powder feeding rates(laser power:2500-3000 W, scanning speed: 5-15 mm/s, powder feeding rate: 3-6 r/min). Three cylinder specimens(10 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness) were fabricated in each group through Rofin DL 035Q laser cladding system using cobalt-chromium alloy powders which were developed independently by our group.Their surface compositions were then measured by EDS analysis. Results of EDS analysis of the 9 groups fabricated by different processing parameters(Co:62.98%-67.13%,Cr:25.56%-28.50%,Si:0.49%-1.23%) were obtained. They were similar to the compositions of cobalt-chromium alloy used in dental practice. According to EDS results, the surface compositions of the selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples are stable and controllable, which help us gain a preliminary sight into the range of SLM processing parameters. Supported by "973" Program (2012CB910401) and Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (12441903001 and 13140902701).

  2. Study of the Formation of Eutectic Melt of Uranium and Thermal Analysis for the Salt Distillation of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Hwang, Sung Chan; Kang, Young Ho; Park, Ki Min; Jun, Wan Gi; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Dong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Uranium deposits from an electrorefining process contain about 30% salt. In order to recover pure uranium and transform it into an ingot, the salts have to be removed from the uranium deposits. Major process variables for the salt distillation process of the uranium deposits are hold temperature and vacuum pressure. Effects of the variables on the salt removal efficiency were studied in the previous study 1. By applying the Hertz-Langmuir relation to the salt evaporation of the uranium deposits, the evaporation coefficients were obtained at the various conditions. The operational conditions for achieving above 99% salt removal were deduced. The salt distilled uranium deposits tend to form the eutectic melt with iron, nickel, chromium for structural material of salt evaporator. In this study, we investigated the hold temperature limitation in order to prevent the formation of the eutectic melt between uranium and other metals. The reactions between the uranium metal and stainless steel were tested at various conditions. And for enhancing the evaporation rate of the salt and the efficient recovery of the distilled salt, the thermal analysis of the salt distiller was conducted by using commercial CFX software. From the thermal analysis, the effect of Ar gas flow on the evaporation of the salt was studied.

  3. The use of high resolution melting analysis to detect Fabry mutations in heterozygous females via dry bloodspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chang-Long; Liu, Mei-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Chi; Chiang, Chiang-Chuan; Chiang, Hung; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Kao, Shu-Min; Huang, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Tina Jui-Ting; Yang, Chia-Feng; Tsai, Fang-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chen, Hong-Duo; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2012-02-18

    As an X-linked genetic disorder, Fabry disease was first thought to affect males only, and females were generally considered to be asymptomatic carriers. However, recent research suggests that female carriers of Fabry disease may still develop vital organ damage causing severe morbidity and mortality. In the previous newborn screening, from 299,007 newborns, we identified a total of 20 different Fabry mutations and 121 newborns with Fabry mutations. However, we found that most female carriers are not detected by enzyme assays. A streamlined method for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was designed to screen for GLA gene mutations using a same PCR and melting program. Primer sets were designed to cover the 7 exons and the Chinese common intronic mutation, IVS4+919G>A of GLA gene. The HRM analysis was successful in identifying heterozygous and hemizygous patients with the 20 surveyed mutations. We were also successful in using this method to test dry blood spots of newborns afflicted with Fabry mutations without having to determine DNA concentration before PCR amplification. The results of this study show that HRM could be a reliable and sensitive method for use in the rapid screening of females for GLA mutations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is rapidly developing and gaining popularity for direct metal fabrication systems like selective laser melting (SLM). The technology has shown significant improvement for high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures such as conformal cooling channels...... in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid......, hollow, lattice structure and rotated lattice structure. Compression test is applied to the specimens while they are deformed. The analytical approach includes finite element (FE), geometrical and mathematical models for prediction of collapse strength. The results from the the models are verified...

  5. Structural analysis of nanocrystalline ZnTe alloys synthesized by melt quenching technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Singh, Tejbir; Thakur, Anup; Sharma, Jeewan

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnxTe100-x (x=0, 5, 20, 30, 40, 50) alloys have been synthesized using melt quenching technique. Energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) has been used to verify the elemental composition of samples. Various absorption modes are recorded from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirming the formation of ZnTe. The structural study has been performed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. All synthesized samples have been found to be nanocrystalline in nature with average crystallite size in the range from 49.3 nm to 77.1 nm. Results have shown that Zn0Te100 exhibits hexagonal phase that transforms into a cubic ZnTe phase as the amount of zinc is increased. Pure ZnTe phase has been obtained for x = 50. The texture coefficient (Tc) has been calculated to find the prominent orientations of different planes.

  6. Melting the diquark condensate in two-color QCD: A renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstam, J.; Lenaghan, J.T.; Splittorff, K.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Landau theory and the ε expansion to study the superfluid phase transition of two-color QCD at a nonzero temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ. At low T, and for N f flavors of massless quarks, the global SU(N f )xSU(N f )xU(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken by a diquark condensate down to Sp(N f )xSp(N f ) for any μ>0. As the temperature increases, the diquark condensate melts, and at sufficiently large T the symmetry is restored. Using renormalization group arguments, we find that in the presence of the chiral anomaly term there can be a second order phase transition when N f =2 or N f ≥6, while the transition is first order for N f =4. We discuss the relevance of these results for the emergence of a tricritical point recently observed in lattice simulations

  7. Numerical analysis on thermal characteristics and ice melting efficiency for microwave deicing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Yang, Bo; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Zhou, Li; Xiong, Shengguang

    2016-05-01

    In the high latitudes, the icy patches on the road are frequently generated and have a wide distribution, which are difficult to remove and obviously affect the normal usage of the highways, bridges and airport runways. Physical deicing, such as microwave (MW) deicing, help the ice melt completely through heating mode and then the ice layer can be swept away. Though it is no pollution and no damage to the ground, the low efficiency hinders the development of MW deicing vehicle equipped without sufficient speed. In this work, the standard evaluation of deicing is put forward firstly. The intensive MW deicing is simplified to ice melting process characterized by one-dimensional slab with uniform volumetric energy generation, which results in phase transformation and interface motion between ice and water. The heating process is split into the superposition of three parts — non-heterogeneous heating for ground without phase change, heat transfer with phase change and the heat convection between top surface of ice layer and flow air. Based on the transient heat conduction theory, a mathematical model, combining electromagnetic and two-phase thermal conduction, is proposed in this work, which is able to reveal the relationship between the deicing efficiency and ambient conditions, as well as energy generation and material parameters. Using finite difference time-domain, this comprehensive model is developed to solve the moving boundary heat transfer problem in a one-dimensional structured gird. As a result, the stimulation shows the longitudinal temperature distributions in all circumstances and quantitative validation is obtained by comparing simulated temperature distributions under different conditions. In view of the best economy and fast deicing, these analytic solutions referring to the complex influence factors of deicing efficiency demonstrate the optimal matching for the new deicing design.

  8. Exponential Decay Nonlinear Regression Analysis of Patient Survival Curves: Preliminary Assessment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David J.; Behrens, Carmen; Roth, Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2010-01-01

    Background For processes that follow first order kinetics, exponential decay nonlinear regression analysis (EDNRA) may delineate curve characteristics and suggest processes affecting curve shape. We conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of EDNRA of patient survival curves. Methods EDNRA was performed on Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) and time-to-relapse (TTR) curves for 323 patients with resected NSCLC and on OS and progression-free survival (PFS) curves from selected publications. Results and Conclusions In our resected patients, TTR curves were triphasic with a “cured” fraction of 60.7% (half-life [t1/2] >100,000 months), a rapidly-relapsing group (7.4%, t1/2=5.9 months) and a slowly-relapsing group (31.9%, t1/2=23.6 months). OS was uniphasic (t1/2=74.3 months), suggesting an impact of co-morbidities; hence, tumor molecular characteristics would more likely predict TTR than OS. Of 172 published curves analyzed, 72 (42%) were uniphasic, 92 (53%) were biphasic, 8 (5%) were triphasic. With first-line chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, 87.5% of curves from 2-3 drug regimens were uniphasic vs only 20% of those with best supportive care or 1 drug (p<0.001). 54% of curves from 2-3 drug regimens had convex rapid-decay phases vs 0% with fewer agents (p<0.001). Curve convexities suggest that discontinuing chemotherapy after 3-6 cycles “synchronizes” patient progression and death. With postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the PFS rapid-decay phase accounted for a smaller proportion of the population than in controls (p=0.02) with no significant difference in rapid-decay t1/2, suggesting adjuvant chemotherapy may move a subpopulation of patients with sensitive tumors from the relapsing group to the cured group, with minimal impact on time to relapse for a larger group of patients with resistant tumors. In untreated patients, the proportion of patients in the rapid-decay phase increased (p=0.04) while rapid-decay t1/2 decreased (p=0.0004) with increasing

  9. Comparative analysis of costs for the generation of electrical energy in Brazil using the screening curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Thaisa C. de; Castrillo, Lazara S.; Xavier, Aline G.; Goncalves, Gabriela de L.; Melo, Julio Angelo, E-mail: barros.camara@gmail.com, E-mail: lazaracastrillo@hotmail.com, E-mail: alinegxavier@gmail.com, E-mail: gabilimag_@hotmail.com, E-mail: angelo_mecanic@hotmail.com [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica Industrial

    2017-11-01

    To meet the demand for electric consumption, it is fundamental to prepare an efficient energy planning that guarantees the safe supply of energy, so that the price of kilowatt-hours for the consumer respects the tariff modality and the socio-environmental impact is the smallest possible. In recent years, alternative sources of energy have been gaining considerable space in the Brazilian generating park. Among the many options for energy supply, choosing the most feasible involves the use of techniques that compare all the costs involved in generating electricity from the sources available in the Brazilian energy matrix. The objective of the work is to show a quick, practical and objective tool that performs this comparison and assists in decision making. The method based on the comparison is the Cost of Energy and the tool for the application of the same are the Screening curves, widely used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this analysis, the following parameters are considered: operating capacity, toxic gas emission rate, fuel consumption and values, fixed and variable costs of operation and maintenance, investment values for each source, construction time and useful life. It is worth noting that the method does not consider in calculations aspects such as inflation, forced interruptions of the plant and other more specific factors. With the work, it was possible to perform an examination of the costs of the generation technologies available in Brazil and, through the obtained data, the economic viability of the generating parks was discussed through simulations in different scenarios, comparing the sources among themselves. (author)

  10. Comparative analysis of costs for the generation of electrical energy in Brazil using the screening curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Thaisa C. de; Castrillo, Lazara S.; Xavier, Aline G.; Goncalves, Gabriela de L.; Melo, Julio Angelo

    2017-01-01

    To meet the demand for electric consumption, it is fundamental to prepare an efficient energy planning that guarantees the safe supply of energy, so that the price of kilowatt-hours for the consumer respects the tariff modality and the socio-environmental impact is the smallest possible. In recent years, alternative sources of energy have been gaining considerable space in the Brazilian generating park. Among the many options for energy supply, choosing the most feasible involves the use of techniques that compare all the costs involved in generating electricity from the sources available in the Brazilian energy matrix. The objective of the work is to show a quick, practical and objective tool that performs this comparison and assists in decision making. The method based on the comparison is the Cost of Energy and the tool for the application of the same are the Screening curves, widely used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this analysis, the following parameters are considered: operating capacity, toxic gas emission rate, fuel consumption and values, fixed and variable costs of operation and maintenance, investment values for each source, construction time and useful life. It is worth noting that the method does not consider in calculations aspects such as inflation, forced interruptions of the plant and other more specific factors. With the work, it was possible to perform an examination of the costs of the generation technologies available in Brazil and, through the obtained data, the economic viability of the generating parks was discussed through simulations in different scenarios, comparing the sources among themselves. (author)

  11. Analysis of diffusion paths for photovoltaic technology based on experience curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poponi, Daniele

    2003-04-01

    This paper assesses the prospects for diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology for electricity generation in grid-connected systems. The analysis begins with the calculation of the break-even price of PV systems and modules, which is the price that can assure commercial viability without incentives or subsidies. The calculated average break-even price of PV systems for building-integrated applications is about US dollars 3.2/W p but can go up to about US dollars 4.5/W p in areas with very good solar irradiation and if a low real discount rate is applied. These are higher values than the break-even prices estimated in the literature to date. PV system break-even prices for intermediate load generation in utility-owned systems are also calculated, their average being about US dollars 1/W p The methodology of experience curves is used to predict what would be the different levels of cumulative world PV shipments required to reach the calculated break-even prices of PV systems, assuming different trends in the relationship between price and the increase in cumulative shipments. The years in which the break-even levels of cumulative shipments could be theoretically obtained are then calculated by considering different market growth rates. Photovoltaics could enter the niche of building-integrated applications without incentives in the first years of the next decade, provided that the PR is 80% and the average annual world market growth rate is at least 15%. The final part of the paper analyzes the niche markets or applications that seem promising for the diffusion of photovoltaics in the next few years (Author)

  12. Prediction of low birth weight delivery by maternal status and its validation: Decision curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Rejali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we evaluated assessed elements connected with low birth weight (LBW and used decision curve analysis (DCA to define a scale to anticipate the probability of having a LBW newborn child. Methods: This hospital-based case–control study was led in Arak Hospital in Iran. The study included 470 mothers with LBW neonate and 470 mothers with natural neonates. Information were gathered by meeting moms utilizing preplanned organized questionnaire and from hospital records. The estimated probabilities of detecting LBW were calculated using the logistic regression and DCA to quantify the clinical consequences and its validation. Results: Factors significantly associated with LBW were premature membrane rupture (odds ratio [OR] = 3.18 [1.882–5.384], former LBW infants (OR = 2.99 [1.510–5.932], premature pain (OR = 2.70 [1.659–4.415], hypertension in pregnancy (OR = 2.39 [1.429–4.019], last trimester of pregnancy bleeding (OR = 2.58 [1.018–6.583], mother age >30 (OR = 2.17 [1.350–3.498]. However, with DCA, the prediction model made on these 15 variables has a net benefit (NB of 0.3110 is best predictive with the highest NB. NB has simple clinical interpretation and utilizing the model is what might as well be called a procedure that distinguished what might as well be called 31.1 LBW per 100 cases with no superfluous recognize. Conclusions: It is conceivable to foresee LBW utilizing a prediction model show in light of noteworthy hazard components connected with LBW. The majority of the hazard elements for LBW are preventable, and moms can be alluded amid early pregnancy to a middle which is furnished with facilities for administration of high hazard pregnancy and LBW infant.

  13. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension

  14. Numerical analysis of unsteady conjugate heat transfer for initial evolution of thermal stratification in a curved pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Wee Kyung; Kim, Yun Il; Cho, Sang Jin; Choi, Seok Ki

    2000-01-01

    A detailed numerical analysis of initial evolution of thermal stratification in a curved pipe with a finite wall thickness is performed. A primary emphasis of the present study is placed on the investigation of the effect of existence of pipe wall thickness on the evolution of thermal stratification. A simple and convenient numerical method of treating the unsteady conjugate heat transfer in Cartesian as well as non-orthogonal coordinate systems is presented. The proposed unsteady conjugate heat transfer analysis method is implemented in a finite volume thermal-hydraulic computer code based on a cell-centered, non-staggered grid arrangement, the SIMPLEC algorithm and a higher-order bounded convection scheme. Calculations are performed for initial evolution of thermal stratification with high Richardson number in a curved pipe. The predicted results show that the thermally stratified flow and transient conjugate heat transfer in a curved pipe with a specified wall thickness can be satisfactorily analyzed by using the numerical method presented in this paper. As the result, the present analysis method is considered to be effective for the determination of transient temperature distributions in the wall of curved piping system subjected to internally thermal stratification. In addition, the method can be extended to be applicable for the simulation of turbulent flow of thermally stratified fluid

  15. Molecular differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis eggs by multiplex real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09℃ and 85.9±0.08℃ for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.

  16. Tracer concentration curves and residence time analysis in technological flow systems. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pippel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Tracer concentration curves measured in flow systems by means of radioactive isotopes are treated as a two dimensional random process. Comparing them with the family distribution functions described in part I, it follows that only in case of ergodic behaviour of the system tracer curves can be considered as age distribution functions. The conception of ergodicity in residence time systems has been explained with the aid of a time function measurable by a special method of radioactive tracer technique and by the mean value of the residence time obtainable from this function. Furthermore, technological consequences in evaluating tracer concentration curves of real flow systems are discussed with respect to supposed ergodic or nonergodic behaviour. These considerations are of special importance for flow systems with temporary fluctuations in structure. (author)

  17. Quantitative analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on generalized curves of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragón, C., E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es; Aguilera, J.A.

    2015-08-01

    A method for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. The method (Cσ-LIBS) is based on Cσ graphs, generalized curves of growth which allow including several lines of various elements at different concentrations. A so-called homogeneous double (HD) model of the laser-induced plasma is used, defined by an integration over a single-region of the radiative transfer equation, combined with a separated treatment for neutral atoms (z = 0) and singly-charged ions (z = 1) in Cσ graphs and characteristic parameters. The procedure includes a criterion, based on a model limit, for eliminating data which, due to a high line intensity or concentration, are not well described by the HD model. An initial procedure provides a set of parameters (βA){sup z}, (ηNl){sup z}, T{sup z} and N{sub e}{sup z} (z = 0, 1) which characterize the plasma and the LIBS system. After characterization, two different analytical procedures, resulting in relative and absolute concentrations, may be applied. To test the method, fused glass samples prepared from certified slags and pure compounds are analyzed. We determine concentrations of Ca, Mn, Mg, V, Ti, Si and Al relative to Fe in three samples prepared from slags, and absolute concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mn in three samples prepared from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The accuracy obtained is 3.2% on the average for relative concentrations and 9.2% for absolute concentrations. - Highlights: • Method for quantitative analysis by LIBS, based on Csigma graphs • Conventional calibration is replaced with characterization of the LIBS system. • All elements are determined from measurement of one or two Csigma graphs. • The method is tested with fused glass disks prepared from slags and pure compounds. • Accurate results for relative (3.2%) and absolute concentrations (9.2%)

  18. Load curves analysis under operational and economics focus; Analise de curvas de carga sob enfoques operativos e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, R S; Cardoso, A F; Fleury, M E.V. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work aims to present the analysis of load curves performed by the short term planning sectors of several subsidiaries, independently of the methodologies used. In order to do so some peculiar occurrences were selected which show the influence of factors that are external to the electric power system. In such way, the analysis of past situations proves to be an important tool in the forecasting work so that a better planning may be achieved. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Polynomial curve fitting for control rod worth using least square numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mark Dennis Usang; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2012-01-01

    RTP must have sufficient excess reactivity to compensate the negative reactivity feedback effects such as those caused by the fuel temperature and power defects of reactivity, fuel burn-up and to allow full power operation for predetermined period of time. To compensate this excess reactivity, it is necessary to introduce an amount of negative reactivity by adjusting or controlling the control rods at will. Control rod worth depends largely upon the value of the neutron flux at the location of the rod and reflected by a polynomial curve. Purpose of this paper is to rule out the polynomial curve fitting using least square numerical techniques via MATLAB compatible language. (author)

  20. Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V; Lyapin, A G

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 10 2 Pa s to 10 11 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>10 11 Pa s) glass-like liquid - in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Establishment of a simple and rapid identification method for Listeria spp. by using high-resolution melting analysis, and its application in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative bacteria of listeriosis, which has a higher mortality rate than that of other causes of food poisoning. Listeria spp., of which L. monocytogenes is a member, have been isolated from food and manufacturing environments. Several methods have been published for identifying Listeria spp.; however, many of the methods cannot identify newly categorized Listeria spp. Additionally, they are often not suitable for the food industry, owing to their complexity, cost, or time consumption. Recently, high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA), which exploits DNA-sequence differences, has received attention as a simple and quick genomic typing method. In the present study, a new method for the simple, rapid, and low-cost identification of Listeria spp. has been presented using the genes rarA and ldh as targets for HRMA. DNA sequences of 9 Listeria species were first compared, and polymorphisms were identified for each species for primer design. Species specificity of each HRM curve pattern was estimated using type strains of all the species. Among the 9 species, 7 were identified by HRMA using rarA gene, including 3 new species. The remaining 2 species were identified by HRMA of ldh gene. The newly developed HRMA method was then used to assess Listeria isolates from the food industry, and the method efficiency was compared to that of identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The 2 methods were in coherence for 92.6% of the samples, demonstrating the high accuracy of HRMA. The time required for identifying Listeria spp. was substantially low, and the process was considerably simplified, providing a useful and precise method for processing multiple samples per day. Our newly developed method for identifying Listeria spp. is highly valuable; its use is not limited to the food industry, and it can be used for the isolates from the natural environment.

  2. Limitations of acceptability curves for presenting uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Stijnen, Theo; Hammitt, James K.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Weinstein, Milton C.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical journals increasingly illustrate uncertainty about the cost and effect of health care interventions using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs). CEACs present the probability that each competing alternative is optimal for a range of values of the cost-effectiveness threshold. The

  3. Intraneural stimulation using wire-microelectrode arrays: analysis of force steps in recruitment curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.P.A.; Rutten, Wim; Boom, H.B.K.

    1996-01-01

    In acute experiments on six Wistar rats, a wire-microelectrode array was inserted into the common peroneal nerve. A 5-channel array and a 24-channel array were available. Each electrode in the array was used to generate a twitch contraction force recruitment curve for the extensor digitorum longus

  4. The Impact of Grading on a Curve: Assessing the Results of Kulick and Wright's Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gary L.; Steed, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Kulick and Wright concluded, based on theoretical mathematical simulations of hypothetical student exam scores, that assigning exam grades to students based on the relative position of their exam performance scores within a normal curve may be unfair, given the role that randomness plays in any given student's performance on any given exam.…

  5. Curve-of-growth analysis of a red giant in the globular cluster M13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.

    1979-01-01

    A coude spectrogram of a red giant (L973) in the globular cluster M13 is analysed, with respect to α Boo, by the differential curve-of-growth technique. The overall metal abundance is found to be approximately one-tenth of that of α Boo, or one-fortieth that of the Sun. (author)

  6. Analysis of flux-flow curves in superconductors as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboshko, N.

    1978-01-01

    A phenomenological method to analyse the experimental data of flux-flow resistivity in superconductors as a function of temperature is proposed and successfully applied to existing data for t = kappa >= 0.07. An empirical curve relating the flux-flow resistivity with the Ginsburg-Landau parameter kappa was obtained. (author)

  7. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  8. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  9. Sexual Bias and Household Consumption : A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Zhang, P.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze Engel curves for nuclear households in rural China. The sample includes more than 5000 nuclear families covering nineteen out of thirty Chinese provinces. We consider expenditures on food, also subdivided into several food subcategories such as cereals, or meat and fish, and other

  10. Rapid detection of pathological mutations and deletions of the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis and Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration PCR (GRACE-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Sasse, Jurgen; Varadi, Aniko

    2016-10-19

    Inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the world's most common genetic diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The large number of mutations associated with the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) makes gene scanning by High Resolution Melting (HRM) PCR an attractive diagnostic approach. However, existing HRM-PCR assays are not able to detect all common point mutations and have only a very limited ability to detect larger gene rearrangements. The aim of the current study was to develop a HBB assay, which can be used as a screening test in highly heterogeneous populations, for detection of both point mutations and larger gene rearrangements. The assay is based on a combination of conventional HRM-PCR and a novel Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration (GRACE) PCR method. HRM-PCR was extensively optimised, which included the use of an unlabelled probe and incorporation of universal bases into primers to prevent interference from common non-pathological polymorphisms. GRACE-PCR was employed to determine HBB gene copy numbers relative to a reference gene using melt curve analysis to detect rearrangements in the HBB gene. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analysing 410 samples. A total of 44 distinct pathological genotypes were detected. In comparison with reference methods, the assay has a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 98 %. We have developed an assay that detects both point mutations and larger rearrangements of the HBB gene. This assay is quick, sensitive, specific and cost effective making it suitable as an initial screening test that can be used for highly heterogeneous cohorts.

  11. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-02-24

    To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Multicentre university hospital in France. Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (pscientific production between 25 and 35 years (adjusted incidence rate ratio 102.20, 95% CI 60.99 to 171.30), a maturation phase with a slower increase from 35 to 50 years (2.10, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.51) until a stabilisation phase with constant production followed by a potential decline at the end of career (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors towards an enlargement of scientific prerogatives in favour of progress in global knowledge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  12. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a feasible method for detecting spinal muscular atrophy via dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Tze-Kiong; Kan, Tzu-Min; Su, Yu-Fa; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Hung, Shih-Ya; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2012-11-12

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease with the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. More than 95% of patients with SMA have a homozygous disruption in the survival motor neuron1 (SMN1) gene, caused by mutation, deletion, or rearrangement. Recently, treatment in humans in the immediate postnatal period, prior to the development of weakness or very early in the course of the disease, may be effective. Therefore, our objective was to establish a feasible method for SMA screening. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is rapidly becoming the most important mutation-scanning methodology that allows mutation scanning and genotyping without the need for costly labeled oligonucleotides. In the current study, we aim to develop a method for identifying the substitution of single nucleotide in SMN1 exon 7 (c.840C>T) by HRM analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and dried blood spots obtained from 30 patients with SMA and 30 normal individuals. All results were previously confirmed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). In order to identify the substitution of single nucleotide in SMN1 exon 7 (c.840C>T) by HRM analysis, a primer set was used in HRM analysis. At first, we failed to identify the substitution of single nucleotide in SMN1 exon 7 (c.840C>T) by HRM analysis because the homozygous CC and homozygous TT cannot be distinguished by HRM analysis. Therefore, all samples were mixed with a known SMN1/SMN2 copy number (SMN1/SMN2=0:3), which we may call driver. This strategy is used to differentiate between homozygous CC and homozygous TT. After mixing with driver, the melting profile of homozygous CC becomes heteroduplex; however, the homozygous TT remains the same in the normalized and temperature-shifted difference plots. HRM analysis can be successfully applied to screen SMA via DNA obtained from whole blood and dried blood spots. We strongly believe that HRM analysis, a high-throughput method

  14. On the analysis of the activation mechanisms of sub-melt laser anneals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarysse, T.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Goossens, J.; Moussa, A.; Rosseel, E.; Vandervorst, W.; Petersen, D.H.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P.F.; Hansen, Ole; Merklin, G.; Bennett, N.S.; Cowern, N.E.B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to fabricate carrier profiles with a junction depth (∼15 nm) and sheet resistance value suited for sub-32 nm Si-CMOS technology, the usage of sub-melt laser anneal is a promising route to explore. As laser annealed junctions seem to outperform standard anneal approaches, a detailed assessment of the basics of laser induced activation seem appropriate. In this work the electrical activation is studied from a comparison between the dopant profiles as measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and the electrically active fraction as extracted from sheet resistance and mobility measurements. The latter is based on a large variety of techniques. For the sheet resistance we use conventional Four-Point Probe (FPP), Variable Probe Spacing (VPS), contactless junction photo voltage (JPV), Micro Four-Point Probe (M4PP) and an optical technique, namely Model Based Infra-red spectroscopic Reflectrometry (MBIR). For the sheet carrier density and sheet mobility extraction we use conventional Hall (without cloverleaf van der Pauw patterning, to reflect the need for fast turn-round sheet measurements), MBIR, and a recently developed new Hall-like capability using M4PP. By recognizing the interaction between the various parameters as they are not completely independent, it is possible to test the consistency of the various methods and to identify potential short comings. This concept is applied to the activation behavior of low and high implanted Boron doses and indicates that the obtained electrically active concentration level as well as the concurrent mobility is dependent on the dopant concentration level. This implies that the activation of B through the laser anneal process in the explored temperature-time space is governed by kinetic processes (i.e. the dissolution of B-I pairs) and not by the (temperature related) solid solubility

  15. Melt behaviour, crystallinity and morphology of poly(p-dioxanone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzin, APT; van Ekenstein, GOR; Duek, EAR

    The melt behaviour of poly(p-dioxanone) (PPD) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Crystallinity and morphology were evaluated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and polarizing optical microscopy. The melting curves showed two melting endotherms, a higher

  16. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE) or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM) assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions), IL1F7 (skin), ALAS2 (blood), MMP10 (menstrual blood), HTN3 (saliva) and TGM4 (semen).  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green). Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively inexpensive

  17. Simulated glass-forming polymer melts: dynamic scattering functions, chain length effects, and mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S; Weysser, F; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Fuchs, M; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We present molecular-dynamics simulations for a fully flexible model of polymer melts with different chain length N ranging from short oligomers (N = 4) to values near the entanglement length (N = 64). For these systems we explore the structural relaxation of the supercooled melt near the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory (MCT). Coherent and incoherent scattering functions are analyzed in terms of the idealized MCT. For temperatures T > T c we provide evidence for the space-time factorization property of the β relaxation and for the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) of the α relaxation, and we also discuss deviations from these predictions for T ≈ T c. For T larger than the smallest temperature where the TTSP holds we perform a quantitative analysis of the dynamics with the asymptotic MCT predictions for the late β regime. Within MCT a key quantity, in addition to T c, is the exponent parameter λ. For the fully flexible polymer models studied we find that λ is independent of N and has a value (λ = 0.735 ) typical of simple glass-forming liquids. On the other hand, the critical temperature increases with chain length toward an asymptotic value T c (∞) . This increase can be described by T c (∞) - T c(N) ∼ 1/N and may be interpreted in terms of the N dependence of the monomer density ρ, if we assume that the MCT glass transition is ruled by a soft-sphere-like constant coupling parameter Γ c = ρ c T c (-1/4), where ρ c is the monomer density at T c. In addition, we also estimate T c from a Hansen-Verlet-like criterion and MCT calculations based on structural input from the simulation. For our polymer model both the Hansen-Verlet criterion and the MCT calculations suggest T c to decrease with increasing chain length, in contrast to the direct analysis of the simulation data.

  18. Analysis of ex-vessel melt jet breakup and coolability. Part 1: Sensitivity on model parameters and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Byoungcheol; Jung, Woo Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of JASMINE code to melt jet breakup and coolability in APR1400 condition. • Coolability indexes for quasi steady state breakup and cooling process. • Typical case in complete breakup/solidification, film boiling quench not reached. • Significant impact of water depth and melt jet size; weak impact of model parameters. - Abstract: The breakup of a melt jet falling in a water pool and the coolability of the melt particles produced by such jet breakup are important phenomena in terms of the mitigation of severe accident consequences in light water reactors, because the molten and relocated core material is the primary heat source that governs the accident progression. We applied a modified version of the fuel–coolant interaction simulation code, JASMINE, developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to a plant scale simulation of melt jet breakup and cooling assuming an ex-vessel condition in the APR1400, a Korean advanced pressurized water reactor. Also, we examined the sensitivity on seven model parameters and five initial/boundary condition variables. The results showed that the melt cooling performance of a 6 m deep water pool in the reactor cavity is enough for removing the initial melt enthalpy for solidification, for a melt jet of 0.2 m initial diameter. The impacts of the model parameters were relatively weak and that of some of the initial/boundary condition variables, namely the water depth and melt jet diameter, were very strong. The present model indicated that a significant fraction of the melt jet is not broken up and forms a continuous melt pool on the containment floor in cases with a large melt jet diameter, 0.5 m, or a shallow water pool depth, ≤3 m.

  19. High Resolution Melting Analysis for Detecting p53 Gene Mutations in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong CHEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that p53 gene was related to many human cancers. The mutations in p53 gene play an important role in carcinogensis and mostly happened in exon 5-8. The aim of this study is to establish a high resolution melting (HRM assay to detect p53 mutations from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, to investigate the characteristics of p53 gene mutations, and to analyze the relationship between p53 mutations and evolution regularity of pathogenesis. Methods p53 mutations in exon 5-8 were detected by HRM assay on DNA insolated from 264 NSCLC samples derived from tumor tissues and 54 control samples from pericancerous pulmonary tissues. The mutation samples by the HRM assay were confirmed by sequencing technique. Samples which were positive by HRM but wild type by sequencing were further confirmed by sub-clone and sequencing. Results No mutation was found in 54 pericancerous pulmonary samples by HRM assay. 104 of the 264 tumor tissues demonstrated mutation curves by HRM assay, 102 samples were confirmed by sequencing, including 95 point mutations and 7 frame shift mutations by insertion or deletion. The mutation rate of p53 gene was 39.4%. The mutation rate from exon 5-8 were 11.7%, 8%, 12.5% and 10.6%, respectively and there was no statistically significant difference between them (P=0.35. p53 mutations were significantly more frequent in males than that in females, but not related to the other clinicopathologic characteristics. Conclusion The results indicate that HRM is a sensitive in-tube methodology to detect for mutations in clinical samples. The results suggest that the arising p53 mutations in NSCLC may be due to spontaneous error in DNA synthesis and repair.

  20. Factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: decision-curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Nagao, Y; Mahbub, M H; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Y

    2018-04-29

    To identify factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus, using decision-curve analysis. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The participants were 123 Japanese women with gestational diabetes who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests at 8-12 weeks after delivery. They were divided into a glucose intolerance and a normal glucose tolerance group based on postpartum oral glucose tolerance test results. Analysis of the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results showed predictive factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. We also evaluated the clinical usefulness of the prediction model based on decision-curve analysis. Of 123 women, 78 (63.4%) had normoglycaemia and 45 (36.6%) had glucose intolerance. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin and summation of glucose levels, assessed during pregnancy oral glucose tolerance tests (total glucose), to be independent risk factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.725) was obtained using the basic model (i.e. age, family history of diabetes, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and use of insulin during pregnancy) plus insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin intolerance. Insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin calculated using oral glucose tolerance test results during pregnancy is potentially useful for predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tananaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  2. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  3. Theoretical and computational analysis of IFR beam transport on curved channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienstra, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    With the successful demonstration at Sandia National Laboratory and at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of ion focused regime (IFR) electron beam guiding in accelerators there has developed interest in using IFR channels to steer beams along curved paths. The authors report the calculations of the expected emittance growth from such channels and the results of the TRACKER code simulations of IFR steering with the assistance of strong focus sector magnets

  4. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose-effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.

    2001-09-01

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, experimentally gamma ray induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes from eight healthy people were studied. Samples from 4 males and 4 females were irradiated in tubes with 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 gray of gamma ray (Co 60 at dose rate 0.3 Gy/min). Irradiated and control samples were incubated in 37 centigrade for 48 hours cell cultures. Cell cultures then were stopped and metaphases spread, Giemsa stained to score the induced chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics + rings and total numbers of breaks in cell for each individual or for all people were drawn. An increase of all chromosomal aberrations types with the elevation of the doses was observed. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  5. CONFIRMATION OF HOT JUPITER KEPLER-41b VIA PHASE CURVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Morris, Robert L.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Still, Martin; Ciardi, David R.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Klaus, Todd C.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi

    2013-01-01

    We present high precision photometry of Kepler-41, a giant planet in a 1.86 day orbit around a G6V star that was recently confirmed through radial velocity measurements. We have developed a new method to confirm giant planets solely from the photometric light curve, and we apply this method herein to Kepler-41 to establish the validity of this technique. We generate a full phase photometric model by including the primary and secondary transits, ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and reflected/emitted light from the planet. Third light contamination scenarios that can mimic a planetary transit signal are simulated by injecting a full range of dilution values into the model, and we re-fit each diluted light curve model to the light curve. The resulting constraints on the maximum occultation depth and stellar density combined with stellar evolution models rules out stellar blends and provides a measurement of the planet's mass, size, and temperature. We expect about two dozen Kepler giant planets can be confirmed via this method.

  6. Technology S-curves in renewable energy alternatives: Analysis and implications for industry and government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Melissa A.; Esmundo, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Plotting the performance of a technology against the money or effort invested in it most often yields an S-shaped curve: slow initial improvement, then accelerated improvement, then diminishing improvement. These S-curves can be used to gain insight into the relative payoff of investment in competing technologies, as well as providing some insight into when and why some technologies overtake others in the race for dominance. Analyzing renewable energies from such a technology S-curve perspective reveals some surprising and important implications for both government and industry. Using data on government R and D investment and technological improvement (in the form of cost reductions), we show that both wind energy and geothermal energy are poised to become more economical than fossil fuels within a relatively short time frame. The evidence further suggests that R and D for wind and geothermal technologies has been under-funded by national governments relative to funding for solar technologies, and government funding of fossil fuel technologies might be excessive given the diminishing performance of those technologies.

  7. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  8. Making the Most of Kepler Photometry: Characterizing Exoplanets through Phase Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteves Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler mission’s long-term monitoring of stars through high-precision photometry has not only revealed a plethora of exoplanet transits but also provided valuable data for characterizing a subset of these planets. Using over four years of Kepler observations, we have derived phase curves for over a dozen planets, and use these measurements to constrain their mass, brightness/temperature and energy redistribution between the day and the night sides. In our new study, we also investigate possible offsets of the peak brightness of the phase curve, which could be indicative of inhomogeneous clouds and/or substantial winds in the planet’s atmosphere. We find significant offsets for over a half-dozen planets. With this growing sample of measured phase curves, we are able to better examine the trends of hot Jupiter energy budgets and albedos, and for the first time relate these properties to the presence of clouds or winds on a planet.

  9. The thermoluminescence glow-curve analysis using GlowFit - the new powerful tool for deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchalska, M.; Bilski, P.

    2005-10-01

    A new computer program, GlowFit, for deconvoluting first-order kinetics thermoluminescence (TL) glow-curves has been developed. A non-linear function describing a single glow-peak is fitted to experimental points using the least squares Levenberg-Marquardt method. The main advantage of GlowFit is in its ability to resolve complex TL glow-curves consisting of strongly overlapping peaks, such as those observed in heavily doped LiF:Mg,Ti (MTT) detectors. This resolution is achieved mainly by setting constraints or by fixing selected parameters. The initial values of the fitted parameters are placed in the so-called pattern files. GlowFit is a Microsoft Windows-operated user-friendly program. Its graphic interface enables easy intuitive manipulation of glow-peaks, at the initial stage (parameter initialization) and at the final stage (manual adjustment) of fitting peak parameters to the glow-curves. The program is freely downloadable from the web site www.ifj.edu.pl/NPP/deconvolution.htm (author)

  10. Testing Environmental Kuznets Curve in the Selected Transition Economies with Panel Smooth Transition Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Zortuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC introduces an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic development. The inverted U-shaped curve is seen as complete pattern for developed economies. However, our study tests the EKC for developing transition economies of European Union, therefore, our results could make a significant contribution to the literature. In this paper, the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, gross domestic product (GDP, energy use and urban population is investigated in the Transition Economies (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Environmental Kuznets Curve is tested by panel smooth transition regression for these economies for 1993 – 2010 periods. As a result of study, the null hypothesis of linearity was rejected and no-remaining nonlinearity test showed that there is a smooth transition exists between two regimes (below $5176 GDP per capita is first one and above $5176 GDP per capita is second one in the related period for these economies.

  11. Relationships between each part of the spinal curves and upright posture using Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sebastien; Boudot, Elsa; Houel, Nicolas

    2016-05-03

    Back pain is a common reason for consultation in primary healthcare clinical practice, and has effects on daily activities and posture. Relationships between the whole spine and upright posture, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between each spinal curve and centre of pressure position as well as velocity for healthy subjects. Twenty-one male subjects performed quiet stance in natural position. Each upright posture was then recorded using an optoelectronics system (Vicon Nexus) synchronized with two force plates. At each moment, polynomial interpolations of markers attached on the spine segment were used to compute cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle curves. Mean of centre of pressure position and velocity was then computed. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the position and velocity of centre of pressure associated with each part of the spinal curves were defined as best predictors of the lumbar lordosis angle (R(2)=0.45; p=1.65*10-10) and the thoracic kyphosis angle (R(2)=0.54; p=4.89*10-13) of healthy subjects in quiet stance. This study showed the relationships between each of cervical, thoracic, lumbar curvatures, and centre of pressure's fluctuation during free quiet standing using non-invasive full spinal curve exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using time-intensity curves in prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Junchu; Chen Ming; Sun Huifen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the characters of time-intensity curve of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Methods: 2.4 ml Sono Vue were injected as a bolus in 40 patients, 23 patients with BPH and 17 with prostate cancer. High perfusion area in both inner and outer gland were measured with time-intensity curves. Results: It was proved by the time-intensity curves that, in BPH cases, the outer prostate gland presented with mild enhancedment and slow wash-off, while the inner gland presented with moderate enhancedment and fast wash-off. Otherwise, both the inner and outer gland in prostate cancer cases presented with high-intensitive enhancedment and slow wash-off. There was marked difference statistical significance on the up slop, average intensity and area under the time-intensity curves in 90 s and 150 s between the cases of BPH and prostate cancer (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of high perfusion area in both inner and outer glands is helpful for diagnosing BPH and prostate cancer. (authors)

  13. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers Andrew; Hozo Iztok; Tsalatsanis Athanasios; Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. ...

  14. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D.

    2009-01-01

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, β, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as β decreases, R(V) ≡ A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the β increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to ±0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  16. Analysis of variation in calibration curves for Kodak XV radiographic film using model-based parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L

    2010-08-05

    Film calibration is time-consuming work when dose accuracy is essential while working in a range of photon scatter environments. This study uses the single-target single-hit model of film response to fit the calibration curves as a function of calibration method, processor condition, field size and depth. Kodak XV film was irradiated perpendicular to the beam axis in a solid water phantom. Standard calibration films (one dose point per film) were irradiated at 90 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) for various doses (16-128 cGy), depths (0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 10 cm) and field sizes (5 × 5, 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm²). The 8-field calibration method (eight dose points per film) was used as a reference for each experiment, taken at 95 cm SSD and 5 cm depth. The delivered doses were measured using an Attix parallel plate chamber for improved accuracy of dose estimation in the buildup region. Three fitting methods with one to three dose points per calibration curve were investigated for the field sizes of 5 × 5, 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm². The inter-day variation of model parameters (background, saturation and slope) were 1.8%, 5.7%, and 7.7% (1 σ) using the 8-field method. The saturation parameter ratio of standard to 8-field curves was 1.083 ± 0.005. The slope parameter ratio of standard to 8-field curves ranged from 0.99 to 1.05, depending on field size and depth. The slope parameter ratio decreases with increasing depth below 0.5 cm for the three field sizes. It increases with increasing depths above 0.5 cm. A calibration curve with one to three dose points fitted with the model is possible with 2% accuracy in film dosimetry for various irradiation conditions. The proposed fitting methods may reduce workload while providing energy dependence correction in radiographic film dosimetry. This study is limited to radiographic XV film with a Lumisys scanner.

  17. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  18. Analysis of the static pressure volume curve of the lung in experimentally induced pulmonary damage by CT-densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Karmrodt, J.; Herwelling, A.; Bletz, C.; David, S.; Heussel, C.P.; Markstaller, K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study quantitative changes of lung density distributions when recording in- and expiratory static pressure-volume curves by single slice computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Static in- and expiratory pressure volume curves (0 to 1000 ml, increments of 100 ml) were obtained in random order in 10 pigs after induction of lung damage by saline lavage. Simultaneously, CT acquisitions (slice thickness 1 mm, temporal increment 2 s) were performed in a single slice (3 cm below the carina). In each CT image lung segmentation and planimetry of defined density ranges were achieved. The lung density ranges were defined as: hyperinflated (-1024 to -910 HU), normal aerated (-910 to -600 HU), poorly aerated (-600 to -300 HU), and non aerated (-300 to 200 HU) lung. Fractional areas of defined density ranges in percentage of total lung area were compared to recorded volume increments and airway pressures (atmospheric pressure, lower inflection point (LIP), LIP*0.5, LIP*1.5, peak airway pressure) of in- and expiratory pressure-volume curves. Results: Quantitative analysis of defined density ranges showed no differences between in- and expiratory pressure-volume curves. The amount of poorly aerated lung decreased and normal aerated lung increased constantly when airway pressure and volume were increased during inspiratory pressure-volume curves and vice versa during expiratory pressure-volume loops. Conclusion: Recruitment and derecruitment of lung atelectasis during registration of static in- and expiratory pressure-volume loops occurred constantly, but not in a stepwise manner. CT was shown to be an appropriate method to analyse these recruitment process. (orig.)

  19. Numerical analysis of the effects of non-conventional laser beam geometries during laser melting of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M A

    2007-01-01

    Laser melting is an important industrial activity encountered in a variety of laser manufacturing processes, e.g. selective laser melting, welding, brazing, soldering, glazing, surface alloying, cladding etc. The majority of these processes are carried out by using either circular or rectangular beams. At present, the melt pool characteristics such as melt pool geometry, thermal gradients and cooling rate are controlled by the variation of laser power, spot size or scanning speed. However, the variations in these parameters are often limited by other processing conditions. Although different laser beam modes and intensity distributions have been studied to improve the process, no other laser beam geometries have been investigated. The effect of laser beam geometry on the laser melting process has received very little attention. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of different beam geometries including circular, rectangular and diamond shapes on laser melting of metallic materials. The finite volume method has been used to simulate the transient effects of a moving beam for laser melting of mild steel (EN-43A) taking into account Marangoni and buoyancy convection. The temperature distribution, melt pool geometry, fluid flow velocities and heating/cooling rates have been calculated. Some of the results have been compared with the experimental data

  20. "Textbook as a Contradictory Melting-Pot": An Analysis of Multicultural Content in Korean Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngdal; Park, Yunkyoung

    2016-01-01

    In this study we will observe how multicultural content is covered in elementary and secondary schools in Korea. For this purpose, a total of 52 textbooks (social studies, ethics and Korean language from third to ninth grade) were analysed using two analysis frames. The first frame is the "multicultural content analysis frame (MCAF)"…

  1. Analysis of glow curves of TL readouts of CaSO4:Dy teflon based TLD badge in semiautomatic TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Sneha, C.; Adtani, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The facility of glow curve storage and recall provided in the reader software is helpful for manual screening of the glow curves; however no further analysis is possible due to absence of numerical TL data at the sampling intervals. In the present study glow curves are digitized by modifying the reader software and then normalized to make them independent of the dose. The normalized glow curves are then analyzed by dividing them into five equal parts on time scale. This method of analysis is used to correlate the variation of total TL counts of the three discs with time elapsed post irradiation

  2. Learning Curve Analysis and Surgical Outcomes of Single-port Laparoscopic Myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To identify learning curves for single-port laparoscopic myomectomy (SPLM) and evaluate surgical outcomes according to the sequence of operation. A retrospective study. A university-based hospital (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). The medical records from 205 patients who had undergone SPLM from October 2009 to May 2013 were reviewed. Because the myomectomy time was significantly affected by the size and number of myomas removed by SPLM, cases in which 2 or more of the myomas removed were >7 cm in diameter were excluded. Furthermore, cases involving additional operations performed simultaneously (e.g., ovarian or hysteroscopic surgery) were also excluded. A total of 161 cases of SPLM were included. None. We assessed the SPLM learning curve via a graph based on operation time versus sequence of cases. Patients were chronologically arranged according to their surgery dates and were then placed into 1 of 4 groups according to their operation sequence. SPLM was completed successfully in 160 of 161 cases (99.4%). One case was converted to multiport surgery. Basal characteristics of the patients between the 4 groups did not differ. The median operation times for the 4 groups were 112.0, 92.8, 83.7, and 90.0 minutes, respectively. Operation time decreased significantly in the second, third, and fourth groups compared with that in the first group (p learning curve became less steep, was evident after about 45 operations. Results from the current study suggested that proficiency for SPLM was achieved after about 45 operations. Additionally, operation time decreased with experience without an increase in complication rate. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Image Analysis of a Negatively Curved Graphitic Sheet Model for Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursill, L. A.; Bourgeois, Laure N.

    High-resolution electron micrographs are presented which show essentially curved single sheets of graphitic carbon. Image calculations are then presented for the random surface schwarzite-related model of Townsend et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 921-924, 1992). Comparison with experimental images does not rule out the contention that such models, containing surfaces of negative curvature, may be useful for predicting some physical properties of specific forms of nanoporous carbon. Some difficulties of the model predictions, when compared with the experimental images, are pointed out. The range of application of this model, as well as competing models, is discussed briefly.

  4. Analysis of survival curves for Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillia irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Danno, Akibumi; Miyazato, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    This study was aimed to understand the survival pattern of some microorganisms which were treated by γ-sterilization. Though most of the works were concentrated and reported with D 10 -values, it was presently found that the γ-irradiated survival curves showed sigmoid pattern and L-values were reached about half of the D 10 -value for each strains. It was further confirmed that if L-values were used for practical sterilization with D 10 -values, the estimation of sterilized levels would become more accurate. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Similarity criterion analysis of dose-response curves in biological assay and radioimmunoassay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristakou, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulties involved in the control of biological and radioimmunological assay systems, and in the maintenance of standard, as well as, the usual heterogeneity of assayed samples require some evidence of similarity between the dose-response curves obtained with the standard and the sample. Nowadays the parallelism test is used to provide such evidence. However, some indications of non-normal errors distribution, such as the presence of out layers, render the parallelism test both conceptually implausible and statistically inefficient. In such a manner we suggest the non-parametric 'frequencial' test as a more sounding option. (author)

  6. High-resolution melting analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism hot-spot region in the rpoB gene as an indicator of reduced susceptibility to rifaximin in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecavar, Verena; Blaschitz, Marion; Hufnagl, Peter; Zeinzinger, Josef; Fiedler, Anita; Allerberger, Franz; Maass, Matthias; Indra, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium, is the main causative agent of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide. In addition to metronidazole and vancomycin, rifaximin, a rifamycin derivative, is a promising antibiotic for the treatment of recurring C. difficile infections (CDI). However, exposure of C. difficile to this antibiotic has led to the development of rifaximin-resistance due to point mutations in the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene. In the present study, 348 C. difficile strains with known PCR-ribotypes were investigated for respective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the proposed rpoB hot-spot region by using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. This method allows the detection of SNPs by comparing the altered melting behaviour of dsDNA with that of wild-type DNA. Discrimination between wild-type and mutant strains was enhanced by creating heteroduplexes by mixing sample DNA with wild-type DNA, leading to characteristic melting curve shapes from samples containing SNPs in the respective rpoB section. In the present study, we were able to identify 16 different rpoB sequence-types (ST) by sequencing analysis of a 325 bp fragment. The 16 PCR STs displayed a total of 24 different SNPs. Fifteen of these 24 SNPs were located within the proposed 151 bp SNP hot-spot region, resulting in 11 different HRM curve profiles (CP). Eleven SNPs (seven of which were within the proposed hot-spot region) led to amino acid substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and 13 SNPs (eight of which were within the hot-spot region) were synonymous. This investigation clearly demonstrates that HRM analysis of the proposed SNP hot-spot region in the rpoB gene of C. difficile is a fast and cost-effective method for the identification of C. difficile samples with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and even allows simultaneous SNP subtyping of the respective C. difficile isolates.

  7. Clinical diagnostic accuracy of acute colonic diverticulitis in patients admitted with acute abdominal pain, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Talabani, A; Endreseth, B H; Lydersen, S; Edna, T-H

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the capability of clinical findings, temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count to discern patients with acute colonic diverticulitis from all other patients admitted with acute abdominal pain. The probability of acute diverticulitis was assessed by the examining doctor, using a scale from 0 (zero probability) to 10 (100 % probability). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the clinical diagnostic accuracy of acute colonic diverticulitis in patients admitted with acute abdominal pain. Of 833 patients admitted with acute abdominal pain, 95 had acute colonic diverticulitis. ROC curve analysis gave an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95 (CI 0.92 to 0.97) for ages patients. Separate analysis showed an AUC = 0.83 (CI 0.80 to 0.86) of CRP alone. White blood cell count and temperature were almost useless to discriminate acute colonic diverticulitis from other types of acute abdominal pain, AUC = 0.59 (CI 0.53 to 0.65) for white blood cell count and AUC = 0.57 (0.50 to 0.63) for temperature, respectively. This prospective study demonstrates that standard clinical evaluation by non-specialist doctors based on history, physical examination, and initial blood tests on admission provides a high degree of diagnostic precision in patients with acute colonic diverticulitis.

  8. A disaggregated analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve for industrial CO_2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Lu, Aitong; Li, Li; He, Yanmin; ToJo, Junji; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The existence of EKC hypothesis for industrial carbon emissions is tested for China. • A semi-parametric panel regression is used along with the STIRPAT model. • The validity of the EKC hypothesis varies across industry sectors. • The EKC relation to income exists in the electricity and heat production sector. • The EKC relation to urbanization exists in the manufacturing sector. - Abstract: The present study concentrates on a Chinese context and attempts to explicitly examine the impacts of economic growth and urbanization on various industrial carbon emissions through investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve. Within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology framework, this is the first attempt to simultaneously explore the income/urbanization and disaggregated industrial carbon dioxide emissions nexus, using panel data together with semi-parametric panel fixed effects regression. Our dataset is referred to a provincial panel of China spanning the period 2000–2013. With this information, we find evidence in support of an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in the electricity and heat production sector, but a similar inference only for urbanization and those emissions in the manufacturing sector. The heterogeneity in the EKC relationship across industry sectors implies that there is urgent need to design more specific policies related to carbon emissions reduction for various industry sectors. Also, these findings contribute to advancing the emerging literature on the development-pollution nexus.

  9. Neural network analysis of head-flow curves in deep well pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelcue, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In impellers with splitter blades, the difficulty in calculation of the flow area of the impeller is because of the unknown flow rate occurring in the two separate areas when the splitter blades are added. Experimental studies were made to investigate the effects of splitter blade length on deep well pump performance for different numbers of blades. Head-flow curves of deep well pump impellers with splitter blades were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gradient descent (GD), Gradient descent with momentum (GDM) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms were used in the networks. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Blade number (z), non-dimensional splitter blade length (L-bar ) and flow rate (Q) were used as the input layer, while the output is head (H m ). For the testing data, the root mean squared error (RMSE), fraction of variance (R 2 ) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were found to be 0.1285, 0.9999 and 1.6821%, respectively. With these results, we believe that the ANN can be used for prediction of head-flow curves as an appropriate method in deep well pump impellers with splitter blades.

  10. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online

  11. Application of Fourier Analysis to the ventricular volume curve in a digital system using radioisotopic vetricylography. Study of the diastolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, F.; Gonzalez, P.; Pruzzo, R.; Nagel, J.

    1987-01-01

    To assess diastolic and systolic ventricular function, a computerized method was developed using Fourier analysis on left ventricular time activity curves. The ventricular raw curve obtained from radionuclide gate blood pool imaging was substituted by a four harmonics curve. Valuable parameters were then calculated specially peak ejection rate, filling fraction and peak filling rate, which allowed clear-cut differentiation normal subjects from patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of retained austenite in laser melted martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seleka, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available of this study was to determine if X-ray diffraction (XRD) was sufficient for quantifying the volume percentage of retained austenite. After a preliminary qualitative analysis, a Rietveld full pattern refinement program was used to quantify the volume percentage...

  13. Spectral analysis of the IntCal98 calibration curve: a Bayesian view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palonen, V.; Tikkanen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary results from a Bayesian approach to find periodicities in the IntCal98 calibration curve are given. It has been shown in the literature that the discrete Fourier transform (Schuster periodogram) corresponds to the use of an approximate Bayesian model of one harmonic frequency and Gaussian noise. Advantages of the Bayesian approach include the possibility to use models for variable, attenuated and multiple frequencies, the capability to analyze unevenly spaced data and the possibility to assess the significance and uncertainties of spectral estimates. In this work, a new Bayesian model using random walk noise to take care of the trend in the data is developed. Both Bayesian models are described and the first results of the new model are reported and compared with results from straightforward discrete-Fourier-transform and maximum-entropy-method spectral analyses

  14. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  15. Stress-strain curve of concretes with recycled concrete aggregates: analysis of the NBR 8522 methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. GUJEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work analyses the methodology "A" (item A.4 employed by the Brazilian Standard ABNT 8522 (ABNT, 2008 for determining the stress-strain behavior of cylindrical specimens of concrete, presenting considerations about possible enhancements aiming it use for concretes with recycled aggregates with automatic test equipment. The methodology specified by the Brazilian Standard presents methodological issues that brings distortions in obtaining the stress-strain curve, as the use of a very limited number of sampling points and by inducing micro cracks and fluency in the elastic behavior of the material due to the use of steady stress levels in the test. The use of a base stress of 0.5 MPa is too low for modern high load test machines designed do high strength concrete test. The work presents a discussion over these subjects, and a proposal of a modified test procedure to avoid such situations.