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Sample records for melon yellowing-associated virus

  1. Análise do progresso e danos causadas pelo amarelão do meloeiro Progress analysis and damages due to melon yellowing-associated virus

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    Antonio Apoliano dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise do progresso do amarelão do meloeiro causado pelo Melon Yellowing-associated Virus (MYaV e os danos causados por essa doença na produção e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de frutos do meloeiro foram estudadas em dois híbridos (Aclain e Frevo, sob condições naturais de infecção, em um plantio comercial no município de Russas, Ceará. As plantas foram monitoradas durante todo o ciclo quanto à incidência. Ao final do ciclo, os frutos foram colhidos, pesados e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi estimado. Foram avaliados os modelos linear, exponencial, monomolecular, logístico e de Gompertz quanto ao máximo ajuste aos dados obtidos. O modelo monomolecular revelou a maior ajuste na descrição da epidemia em ambos os híbridos com base no coeficiente de determinação e no quadrado médio do resíduo, embora no híbrido Aclain o modelo de Gompertz também tenha descrito muito bem a epidemia. O peso e o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos não foram afetados pelo amarelão nos híbridos estudados.The analysis of progress and the yield losses due to melon yellowing, caused by Melon yellowing-associated virus (MYaV, were studied in two melon hybrids (Aclain and Frevo under natural infection in a commercial field in Russas county, Ceará State (Brazil. Plants were monitored throughout a growing cycle following the incidence of melon yellowing. By the end of the cycle, fruits were harvested, weighted and sampled to estimate the total solid soluble (TSS. The linear, exponential, monomolecular, logistic and Gompertz models were used for examining their suitability in fitting growth data. The monomolecular model attained the best fitness to describe the data for both hybrids according to the coefficient of determination and error mean square, although the Gompertz model also described the data well for the Aclain hybrid. Fruit weight and TSS contents were not affected by melon yellowing in both hybrids.

  2. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to characterize a virus causing severe mosaic, yellowing, stunting and leaf deformation on melon (Cucumis melo L.), and evaluate the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biofertilizer to improve plant growth and restrict the accumulation of the virus in the plant. The virus was identified as an ...

  3. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  4. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  5. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  6. Impact of Vat resistance in melon on viral epidemics and genetic structure of virus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeny, Alexandra; Desbiez, Cécile; Millot, Pauline; Wipf-Scheibel, Catherine; Nozeran, Karine; Gognalons, Patrick; Lecoq, Hervé; Boissot, Nathalie

    2017-09-15

    Cultivar choice is at the heart of cropping systems and resistant cultivars should be at the heart of disease management strategies whenever available. They are the easiest, most efficient and environmentally friendly way of combating viral diseases at the farm level. Among the melon genetic resources, Vat is a unique gene conferring resistance to both the melon aphid Aphis gossypii and the viruses it carries. The 'virus side' of this pleiotropic phenotype is seldom regarded as an asset for virus control. Indeed, the effect of Vat on virus epidemics in the field is expected to vary according to the composition of aphid populations in the environment and long-term studies are needed to draw a correct trend. Therefore, the first objective of the study was to re-evaluate the potential of Vat to reduce viral diseases in melon crops. The second objective was to investigate the potential of Vat to exert a selection pressure on virus populations. We monitored the epidemics of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in two melon lines having a common genetic background, a resistant line (R) and a susceptible line (S), in eight field trials conducted in southeastern France between 2011 and 2015. Vat had limited impact if any on WMV epidemics probably because A. gossypii is not the main vector of WMV in the field, but a favorable impact on CMV, yet of variable intensity probably related to the importance of A. gossypii in the total aphid population. Vat had a significant impact on CABYV epidemics with mean incidence reduction exceeding 50% in some trials. There was no effect of Vat on the structure of virus populations, both for the non-persistent WMV transmitted by numerous aphid species and for the persistent CABYV transmitted predominantly by A. gossypii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

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    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  8. Validation of a Landscape-Based Model for Whitefly Spread of the Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus to Fall Melons.

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    Carrière, Yves; Degain, Ben; Liesner, Leighton; Dutilleul, Pierre; Palumbo, John C

    2017-10-01

    The cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has caused significant reductions in fall melon (Cucumis melo L.) yields in Yuma County, Arizona. In a recent landscape-based study, we found evidence that cotton and spring melon fields increased abundance of B. tabaci and spread of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields. Here, we show that a statistical model derived from data collected in 2011-2012 and based on areas of cotton and spring melon fields located within 1,500 m from edges of fall melon fields was sufficient to retrospectively predict incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields during 2007-2010. Nevertheless, the slope of the association between areas of spring melon fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was three times smaller in 2007-2010 than in 2011-2012, whereas the slope of the association between areas of cotton fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was consistent between study periods. Accordingly, predictions were more accurate when data on areas of cotton alone were used as a basis for prediction than when data on areas of cotton and spring melons were used. Validation of this statistical model confirms that crop isolation has potential for reducing incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields in Yuma County, although isolation from cotton may provide more consistent benefits than isolation from spring melon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhab

    serological means, nine species including, Portulaca oleraceae, Sisymbrium irio, Beta vulgaris, Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus,. Solanum nigrum, Sonchus oleraceus, and Withania samnifera, were found to harbor the virus. Some of these hosts harbor the virus in asymptomatic infection ...

  10. Molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and Fusarium race 2 resistance in melon.

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    Brotman, Yariv; Kovalski, Irina; Dogimont, Catherine; Pitrat, Michel; Portnoy, Vitaly; Katzir, Nurit; Perl-Treves, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In melon, the Fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked Prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. Markers linked to these resistance (R) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between Cucumis melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 161375, and between C. melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 414723, respectively. Using bulked segregant analysis, as well as systematic scoring of the mapping populations, we developed two amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to this locus. Four of the RFLP sequences bear homology to nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat R genes, indicating the presence of a significant R-gene cluster in this locus. Our study provides the most closely linked markers published so far for these important traits. It also improves the resolution of the whole linkage group IX, which was difficult to order in our previous studies. Two of the markers were converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to facilitate their application in marker-assisted selection. Testing these two markers in several melon lines revealed different marker haplotypes in the melon germplasm and supported multiple, independent origin of the Fusarium races 0 and 2 resistance trait.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability and genetic structure of the population of watermelon mosaic virus infecting melon in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.M.; Malpica, J.M.; Diaz-Pendon, J.A.; Moriones, E.; Fraile, A.; Garcia-Arenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic structure of the population of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in Spain was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of isolates sampled from its main host plant, melon. The population was a highly homogeneous one, built of a single pathotype, and comprising isolates closely related genetically. There was indication of temporal replacement of genotypes, but not of spatial structure of the population. Analyses of nucleotide sequences in three genomic regions, that is, in the cistrons for the P1, cylindrical inclusion (CI) and capsid (CP) proteins, showed lower similar values of nucleotide diversity for the P1 than for the CI or CP cistrons. The CI protein and the CP were under tighter evolutionary constraints than the P1 protein. Also, for the CI and CP cistrons, but not for the P1 cistron, two groups of sequences, defining two genetic strains, were apparent. Thus, different genomic regions of WMV show different evolutionary dynamics. Interestingly, for the CI and CP cistrons, sequences were clustered into two regions of the sequence space, defining the two strains above, and no intermediary sequences were identified. Recombinant isolates were found, accounting for at least 7% of the population. These recombinants presented two interesting features: (i) crossover points were detected between the analysed regions in the CI and CP cistrons, but not between those in the P1 and CI cistrons, (ii) crossover points were not observed within the analysed coding regions for the P1, CI or CP proteins. This indicates strong selection against isolates with recombinant proteins, even when originated from closely related strains. Hence, data indicate that genotypes of WMV, generated by mutation or recombination, outside of acceptable, discrete, regions in the evolutionary space, are eliminated from the virus population by negative selection

  13. EcoTILLING for the identification of allelic variants of melon eIF4E, a factor that controls virus susceptibility

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    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translation initiation factors of the 4E and 4G protein families mediate resistance to several RNA plant viruses in the natural diversity of crops. Particularly, a single point mutation in melon eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E controls resistance to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV in melon. Identification of allelic variants within natural populations by EcoTILLING has become a rapid genotype discovery method. Results A collection of Cucumis spp. was characterised for susceptibility to MNSV and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV and used for the implementation of EcoTILLING to identify new allelic variants of eIF4E. A high conservation of eIF4E exonic regions was found, with six polymorphic sites identified out of EcoTILLING 113 accessions. Sequencing of regions surrounding polymorphisms revealed that all of them corresponded to silent nucleotide changes and just one to a non-silent change correlating with MNSV resistance. Except for the MNSV case, no correlation was found between variation of eIF4E and virus resistance, suggesting the implication of different and/or additional genes in previously identified resistance phenotypes. We have also characterized a new allele of eIF4E from Cucumis zeyheri, a wild relative of melon. Functional analyses suggested that this new eIF4E allele might be responsible for resistance to MNSV. Conclusion This study shows the applicability of EcoTILLING in Cucumis spp., but given the conservation of eIF4E, new candidate genes should probably be considered to identify new sources of resistance to plant viruses. Part of the methodology described here could alternatively be used in TILLING experiments that serve to generate new eIF4E alleles.

  14. Host Reaction of Watermelon mosaic virus Isolates Infecting Melon from Different Geographical Origins in Xinjiang of China

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    Dong WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is one of the major viruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Although WMV is very common worldwide, little is known about the biological traits of WMV isolates from China. Hence, this study aimed to characterize 11 WMV isolates infecting melon from different geographical origins in Xinjiang based on experimental hosts. Sap inoculation of the 11 WMV isolates onto a range of 13 plant species revealed some differences compared to the WMV isolates collected from other countries. Our results showed that, overall, there were no obvious correlations of host responses to inoculation with WMV isolates from different geographical origins. However, isolate JS-1 caused mild mosaic on Cucurbita moschata, whereas the remaining 10 isolates were asymptomatic on this plant species. Moreover, in Datura stramonium, isolate TYG-1 induced mosaic, whereas the remaining 10 isolates did not infect this species. All isolates infected systemically Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis melo plants, causing severe symptoms. All isolates did not induce any symptoms on Cucumis sativus, but the virus could be detected using RT-PCR. Additionally, all isolates infected systemically Nicotiana tabacum plants, causing mild mosaics. Chenopodium amaranticolor and Chenopodium quinoa reacted to all isolates by chlorotic local lesions in the inoculated leaves, and the virus was detected in the inoculated leaves using RT-PCR. In addition, the attempts to transmit the isolates to Luffa cylindrica, Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata or Pisum sativum failed as confirmed by negative RT-PCR. Our results would be useful for understanding the biological variability of WMV.

  15. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American Desert Southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermantel, William M; Gilbertson, Robert L; Natwick, Eric T; McCreight, James D

    2017-09-15

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become well established. Symptoms induced by CYSDV infection include a striking interveinal chlorosis or yellowing and reduced yield and quality. The virus is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, and the cryptic species MEAM1 has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV has now become the most economically important of the viruses affecting cucurbit production in the southwestern US. Here, we present a review of recent studies on CYSDV in the southwestern US, with implications for management of this virus throughout the world. Field surveys have established that CYSDV results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become infected shortly after emergence due to high B. tabaci populations and abundant sources of inoculum. Studies have also demonstrated that CYSDV has an extensive host range among crops and weeds prevalent in the region. Recent studies demonstrated considerable variation in virus accumulation and transmission rates among the host plants evaluated as potential reservoirs. Cucurbit hosts had the highest CYSDV titers, were efficient sources for virus acquisition, and showed a positive correlation between titer in source plants and transmission to cucurbit plants. Non-cucurbit hosts had significantly lower CYSDV titers and varied in their capacity to serve as sources for transmission. Experiments demonstrated that multiple factors influence the efficiency with which a host plant species will be a reservoir for vector transmission of CYSDV to crops. Melon PI 313970 was identified as a new source of host plant resistance to CYSDV, in addition to the previously identified TGR 1551 (=PI 482420) and TGR 1937 (=PI 482431). Potential new sources of CYSDV resistance were identified by field screening of ca. 500 melon accessions with naturally occurring

  16. Melão tupã: produtividade, qualidade do fruto e resistência a viroses Tupã melon: agronomic performance, fruit quality and virus resistance

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    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Progênies de melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. Tupã, um tipo que associa as características favoráveis do fruto do melão Amarelo e do melão Cantaloupe, foram submetidas à inoculação artificial com cinco vírus [Watermerlon mosaic virus (WMV-2, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-w, Zucchini yelow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV], em casa de vegetação. A produção e a qualidade do fruto foram avaliadas em campo. Progênies de três famílias mostraram resistência ao PRSV-w e ao ZYMV, algumas manifestaram resistência também ao WMV-2. Cerca de 63,15% apresentaram resistência somente ao PRSV-w e 52,63% somente ao ZYMV. A resistência para a combinação do PRSV-w e ZYMV ocorreu em 42,10% das progênies e a resistência tripla a PRSV-w, ZYMV e WMV-2 em 36,84%. Uma progênie foi resistente aos quatro vírus (PRSV-w, ZYMV, WMV-2 e CMV. Para o caráter concentração de colheita o comportamento das progênies foi muito variável, observando-se progênies onde a metade dos frutos foram colhidos até os 80 dias, e outras onde até os 70 dias nenhum fruto havia sido colhido. Em relação ao tipo Amarelo, foram muito tardias para a maturação dos frutos, mas mostraram semelhanças com o fruto para peso médio, formato, diâmetro interno e espessura da polpa. A firmeza da polpa variou de 7,78 N a 35,6 N, sendo que em 20% das progênies a firmeza da polpa foi superior a 20 N, muito semelhante aos melões do tipo Cantaloupe.Progenies of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Tupã, that associate the favorable fruit characteristics of yellow casaba cantaloupe types, were submitted to artificial inoculation with five virus: Watermerlon mosaic virus (WMV-2, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, in greenhouse. Yield and the fruit quality were evaluated in the field. Progenies of three families showed marked resistance to PRSV-W and to ZYMV

  17. The Importance of the KR-Rich Region of the Coat Protein of Ourmia melon virus for Host Specificity, Tissue Tropism, and Interference With Antiviral Defense.

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    Rossi, Marika; Vallino, Marta; Abbà, Simona; Ciuffo, Marina; Balestrini, Raffaella; Genre, Andrea; Turina, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the Ourmia melon virus (OuMV) coat protein (CP) contains a short lysine/arginine-rich (KR) region. By alanine scanning mutagenesis, we showed that the KR region influences pathogenicity and virulence of OuMV without altering viral particle assembly. A mutant, called OuMV6710, with three basic residue substitutions in the KR region, was impaired in the ability to maintain the initial systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and to infect both cucumber and melon plants systemically. The integrity of this protein region was also crucial for encapsidation of viral genomic RNA; in fact, certain mutations within the KR region partially compromised the RNA encapsidation efficiency of the CP. In Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, OuMV6710 was impaired in particle accumulation; however, this phenotype was abolished in dcl2/dcl4 and dcl2/dcl3/dcl4 Arabidopsis mutants defective for antiviral silencing. Moreover, in contrast to CPwt, in situ immunolocalization experiments indicated that CP6710 accumulates efficiently in the spongy mesophyll tissue of infected N. benthamiana and A. thaliana leaves but only occasionally infects palisade tissues. These results provided strong evidence of a crucial role for OuMV CP during viral infection and highlighted the relevance of the KR region in determining tissue tropism, host range, pathogenicity, and RNA affinity, which may be all correlated with a possible CP silencing-suppression activity.

  18. 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Lee, Y.K., Chung, W.I. and Ezura, H., (2003). Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis in winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch). Plant Science 164: 413–418. Ntui, V.O. and Uyoh, E.A. (2005). Inheritance of stripe pattern on fruits and seed colour in ''Egusi'' melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.). Glob. J. Agri. Sci. 4, 29–32.

  19. Bitter melon: antagonist to cancer.

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    Nerurkar, Pratibha; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, in spite of substantial progress in the development of anti-cancer therapies. One approach to control cancer could be its prevention by diet, which inhibits one or more neoplastic events and reduces cancer risk. Dietary compounds offer great potential in the fight against cancer by inhibiting the carcinogenesis process through the regulation of cell homeostasis and cell-death machineries. For centuries, Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) has recommended the use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) as a functional food to prevent and treat diabetes and associated complications. It is noteworthy to mention that bitter melon extract has no-to-low side effects in animals as well as in humans. The anti-tumor activity of bitter melon has recently begun to emerge. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy of bitter melon and its active constituents. Several groups of investigators have reported that treatment of bitter-melon-related products in a number of cancer cell lines induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without affecting normal cell growth. Therefore, the effect of bitter melon should be beneficial for health, and use of the non-modified dietary product is cost effective.

  20. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American desert southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become established. The virus is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci, which has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV results in lat...

  1. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

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    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  2. Discriminating Nigerian 'Egusi' melon accessions using agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Egusi' melon is an important vegetable crop in the tropics and subtropics that is rich in protein, oils and vitamins. Agro-morphological traits, sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to evaluate 50 accessions of 'egusi' melon collected from various parts of the ...

  3. Screening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV

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    Ercan EKBIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Çukurova University Department of Horticulture more than 350 melon accessions were collected from different ecological parts of Turkey which is located on the secondary genetic diversification center of this crop, and their characterization studies are near completion. Furthermore, evaluation studies of these materials have started. In the present study 67 melon accessions, sampled from this germplasm, were tested for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. After resistance tests made by mechanical inoculation, four accessions (‘CU 100’, ‘CU 287’, ‘CU 305’ and ‘CU 328’ were found resistant to ZYMV and three accessions (‘CU 305’, ‘C 264’, and ‘C 276’ to WMV. No resistant genotype was found to CMV.

  4. Physicochemical Pro~rti~ of Curd Prepared from Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed was investigated as an alternative to s~ybeansfor production olhigh protein curd. The coagulating properlies of calcium [}:ulphate and the nature ol the curd obtainedfrom melon seeds' were investigated "lhe:yield. 'pro.ximate composition and semory properties ol the melon curd were determine.d"The yield C!l ...

  5. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  6. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  7. Material evaluation for bagging of cantaloupe melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pradi Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate different materials for field bagging with respect to the physicochemical changes caused in cantaloupe melon fruits. The study was conducted in a protected environment in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. The experiment consisted of five treatments, with bagging of cantaloupe melon fruits with four materials (newspaper, Kraft paper, NWF, and polyethylene and a control treatment without bagging, in a randomized block design with five replications of one plant with a fruit each. Fruits were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Number of days from bagging to harvest was also recorded and visual aspects of the fruit were observed. The materials as well as the time interval between the bagging and harvest affect physicochemical characteristics such as accumulation of soluble solids and thickness of the green pulp halo and visual aspects of the fruit. This study recommends bagging cantaloupe melons using white non-woven fabric or to not use the technique at all, under the conditions similar to those used in the study. In addition, using polyethylene for the bagging of fruit is not recommended, because this material has a deleterious effect on the characteristics essential for commercialization of melons.

  8. SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND CONSUMPTION OF MELON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    ABSTRACT. The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level ...

  9. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... de productivité (Swinburne, 1983). Après la récolte, le fruit est sensible aux pourritures causées par Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp.,. Rhizopus stolonifer et Trichothecium roseum (Bi et. Wang, 1987). Les pertes de melons sont souvent dues aux parasites cryptogamiques qui se manifestent sur la surface ...

  10. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  11. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Benjak, Andrej; Sanseverino, Walter; Bourgeois, Michael; Mir, Gisela; González, Víctor M; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Câmara, Francisco; Cozzuto, Luca; Lowy, Ernesto; Alioto, Tyler; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Blanca, Jose; Cañizares, Joaquín; Ziarsolo, Pello; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Droege, Marcus; Du, Lei; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Melé, Marta; Yang, Luming; Weng, Yiqun; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Aranda, Miguel A; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén; Gabaldón, Toni; Roma, Guglielmo; Guigó, Roderic; Casacuberta, Josep M; Arús, Pere; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2012-07-17

    We report the genome sequence of melon, an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double-haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3% of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogenetic trees, allowing mapping of the orthology and paralogy relationships of sequenced plant genomes. We observed the absence of recent whole-genome duplications in the melon lineage since the ancient eudicot triplication, and our data suggest that transposon amplification may in part explain the increased size of the melon genome compared with the close relative cucumber. A low number of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat disease resistance genes were annotated, suggesting the existence of specific defense mechanisms in this species. The DHL92 genome was compared with that of its parental lines allowing the quantification of sequence variability in the species. The use of the genome sequence in future investigations will facilitate the understanding of evolution of cucurbits and the improvement of breeding strategies.

  12. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Blanca, José; Roig, Cristina; González-To, Mireia; Picó, Belén; Truniger, Verónica; Gómez, Pedro; Deleu, Wim; Caño-Delgado, Ana; Arús, Pere; Nuez, Fernando; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A

    2007-09-03

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs) and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons). Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs) in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN) which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of sequences constitutes also the basis for an oligo

  13. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  14. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  15. Hypersensitive response to Aphis gossypii Glover in melon genotypes carrying the Vat gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Emilio Sarria; González, Elisa Garzo; López-Sesé, Ana Isabel; Castiel, Alberto Fereres; Gómez-Guillamón, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover causes direct and indirect damage to Cucumis melo L. crops. To decrease the harmful effects of this pest, one of the most economically and environmentally acceptable options is to use genetically resistant melon varieties. To date, several sources of resistance carrying the Vat gene are used in melon breeding programmes that aim to prevent A. gossypii colonization and the subsequent aphid virus transmission. The results suggest that the resistance conferred by this gene is associated with a microscopic hypersensitive response specific against A. gossypii. Soon after aphid infestation, phenol synthesis, deposits of callose and lignin in the cell walls, damage to the plasmalemma, and a micro-oxidative burst were detected in genotypes carrying the Vat gene. According to electrical penetration graph experiments, this response seems to occur after aphid stylets puncture the plant cells and not during intercellular stylet penetration. This type of plant tissue reaction was not detected in melon plants infested with Bemisia tabaci Gennadius nor Myzus persicae Sulzer.

  16. Transcriptome changes occurred in the whitefly, B. tabaci MEAM1 in response to feeding on melon infected with the crinivirus, CYSDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    CYSDV, a crinivirus transmitted by the whitefly, B. tabaci, causes widespread losses in melon and other cucurbits. The virus emerged in the southwestern United States in 2006. It established in crops and weeds, and is transmitted to cucurbits by the resident population of B. tabaci MEAM1 each year. ...

  17. Physicochemical properties of curd prepared from melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    54% appeared to be most suitable for making curd of smooth texture. In general scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated increased with increased calcium sulphate concentration. The melon curd was highly rated and very well accepted. Keywords: Melon curd, coagulation, protein, calcium, sulphate, acceptabilit

  18. Melon husk-based activated carbon for treatment of industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of organic contaminants from industrial effluent using melon husk activated carbon has been investigated. Melon husk was carbonized at 450oC for 20 minutes and activated with sulphuric acid to produce granular activated carbon (AC). The fixed carbon increased with increase in concentration of activating ...

  19. Assessment of protein quality of processed melon seed as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six day - old broiler chicks were used in a 4 - week feeding trial to determine the protein quality of processed melon seed as a component of broiler chick diet. The protein quality was assessed using blood associated parameters including Haemoglobin indices and selected serum enzymes. The processed melon ...

  20. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus colocynthis ) Husk in the Adsorption of Cadmium from Waste Water. ... Experimental data were also evaluated to find out kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. Adsorption ... Keywords: Bioadsorption, Cadmium removal, Waste water, Melon husk ...

  1. Efficacy of primextra gold in controlling weeds of melon ( Citrillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in the Center of Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State to evaluate the efficacy of Primextra Gold (290g /l S – Metalochlor and 370g/l Atrazine) herbicide in controlling weeds in melon and to determine its safety for use in melon. The experiment was carried out between ...

  2. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  3. Effects Of The Physical Dimensions On Forces To Break Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical shelling of melon seeds in experimental impeller-type machines resulted in high percentages of broken seeds and cotyledons. It is difficult to predict the orientations of the seeds during impact with the cylindrical ring. The physical dimensions of melon seeds were measured and compressed between ...

  4. Comparison of some local melon genotypes selected from Lake Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to compare some local melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes selected from the Lake Van Basin (65 ER 02, 65 ER 04, and 13 TAT 05) with some commercial melon cultivars (Ananas, Makdimon F1, and Rambo F1) for some yield and quality related traits observed in field and high tunnel conditions for two ...

  5. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  6. A genetic map of melon (Cucumis melo L.) with RFLP, RAPD, isozyme, disease resistance and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

    1996-07-01

    One hundred and ten markers were analysed for linkage in 218 F2 plants derived from two divergent cultivars ('Védrantais' and 'Songwhan Charmi') of Cucumis melo (L.). Thirty-four RFLPs, 64 RAPDs, one isozyme, four disease resistance markers and one morphological marker were used to construct a genetic map spanning 14 linkage groups covering 1390 cM of the melon genome. RAPD and RFLP markers detected similar polymorphism levels. RFLPs were largely due to base substitutions rather than insertion/deletions. Twelve percent of markers showed distorted segregation. Phenotypic markers consisted of two resistance genes against Fusarium wilt (Fom-1 and Fom-2), one gene (nsv) controlling the resistance to melon necrotic spot virus, one gene (Vat) conferring resistance to Aphis gossypii, and a recessive gene for carpel numbers (3 vs 5 carpels: p).

  7. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  8. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  9. Evaluation of two potential Cucumis spp. resources for grafting melons

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Doménech, Carmina; Gammoudi, N.; Munera Giménez, María; Giné Blasco, Ariadna; Pocurull, M.; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Picó Sirvent, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Cultivation of Cucumis melo is hampered by soil stresses. Grafting is used to overcome these limitations. Different cucurbits belonging to several genera have been used as rootstocks for melons: Cucurbita, Lagenaria, Luffa, etc. However, negative effects on fruit quality appear in some rootstock-scion combinations. The selection of new resistant rootstocks that do not cause this negative impact in quality is necessary to improve melon cultivation. In this work, we evaluated two rootstocks, cl...

  10. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1,. 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  11. Germination and In-Vitro Regeneration in 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in order to determine the germination and in-vitro regeneration of five accessions of “egusi' melon. Seeds from de-coated melon were used for germination and in-vitro regeneration was carried out on excised pregerminated cotyledons in MS medium (4.43g of MS, 30g of sucrose, water of pH 5.8, ...

  12. Minimally processed yellow melon enriched with probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Martins de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for healthy diets with fresh foods, especially minimally processed fruits and vegetables, resulted in a variety of products available to consumers. The nutritional benefits of probiotic lactic acid bacteria contribute to increase consumption of minimally processed vegetables enriched with these microorganisms in supermarkets and restaurants, since the modern consumer search products of high functionality and safety. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on minimally processed yellow melon and determine the microbiological and physicochemical properties of this food. The counts of L. rhamnosus were above 108 CFU g-1, and the microbiological quality of melons was safe to consumers. The pH lowered and the acidity increased over time in minimally processed melons. The soluble solids did not differ between samples. The color coordinates L* and a* have not changed and melon firmness decreased over time. The scanning electron microscopy revealed adhesion of L. rhamnosus HN001 on the surface of treated melon. Despite some physicochemical changes, the production of minimally processed melon enriched with L. rhamnosus is feasible transforming it into a potential vehicle for probiotics.

  13. Bitter melon therapy: an experimental treatment of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebultan, S P

    1995-01-01

    People in Asia often use a medicinal plant, bitter melon (Mamordica charantia), to treat various diseases (e.g., malaria). It has anti-viral, anti-tumor, and immune system boosting properties. Some Asians, especially Filipinos, eat bitter melon. They believe that bitter melon cleanses the blood and boosts the immune system. Rural Filipino midwives place a strong bitter melon extract in a newborn's mouth to activate the immune system. An HIV-infected man in California uses bitter melon therapy. Bitter melon therapy can be prepared by extracting juices from fresh leaves and fruits and adding purified water to the extract to control the potency. Another preparation involves bringing two pounds of leaves and fruits in a gallon of purified water to a boil, allowing it to simmer for five minutes, filtering the decoction in a sterile strainer, and storing it in the refrigerator. The therapy can be administered either orally or via the rectum. The HIV-infected California man drank 10 ounces of the juices or a combination of juices and decoction each day for five days a week during the first year. He then switched to rectal retention enema due to the bad taste. He increased the dosage to 16 ounces/day and the duration to seven days a week. He held an inserted enema bag or rectal syringe until the juices/decoction had been absorbed. Sometimes he would infuse most of the therapy two times a day. Within seven days of rectal retention enema delivery of the bitter melon therapy, his energy level increased rapidly and his physical stamina and appetite improved. One year after therapy began, his CD4 count increased greatly. Later, his CD4/CD8 ratios had returned to normal. He no longer experiences acute sinusitis or recurrent respiratory infections. He has had no serious side effects.

  14. Resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Y.; Silberstein, L.; Kovalski, I.; Perin, C.; Dogimont, C.; Pitrat, M.; Klingler, J.; Thompson, A.; Perl-Treves, R.

    2002-05-01

    Genomic and cDNA fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (RGH fragments) were cloned from Cucumis melo using degenerate-primer PCR. Fifteen homologues of the NBS-LRR gene family have been isolated. The NBS-LRR homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial NBS-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a TIR-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. Genomic organization of these sequences was explored by DNA gel-blot analysis, and conservation among other Cucurbitaceae was assessed. Two mapping populations that segregate for several disease and pest resistance loci were used to map the RGH probes onto the melon genetic map. Several NBS-LRR related sequences mapped to the vicinity of genetic loci that control resistance to papaya ringspot virus, Fusarium oxysporum race 1, F. oxysporum race 2 and to the insect pest Aphis gossypii. The utility of such markers for breeding resistant melon cultivars and for cloning the respective R-genes is discussed.

  15. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  16. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  17. Quality improvement of oriental melon and watermelon using bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.K.; Lee, K.J.; Ryou, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    Oriental melon and watermelon plants were cultivated in the soil treated with bioceramics in a greenhouse during summer season from June 1st to August 20th, 1995. Two application methods were employed, one was a mixed treatment of soil and bioceramics, and the other was a spray treatment of bioceramic solution on the stems and leaves. And two types of bioceramics were also stopped by five levels. In order to analyze the bioceramic effect on oriental melon and watermelon, the growth rate of stems, leaves and fruits were measured in the greenhouse. After harvest, the sweetness of fruits was measured and the freshness of fruits based on the storage period was tested by human taste and smell sense. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The growth rates of stems, leaves and fruits of oriental melon and watermelon were the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3. 2. The density of oriental melon and watermelon was the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3 and No. 2 respectively. 3. The Brix number of watermelon was 10.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 11.5 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2, and that of oriental melon was 8.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 12.3 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2. 4. The storage duration of watermelon treated with bioceramics was about 50 days in the condition of the ambient temperature of 25∼30°C. (author)

  18. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  19. Optical sensing method for screening disease in melon seeds by using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changho; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Jung, Hee-Young; Kim, Jeehyun

    2011-01-01

    We report a noble optical sensing method to diagnose seed abnormalities using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Melon seeds infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were scanned by OCT. The cross-sectional sensed area of the abnormal seeds showed an additional subsurface layer under the surface which is not found in normal seeds. The presence of CGMMV in the sample was examined by a blind test (n = 140) and compared by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The abnormal layers (n = 40) were quantitatively investigated using A-scan sensing analysis and statistical method. By utilizing 3D OCT image reconstruction, we confirmed the distinctive layers on the whole seeds. These results show that OCT with the proposed data processing method can systemically pick up morphological modification induced by viral infection in seeds, and, furthermore, OCT can play an important role in automatic screening of viral infections in seeds.

  20. An Evaluation of Some Mechanical Methods for Shelling Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of investigations were conducted on a number of mechanical devices which were designed for shelling melon seeds. The results of these investigations are reported in two parts in order to facilitate the presentation. Part I describe the results of using devices which subject the seeds to a combination of pressure and ...

  1. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the plants ...

  2. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and. Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the ...

  3. Lecithin extraction and characterization from melon seeds obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed oils from different agricultural zones of Nigeria were sampled. Oils were extracted using soxhlet extraction techniques, characterized and lecithin extracted using standard biochemical methods. The percentage oil yield was higher when n-hexane solvent system was used than when chloroform/methanol solvent ...

  4. Sensory attributes and consumption of melon-soybean soup blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level with a sample ...

  5. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Preformulation istropicity test. Different batches of SNEDDS were prepared based on escalating ratios of melon oil, cow fat, surfactants and co-surfactant. The .... indomethacin. Five replicate determinations were carried out and the mean taken to obtain the absolute drug content for each batch. Drug dissolution studies.

  6. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that fresh melon seeds dried to 7.4% moisture content(wb) lost 539.2 grams of moisture per kilogram dry matter and the percentage shrinkage of the seeds was 33.9%. Graphs of moisture loss in grams per kilogram dry matter were plotted against percentage shrinkage. A straight line relationship was ...

  7. an evalution of some mechanical methods for shelling melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    When the pressure was increased, more seeds were broken and there was a lot of heat generated between the drum and the belt due to friction. In general the results of the tests on the two devices indicate that the application of pressure coupled .... The static bending properties of melon seeds show that both the shells and.

  8. Effects of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on nitrogen utilization and blood chemistry of West African Dwarf goats were assessed in a 3 months feeding trial. Eighteen West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 6.00 ± 0.15kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments with two replicates ...

  9. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  10. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines. Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR codes of 471 melon varieties (lines were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  11. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  12. DNA Fingerprinting of Chinese Melon Provides Evidentiary Support of Seed Quality Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications. PMID:23285039

  13. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  14. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  15. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  16. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  17. Comparison of some local melon genotypes selected from Lake Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... microclimate which allows for vegetable production. The province Van lies between 35o 55' and 39o 24' N latitude and 42o 05' and 44o 22' E longitude and 1725 m altitude; the altitude of Lake Van is 1646 m and the altitude of the basin varies from 1600 to 2500 m (Gulser, 1992). The variety trials in melon ...

  18. Tolerance of melon cultivars to irrigation water salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco A. de L.; Medeiros, José F. de; Gheyi, Hans R.; Dias, Nildo da S.; Preston, Welka; Vasconcelos, Cybelle B. e L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of saline water for irrigation causes severe restriction to nutritional balance, growth and production in many crops due to the effect of salts on plant and soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to various levels of irrigation water salinity on yield and fruit quality. A field experiment was conducted in a split-plot randomized block design with four replicates. The factors were five levels of irrigation water s...

  19. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  1. Effect of Substitution of Melon with Soybean on the Nutrient Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional cakes were prepared from a blend of melon and soybean meal. The blended meal contained 10% and 20% soybean respectively while unblended meal contained 100% melon meal which served as control. Cakes obtained from the blends were analysed for proximate composition, amino acid content and ...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  3. Bitter Melon Extract Promotes Granulation Tissue Growth and Angiogenesis in the Diabetic Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rekha; Garcia-Gomez, Ignacio; Gudehithlu, Krishnamurthy P; Singh, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Bitter melon is a plant fruit that has been shown to exert a hypoglycemic effect when used systemically in patients with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the topical effect of bitter melon on diabetic wounds using the wound chamber model in rats. Two bilateral wound chambers were implanted subcutaneously in the thoracic-lumbar region of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin 7 days after implantation of wound chambers. After 24 hours of induction of diabetes, aqueous extract of bitter melon was injected into 1 wound chamber, and saline (0.9% sodium chloride solution) was injected into the contralateral chamber once daily for 3 days. Wound fluid was collected on day 4 for analysis, following which rats were euthanized. The granulation tissue encapsulating the wound chamber was removed and processed for histology. Controls included diabetic rats with wound chambers injected with saline (instead of bitter melon) and nondiabetic rats with wound chambers injected with bitter melon. In rats with diabetes, wound granulation tissue treated with bitter melon was well formed, with distinct cellular layers, whereas the saline-treated granulation tissue showed a severe loss of tissue organization and blood vessels. Moreover, the bitter melon treatment increased angiogenesis in the diabetic granulation tissue, marked by abundant microvessels and large blood vessels. In nondiabetic rats, no differences in wound granulation tissues were observed between saline- and bitter melon-treated groups. Bitter melon treatment had no effect on systemic blood glucose levels or insulin receptor substrate 1, suggesting that its stimulatory effect on diabetic granulation tissue was not due to alteration of systemic blood glucose levels. When applied locally to diabetic wounds, bitter melon extract prevents regression of granulation tissue and blood vessels, thus accelerating and improving wound healing.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co 60 at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda, E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fran_sininho@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co{sup 60} at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  6. Consumers sensory evaluation of melon sweetness and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Rato, Ana; Laranjo, Marta; Gonçalves, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    CONSUMERS SENSORY EVALUATION OF MELON SWEETNESS AND QUALITY Agulheiro Santos, A.C, Rato, A.E., Laranjo, M. and Gonçalves, C. Departamento de Fitotecnia, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada (IIFA), Universidade de Évora, Polo da Mitra, Ap.94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal. ABSTRACT The sensory quality of fruits is made of a range of attributes like sweetness, acidity, aroma...

  7. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger-Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes-Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  8. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  9. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  10. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  11. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  12. The Biological Activity of Kumchura Rhizome to Melon Fly: I. Crude Kumchura Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi Martono

    1996-12-01

    effects observed were larval development inhibition and delay. In the repellency tests, proportionally less melon flies were found on diet containing kumchura, but no effect on oviposition was observed.

  13. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  14. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  15. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  16. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Buah Nenas Dan Melon Serta Konsentrasi Gula Terhadap Mutu Permen Jahe (Hard Candy)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect ratio of pineapple with melon and sugar concentration of the quality of hard candy. This study used completely randomized design with two factors, ie : ratio of pineapple and melon (N) (40% : 40%, 45% : 35%, 50% : 30%, 55% : 25%) and sugar concentration (G) (50%, 55%, 60%, 65%). The analyzed parameters were moisture content, vitamin C content, total acid, total soluble solid, ash content, sensory test (color, flavor, taste, and texture). ...

  17. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize ( Zea mays ) and egusi-melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  18. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  19. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  20. Storabelity of melon for different ripeness stages at harvest. Selection of instrumental procedures for quality assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Agulheiro Santos, Ana Cristina; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of melon (Cucumis melo L.) has been, until several years ago, regional, seasonal and without commercial interest. Recent commercial changes and world wide transportation have changed this situation. Melons from 3 different ripeness stages at harvest and 7 cold storage periods have been analysed by destructive and non destructive tests. Chemical, physical, mechanical (non destructive impact, compression, skin puncture and Magness- Taylor) and sensory tests were carried out in o...

  1. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elvis M. de C.; Carvalho, Jacinto de A.; Viol, Miguel A.; Rezende, Fátima C.; Thebaldi, Michael S.; Diotto, Adriano V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar), cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD), in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments w...

  2. Instrumental and sensory analyses of quality attributes of grafted specialty melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjing; Zhao, Xin; Huber, Donald J; Sims, Charles A

    2015-11-01

    Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Galia melon 'Arava' (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon 'Honey Yellow' (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root-knot nematode-resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of 'Arava' fruit. By contrast with grafted 'Arava', grafted 'Honey Yellow' did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and rootstock selection. The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scion used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on melon fruit quality need to be considered in the selection and use of disease-resistant rootstocks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  4. The effect of ripening stages on the antioxidant potential of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Puji; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Supriyadi

    2017-06-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel, a new cultivar of melon, is one of non-netted orange-fleshed melon. Non-netted orange-fleshed melon is known as source of several phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. During the ripening stages there are chemical changes of the fruit including antioxidant properties. The aims of this research were to study the changes of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compound during ripening stages of melon cv. Hikapel. Melon with three ripening stages (27 DAA, 29 DAA, and 32 DAA) were harvested and analyzed their antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, -flavonoid, and -carotenoid content. The results showed that ascorbic acid and carotenoid content increased during ripening stages, whereas total phenolic and antioxidant activity decreased. The ripening stages affected antioxidant activity of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hikapel. Antioxidant activity positively correlated with ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, and -flavonoid content. On the other hand, total carotenoid negatively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  5. Influence of phosphorus management on melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Maria; Di Mattia, Carla; Stagnari, Fabio; Speca, Stefano; Pisante, Michele; Mastrocola, Dino

    2016-06-01

    At harvest time, melon quality is related to internal and external parameters, which are very important for consumer attractiveness and marketable yield. Several agronomic factors can affect the quality of melon fruits and among them mineral availability may play a significant role. Therefore the aim of the work was to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertigation on melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) qualitative characteristics, such as fruit size and yield, pulp colour and firmness, aroma and taste, as well as the accumulation of bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenols and carotenoids, and their antiradical properties. Results allowed us to extrapolate the optimal P doses to be used for melon fertigation, to achieve high yield and fruit quality characteristics. Modelling the optimal P dose allowed us to maximize yield and resulted in around 257 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) , even if the quality indices relating to carotenoid content, texture and colour of the melon flesh were not significantly different between samples fertigated with the two highest levels tested. It can be assumed that the level of 200 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) would be a good compromise between optimization of agronomic performance and melon fruit quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Molecular characters of melon (Cucumismelo L. "Tacapa") in response to karst critical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Yuanita; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Aristya, Ganies Riza

    2017-06-01

    Yogyakarta district has 158.600 ha critical land and spread off in three Agro Ecosystem zones. Two of them are karsts critical land. Critical lands which contain calcium carbonate in high concentration and water dehydration in upper surface give abiotic stress in wide range of plant. Melon cultivar TACAPA has superior characteristic derived from parental crossing, ♀ Action 434 and ♂ PI 371795 and potential to be developed in karsts critical land. Abscicic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone expressed by plant in abiotic stress condition. CmBG1 is a gene which regulate ABA hormone in melon. The purposes of this research were examining the molecular character of melon cultivar TACAPA in response to karsts critical land in order to study molecular characterization of CmBG1 gene. Analysis was done qualitatively by using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Electrophoresis, while quantitative analysis was conducted by observing absorbance score in spectrophotometer. CmBG1 gene expression is examined by using Real time PCR (qPCR). Molecular characters obtained are CmBG1 detected in size ±1258 bp, CmBG1 gene concentrations in melon which planted in control media are lower than melon in critical lands media. These results are similar with the real time quantitative analysis method. It also be revealed that melon TACAPA is more potential plant compared to another cultivar that can be developed in karst critical land area.

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of Manually and Motorized Operated Melon Shelling Machine using Impact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Olusegun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melon shelling in most part of the world is usually done manually by hand, and like all other manual operations it is time consuming and strenuous. The design and construction of manually and motorized operated melon shelling machine using impact method was done in order to meet the domestic, commercial and industrial requirement of melon for food processing. Two of the main cultivars of melon found in Western part of Nigeria; which are Bara and Serewe can be shelled properly by this machine; the machine is made up of three sections namely the hopper, the shelling chamber which consists of the shelling disc and the shaft, and the gear system. The machine was made from locally sourced materials and it can be used in both urban and rural areas even where there is no power supply. The percentage of melon been shelled in either manual or motorized operation in two successive runs of the two types of melon (Bara and Serewe was found to be above eighty percent (80% and the shelling efficiency of the machine is above 68%.

  8. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    and development parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. Since the crop is mostly bare soil during initial growth, the Kc ini is mainly determined by the wetting frequency through irrigation and precipitation, the fraction of soil wetted by irrigation, and the ETo rate....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...... consideration of all growing and management parameters is needed when crop evapotranspiration has to be estimated under local conditions. This work has shown that peak Kc estimation can be improved by applying the corrections for relative humidity, wind speed and plant height as it suggested in FAO 56...

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA) Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Najmah Farhati; Purnomowati Purnomowati; Uki Dwiputranto

    2017-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscul...

  10. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  11. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  12. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  13. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  14. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  15. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  16. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  17. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate ( Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo . Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular trouble.

  18. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD, have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective: We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results: The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L. Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions: Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  20. Electronic detection of Drechslera sp. fungi in charentais melon ( Cucumis melo Naudin) using carbon-nanostructure-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenshields, Márcia W C C; Mamo, Messai A; Coville, Neil J; Spina, Andréa P; Rosso, Diogo Filipe; Latocheski, Elaine C; Destro, João Guilherme; Pimentel, Ida C; Hümmelgen, Ivo A

    2012-10-24

    The development of chemical sensor technology in recent years has stimulated an interest regarding the use of characteristic volatiles and odors as a rapid and early indication of deterioration in fruit quality. The fungal infestation by Drechslera sp. in melons is a severe problem, and we demonstrate that electronic sensors based on carbon nanostructures are able to detect the presence of these fungi in melon. The responses of sensor conductance G and capacitance C at 27 kHz were measured and used to calculate their ΔG and ΔC variation over the full melon ripening process under shelf conditions with proliferation of Drechslera sp. fungi. The sensor response showed that these fungi can be electronically identified in charentais melon, constituting an effective and cheap test procedure to differentiate between infected and uninfected melon.

  1. Efisiensi Tular Benih Squash mosaic virus pada Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti Mugi Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection of viruses on Cucurbitaceae may cause high yield and economic losses. Squash mosaic virus is a seed borne virus and among the most important virus infecting Cucurbitaceae. The aims of these research was to detect infection of several viruses on Cucurbitaceae and to examine seed transmission efficiency of SqMV. Detection of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV from field samples and seeds was conducted using Indirect-ELISA method. Infection of CMV, SqMV and ZYMV was detected from field samples. Seed transmission of SqMV on commercial seeds of bottle gourd, watermelon, zucchini, cabocha, cucumber, and melon was 13, 13, 33, 73, 100, and 100%, respectively. Seed transmission of ZYMV was only occurred on bottle gourd and zucchini, i.e. 13.3% and 26.67%, respectively. Infection of SqMV through F2 seed was determined from cucumber, bottle gourd, and melon, i.e. 93, 100, and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the status of SqMV as quarantine pest should be evaluated since SqMV was already found in West Java.

  2. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, H.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  3. Sterilization of the melon fly, dacus cucurbitae coquillett, with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Tadashi; Zukeyama, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between radiation dose and mating competitiveness of gamma irradiated melon fly males were studied with two methods; those being FRIED's method and the method of the direct counting of normal and irradiated flies in copula under the coexistence of normal females, normal males and irradiated males. In the former method, the mating competitiveness of irradiated males did not reduced significantly with doses from 1 to 10 kR, but at 30 kR, reduced significantly. In the latter method, the mating competitiveness values of males irradiated with 7 and 12 kR were less than unity, but not significant. At 30 kR, the mating competitiveness reduced significantly. It can be said that the harmful effect of irradiation on the mating competitiveness of the melon flies was negligible with a dose of 7 kR, which was used in the eradication project of melon fly from Kume Island. (author)

  4. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  5. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  6. Effects of a cantaloupe melon extract/wheat gliadin biopolymer during aortic cross-clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kick, Jochen; Hauser, Balázs; Bracht, Hendrik; Albicini, Maura; Oter, Sükrü; Simon, Florian; Ehrmann, Ulrich; Garrel, Catherine; Sträter, Jörn; Brückner, Uwe B; Leverve, Xavier M; Schelzig, Hubert; Speit, Günter; Radermacher, Peter; Muth, Claus-Martin

    2007-04-01

    We previously reported in healthy volunteers that a cantaloupe melon extract chemically combined with wheat gliadin (melon extract/gliadin) and containing SOD, catalase and residual glutathione peroxidase (GPx), protected against DNA strand-break damage induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), a well-established model of DNA damage resulting from oxidative stress. Aortic cross-clamping is a typical example of ischemia/reperfusion injury-related oxidative stress, and therefore we investigated whether this melon extract/gliadin would also reduce DNA damage after aortic cross-clamping and reperfusion. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. Animal laboratory. 18 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs. After 14 days of oral administration of 1250 mg of the melon extract/gliadin (n=9) or vehicle (n=9), animals underwent 30 min of thoracic aortic cross-clamping and 4 h of reperfusion. Before clamping, immediately before declamping, and at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion, we measured blood isoprostane (immunoassay) and malondialdehyde concentrations (fluorimetric thiobarbituric acid test), SOD, catalase and GPx activities (spectrophotometric kits), NO formation (nitrate+nitrite; chemoluminescence), DNA damage in whole blood samples and isolated lymphocytes exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (comet assay). Organ function was also evaluated. Kidney and spinal cord specimen were analysed for apoptosis (TUNEL assay). The melon extract/gliadin blunted the DNA damage, reduced spinal cord apoptosis and attenuated NO release, however, without any effect on lipid peroxidation and organ function. Pre-treatment with the oral melon extract/gliadin may be a therapeutic option to reduce oxidative cell injury affiliated with aortic cross-clamping.

  7. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mireia; Xu, Meihong; Esteras, Cristina; Roig, Cristina; Monforte, Antonio J; Troadec, Christelle; Pujol, Marta; Nuez, Fernando; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Picó, Belén

    2011-08-11

    The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS) melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso)4E). The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS). Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  8. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon (ClLEA) and 61 LEA genes from melon (CmLEA) were identified in this co...

  9. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monforte Antonio J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L., a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, more amenable for high throughput analysis, especially if these markers are located in gene coding regions, to provide functional markers. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from melon are available in public databases, and resequencing ESTs or validating SNPs detected in silico are excellent ways to discover SNPs. Results EST-based SNPs were discovered after resequencing ESTs between the parental lines of the PI 161375 (SC × 'Piel de sapo' (PS genetic map or using in silico SNP information from EST databases. In total 200 EST-based SNPs were mapped in the melon genetic map using a bin-mapping strategy, increasing the map density to 2.35 cM/marker. A subset of 45 SNPs was used to study variation in a panel of 48 melon accessions covering a wide range of the genetic diversity of the species. SNP analysis correctly reflected the genetic relationships compared with other marker systems, being able to distinguish all the accessions and cultivars. Conclusion This is the first example of a genetic map in a cucurbit species that includes a major set of SNP markers discovered using ESTs. The PI 161375 × 'Piel de sapo' melon genetic map has around 700 markers, of which more than 500 are gene-based markers (SNP, RFLP and SSR. This genetic map will be a central tool for the construction of the melon physical map, the step prior to sequencing the complete genome. Using the set of SNP markers, it was possible to define the genetic relationships within a collection of forty

  10. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleu, Wim; Esteras, Cristina; Roig, Cristina; González-To, Mireia; Fernández-Silva, Iria; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Blanca, José; Aranda, Miguel A; Arús, Pere; Nuez, Fernando; Monforte, Antonio J; Picó, Maria Belén; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2009-07-15

    There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L.), a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), more amenable for high throughput analysis, especially if these markers are located in gene coding regions, to provide functional markers. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from melon are available in public databases, and resequencing ESTs or validating SNPs detected in silico are excellent ways to discover SNPs. EST-based SNPs were discovered after resequencing ESTs between the parental lines of the PI 161375 (SC) x 'Piel de sapo' (PS) genetic map or using in silico SNP information from EST databases. In total 200 EST-based SNPs were mapped in the melon genetic map using a bin-mapping strategy, increasing the map density to 2.35 cM/marker. A subset of 45 SNPs was used to study variation in a panel of 48 melon accessions covering a wide range of the genetic diversity of the species. SNP analysis correctly reflected the genetic relationships compared with other marker systems, being able to distinguish all the accessions and cultivars. This is the first example of a genetic map in a cucurbit species that includes a major set of SNP markers discovered using ESTs. The PI 161375 x 'Piel de sapo' melon genetic map has around 700 markers, of which more than 500 are gene-based markers (SNP, RFLP and SSR). This genetic map will be a central tool for the construction of the melon physical map, the step prior to sequencing the complete genome. Using the set of SNP markers, it was possible to define the genetic relationships within a collection of forty-eight melon accessions as efficiently as with SSR

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  12. Agronomic evaluation of green biodegradable mulch on melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Filippi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A two-year research was carried out in 2004-2005 in order to evaluate the effects of biodegradable green mulch on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. yield and quality. The loss of quality due to the presence of spot caused by the residues of biodegradable plastics was also investigated. The research was conducted over two years, in open field, at S. Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy, (lat. 43.67498, long. 10.34737, from the beginning of May to the end of July of each year. The films tested in the first year experiment were two biodegradable ones with different colours (black and green compared with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE film, while in 2005 three biodegradable films, (two green and one black were compared with a traditional LDPE film. The two green biodegradable films had different properties related to the biodegradation rate, faster in film Cv205, because of a different degree of Mater Bi polymer inside the film. In each year a randomized block design with four replications was followed. Green biodegradable films allowed obtaining a higher yield than LDPE films maybe because of the higher soil temperatures reached, and excellent fruit quality, especially for the soluble solids content and the ripening process. At the same time, the presence of residues on the fruit skin was rather low because of the degradation of films occurred at the ripening time. In the first year, the percentage of spotted fruits was low for every kind of film, while in the second one the green film showed a higher presence of residues on skin compared with the black one. The biodegradable materials covered the soil for the whole crop cycle with a good mulching effect, and the successive degradation allowed to avoid the removal and disposal of plastic film, with a certain economic advantage.

  13. Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Padhye, Subhash B.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds (Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q–U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins (α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents. PMID:26968675

  14. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  15. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  16. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  17. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  18. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and melon (C. melo L. chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staub Jack E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14 and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24 are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Results Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F2- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Conclusions Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in

  19. An efficient regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Gao, P; Wang, X Z; Luan, F S

    2014-01-08

    An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using cotyledon node zone-stem connection region of melon, has been developed. The new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology, independent of organ culture, used the entire germinated seed as explants. The transformation system was maximized to maintain the integrity of melon itself, thus avoiding the limitations of traditional tissue culture methods. The transformation was carried out under a non-sterile environment. The incorporation of a selectable marker (neomycin phosphotransferase II) into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The transformation frequency based on the PCR was 13%. Transgenic melon plants were usually detected by PCR in less than 1 month after Agrobacterium inoculation, and seeds could be harvested in 3 months. The growth characteristics and morphology of the transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild-type plants. This method would be beneficial for facilitating the characteristics of gene functions and for boosting the manipulation of melon transformation for commercial purposes.

  20. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is probably due to that fact that Kp includes the hydraulic conductance of the root system, which offers the highest resistance to water flow in a plant, and the frictional resistance of the proximal part of the crown. Day time course of water relation parameters were monitored in melon and tomato (predawn, 1100 to 1400 h) ...

  1. Evaluation of potential new sources of melon host plant resistance to the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes that support fewer numbers of whitefly could reduce the frequency or the amount of insecticide applications required to keep the insects in check, as was the case with cotton where measurable resistance to whitefly in some genotypes reduced the number of sprays, thu...

  2. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  3. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  4. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In the present study we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae’s ability to i...

  5. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  6. Effect of replacement of rice offal with graded levels of melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of melon (Citrulus vulgaris) seed offal (MSO) was determined in a 12-week feeding trial using 25 six weeks old male rabbits with an average initial weight of 485g. The animals were fed diets containing 0,7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30% MSO in a completely randomized design (CRD). Digestibility trial and ...

  7. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E

    2007-08-01

    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  8. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  9. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  10. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  11. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  12. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  13. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measurements of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  14. THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern homeland assortment of vegetable crops is given. The donors of the most important traits and the accessions  of vegetable and melon crops perspective for breeding from the VIR collection are shown. The short characteristic of the varieties is given.

  15. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon ( ClLEA ) and 61 LEA genes from melon ( CmLEA ) were identified in this comprehensive study. They were classified into four and three distinct clusters in watermelon and melon, respectively. There was a correlation between gene structure and motif composition among each LEA groups. Segmental duplication played an important role for LEA gene expansion in watermelon. Maximum gene ontology of LEA genes was observed with poplar LEA genes. For evaluation of tissue specific expression patterns of ClLEA and CmLEA genes, publicly available RNA-seq data were analyzed. The expression analysis of selected LEA genes in root and leaf tissues of drought-stressed watermelon and melon were examined using qRT-PCR. Among them, ClLEA - 12 - 17 - 46 genes were quickly induced after drought application. Therefore, they might be considered as early response genes for water limitation conditions in watermelon. In addition, CmLEA - 42 - 43 genes were found to be up-regulated in both tissues of melon under drought stress. Our results can open up new frontiers about understanding of functions of these important family members under normal developmental stages and stress conditions by bioinformatics and transcriptomic approaches.

  16. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L. IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE KIILL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, in areas with the following melon hybrids: Yellow type, Piel de Sapo, Cantaloupe and Galia. For studies on floral morphology and biology, hermaphrodites and male flowers of each hybrid were analyzed for their size and nectar chamber size, pollen and nectar production, anthesis time and flower lifespan. Floral visitors were observed simultaneously in hybrids of three types of melon, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., in the two study sites. Evaluations of the corolla diameter and flower height indicated that the hermaphrodite flowers were larger in size than male flowers in all types of melon investigated, in both study sites. As for nectar chamber, male flowers are larger in width, but smaller in height, compared to hermaphrodite flowers. Regarding the volume of nectar, differences were found between floral types for the hybrids evaluated, in the two study sites; the hermaphrodite flowers produced 2-7 times more nectar than male flowers in all studied hybrids. Observations of visits of Apis mellifera to areas with simultaneous flowering of the three types of melon demonstrated differences in the frequency of visits between hybrids, floral type and foraged resource. Flowers of the hybrids Piel de Sapo and Cantaloupe exhibited larger corolla diameter, larger dimensions of the nectar chamber and greater supply of resources for foraging, which could explain the higher number of visits of bees to their flowers in the sites studied.

  17. Quantitative trait loci analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.) domestication-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Aurora; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Dolcet-Sanjuan, Ramón; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Álvarez, José María; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Picó, Belén; Monforte, Antonio José

    2017-09-01

    Loci on LGIV, VI, and VIII of melon genome are involved in the control of fruit domestication-related traits and they are candidate to have played a role in the domestication of the crop. The fruit of wild melons is very small (20-50 g) without edible pulp, contrasting with the large size and high pulp content of cultivated melon fruits. An analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling fruit morphology domestication-related traits was carried out using an in vitro maintained F 2 population from the cross between the Indian wild melon "Trigonus" and the western elite cultivar 'Piel de Sapo'. Twenty-seven QTL were identified in at least two out of the three field trials. Six of them were also being detected in BC1 and BC3 populations derived from the same cross. Ten of them were related to fruit morphological traits, 12 to fruit size characters, and 5 to pulp content. The Trigonus alleles decreased the value of the characters, except for the QTL at andromonoecious gene at linkage group (LG) II, and the QTL for pulp content at LGV. QTL genotypes accounted for a considerable degree of the total phenotypic variation, reaching up to 46%. Around 66% of the QTL showed additive gene action, 19% exhibited dominance, and 25% consisted of overdominance. The regions on LGIV, VI, and VIII included the QTL with more consistent and strong effects on domestication-related traits. QTLs on those regions were validated in BC2S1, BC2S2, and BC3 families, with "Trigonus" allele decreasing the fruit morphological traits in all cases. The validated QTL could represent loci involved in melon domestication, although further experiments as genomic variation studies across wild and cultivated genotypes would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  19. Investigation about selecting strong type of melons by using melon paleness factor fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Kunter, B.; Erzurum, K.; Maden, S.; Yanmaz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a very serious disease factor for farmers in Turkey. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of different FOM races. According to our results we determined effective irradiation doses and filtrate treatment dose by Linear Regression Analysis. According to our results 21.75 Gy is effective dose for in vitro Yuva cv. explants to induce mutation and for filtrate treatment 6.73% is the proper dose to select survive calluses and plantlets. We recommended using 10 and 20 Gy gamma ray doses for in vitro melon plantlets to induce mutation by our results. We succeed to regenerate 6% plantlets which were obtained and selected from irradiated plantlets and regenerated in in vitro medias which were include 6.73 % filtrate. Although 16.7% of resistant or tolerant plantlets can continue their viability in greenhouse conditions after disease inoculation treatment, we observed 4 plants had a surviving capability in a limited time. That is very important for breeding cycle and this research can lead to the development of new melon cultivars that will be resistant to Fusarium wilt.

  20. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  1. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  2. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non......-volatile metabolites as well as mineral elements were profiled in the flesh of mature fruit, employing a range of complementary analytical technologies. More than 1,000 metabolite signatures and 19 mineral elements were determined. Data analyses revealed variations related to factors such as variety, growing season...... tools to characterize the quality of fruits cultivated under commercial conditions. They can also provide knowledge on fruit metabolism and the mechanisms of plant response to environmental modifications, thereby paving the way for metabolomics-guided improvement of cultural practices for better fruit...

  3. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis M. de C. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar, cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD, in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments were only about the soil covering with plastic mulch: with (CC or without (SC plastic mulch. The economically optimal irrigation depths were 208.83 and 186.88 mm, resulting in yields of 50.85 and 44.51 t ha-1 for the experiments with and without mulching, respectively. The results showing the economically optimal irrigation depths were very close to those that produced the highest yield.

  4. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ashraful Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions.

  5. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  6. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L.) IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    KIILL,LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE; FEITOZA,EDSÂNGELA DE ARAÚJO; SIQUEIRA,KÁTIA MARIA MEDEIROS DE; RIBEIRO,MÁRCIA DE FÁTIMA; SILVA,EVA MÔNICA SARMENTO DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE)/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA) and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), in areas with the f...

  7. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  8. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed Whales from the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed...cascadiaresearch.org Award Number: N00014-14-1-0412 LONG-TERM GOALS Knowledge of the diet of a species is crucial for understanding it’s behavior...activities. Assessing diet for many species of cetaceans is difficult, given that most foraging occurs far below the surface and that stomach

  9. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam p...

  10. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  11. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Improving tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in melon using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Tutluer, I.; Kunter, B.; Peskircioglu, H.; Sagel, Z.; Erzurum, K.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant cultivars. During the last three decades, tissue culture techniques have been utilised in crop improvement to generate changes in the genetic material of plants via in vitro somaclonal variations (by organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis) and induced mutagenesis. More recently, researchers have been using in vitro techniques to investigate the effects of fungal culture filtrates or toxins on susceptible and resistant genotypes of different plant species or cultivars to assess disease resistance. This method is effectively used for cucumber and melon. There are various in vitro culture techniques that can be used for cucumber (Malepszy, 1988). In this chapter, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, from both irradiated and non- irradiated explants, is performed using culture filtrates of different FOM races. This research could lead to the development of new melon cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  13. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  14. Volatile emerging contaminants in melon fruits, analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of volatile emerging contaminants in fruit. The method showed good precision (RSD ≤ 14%) and satisfactory recoveries (99.1-101.7%) and LOD and LOQ values ranging between 0.011-0.033 μg kg -1 and 0.037-0.098 μg kg -1 , respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of volatile emerging contaminants in two varieties of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) cultivated adjoining high-risk areas. Glycol ethers, BHT, BHA and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were determined in melon fruit pulps for the first time, with different sensitivities depending on sample and variety. Although the amount of the volatile contaminants in the melon samples were in the order of µg kg -1 , the safety of vegetable crops cultivated near risk areas should be more widely considered. The results showed that this accurate and reproducible method can be useful for routine safety control of fruits and vegetables.

  15. Modelling sustainable salt water management under deficit irrigation conditions for melon in Spain and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Kelly N; Cabello, María J; Valnir Júnior, Manuel; Tarjuelo, José M; Domínguez, Alfonso

    2015-08-30

    In water scarcity areas the use of saline water for irrigation is a common practice. In this study, experimental data from two two-year melon tests were collected for the calibration (2004 'Yellow Melon' (YeMe) type) and validation (2002 YeMe, 2005 and 2006 'Piel de Sapo' (PiSa) type) processes in melon crop simulation under deficit irrigation conditions using salt water. The simulations were carried out for Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and Ceará (Brazil) using the MOPECO model, which includes optimized regulated deficit irrigation (ORDI) methodology. The objective was to determine the most suitable irrigation strategy for both areas. Under fresh water conditions, ORDI may increase yield by up to 20% (PiSa) and 7% (YeMe) compared with constant deficit irrigation. Higher water deficit should be induced during the vegetative development and ripening stages. The rainfall between irrigation periods is able to leach the salts supplied by the irrigation water. The combination of ORDI with different strategies for managing saline water may increase water use efficiency. In these areas it may be of interest not to apply the leaching fraction (saving up to 67% of irrigation water). However, leaching of the soluble salts accumulated before starting the most sensitive periods may be suitable. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  17. Estimatation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of melon cultivated in protected environment

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    Cláudia S. Lozano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the water consumption and the crop coefficient of melon in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Technical Center of Irrigation of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá, PR. The melon hybrid used was Sunrise and the irrigations were performed daily by drip irrigation. Crop water requirement was quantified based on its evapotranspiration directly measured through constant water table lysimeters. Weather information was collected in an automatic weather station, installed inside the protected environment, which allowed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration by the Penman-Monteith method. The total water consumption of the melon crop was 295 mm, reaching maximum crop evapotranspiration of 5.16 mm d-1. The phenological stages were shorter in the initial, growth and intermediate phases, compared with the data from FAO. The determined crop coefficients were 0.87, 1.15 and 0.64 for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively

  18. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, I; Eduardo, I; Blanca, J; Esteras, C; Picó, B; Nuez, F; Arús, P; Garcia-Mas, J; Monforte, Antonio José

    2008-12-01

    We report the development of 158 primer pairs flanking SSR motifs in genomic (gSSR) and EST (EST-SSR) melon sequences, all yielding polymorphic bands in melon germplasm, except one that was polymorphic only in Cucurbita species. A similar polymorphism level was found among EST-SSRs and gSSRs, between dimeric and trimeric EST-SSRs, and between EST-SSRs placed in the open reading frame or any of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. Correlation between SSR length and polymorphism was only found for dinucleotide EST-SSRs located within the untranslated regions, but not for trinucleotide EST-SSRs. Transferability of EST-SSRs to Cucurbita species was assayed and 12.7% of the primer pairs amplified at least in one species, although only 5.4% were polymorphic. A set of 14 double haploid lines from the cross between the cultivar "Piel de Sapo" and the accession PI161375 were selected for the bin mapping approach in melon. One hundred and twenty-one SSR markers were newly mapped. The position of 46 SSR loci was also verified by genotyping the complete population. A final bin-map was constructed including 80 RFLPs, 212 SSRs, 3 SNPs and the Nsv locus, distributed in 122 bins with an average bin length of 10.2 cM and a maximum bin length of 33 cM. Map density was 4.2 cM/marker or 5.9 cM/SSR.

  19. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a vegetable commonly used for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snee, Laura S; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Dooley, Dian A; Efird, Jimmy T; Shovic, Anne C; Nerurkar, Pratibha V

    2011-07-28

    Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  20. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  1. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  2. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, D.; Li, W.; Tang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  3. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA Markers Linked to CMV-B2 Resistance Gene in Melon

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    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers linked to CMV-B2 resistance gene (Creb-2 in melon cultivar Yamatouri were cloned and sequenced to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers for detection of CMV-B2 resistance gene (Creb-2 in melon. SCOPE14 derived from OPE-14 yielded a single DNA band at 541 bp, while SCAPB05 derived from APB-05, yielded a single DNA band at 1,046 bp, respectively. Segregation of SCOPE14 and SCAPB05 markers in bulk of F2 plants demonstrated that they were co-segregated with RAPD markers from which the SCAR markers were originated. Furthermore, results of SCAR analysis in diverse melons showed SCAPB05 primers obtained a single 1,046 bp linked to Creb-2 in resistant cultivars Sanuki-shirouri and Kohimeuri. However, SCOPE14 failed to detect Creb-2 in diverse melons. Results of this study revealed that SCAR analysis not only confirmed melons that had been clearly scored for resistance to CMV-B2 by RAPD markers, but also clarified the ambiguous resistance results obtained by the RAPD markers.

  4. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

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    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  5. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  6. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  7. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  8. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PRESERVING VITAMIN C CONTENT IN MELONS DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE BY TREATMNET WITH IONIZED AIR AND SHRINK WRAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stepanenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyzes the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of vitamin C content in fruit of melons. We considered melons of average ripening period from Bereginya and Golden varieties during storage by treatment with ionized air and shrink wrapping. Studies conducted in 2011-2013 at the National Institute of Vine and Wine Magarach (Yalta and Taurian State Agrotechnological University (Melitopol. For the experiment we used a melon fruit of medium ripening, varieties Golden and Bereginya that grow in the steppe zone of southern Ukraine (farm PE Borisov of Yakymovka district, Zaporozhye region. Collection of fruits and their selection for laying deposited were performed in accordance with relevant standards. To determine the mass concentration of ascorbic acid we used iodometric method. Before laying melon fruit for storage of pre-cooled for 25 hours and then spent processing and packaging. In our experiment, we maintained the relative humidity (GDP about of 85% and air temperature of +3 Celcium degrees in the repository. The treatment was carried out using the fruits developed by own patented device for preparing food for storage. Analysis of the experimental data led to the following conclusions: The content of ascorbic acid during the storage of fruits melon was reduced. Storage of fruits, packed (in whole or in part in shrimp and processed by ionized air gave significantly better preservation of vitamin C in the fruit compared to fruit without processing by air and  unpackaged fruits and in control. Storage of fruits, fully packaged and processed by ionized air, gave the best results in the equalization of other research options. The fruits of melon of variety Golden somewhat better retained vitamin C by the end of the storage period, although its original content was lower than in fruit of varieties Bereginya. Keywords: storage of fruits, vitamin C, ionized air, shrink wrap.

  10. PRESERVING VITAMIN C CONTENT IN MELONS DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE BY TREATMNET WITH IONIZED AIR AND SHRINK WRAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko D.S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyzes the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of vitamin C content in fruit of melons. We considered melons of average ripening period from Bereginya and Golden varieties during storage by treatment with ionized air and shrink wrapping. Studies conducted in 2011-2013 at the National Institute of Vine and Wine Magarach (Yalta and Taurian State Agrotechnological University (Melitopol. For the experiment we used a melon fruit of medium ripening, varieties Golden and Bereginya that grow in the steppe zone of southern Ukraine (farm PE Borisov of Yakymovka district, Zaporozhye region. Collection of fruits and their selection for laying deposited were performed in accordance with relevant standards. To determine the mass concentration of ascorbic acid we used iodometric method. Before laying melon fruit for storage of pre-cooled for 25 hours and then spent processing and packaging. In our experiment, we maintained the relative humidity (GDP about of 85% and air temperature of +3 Celcium degrees in the repository. The treatment was carried out using the fruits developed by own patented device for preparing food for storage. Analysis of the experimental data led to the following conclusions: The content of ascorbic acid during the storage of fruits melon was reduced. Storage of fruits, packed (in whole or in part in shrimp and processed by ionized air gave significantly better preservation of vitamin C in the fruit compared to fruit without processing by air and unpackaged fruits and in control. Storage of fruits, fully packaged and processed by ionized air, gave the best results in the equalization of other research options. The fruits of melon of variety Golden somewhat better retained vitamin C by the end of the storage period, although its original content was lower than in fruit of varieties Bereginya.

  11. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  12. Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roig Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monosporascus cannonballus is the main causal agent of melon vine decline disease. Several studies have been carried out mainly focused on the study of the penetration of this pathogen into melon roots, the evaluation of symptoms severity on infected roots, and screening assays for breeding programs. However, a detailed molecular view on the early interaction between M. cannonballus and melon roots in either susceptible or resistant genotypes is lacking. In the present study, we used a melon oligo-based microarray to investigate the gene expression responses of two melon genotypes, Cucumis melo ‘Piel de sapo’ (‘PS’ and C. melo ‘Pat 81’, with contrasting resistance to the disease. This study was carried out at 1 and 3 days after infection (DPI by M. cannonballus. Results Our results indicate a dissimilar behavior of the susceptible vs. the resistant genotypes from 1 to 3 DPI. ‘PS’ responded with a more rapid infection response than ‘Pat 81’ at 1 DPI. At 3 DPI the total number of differentially expressed genes identified in ‘PS’ declined from 451 to 359, while the total number of differentially expressed transcripts in ‘Pat 81’ increased from 187 to 849. Several deregulated transcripts coded for components of Ca2+ and jasmonic acid (JA signalling pathways, as well as for other proteins related to defence mechanisms. Transcriptional differences in the activation of the JA-mediated response in ‘Pat 81’ compared to ‘PS’ suggested that JA response might be partially responsible for their observed differences in resistance. Conclusions As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation.

  13. Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Cristina; Fita, Ana; Ríos, Gabino; Hammond, John P; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2012-11-08

    Monosporascus cannonballus is the main causal agent of melon vine decline disease. Several studies have been carried out mainly focused on the study of the penetration of this pathogen into melon roots, the evaluation of symptoms severity on infected roots, and screening assays for breeding programs. However, a detailed molecular view on the early interaction between M. cannonballus and melon roots in either susceptible or resistant genotypes is lacking. In the present study, we used a melon oligo-based microarray to investigate the gene expression responses of two melon genotypes, Cucumis melo 'Piel de sapo' ('PS') and C. melo 'Pat 81', with contrasting resistance to the disease. This study was carried out at 1 and 3 days after infection (DPI) by M. cannonballus. Our results indicate a dissimilar behavior of the susceptible vs. the resistant genotypes from 1 to 3 DPI. 'PS' responded with a more rapid infection response than 'Pat 81' at 1 DPI. At 3 DPI the total number of differentially expressed genes identified in 'PS' declined from 451 to 359, while the total number of differentially expressed transcripts in 'Pat 81' increased from 187 to 849. Several deregulated transcripts coded for components of Ca2+ and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, as well as for other proteins related to defence mechanisms. Transcriptional differences in the activation of the JA-mediated response in 'Pat 81' compared to 'PS' suggested that JA response might be partially responsible for their observed differences in resistance. As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation.

  14. Effect of reproductive mode on host plant utilization of melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Gao, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Variation in the reproductive mode of melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover occurred on the large geographic scale, but the performance of different reproductive modes to use host plant is poorly understood. Life tables of melon aphid population that undergo the anholocyclic, androcyclic, and intermediate reproductive mode were conducted on different host plants. The results showed that the anholocyclic and androcyclic strains could become adults and produce offspring on cotton Gossypium hirsutum L., whereas the intermediate strain could not. The survival rate, net reproductive rate (R(0)), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of the androcyclic strain on cotton were significantly greater than that of the anholocyclic strain. The three strains could aptly use cucurbits host plants including cucumber Cucumis sativa L., pumpkin Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.), and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L.; survival rate and R(0) were not significantly different on these two host plants. Moreover, the r(m) of the anholocyclic strain on cucumber and the androcyclic strain on pumpkin and zucchini were significantly greater than that of the other two strains. The abilities of the three strains to use a host plant were flexible, because their r(m) on pumpkin or zucchini became equal after rearing for four successive generations; furthermore, the intermediate strain attained the ability to use cotton, and the performance of anholocyclic and intermediate strains to use cotton also significantly increased after feeding on pumpkin or zucchini for one or three generations. It was concluded that the reproductive mode and feeding experience affected the performance of melon aphid to use a host plant. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  15. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

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    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  16. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

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    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  17. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

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    I. S. Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  18. What do spring migrants reveal about sex and host selection in the melon aphid?

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    Thomas Sophie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host plants exert considerable selective pressure on aphids because the plants constitute their feeding, mating and oviposition sites. Therefore, host specialisation in aphids evolves through selection of the behavioural and chemical mechanisms of host-plant location and recognition, and through metabolic adaptation to the phloem content of the host plant. How these adaptive traits evolve in an aphid species depends on the complexity of the annual life cycle of that species. The purpose of this field study was to determine how winged spring-migrant populations contribute to the evolution and maintenance of host specialisation in Aphis gossypii through host-plant choice and acceptance. We also assessed whether host-specialised genotypes corresponded exclusively to anholocyclic lineages regardless of the environmental conditions. Results The spring populations of cotton-melon aphids visiting newly planted melon crops exhibited an unexpectedly high level of genetic diversity that contrasted with the very low diversity characterising the host-specialised populations of this aphid species. This study illustrated in natura host-plant-selection pressure by showing the great differences in genetic diversity between the spring-migrant populations (alate aphids and the melon-infesting populations (the apterous offspring of the alate aphids. Moreover, an analysis of the genetic composition of these alate and apterous populations in four geographic regions suggested differences in life-history strategies, such as host choice and reproductive mode, and questioned the common assertion that A. gossypii is an anholocyclic species throughout its distribution area, including Europe. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate that the melon plant acts as a selective filter against the reproduction of non-specialised individuals. We showed that olfactory cues are unlikely to be decisive in natura for host recognition by spring-migrant aphid

  19. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  20. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells

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    P.M. Rolim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g. Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%. To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20–85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.

  1. Water consumption and soil moisture distribution in melon crop with mulching and in a protected environment

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    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulching has become an important technique for land cover, but there are some technical procedures which should be adjusted for these new modified conditions to establish optimum total water depth. It is also important to observe the soil-water relations as soil water distribution and wetted volume dimensions. The objective of the present study was to estimate melon evapotranspiration under mulching in a protected environment and to verify the water spatial distribution around the melon root system in two soil classes. Mulching provided 27 mm water saving by reducing water evaporation. In terms of volume each plant received, on average, the amount of 175.2 L of water in 84 days of cultivation without mulching, while when was used mulching the water requirement was 160.2 L per plant. The use of mulching reduced the soil moisture variability throughout the crop cycle and allowed a greater distribution of soil water that was more intense in the clay soil. The clayey soil provided on average 43 mm more water depth retention in 0.50 m soil deep relative to the sandy loam soil, and reduced 5.6 mm the crop cycle soil moisture variation compared to sandy loam soil.

  2. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  3. Surfactin triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis in melon phylloplane and contributes to the biocontrol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Houda; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego

    2014-07-01

    The biocontrol activity of many Bacillus species has been traditionally related to the direct antagonism of pathogens. In previous works, we reported that B. subtilis strain UMAF6614 was an efficient biocontrol agent that produced bacillomycin, fengycin and surfactin lipopeptides. Bacillomycins and fengycins were shown to have antagonistic activity towards fungal and bacterial pathogens of cucurbits; however, the functionality of surfactin remained unclear. In this study, the role of surfactin in the biocontrol activity of this strain was investigated. We observed that a deficiency in surfactin production led to a partial reduction of disease suppression by this biocontrol agent, which coincided with a defect in biofilm formation and the colonization of the melon phylloplane. These effects were due to a dramatic reduction in the production of exopolysaccharide and the TasA protein, which are the two major components of the extracellular matrix. We propose that the biocontrol activity of this strain is the result of the coordinated action of the three families of lipopeptides. B. subtilis UMAF6614 produces surfactin to trigger biofilm formation on melon phylloplane, which ensures the long-term persistence and the adequate secretion of suppressive lipopeptides, bacillomycins and fengycins, which efficiently target pathogens. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Odor-Active Compounds in the Special Flavor Hops Huell Melon and Polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiens, Silva D; Steinhaus, Martin

    2018-02-14

    The volatiles isolated from samples of the special flavor hop varieties, Huell Melon and Polaris, and from the aroma hop variety, Hallertau Tradition, by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), which resulted in 46 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16 to 2048. On the basis of high FD factors, myrcene, (3R)-linalool, and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were confirmed as important variety-independent hop odorants. (1R,4S)-Calamenene was identified for the first time as an odor-active compound in hops. Clear differences in the FD factors and their subsequent objectification by stable isotope dilution quantitation suggested that high concentrations of the esters ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and propyl 2-methylbutanoate cause the characteristic fruity, cantaloupe-like odor note in Huell Melon hops, whereas the fruity and minty odor notes in Polaris are associated with high amounts of 3-methylbutyl acetate and 1,8-cineole.

  5. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of Melon Seed Oil: Characterisation for Potential Diesel Fuel Application

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    Paul M. EJIKEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel, are alternative diesel fuels usually obtained from renewable sources, mainly, vegetable and animal oils through transesterification among other processes. Melon seed oil was extracted from melon seeds bought from a local market, degummed and alkali refined using standard methods. FAME of the oil was produced using methanol in the molar ration of 1:6, 1% sodium hydroxide catalyst at the reaction temperature of 60 deg C for the duration of 1h. Results obtained showed that the fatty acid methyl esters had a specific gravity of 0.8786, viscosity of 6.24 centistokes, pH of 7.23, heating value of 36.34 J/g and flash point of 148 deg C. The FAME yield was 87.35% under the reaction conditions that applied. The infrared spectra of both the refined oil and the methyl esters from it, showed peaks at 1721.3cm-1 and 1167.8cm-1 (C=O and C-O stretches large and medium absorbance's for oils and methyl esters. Generally, the fuel properties of the FAME compared with values obtained under the same conditions for conventional petroleum diesel that was sourced from a retail outlet; suggesting that biodiesel from MSO could be used alone or in blends with petrodiesel to power compression ignition (diesel engines.

  6. Effects of processing methods on the proximate composition and momordicosides K and L content of bitter melon vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donya, Alice; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson; Chen, Pengyin; Jalaluddin, Mohammed

    2007-07-11

    Bitter melon (Mormodica charantia L.) has been associated with health benefits such as hypoglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-HIV activities. The vegetable, however, has an unpleasant bitter taste. The purpose of this research was to establish the effect of various processing methods on the moisture, lipid, and protein content of the Sri Lanka variety of bitter melon and to determine the effect of the processing methods on momordicosides K and L contents. The processing methods used were frying, blanching, sun drying, oven drying, freeze drying, and bitter masking with five different commercial bitter masking agents. Moisture, lipid, and protein analyses were done using standard AACC methods. Drying decreased moisture content from 92% to 9.5-10.2%. Frying lowered moisture content to 0.8% while increasing lipid content from 3.6 to 67%. Protein content remained unaffected by treatments. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method was used to identify momordicosides K and L in methanolic extracts of fresh and processed samples. Only extracted ion chromatographs for blanched bitter melon and bitter melon with MY 68 agent showed the absence of momordicosides K and L.

  7. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs

  8. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  10. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

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    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  11. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L * , a * and b * were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p * parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a * and b * which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results

  12. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  13. Effects of wounding, humidity, temperature, and inoculum concentrations on the severity of corky dry rot caused by Fusarium semitectum in melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jardelina Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Corky dry rot, caused by Fusarium semitectum, is the main postharvest disease of melons in Brazil. This study investigated the effects of wounding, humidity, temperature, and inoculum concentration on the severity of corky dry rot under controlled conditions. Cantaloupe and honeydew melon types were inoculated by spraying conidial suspensions of three F. semitectum isolates. In all experiments, the tested F. semitectum isolates did not differ in relation to disease severity, but, the cantaloupe melon showed higher levels of severity. No lesions appeared on fruits that lacked wounds, and increasing wound age reduced lesion severity. Melons that were inoculated with F. semitectum developed symptoms regardless of the presence or absence of a moist chamber at the post-inoculation stage, but the lesions were larger under moist chamber conditions. There were no symptoms at 10°C, but a temperature increase from 15 to 25°C resulted in a disease severity increase. The largest lesions were observed when both melon types were inoculated with a concentration of 106 conidia mL-1, but even the lowest concentration (101 conidia mL-1 was sufficient for causing lesions. Injury reduction and/or the acceleration of melon healing, as well as environmental variable control and a reduction of inoculum sources, are essential to reducing corky dry rot severity.

  14. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  15. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  16. Mass rearing of the melon fly in Okinawa, Japan - Special reference to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishii, Masaaki; Kakinohana, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), had been completely eradicated from Okinawa, Japan in 1993 (Yamagishi et al. 1993, Kakinohana 1994, Kuba et al. 1996). Following the expansion of target areas during the eradication campaign, the number of flies produced was increased from 5 million to 280 million per week. In the process of the eradication project, the mass reared strains had been replaced three times with new strains. The aim of this paper is to show the changes in various traits of the third strain that were regularly monitored in the factory. First, unintentional and intentional artificial selections to which the strain was exposed are mentioned. Second, the changes in the monitored traits are shown, and finally, the relation between selection and the response to selection is discussed

  17. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  18. Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence; Birtwhistle, Richard; Kotecha, Jyoti; Hannah, Susan; Cuthbertson, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.

  19. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  20. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  1. Application of water footprint in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In recent times, there has been a major increase in the use of water and fertilizers in order to increase agricultural production, while at the same time there has increased evidence that aquifers are reducing their water level, enriched by nutrient and degraded as a result of pollution. So best management practices are needed for much of cropped, irrigated and fertirrigated land, to avoid contamination of fresh water and groundwater. The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). This study is focused in calculating the crops WF using a real case of study in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. This application help us to review the different concepts in which is based WF. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, winery waste, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

  2. Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, F A S; Torres Filho, J; Nunes, G H S; Queiróz, M A; Bordallo, P N; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, M A; Costa, Z P; Bezerra Neto, F

    2013-12-06

    The genetic divergence of 38 melon accessions from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast and three commercial hybrids were evaluated using fruit descriptors and microsatellite markers. The melon germplasm belongs to the botanic varieties cantalupensis (19), momordica (7), conomon (4), and inodorus (3), and to eight genotypes that were identified only at the species level. The fruit descriptors evaluated were: number of fruits per plant (NPF), fruit mass (FM; kg), fruit longitudinal diameter (LD; cm), fruit transversal diameter (TD; cm), shape index based on the LD/TD ratio, flesh pulp thickness, cavity thickness (CT; cm), firmness fruit pulp (N), and soluble solids (SS; °Brix). The results showed high variability for all descriptors, especially for NPF, LD, and FM. The grouping analysis based on fruit descriptors produced eight groups without taxonomic criteria. The LD (22.52%), NPF (19.70%), CT (16.13%), and SS (9.57%) characteristics were the descriptors that contributed the most to genotype dissimilarity. The 17 simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers amplified 41 alleles with an average of 2.41 alleles and three genotypes per locus. Some markers presented a high frequency for the main allele. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, the observed heterozygosity had very low values, and the mean polymorphism information content was 0.32. Molecular genetic similarity analyses clustered the accessions in 13 groups, also not following taxonomic ranks. There was no association between morphoagronomic and molecular groupings. In conclusion, there was great variability among the accessions and among and within botanic groups.

  3. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  4. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  5. Symptoms and Sensitivity to Chilling Injury of Cantaloupe Melons during Postharvest Síntomas y Sensibilidad a Daño por Enfriamiento de Melones Reticulados durante Poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krarup

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature and development of specific symptoms of chilling injury (CI and the variation in sensitivity to the disorder of different cultivars of cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin was assessed during two seasons. Twenty-three cultivars of the Eastern Shipper (2, Western Shipper (13 and Galia (8 types were grown in a semiarid environment in Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ W, Chile, using common cultural practices. Fruits were harvested at the half-slip stage, except Galia (3/5 color, graded ,washed, and stored for 18 days at 0 ºC, with an additional 3 days at 20 ºC. Symptoms of CI appeared with varying intensity in almost all cultivars and were generally similar. Symptoms developed progressively: surface discoloration progressed from light pink to brownish to black, followed by large sunken areas, and eventually, discrete indentations and net whitening. Surface decay was not present in most fruits and should be considered a consequence rather than a symptom of CI. Cultivars had different sensitivities to the disorder; some cultivars were severely injured (Athena, Colima and Revigal whereas others developed almost no symptoms of CI (Hy-Mark, Gal 96, and Voyager I. The response variability to chilling showed the need for precise temperature recommendations for these cultivars, and signaled a potential for future long-term transport or storage of some cultivars.La naturaleza y el desarrollo de los síntomas de daño por enfriamiento (CI y la variación en sensibilidad de diversos cultivares de melones reticulados (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin a este desorden fisiológico se evaluaron durante dos temporadas. Veintitrés cultivares de los tipos Eastern (1, Western (15 y Galia (8 se cultivaron en un ambiente semi-árido en Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ O, Chile, en cultivos realizados de manera convencional, y los frutos se cosecharon al estado de madurez de medio desprendimiento

  6. Fenugreek seeds extracts as growth regulatory and feeding inhibitor for the African Melon Lady Bird Beetle: Henosepilachna elaterii (Rossi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelbagi, A. O.; Mahmoud, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the extracts of fenugreek seeds on feeling and development of the African melon ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna elaterii. (Rossi). Seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) were extracted by distilled water and organic solvents (chloroform, acetone and ethanol), and the extracts were tested against the African melon ladybird beetle under laboratory conditions. Both aqueous and organic extracts showed significant growth regulatory activities, mainly prolonging the larval duration. The effect was clear in late in stars. The organic extracts showed strong feeding inhibitory activity against the fourth larval in star, where the amounts of food consumed inversely related to dose. The effects induced by acetone and ethanol extracts were greater than chloroform extract. Phyto chemical groups present in various fractions were identified. Various aspects of efficacy against the test insect are discussed.(Author)

  7. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Lee, S.G.; Saul, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF FRUIT FLY (Bactrocera spp) IN CHILI, BITTER MELON, GUAVA AND GUAVA BOL IN THE AMBON CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyani; Patty, John Alfred; Siahaya, Victor George

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important pests of horticultural crops with the intensity of their attacks can achieve 100%. The control by quarantine regulations and the use of attractants will be more successful when the information about the species that attack horticultural crops has been known clearly. This study aimed to identify the species of fruit fly that attack pepper (Capsicum annum), bitter melon, guava and guava bol and to know the number and sex ratio of fruit fly pests....

  9. Toxicity of insecticides used in the Brazilian melon crop to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ewerton; Araujo, Elton; Maia, André; Silva, Francisco; Bezerra, Carlos; Silva, Janisete

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of insecticides used in melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) on adults of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) under laboratory conditions. Three ways of exposure were used: direct spraying, feeding with insecticide contaminated diet, and contact with sprayed leaves. Bees were exposed to the insecticides abamectin, acetamiprid, cartap chloride, chlorfenapyr, cyromazin, deltamethrin, thiamethoxam, flufenoxuron, and pyriproxyfen at ...

  10. Studi Ketahanan Melon (Cucumis melo L) Terhadap Layu Fusarium Secara In Vitro dan Kaitannya dengan Asam Salisilat

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatmiko, Endang Sulistyaningsih, dan Rudi Hari Murti, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    INTISARILayu fusarium adalah penyakit utama melon yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (Fom). Pemuliaan tanaman secara in-vitro melalui variasi somaklonal telah digunakan selama beberapa dekade untuk  perbaikan karakter ketahanan tanaman.  Asam salisilat diketahui sebagai salah satu senyawa yang berperan penting terhadap ketahanan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi optimal dari asam fusarat yang dapat digunakan untuk tujuan skrining ketahanan layu...

  11. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  12. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  13. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values of binary mixture tests of (Alachlor + Bromacil), (Alachlor + Diuron), and (Bromacil + Diuron) were 12.21, 5.84, 10.22 on melon, 0.982, 925.4, 38.1 on molokhia, and 0.673, 1.34, 0.644 on wheat. Tertiary mixture tests showed EC50 values (TU/kg soil) of (Alachlor + Bromacil + Diuron) was 633.9 on melon, 3.02 on molokhia and 32.174 on wheat. Diuron was more toxic than Alachlor and Bromacil to the tested crops based on individual tests. Molokhia was the most sensitive crop to herbicides. Binary mixtures showed a synergistic effect as compared to the tertiary mixtures.

  14. Performance Evaluation Of Africa Elemi Melon And Africa Locust Bean Oil As Potential Quenchants For Medium Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Ibeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and comparative study was carried out on some locally sourced oils melon oil Africa elemi oil and Africa locust bean oil to evaluate suitability as substitute quenching media to mineral-based oil. The cooling ability of the oils was investigated using AISI 1034 medium carbon steel. The effect of heat transfer coefficient on quench severity mechanical properties of the quenched specimens were investigated in the course of the study. Results showed that the peak rate of heat extraction of melon oil Africa locust bean and Africa elemi oil were higher than that of mineral oil. Higher heat transfer coefficient of 1463 1023 Wm2k were obtained for melon oil and Africa locust bean Africa elemi and SAE 40 oil have heat transfer coefficient of 982 and 469 Wm2k respectively. The selected oils can be used as quenchants for medium carbon steel since the oils exhibits better cooling properties and mechanical properties than mineral-based oil.

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid responses in hypoxia-treated and untreated melon roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longquan; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Kaizhi; Pan, Yinghong; Li, Jingrui; Gao, Hongbo

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is one of the main environmental stresses that accounts for decreasing crop yield. To further investigate the mechanisms whereby exogenous GABA alleviates hypoxia injury to melon seedlings, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using roots subjected to normal aeration and hypoxia conditions with or without GABA (5mM). The results indicated that protein spots on gels after hypoxia and hypoxia+GABA treatment were significantly changed. Three "matched sets" were analyzed from four treatments, and 13 protein spots with large significant differences in expression were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Exogenous GABA treatment enhanced the expression of protein in cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase 1, exaA2 gene product, dnaJ and myb-like DNA-binding domain-containing proteins, as well as elongation factor-1 alpha and hypothetical proteins in hypoxia-induced roots. However, the hypoxia+GABA treated roots had a significantly lower expression of proteins including malate dehydrogenase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, disease resistance-like protein, disulfide isomerase, actin, ferrodoxin NADP oxidoreductase, glutathione transferase, netting associated peroxidase. This paper describes the effect of GABA on melon plants under hypoxia-induced stress using proteomics, and supports the alleviating function of GABA in melon plants grown under hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  18. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on CAPS Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. M.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Luan, F.; Baloch, A. W.; Baloch, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F/sub 2/ populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F/sub 2/ population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits. (author)

  19. Melon Transcriptome Characterization: Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Discovery for High Throughput Genotyping across the Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon ( L. ranks among the highest-valued fruit crops worldwide. Some genomic tools are available for this crop, including a Sanger transcriptome. We report the generation of 689,054 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from two 454 sequencing runs, using normalized and nonnormalized complementary DNA (cDNA libraries prepared from four genotypes belonging to the two subspecies and the main commercial types. 454 ESTs were combined with the Sanger available ESTs and de novo assembled into 53,252 unigenes. Over 63% of the unigenes were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms and 21% had known orthologs of (L. Heynh. Annotation distribution followed similar tendencies than that reported for , suggesting that the dataset represents a fairly complete melon transcriptome. Furthermore, we identified a set of 3298 unigenes with microsatellite motifs and 14,417 sequences with single nucleotide variants of which 11,655 single nucleotide polymorphism met criteria for use with high-throughput genotyping platforms, and 453 could be detected as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS. A set of markers were validated, 90% of them being polymorphic in a number of variable accessions. This transcriptome provides an invaluable new tool for biological research, more so when it includes transcripts not described previously. It is being used for genome annotation and has provided a large collection of markers that will allow speeding up the process of breeding new melon varieties.

  20. Reduction of Fusarium rot and maintenance of fruit quality in melon using eco-friendly hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Droby, Samir; Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi and quality deterioration. Hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and economic environment-friendly approach for managing postharvest decay and maintaining fruit quality. In this study, the effects of HWT (45 °C for 10, 15, 20, and 25 min) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum, in vivo Fusarium rot, and natural decay of melon were investigated. HWT inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of F. oxysporum. Protein impairment and ATP consumption triggered by HWT contributed to the inhibitory effect. Results of in vivo studies showed that HWT effectively controlled Fusarium rot and natural decay of melon. Correspondingly, HWT induced a significant increase in content of total phenolic compounds and lignin of melon. These findings indicate that the effects of HWT on Fusarium rot may be associated with the direct fungal inhibition and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. Importantly, HWT used in this study had beneficial effects on fruit quality as well. HWT may represent an effective non-chemical approach for management of postharvest Fusarium rot.

  1. Plant-feeding insects harbor double-stranded RNA viruses encoding a novel proline-alanine rich protein and a polymerase distantly related to that of fungal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Allyn; Sisterson, Mark S; Yokomi, Raymond; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-09-01

    Novel double-stranded RNAs (approximately 8 kbp) were isolated from threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) and beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), two plant-feeding hemipteran insect pests. The two new viruses, designated Spissistilus festinus virus 1 (SpFV1) and Circulifer tenellus virus 1 (CiTV1), do not appear to be encapsidated in conventional virions and shared a genome organization similar to that of several unclassified fungal viruses. SpFV1 and CiTVl encode a proline-alanine rich protein (PArp) and an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp). Expression of the 3'-proximal RdRp ORF appears to result from -1 translational frameshifting of the PArp ORF. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp indicated that SpFV1 and CiTV1 were most closely related to each other and the unclassified plant virus Cucurbit yellows associated virus, and more distantly related to the unclassified fungal dsRNA viruses Phlebiopsis gigantea virus 2 and Fusarium graminearum virus 3. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  3. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  4. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  5. Development and validation of a mathematical model for growth of pathogens in cut melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh-cut melons have been reported. The objective of our research was to develop a mathematical model that predicts the growth rate of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe over a range of storage temperatures and to validate that model by using Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, using both new data and data from the published studies. The growth of Salmonella on honeydew and watermelon and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon was monitored at temperatures of 4 to 25°C. The Ratkowsky (or square-root model) was used to describe Salmonella growth on cantaloupe as a function of storage temperature. Our results show that the levels of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe with an initial load of 3 log CFU/g can reach over 7 log CFU/g at 25°C within 24 h. No growth was observed at 4°C. A linear correlation was observed between the square root of Salmonella growth rate and temperature, such that √growth rate = 0.026 × (T - 5.613), R(2) = 0.9779. The model was generally suitable for predicting the growth of both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, for both new data and data from the published literature. When compared with existing models for growth of Salmonella, the new model predicts a theoretic minimum growth temperature similar to the ComBase Predictive Models and Pathogen Modeling Program models but lower than other food-specific models. The ComBase Prediction Models results are very similar to the model developed in this study. Our research confirms that Salmonella can grow quickly and reach high concentrations when cut cantaloupe is stored at ambient temperatures, without visual signs of spoilage. Our model provides a fast and cost-effective method to estimate the effects of storage temperature on fresh-cut melon safety and could also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk

  6. Optimising the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon on a farm scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in-farm research study was aimed at evaluating new strategies in the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon in order to expand the production period and reduce costs. Four experiments were set up in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Central Italy, in an inland region with a temperate climate. We evaluated: i the use of high tunnels for two growing cycles per year, i.e. for very early and very late production (target transplanting in late winter and mid-summer, respectively, for either one year or two consecutive years, and the use of grafted plants in the second year as an alternative to normal plants to prevent soil born diseases; ii the use of ethylene-vinyl-acetate film low tunnels alone or combined with non-woven floating row covers for transplanting in early spring; iii the use of non-woven low tunnels for transplanting in mid-spring; iv the use of biodegradable and conventional polyethylene ground mulch films, both in the presence of nonwoven low tunnels. As far as the non-woven cover is concerned, we adopted the strategy of removing later with respect to usual practices, i.e. ten days after the onset of first pistillate flowers. This was based on the evidence that covers hamper honeybee circulation, which may be exploited on a farm-scale to delay pollination until an adequate number of pistillate flowers set, in order to shorten scaled fruit ripening and harvest. Our results demonstrate that high tunnels may be used for at least four consecutive melon growing cycles (early and late productions for two years with good off-season yields and no appreciable drawbacks in terms of disease scale-up, irrespective of the use of normal or grafted plants. The non-woven low tunnel was effective in hampering honeybee circulation and its delayed removal allowed the harvest period to be halved, a more uniform fruit size to be obtained, and labour productivity of harvest to be increased. This had positive implications on the management of

  7. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  8. Identification of viruses infecting cucurbits and determination of genetic diversity of Cucumber mosaic virus in Lorestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanvand Vahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viral pathogens infect Cucurbitaceae and cause economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect plant viral pathogens including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV in Lorestan province, in western Iran, and also to determine CMV genetic diversity in Iranian populations. A total of 569 symptomatic leaf samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 from cucurbits growing regions in Lorestan province. The collected samples were assessed for viral diseases by ELISA. The results showed virus incidences in most regions. Then, the infection of 40 samples to CMV was confirmed by RT-PCR. Moreover, to distinguish between the two groups (I and II of CMV, PCR products were digested by two restriction enzymes XhoI and EcoRI. Results of the digestion showed that the isolates of Lorestan belonged to group I. The CMV-coat protein gene of eight isolates from different regions and hosts was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Subsequent analyses showed even more genetic variation among Lorestan isolates. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Lorestan province isolates belonged to two IA and IB subgroups and could be classified together with East Azerbaijan province isolates. The results of the present study indicate a wide distribution of CMV, ZYMV, CGMMV, CYSDV and CCYV viruses in cucurbits fields of Lorestan province and for the first time subgroup IB of CMV was reported on melon from Iran.

  9. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

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    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  10. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  11. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  12. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  13. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  14. Systems approach for exploring the intricate associations between sweetness, color and aroma in melon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Shiri; Lev, Shery; Gonda, Itay; Reuveni, Eli; Portnoy, Vitaly; Oren, Elad; Lohse, Marc; Galpaz, Navot; Bar, Einat; Tzuri, Galil; Wissotsky, Guy; Meir, Ayala; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Schaffer, Arthur; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit

    2015-03-03

    Melon (Cucumis melo) fruits exhibit phenotypic diversity in several key quality determinants such as taste, color and aroma. Sucrose, carotenoids and volatiles are recognized as the key compounds shaping the above corresponding traits yet the full network of biochemical events underlying their synthesis have not been comprehensively described. To delineate the cellular processes shaping fruit quality phenotypes, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was used as a source of phenotypic and genotypic variations. In parallel, ripe fruits were analyzed for both the quantified level of 77 metabolic traits directly associated with fruit quality and for RNA-seq based expression profiles generated for 27,000 unigenes. First, we explored inter-metabolite association patterns; then, we described metabolites versus gene association patterns; finally, we used the correlation-based associations for predicting uncharacterized synthesis pathways. Based on metabolite versus metabolite and metabolite versus gene association patterns, we divided metabolites into two key groups: a group including ethylene and aroma determining volatiles whose accumulation patterns are correlated with the expression of genes involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways; and a group including sucrose and color determining carotenoids whose accumulation levels are correlated with the expression of genes associated with plastid formation. The study integrates multiple processes into a genome scale perspective of cellular activity. This lays a foundation for deciphering the role of gene markers associated with the determination of fruit quality traits.

  15. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Influence of hot water dip and gamma irradiation on postharvest fungal decay of Galia melons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai-Golan, R.; Padova, R.; Ross, I.; Lapidot, M.; Copel, A.; Davidson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dipping Galia melons in hot water at 52 deg C for 5 min or at 55 deg for 2 min resulted in 12-15% decay (caused by Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Trichothecium roseum) during prolonged storage (12 d at 6 deg plus 3 d at 18 deg ) compared with 75% decay in untreated fruit or 60% decay in cold-water-dipped fruit. Irradiation at 0.5 or 1 kGy had no significant effect on decay development. However, combination of heat treatment with a 0.5 kGy dose prevented fungal growth, resulting in 5% decay during storage. Combinations of heating with 1 kGy irradiation gave no improvement in anti-fungal effect over treatment with 0.5 kGy and sometimes resulted in a decreased suppressive effect. Reducing the duration of dipping at 55 deg from 2 to 0.5 min, applied alone or in combination with irradiation, considerably reduced the anti-fungal effect of the treatment. The effective combined treatment resulted in 12-15% of slight peel damage, but all the fruits were regarded as marketable. No differences in fruit firmness were recorded among the treatments

  17. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  18. Pewarisan Karakter Fenotip Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel Aromatis’ Hasil Persilangan ♀ ‘Hikapel’ dengan ♂ ‘Hikadi Aromatik’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop cultivars with superior phenotypes of melon and high level of productivity. This research used the individual results of crossing between melon  ♀ ‘Hikapel' with ♂ 'Hikadi Aromatik'. The research included qualitative and quantitative phenotype characterization test. The research was conducted in Center of Agrotechnology Innovation University of Gadjah Mada (PIAT-UGM, Kalitirto, Berbah, Sleman, Yogyakarta and Laboratory of Genetics Faculty of Biology UGM on December 2016 until March 2017. Quantitative data analysis used ANOVA testing through PKBT-STAT 2.02 software with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD method at significance level of 1% and 5%. Melon 'Hikapel Aromatik' has several advantages including oval shape, without net, without lobes, crispy texture, skin-collored yellow RHS (6A, has a 7-14 brix, has volatile aromatic compound and transposon influenced. Based on the results of recapitulation of variance, the characters of 'Hikapel Aromatik' was not uniform.

  19. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways participate in the anti-fibrotic effect of a melon concentrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model of human essential hypertension, oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with hypertension. Dietary supplementation with agents exhibiting antioxidant properties could have a beneficial effect in remodeling of the heart. We previously demonstrated a potent anti-hypertrophic effect of a specific melon (Cucumis melo L. concentrate with antioxidant properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP were reported to reduce collagen deposition and fibrosis progression in various experimental models. Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that, beside reduction in oxidative stress, the melon concentrate may act through relaxin, its receptor (relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1, RXFP1, and ANP in SHR. Design and results: The melon concentrate, given orally during 4 days, reduced cardiomyocyte size (by 25% and totally reversed cardiac collagen content (Sirius red staining in SHR but not in their normotensive controls. Treatment with the melon concentrate lowered cardiac nitrotyrosine-stained area (by 45% and increased by 17–19% the cardiac expression (Western blot of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, plasma relaxin concentration was normalized while cardiac relaxin (Western blot was lowered in treated SHR. Cardiac relaxin receptor level determined by immunohistochemical analysis increased only in treated SHR. Similarly, the melon concentrate reversed the reduction of plasma ANP concentration and lowered its cardiac expression. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that reversal of cardiac fibrosis by the melon concentrate involves antioxidant defenses, as well as relaxin and ANP pathways restoration. It is suggested that dietary SOD supplementation could be a useful additional strategy against cardiac hypertrophy

  20. Anatomical Description of the Female Reproductive Organ and Radiation Induced Histological changes of Ovary of Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roksana Huque and Sharmina Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation as a physical method of disinfestations against melon flies was recognized as a potential quarantine treatment. At 50 Gy, oocytes showed degeneration one day after treatment whereas seven-day-old oocytes did not differ greatly in appearance from control groups. Abnormal enlargement of trophocyte cells and vacuolization of oocytes occurred predominantly following the treatment with 100 and 150 Gy. One day after treatment with 150 Gy trophocytes underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Irradiation at 100 and 150 Gy reduced the fertility to almost zero percent in the female melon flies.(authors)

  1. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values ...

  2. CmBGI Gene Expression encoding β-glucosidase in melon (Cucumis melo L. under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Rachmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CmBGI is the enzymatic genes encoding β-glucosidase that involved in Abscisic Acid (ABA metabolism of Cucumis melo L. β-glucosidase promotes the accumulation of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and it might act as a regulator that mediates melon fruit ripening both climacteric and nonclimacteric. ABA mediates adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Agricultural Balitbang in 1997 showed that there were approximately 158.600 ha of degraded land scattered in three zones of agroecosystems in Yogyakarta (DIY. One of them is Dlingo Bantul area which has a karst type critical land area. Karst provides stress to the certain plant growth. One way to conserve critical land is making this area for agriculture. Cultivar TACAPA and TA were superior melons that have been developed by Genetic Laboratory of Biology Faculty UGM. This preliminary research was conducted to examine molecular characterization of CmBGI gene expression in cultivar TACAPA and TA which are planted in normal condition medium and in critical land medium treatment. Total RNA was extracted from leaf tissue then Reversed Transcriptase (RT-PCR to collect cDNA library. cDNA was amplified using specific primer. Spectrophotometry was conducted in λ260 nm and electrophoresis run in 1.5% agarose gel. Control of band chosen was Cm-Actin. CmBGI gene concentration of TACAPA and TA in normal condition medium are in succession 578.5 and 579.4 μg/ml then for critical land medium treatment 743.4 and 773.5 μg/ml. CmBGI band was showed both of TACAPA and TA as ± 1258 bp. Cm-actin was showed band of DNA as ± 445 bp. CmBGI gene concentration in critical land medium treatment which is given greater stress on melons are higher than normal condition. This suggests that the CmBGI gene is expressed more in cultivar TACAPA and TA melons when they are grown under stress condition.

  3. Melão minimamente processado: um controle de qualidade Minimally processed melon: a quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno

    2005-12-01

    distribution of agricultural products, through procedures like selection, cleaning, washing, peeling and cutting, which do not affect their organoleptic characteristics and add value to them. The process results in natural and practical products, which require less time for preparation and consumption to fulfill the demands of modern life. The purpose of minimally processed and cooled food is to provide a product that is similar to the fresh one to guarantee safety, maintaining the nutritive and sensory quality. The process has attracted attention to research mainly regarding microbiological, physicochemical and sensory alterations that influence the shelf life of these products. The target of the research was to evaluate the effect of commercialization temperature (15ºC on the quality of the Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. inodorus minimally processed. Fruits packed in trays and involved in plastic film were randomly acquired in a local supermarket. Treatments were: temperatures (4 and 15ºC, storage periods (5, 10, 15 and 1, 2 and 3 days at 4 and 15ºC, respectively and a control treatment of minimally processed melon on day zero. Samples were analyzed as far as their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics are concerned. The melon quality was significantly affected during refrigerated storage. At commercialization temperature (15ºC, the product is only valid for 24 hours. Storage at 4°C allows conservation up to 5 days and it is necessary to display the adequate time of storage and temperature on the label of the product.

  4. The effect of acoustic system variables on sound signals of Melon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khoshnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cucumis melo includes a wide range of varieties. The acoustic is production, transmission and energy received form medium vibrations. Acoustic or sonic tests applies for grading productions, ripening determination of fruit firmness and sorting of broken eggs and so on in agriculture. Currently these methods are generalized for measuring non-spherical fruits properties. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the effect of acoustic system variables such as impact places, impactor material type, pendulum angle and sound level meter position on acoustics response of two different melon varieties, including Zard-Eyvanekey and Sousky-Sabz. These results can be useful for designing acoustic implements related to agricultural products. Materials and Methods This research was conducted on 65 samples of Zard-Eyvanekey and Sousky-Sabz varieties (export varieties. A laboratory recording system used to acquire the acoustic impulse information that was comprised a mechanical excitement mechanism (an impactor such as pendulum, sound level meter, a lap-top computer and software to control the experimental setup and to analyze its results (Cool Edit Pro 2.0 Software, and melon-bed. The impactor consists of diameter and long copper rod 3 mm and 256 mm, respectively. The ball mass was 72.13 gram. The acoustic signal was sensed by a sound level meter (SLM type 2270 B&K company Denmark. The samples locate on soft cushion for keeping because this bed prevents vibration distortion and causes free vibration. We consider three measurements on equator or mid-section of each fruit (approximately 120 degree for diminishing inherent diversity of sample shapes. The sound level meter was placed at a distance of 2-5 mm from the fruit surface. The effects of sound level meter, impactor ball and pendulum angle on sound signals were investigated. The effects of other parameters were analyzed by factorial test in randomized complete plot by

  5. Plantas hospederas de los virus más importantes que infectan el melón, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies hospederas naturales de los virus (PRSV, WMV-2, CMV y ZYMV que infectan el cultivo de melón (Cucumis melo L. para la exportación en Costa Rica se identificaron en plantaciones comerciales de dos fincas ubicadas, una en la provincia de Guanacaste, y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas. En ambas fincas se cultiva el melon con irrigación durante la época seca, pero su manejo cultural es diferente. La finca A con una larga trayectoria en el cultivo de melón en rotación con maíz, sorgo y arroz, y con poco control de malezas; mientras que la finca B con una corta trayectoria en la producción del melón y un mayor control de malezas. La diversidad de especies vegetales fue estudiada en cuadrantes de 100 m2 en cinco diferentes comunidades de plantas previamente seleccionadas en la finca A (cultivo, canal de drenaje, charral, potrero mejorado, y semi-bosque y tres en la finca B (cultivo, charral, pastizal natural, semi-bosque. El número de cuadrantes estudiados dependió del área total cultivada en cada una de las fincas. Todas las especies de plantas representadas en cada cuadrante se recolectaron e identificaron pero solo aquellas especies que presentaron síntomas virales en el campo fueron analizadas por ELISA para determinar la presencia de los cuatro virus estudiados. La diversidad de especies, porcentaje de cobertura y época de aparición de las especies hospederas fue monitoreada durante un año calendario en cinco fechas diferentes. Un total de 86 y 72 especies de plantas fueron identificadas en las fincas A y B respectivamente. Catorce encontradas positivas por lo menos para uno de los cuatro virus. Los cuatro virus fueron encontrados en cada finca en cada fecha de muestreo indicando que la permanencia y abundancia de algunas especies hospederas garantiza la permanencia de los cuatro virus en el campo como fuente de inóculo primario para la próxima siembra. Varias especies de plantas hospederas silvestres previamente

  6. New species in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: Insights into the evolution of the PRSV lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Millot, P; Verdin, E; Dafalla, G; Lecoq, H

    2017-09-15

    The "Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster" of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild melon vein banding virus (WMVBV). The complete nucleotide sequence of a second virus from Sudan revealed it was a divergent relative of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). Based on sequence similarity this virus was determined to be a distinct species and tentatively named Sudan watermelon mosaic virus (SuWMV). Molecular analyses indicate that SuWMV is a recombinant between WMVBV- and MWMV-related viruses. Based on surveys performed in Sudan between 1992 and 2012, SuWMV appeared 10 times more frequent than WMVBV in that country (14.6% vs. 1.5% of the samples tested). The geographic structure and molecular diversity patterns of the putative and acknowledged species suggest that the PRSV-like cluster originated in the Old World about 3600 years ago, with an important diversification in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  8. Optimization of the production of bio diesel from egusi melon (Colocynthis Citrullus L.) oil using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giwa, S.O.; Chuah, L.A.; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed oil. Three process factors were evaluated at three levels (2 3 experimental design): the oil/ methanol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the reaction temperature. The amounts of catalyst and reaction temperature were the most significant (P 2 = 0.98). Using multiple regression analysis a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting methyl ester yield of the transesterification reaction. The squared terms of catalyst amount (P < 0.0001) and oil/ methanol molar ratio (P < 0.0072) showed significant effects on esters yield. The optimum reaction conditions for synthesis of EMOME were 1:6.55 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1.22 % catalyst amounts, and 65 degree Celsius reaction temperature resulting in a yield of 84.01 %. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions a methyl esters yield of 84.04 % was obtained on an average, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. RSM was found to be a suitable technique for optimizing transesterification of egusi melon seed oil. Fuel properties of EMOME measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy all prescribed ASTM (D 6751) and EN 14214 specifications. (author)

  9. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron-copper crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu-regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe-uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild-type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe-regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu-deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe-uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe-regulated, and one was Cu-regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically up-regulated Fe-uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe-Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, and thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron–copper crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M.; McInturf, Samuel A.; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe regulated, and one was Cu regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically upregulated Fe uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe– Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants. PMID:24975482

  11. Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiaini Kano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients’ content at each time and the nutrients’ accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukey’s test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants’ macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plant’s shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

  12. The interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or Trichoderma harzianum alters the shoot hormonal profile in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Roldán, Antonio; Albacete, Alfonso; Pascual, Jose A

    2011-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma harzianum are known to affect plant growth and disease resistance through interaction with phytohormone synthesis or transport in the plant. Cross-talk between these microorganisms and their host plants normally occurs in nature and may affect plant resistance. Simultaneous quantification in the shoots of melon plants revealed significant changes in the levels of several hormones in response to inoculation with T. harzianum and two different AMF (Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae). Analysis of zeatin (Ze), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoot showed common and divergent responses of melon plants to G. intraradices and G. mosseae. T. harzianum effected systemic increases in Ze, IAA, ACC, SA, JA and ABA. The interaction of T. harzianum and the AMF with the plant produced a characteristic hormonal profile, which differed from that produced by inoculation with each microorganism singly, suggesting an attenuation of the plant response, related to the hormones SA, JA and ethylene. These results are discussed in relation to their involvement in biomass allocation and basal resistance against Fusarium wilt. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-03-10

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Efficiency and environmental indexes to evaluate the sustainability of mineral and organic fertilization in an irrigated melon crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Melon is traditionally cultivated in fertigated farmlands in the center of Spain with high inputs of water and N fertilizer. Excess N can have a negative impact, from the economic point of view, since it can diminish the production and quality of the fruit, from the environmental point of view, since it is a very mobile element in the soil and can contaminate groundwater. From health point of view, nitrate can be accumulated in fruit pulp, and, in addition, groundwater is the fundamental supply source of human populations. Best management practices are particularly necessary in this region as many zones have been declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution (Directive 91/676/CEE) During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers under drip irrigation. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. The present study reviews the most common N efficiency indexes [1] under the different management options with a view to maximizing yield and minimizing N loss. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. [1] Castellanos, M., Tarquis, A., Ribas, F., Cabello, M., Arce, A., & Cartagena, M. (2013). Nitrogen fertigation: An integrated agronomic and environmental study. Agricultural Water Management, 120, 46-55.

  15. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  16. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2013-12-15

    Freeze-dried fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit were extracted sequentially using non-polar to polar solvents, with further separation carried out on polar extracts by molecular weight cut off dialysis. The fenugreek ethyl acetate crude extract (FGE3) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity, in terms of Trolox Equivalents (TE), for both the DPPH (35.338±0.908 mg TE/g) and FRAP (77.352±0.627 mg TE/g) assays. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content, in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) (106.316±0.377 mg GAE/g). Despite having considerably lower antioxidant activity than fenugreek, the highest antioxidant activities for bitter fruit were observed in the hexane (BME1) and methanol hydrophilic3.5 kDa (BME4>3.5 kDa) dialysed extract. UPLC-MS was used to quantify 18 phenolic compounds from fenugreek and 13 from bitter melon in active crude extracts. The flavonoids apigenin-7-O-glycoside (1955.55 ng/mg) and luteolin-7-O-glycoside (725.50 ng/mg) were the most abundant compounds in FGE3, while bitter melon extracts contained only small amounts of mainly phenolic acids. A further 5 fenugreek and 1 bitter melon compounds were identified in trace amounts from the same extracts, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the dispersal behavior of melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the influence of gamma-irradiation on dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Ryoichi

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of released male adults of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, was not the same in three directions from the release point. This bias seemed to depend on the habitat selection of melon flies because these was a linear relationship between the number of released flies caught and that of wild flies caught. The mean dispersal distance ranged from 50 m to 90 m and there were no remarkable differences in the values among groups which were allowed to disperse for different periods. Flies released at one point reached a stable distribution pattern in two or three days after their release. Another group of flies released at a different point, where the environment was less favourable to melon flies, showed a wider range of dispersal. It was concluded that in planning the arrangement of release points for the sterile male technique, a preliminary survey is needed to determine whether habitats favorable to the insect, that is, areas of high population density, exist continuously or not. A preliminary test to assess the influence of γ-irradiation on dispersal showed that the dosage of 10000 R reduced the dispersing ability of male adults of the melon fly. (author)

  18. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M.; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  19. Influence of pomegranate seed oil and bitter melon aqueous extract on polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipoxygenase metabolites concentration in serum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej; Pergół, Aleksandra; Pinkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Competition with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and an impact on eicosanoid biosynthesis may be one of mechanisms of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil, containing punicic acid (PA)-one of CLnA isomers, and an aqueous extract of dried bitter melon fruits, administered separately or together, on PUFA and their lipoxygenase metabolites' concentration in serum of rats. Percentage share of fatty acids was diversified in relation to applied supplementation. PA was only detected in serum of pomegranate seed oil supplemented group, where it was about 1%. Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (rumenic acid, RA) level tended to increase in group supplemented simultaneously with both dietary supplements whereas its highest share in total fatty acids pool was detected in group receiving solely bitter melon dried fruits aqueous extract. This indicates that consumption of bitter melon tea significantly increased RA content in fatty acids pool in serum. However, pomegranate seed oil elevated procarcinogenic 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid concentration. Taking into account that pomegranate seed oil and bitter melon dried fruits are dietary supplements accessible worldwide and willingly consumed, the biological significance of this phenomenon should be further investigated. We presume, that there may be a need for some precautions concerning the simultaneous use of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Etude des caractéristiques botaniques, agronomiques et de la biologie florale du melon africain (Cucumis melo var. L. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of botanic, agronomic characters and fl oral biology of African melon (Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae. African melon, Cucumis melo var. agrestis, is a cultivated crop for which dried seeds are used in preparation of sauce pistachio, a valuable food in Côte dʼIvoire. Few studies are concerned with this crop as compared to melon species cultivated in temperate countries. Agronomic and morphological characteristics of C. melo var. agrestis are studied based on eight characters: germination rate, emergence time, date of fl owering, duration of life cycle, weight of mature berries, mean number of seeds per berry, weight of 100 seeds and seeds shape. Floral biology and mating system are studied on the basis of 19 parameters. Results of these studies showed that C. melo var. agrestis has a life cycle duration of 110 to 150 days varying with seasons. The mean number of berries per plant is variable (5 to 15 and the percentage of seeds per berry is low (6,83%. African melon is andromonoecious with a phenological interval between male and hermaphrodite fl owers occurrence. The pollen grains of hermaphrodite fl owers are viable and the stigmata are mature before fl owers are opening. The implications of fl oral biology on the mating system are discussed in view of yield breeding and study of gene fl ow among individuals on fields.

  1. Discriminating features of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Gray's spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A; Roch, Marie A; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-10-01

    Spectral parameters were used to discriminate between echolocation clicks produced by three dolphin species at Palmyra Atoll: melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Gray's spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris). Single species acoustic behavior during daytime observations was recorded with a towed hydrophone array sampling at 192 and 480 kHz. Additionally, an autonomous, bottom moored High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package (HARP) collected acoustic data with a sampling rate of 200 kHz. Melon-headed whale echolocation clicks had the lowest peak and center frequencies, spinner dolphins had the highest frequencies and bottlenose dolphins were nested in between these two species. Frequency differences were significant. Temporal parameters were not well suited for classification. Feature differences were enhanced by reducing variability within a set of single clicks by calculating mean spectra for groups of clicks. Median peak frequencies of averaged clicks (group size 50) of melon-headed whales ranged between 24.4 and 29.7 kHz, of bottlenose dolphins between 26.7 and 36.7 kHz, and of spinner dolphins between 33.8 and 36.0 kHz. Discriminant function analysis showed the ability to correctly discriminate between 93% of melon-headed whales, 75% of spinner dolphins and 54% of bottlenose dolphins.

  2. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

  3. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Cañizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-García, Santiago; Blanca, José; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladié, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Picó-Silvent, Belén; López-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomènech, Pere; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2009-10-12

    Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

  4. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb, which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC and large (LSC single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb. A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb, Cucurbita pepo (983 kb and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes

  5. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; González, Víctor M; Benjak, Andrej; Martí, M Carmen; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2011-08-20

    The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non-conserved structure both in gene number

  6. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  7. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella in melons)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Melons and watermelons are ready-to-eat foods, with an internal pH of 5.1 to 6.7 and can be consumed whole, as fresh-cut products or as fresh juices. Epidemiological data from the EU identified one salmonellosis outbreak associated with consumption of both pre-cut and whole melon between 2007...... and 2012. Risk factors for melon and watermelon contamination by Salmonella were considered in the context of the whole food chain, together with available estimates of Salmonella occurrence and mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria....... It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of Salmonella in melon and watermelon production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene...

  8. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo. L is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR, which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  9. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  11. Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA H.P. KIILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 – ‘Yellow melon’ and Sancho -‘Piel de Sapo’ in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001, floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001 and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001. The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types.

  12. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  13. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  14. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Arthur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L. over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS. Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org, an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability

  15. Response of gut microbiota and inflammatory status to bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juan; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Ying

    2016-12-24

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota. Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw. We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (p<0.05). BMP suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK/p38 MAPKs) in adipose tissue. Sequencing results illustrated that BMP treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased butyrate producers. These results demonstrate that BMP ameliorates insulin sensitivity partly via relieving the inflammatory status in the system and in white adipose tissues of obese rats, and is associated with a proportional regulation of specific gut microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzo, Elisa; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M Luisa; Tjallingii, W Fred

    2017-02-18

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly followed by pathway activities (waveform C) or if followed by phloem ingestion (waveform E2), ingestion was not sustained for more than 10 min. Stylectomy with aphids on susceptible and resistant plants was performed during EPG recording while the stylet tips were phloem inserted. This was followed by dissection of the penetrated leaf section, plant tissue fixation, resin embedding, and ultrathin sectioning for transmission electron microscopic observation in order to study the resistance mechanism in the TGR. The most obvious aspect appeared to be the coagulation of phloem proteins inside the stylet canals and the punctured sieve elements. Stylets of 5 aphids per genotype were amputated during sieve element (SE) salivation (E1) and SE ingestion (E2). Cross-sections of stylet bundles in susceptible melon plants showed that the contents of the stylet canals were totally clear and also, no coagulated phloem proteins occurred in their punctured sieve elements. In contrast, electron-dense coagulations were found in both locations in the resistant plants. Due to calcium binding, aphid saliva has been hypothesized to play an essential role in preventing/suppressing such coagulations that cause occlusion of sieves plate and in the food canal of the aphid's stylets. Doubts about this role of E1 salivation are discussed on the basis of our results. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-01-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a * ) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a * and b * ), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  18. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  19. Qualidade dos frutos de tipos de melão,produzidos em ambiente protegido Quality of melon fruit type produced under protected system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Tavares Paduan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela cultura do melão no Brasil tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos, pelas crescentes exportações e pelo incremento no consumo do mercado interno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físicas e químicas, assim como a atividade da pectinametilesterase dos frutos de tipos de melão (Cucumis melo L., produzidos em ambiente protegido, no município de Centenário do Sul-PR. Os tipos estudados foram: Valenciano ('Amarelo-Ouro', Caipira ('Gaúcho Caipira', Net Melon ('Net Galia', Orange ('Orange Melon' e Pele-de-Sapo ('Filipo', com cinco repetições, utilizando seis frutos por repetição em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os frutos do Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo destacaram-se quanto à massa, com valores 2,02 e 2,07 kg, respectivamente, e formatos alongados, enquanto os demais tipos apresentaram formatos arredondados e massa em torno de 1,4 kg. Os melões Pele-de-Sapo apresentaram espessura da polpa de 43,36 mm, estatisticamente superior à dos frutos Valenciano, com 38,98 mm. A menor espessura de polpa, 24,78 cm, e a maior espessura de casca, 9,74 mm, foram encontradas nos frutos do tipo Caipira que diferiu estatisticamente dos outros tipos. Os valores de pH não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes e variaram de 6,24 a 6,48. O Net Melon apresentou polpa com 12,3ºBrix e diferiu estatisticamente do Orange, Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo, com 11;12; 10,34 e 9,94 ºBrix, respectivamente. O Caipira atingiu 5,06ºBrix, e também o menor conteúdo de acidez, 0,10 g de ac. cítrico.100-1 g de suco, o que inviabiliza sua comercialização. A atividade da pectinametilesterase na polpa dos frutos foi muito baixa, inferior a 0,005 PEu x 10(4 mL-1, nos cinco tipos avaliados. Na região norte do Paraná (Vale do Paranapanema, sob condições de cultivo protegido, os melões Pele-de-Sapo, Net Melon, Orange e Valenciano apresentaram boas características físicas e químicas dos frutos, destacando-se o Net Melon

  20. Getting to know you: Identification of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata and melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.

  1. Sterilization of melon flies: mating competitiveness after treatment with tepa or gamma irradiation and ratios of treated to untreated flies producing population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Keiser, I.; Harris, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66 percent of that of untreated males. In another study, melon flies (males and females) sterilized with 0.0125 percent tepa, the threshold dose for both sexes, completely suppressed a population when the ratio was 16:16:1:1 (sterile males-sterile females-untreated males-untreated females) as determined by no egg hatch

  2. Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted galia c8 melon cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarsi, G.; Sivaci, A.; Dasgan, H.Y.; Altuntas, O.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress. (author)

  3. Serum sialic acid changes in non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients following bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat-ur-Rahman; Malik, Salman Akbar; Bashir, Mohammad; Khan, Roohullh; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increase in sialic acid concentration along with other complications. Sialic acid changes in NIDDM patients were investigated following bitter melon (55 ml/24h) and rosiglitazone (4 mg/24h) treatment. A total of 25 patients of both sexes were used in each experimental group. Patients following bitter melon treatment showed no significant difference of serum sialic acid (57.95+/-4.90 vs. 57.6+/-5.56 mg/dl, p=0.17) and serum glucose concentration (93.7+/-9.63 vs. 88.35+/-6.31 mg/dl, p=0.78) as compared to control subjects. However, the concentration of total cholesterol was significantly high in these patients as compared to control subjects (192+/-14.23 vs. 170.6+/-15.1mg/dl, pdiabetes and its related complications as compared to rosiglitazone.

  4. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  5. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which is responsible for transmitting Zika virus. Photo Courtesy of: James Gathany, Centers for Disease Control and ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Photo Courtesy of NIH "You could have a Zika virus ...

  6. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...

  7. Hepadna viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  8. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Extract Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Overcomes Cisplatin-Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells Through Targeting AMPK Signaling Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Mingo M H; Ross, Fiona A; Hardie, D Grahame; Leung, Thomas H Y; Zhan, Jinbiao; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Chan, David W

    2016-09-01

    Objective Acquired chemoresistance is a major obstacle in the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Therefore, searching for alternative therapeutic modalities is urgently needed. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a traditional dietary fruit, but its extract also shows potential medicinal values in human diabetes and cancers. Here, we sought to investigate the extract of bitter melon (BME) in antitumorigenic and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. Three varieties of bitter melon were used to prepare the BME. Ovarian cancer cell lines, human immortalized epithelial ovarian cells (HOSEs), and nude mice were used to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity, cisplatin resistance, and tumor inhibitory effect of BME. The molecular mechanism of BME was examined by Western blotting. Cotreatment with BME and cisplatin markedly attenuated tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, whereas there was no observable toxicity in HOSEs or in nude mice in vivo Interestingly, the antitumorigenic effects of BME varied with different varieties of bitter melon, suggesting that the amount of antitumorigenic substances may vary. Studies of the molecular mechanism demonstrated that BME activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in an AMP-independent but CaMKK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase)-dependent manner, exerting anticancer effects through activation of AMPK and suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K and/or the AKT/ERK/FOXM1 (Forkhead Box M1) signaling cascade. BME functions as a natural AMPK activator in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and might be useful as a supplement to improve the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hu KeLing; Zhang Ling; Wang JiTao; You Yang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 μM) on the growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity of 100 mM NaCl-stressed melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth attributes including stem length, stem diameter, dry weight and increased antioxidative enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)]. Moreover, the plant exhibited a significant i...

  10. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Saul, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  11. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  12. Identification of QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew and SSR markers diagnostic for powdery mildew resistance genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Monforte, Antonio J; Sugiyama, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Yoshiteru; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is an important foliar disease in melon. To find molecular markers for marker-assisted selection, we constructed a genetic linkage map of melon based on a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from crosses between highly resistant AR 5 and susceptible 'Earl's Favourite (Harukei 3)'. The map spans 877 cM and consists of 167 markers, comprising 157 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 7 sequence characterized amplified region/cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers and 3 phenotypic markers segregating into 20 linkage groups. Among them, 37 SSRs and 6 other markers were common to previous maps. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci for resistance to powdery mildew. The effects of these QTLs varied depending on strain and plant stage. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained for resistance to the pxA strain was similar between QTLs (R (2) = 22-28%). For resistance to pxB strain, the QTL on linkage group (LG) XII was responsible for much more of the variance (41-46%) than that on LG IIA (12-13%). The QTL on LG IIA was located between two SSR markers. Using an independent population, we demonstrated the effectiveness of these markers. This is the first report of universal and effective markers linked to a gene for powdery mildew resistance in melon.

  13. Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L. seedlings under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu KeLing

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous selenium (Se supply (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 μM on the growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity of 100 mM NaCl-stressed melon (Cucumis melo L. seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth attributes including stem length, stem diameter, dry weight and increased antioxidative enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT]. Moreover, the plant exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content under NaCl stress. Se supplementation not only improved the growth parameters but also successfully ameliorated the adverse effect caused by salt stress in melon seedlings. However, the mitigation of NaCl-stressed seedlings was different depending on the Se concentration. At lower concentrations (2–8 μM, Se improved growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing in SOD and POD enzymes activity under salt stress. At higher concentrations (16 μM, Se exerted diminished beneficial effects on growth. Whereas CAT activity was enhanced. The result indicated that Se supplementation had a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed melon seedlings.

  14. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  15. Métodos de conservação aplicados a melão minimamente processado Conservation methods applied to fresh-cut melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaí Peter Batista

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar alguns métodos de conservação que podem ser utilizados para prolongar a vida útil do melão minimamente processado. Dentre os métodos, serão abordados revestimento comestível, irradiação, antimicrobianos naturais, antioxidantes, agentes de firmeza, atmosfera modificada, branqueamento, luz ultravioleta e alta pressão. Dependendo do método pode haver redução das alterações associadas ao processo mínimo do melão, como a perda de água, alteração da cor e firmeza, alteração do metabolismo e crescimento de micro-organismos, sendo o resultado muitas vezes dependente da cultivar do melão utilizado.The objective of this review is to present some conservation methods that can be used to prolong the life of fresh-cut melon. Among the methods, edible coating, irradiation, natural antimicrobials, antioxidants, firmness agent, modified atmosphere, whitening, ultraviolet light and high pressure will be discussed. Depending on the method, the changes associated to minimum process of melon, such as water loss, change in color and firmness, change in the metabolism and growth of micro-organisms can be reduced and the result is often dependent on the melon cultivar used.

  16. A deletion of the gene encoding amino aldehyde dehydrogenase enhances the "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and is a functional marker for the development of the aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangnam, Saowalak; Wanchana, Samart; Phoka, Nongnat; Saeansuk, Chatree; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya; de Hoop, Simon Jan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2017-12-01

    The gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon was identified. The sequence variation (804-bp deletion) found in the gene was used as the target for functional marker development. Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries that is popular for its nutritional and medicinal value. A "pandan-like" aroma, which is economically important in crops including rice and soybean, is rarely found in most commercial varieties of winter melon, but is present in some landraces. This aroma is a value-added potential trait in breeding winter melon with a higher economic value. In this study, we confirmed that the aroma of winter melon is due to the potent volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) as previously identified in other plants. Based on an analysis of public transcriptome data, BhAMADH encoding an aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was identified as a candidate gene conferring aroma of winter melon. A sequence comparison of BhAMADH between the aromatic and non-aromatic accessions revealed an 804-bp deletion encompassing exons 11-13 in the aromatic accession. The deletion caused several premature stop codons and could result in a truncated protein with a length of only 208 amino acids compared with 503 amino acids in the normal protein. A functional marker was successfully developed based on the 804-bp deletion and validated in 237 F 2 progenies. A perfect association of the marker genotypes and aroma phenotypes indicates that BhAMADH is the major gene conferring the aroma. The recently developed functional marker could be efficiently used in breeding programs for the aroma trait in winter melon.

  17. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  19. Effect of different sources of fertilizers on the phosphorus absorption and the yield of the under irrigation melon (Cucumis melo L) sowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Ocampo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The fertilizer injection through irrigation system is a common practice in second melon sowings. Nevertheless, the application of some phosphoric sources by that way can have problems due to the absorption reactions and precipitation in the ground, which reduces its mobility and assimilation by the plants. Phosphoric sources of fertirrigation to diverse doses, were evaluated in melon (Cucusmis melo L.) Cantaloupe cv Hy Mark in second sowings, about the phosphoric absorption and the fruit commercial production , (b) the content of soluble P in the solution of the ground, to correlate this with the optimal production and thus obtain the external requirement of P and (c) to quantify the economic costs of the application of the different sources. The experiment took place in the ground of the Inceptisol order, sub-group Vertic Haplustepts in Carrillo, Guanacaste, in the property Melones de Sardinal S.A. The used sources of P2O5 were: Map(12-60-0) in doses of 36 and 54 kg/ha, H3PO4 to 36kg/ha and Fertg (8-24-0) in doses of 18 and 36 kg/ha. Besides, establishing in absolute witness 0 kg/ha. The melon redeeming was evaluated in number of cajas/ha, sizes 9, 12, 15 and 18. According to the dry weight and the nourishment concentration of the aerial biomass of each sample, the absorption of nourishment in the cultivation in kg/ha and g/ha was calculated, for a sowing density of 12940 plantas/ha. The external efficiency of phosphorus for melon with the different sources was determined, for getting this were made applications of progressively increasing doses of P. The dose of phosphorus to reach that requirement (concentration of P in the solution of the ground that is necessary for an optimal yield), in the balance point it's obtained by means of interpolation of the dose of P through the isotherm and the correlation of the optimal yield of the cultivation. The greater absorption of P took place in the stage of previous growth to the flowering and in the beginning and arrival

  20. Cristalização de melão pelo processo lento de açucaramento Crystallization of melon fruit through slow sugary process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Shigueyuki Morita

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró (ESAM. Avaliou-se a possibilidade de processar o melão como fruta cristalizada. Foram testadas as variedades Gália, Pele de Sapo e Orange Fresh, utilizando-se o processo lento de açucaramento, retirando-se as polpas em formas de bolas e colocando-as sucessivamente em soluções de sacarose a 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70º Brix até abrir a fervura, mantendo-se a polpa em repouso por 24 horas a cada solução de sacarose. Em seguida, os frutos foram colocados em uma estufa a 50ºC durante 6 horas, atingindo-se assim, a umidade final entre 26,16 a 27,53%. Foram determinados teor de umidade, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, e os produtos submetidos a uma análise sensorial. Constatou-se que a cristalização em melão foi tecnicamente viável, que a variedade Pele de Sapo foi a melhor aceita, e que não houve mudança na coloração da polpa das variedades.The experiment was carried out in the Food Technology Laboratory of the Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró (ESAM, Mossoró-RN, Brazil to evaluate the possibility of processing the melon pulp as a crystallized fruit by using the us following melon varieties: Gália, Pele de Sapo, and Orange Flesh, utilizing the slow sugary process. The pulps were withdrawn in little ball form and put successively into sucrose solutions at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°Brix, until boiling, keeping them in inactivity for 24 hours in each solution. After that, the fruits were placed in a stove at 50°C during 6 hours, reaching final humidity between 26.16 and 27.53%. Evaluations for humidity content, pH and total soluble solids were made. In addition a sensorial analysis was made. It was observed that the melon crystallization was technically feasible. Pele de Sapo melon was the best in comparison to the other types. Changing in the melon pulp colouring was not observed.

  1. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting end of the crop cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as

  2. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  3. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  4. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  5. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  6. Hyperbaric storage of melon juice at and above room temperature and comparison with storage at atmospheric pressure and refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Rui P; Santos, Mauro D; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Mota, Maria J; Lopes, Rita P; Inácio, Rita S; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2014-03-15

    Hyperbaric storage (8h) of melon juice (a highly perishable food) at 25, 30 and 37°C, under pressure at 25-150 MPa was compared with atmospheric pressure storage (0.1 MPa) at the same temperatures and under refrigeration (4°C). Comparatively to the refrigerated condition, hyperbaric storage at 50/75 MPa resulted in similar or lower microbial counts (total aerobic mesophiles, enterobacteriaceae, and yeasts/moulds) while at 100/150 MPa, the counts were lower for all the tested temperatures, indicating in the latter case, in addition to microbial growth inhibition, a microbial inactivation effect. At 25 MPa no microbial inhibition was observed. Physicochemical parameters of all samples stored under pressure (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, browning degree and cloudiness) did not show a clear variation trend with pressure, being the results globally similar to refrigeration storage. These results show the potential of hyperbaric storage, at and above room temperature and with potential energy savings, comparatively to refrigeration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  8. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Hussain, Adil; Ahmad, Musharaf

    2014-01-01

    Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3%) followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9%) was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  9. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SARS virus. Novel corona virus emerges in the new millenia. Genome sequences invariant- global isolates do not show differences of consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion.

  10. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  11. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    challenged with emerging and re-emerging infections that pose a constant threat to human and animal health. Indeed, researchers around the globe are still fighting deadly diseases like malaria, trypanosomosis and AIDS. In this article, we focus on a recently identified virus, namely, Schmallenberg virus as an example of a.

  12. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamena, A. E

    2013-07-01

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  14. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  15. Model of the process with piecewise-constant extremals to minimize losses of vitamins during the melting of melons and gourds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Inochkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of periods of storage of fruits of gourds is an urgent task processing industry. The most developed and available for injection is a method of dehydration of raw materials due to supply of heat transfer fluids. In addition to solid dry frame in raw materials is 80–90% water. In the period of moisture removal from raw material changes of thermal-physical and structural-mechanical and physicochemical characteristics. The ratio of water and dry matter in vegetative raw materials largely determines the modes of drying and storage conditions of the finished product. During drying, there are a number of limitations: the drying temperature should not exceed the degradation temperature of vitamins and proteins, and the magnitude of course, the moisture content of the product depends on the reaction prevention malonodinitrile sugars at the critical moisture content. An important problem of the drying of production is quality control stages of drying, the dynamics of which is quite difficult to describe using mathematical models. The main factors of optimization of industrial drying processes is preservation of valuable components of the feedstock, the drying time, energy and resource conservation. Development of effective control algorithm for the process of dehydration of raw materials described in the article on the example of drying of slices of melon. Experimental approach a two-stage process of drying of melon varieties Taman, the proposed regression model with the relaxation-based on humidity and content of vitamin C from the variable in time temperature and pressure, based on the available literature and own experimental data. According to the optimal control of the drying process to search for the thermobaric regime that maximizes the vitamin C content at the end of the drying, under specified conditions, the humidity. The main findings are the solution of the problem for the case of piecewise constant temperature and pressure in

  16. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  17. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  18. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delledonne Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.. The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2, which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi, and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of the Melon-Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.melonisRace 1.2 Pathosystem in Susceptible and Resistant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia Sebastiani, M; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Sestili, Sara; Biselli, Chiara; Zechini, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Ficcadenti, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans race 1.2 (FOM1.2) is the most virulent and yield-limiting pathogen of melon ( Cucumis melo L.) worldwide. Current information suggest that the resistance to race 1.2 is controlled by multiple recessive genes and strongly affected by the environment. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify candidate resistance genes and to dissect the early molecular processes deployed during melon-FOM1.2 interaction in the resistant doubled haploid line NAD and in the susceptible genotype Charentais-T (CHT) at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi). The transcriptome analysis of the NAD-FOM1.2 interaction identified 2,461 and 821 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 hpi and at 48 hpi, respectively, while in susceptible combination CHT-FOM1.2, 882 and 2,237 DEGs were recovered at 24 hpi and at 48 hpi, respectively. The overall expression profile suggests a prompt activation of the defense responses in NAD due to its basal defense-related machinery that allows an early pathogen recognition. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses revealed a total of 57 GO terms shared by both genotypes and consistent with response to fungal infection. GO classes named "chitinase activity," "cellulase activity," "defense response, incompatible interaction," "auxin polar transport" emerged as major factors of resistance to FOM1.2. The data indicated that NAD reacts to FOM1.2 with a fine regulation of Ca 2+ -mediated signaling pathways, cell wall reorganization, and hormone crosstalk (jasmonate and ethylene, auxin and abscissic acid). Several unannotated transcripts were recovered providing a basis for a further exploration of the melon resistance genes. DEGs belonging to the FOM1.2 genome were also detected in planta as a resource for the identification of potential pathogenicity factors. This work provides a broader view of the dynamic changes of the melon transcriptome triggered by FOM1.2 and highlights that the resistance response of NAD is mainly

  20. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestili, Sara; Polverari, Annalisa; Luongo, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Scotton, Michele; Hussain, Jamshaid; Delledonne, Massimo; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2011-02-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Our data suggest that resistance against FOM

  1. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions.

  3. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber (C. sativus belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F, adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis. Results Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene. Conclusion Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  5. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  6. An accurate, specific, sensitive, high-throughput method based on a microsphere immunoassay for multiplex detection of three viruses and bacterial fruit blotch bacterium in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Makornwattana, Manlika; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Phuengwas, Sudtida; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2017-09-01

    To employ a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to simultaneously detect multiple plant pathogens (potyviruses, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Melon yellow spot virus, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli) in actual plant samples, several factors need to be optimized and rigorously validated. Here, a simple extraction method using a single extraction buffer was successfully selected to detect the four pathogens in various cucurbit samples (cucumber, cantaloupe, melon, and watermelon). The extraction method and assay performance were validated with inoculated and field cucurbit samples. The MIA showed 98-99% relative accuracy, 97-100% relative specificity and 92-100% relative sensitivity when compared to commercial ELISA kits and reverse transcription PCR. In addition, the MIA was also able to accurately detect multiple-infected field samples. The results demonstrate that one common extraction method for all tested cucurbit samples could be applied to detect multiple pathogens; avoiding the need for multiple protocols to be employed. This multiplex method can therefore be instrumental for high-throughput screening of multiple plant pathogens with many advantages such as a shorter assay time (2.5h) with single assay format, a lower cost of detection ($5 vs $19.7 for 4 pathogens/sample) and less labor requirement. Its multiplex capacity can also be expanded to detect up to 50 different pathogens upon the availability of specific antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  8. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Hadjilouka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2 including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products.

  9. Characterization ofAcanthosicyos horridusandCitrullus lanatusseed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1 H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus , respectively. Significant differences ( p  methods in the characteristics studied. Physicochemical characteristics of the melon seed oils were saponification value, 180.48-189.86 mg KOH/g oil; iodine value, 108.27-118.62 g I 2 /100 g oil; acid value, 0.643-1.63 mg KOH/g oil; peroxide value; 1.69-2.98 mequiv/kg oil; specific gravity, 0.901-0.922; and refractive indices, 1.4676-1.4726. The dominant tocopherol was γ-tocopherol with total tocopherol in the range 27.61-74.39 mg/100 g. The dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid in the range 52.57-56.96%. The favorable oil yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  10. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), which is very detrimental to muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). Fusarium wilt of melon is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions and causes a worldwide problem. FOM can survive in the soil for extended periods of time as chlamydospores, and is capable of colonizing crop residues and roots of most crops grown in rotation with melon. The only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Four races of FOM have been identified, namely 0, 1, 2 and 1.2. Race 1.2 was further subdivided into race 1.2y and 1.2w, which cause yellowing and wilt symptoms, respectively. Two resistance genes (Fom-1 and Fom-2) have been identified in melons. Fom-1 confers resistance to FOM races 0 and 2, and Fom-2 confers resistance to races 0 and 1. These two genes are extensively used in breeding programmes, which can be assisted by marker assisted selection using markers linked to these resistance genes. No genes have been identified that confer resistance to race 1.2. However, polygenic recessive genes have been found to confer resistance to race 1.2 in Piboule genotypes. Melon production in Turkey is 1,700,000 tons and it is declining the year after year because of Fusarium wilt. Therefore, Fusarium wilt has a high economic importance in the cultivation of muskmelon in Turkey. In some parts of Turkey the prevalent races of this pathogen were determined. FOM has caused severe losses for farmers as our native cultivars are not resistant to this disease. It is believed our native cultivars will disappear if resistance to FOM is not introduced into the cultivated material. For this reason, many scientists in Turkey are focusing on research to develop new resistant cultivars via conventional and biotechnological breeding methods. In vitro techniques became widely spread during the 20th century, and their potential to make important contributions to plant

  11. Cloning of disease-resistance homologues in end sequences of BAC clones linked to Fom-2, a gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Choi, Woobong; Thomas, Claude E; Dean, Ralph A

    2002-06-01

    Disease resistance has not yet been characterized at the molecular level in cucurbits, a group of high-value, nutritious, horticultural plants. Previously, we genetically mapped the Fom-2 gene that confers resistance to Fusarium wilt races 0 and I of melon. In this paper, two cosegregating codominant markers (AM, AFLP marker; FM, Fusarium marker) were used to screen a melon bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Identified clones were fingerprinted and end sequenced. Fingerprinting analysis showed that clones identified by each marker assembled into two separate contigs at high stringency. GenBank searches produced matches to leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of resistance genes (R genes); to retroelements and to cellulose synthase in clones identified by FM; and to nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) of R genes, retroelements, and cytochrome P-450 in clones identified by AM. A 6.5-kb fragment containing both NBS and LRR sequences was found to share high homology to TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor)-NBS-LRR R genes, such as N, with 42% identity and 58% similarity in the TIR-NBS and LRR regions. The sequence information may be useful for identifying NBS-LRR class of R genes in other cucurbits.

  12. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  13. Virophages or satellite viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, Virginija

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the smaller viruses associated with giant DNA viruses are a new biological entity. However, Mart Krupovic and Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic argue here that these smaller viruses should be classified with the satellite viruses.

  14. Beneficiamento do cultivo do Meloeiro pela apicultura no sertão do Moxotó representado por Modelo Digital do Terreno | Processing of Melon crops for beekeeping in the backwoods of Moxotó represented by Digital Terrain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Miller de Souza Caldas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A região Nordeste é a principal produtora de melão do Brasil. O Semiárido brasileiro é uma região caracterizada por apresentar fatores climáticos favoráveis ao desenvolvimento da cultura do meloeiro. No presente estudo foi realizada a modelagem digital do terreno (MDT da microrregião Sertão do Moxotó para os parâmetros de precipitação, temperatura, PIB e IDH, afim de verificar a relação entre a cultura do meloeiro e a apicultura. Os municípios analisados foram Arcoverde, Betânia, Custódia, Ibimirim, Inajá, Sertânia e Manari. O cultivo do meloeiro tem potencial para ser implantado nos municípios do Sertão do Moxotó e está diretamente ligado a apicultura, pois a Apis mellifera é seu principal polinizador. Seu cultivo pode desempenhar papel vital no aumento ou manutenção da produção apícola. The Northeast region is the main melon producer of Brazil. The Brazilian semiarid region is characterized by climatic conditions favorable to the development of melon crop. In the present study, the digital terrain modeling (DTM of Sertão do Moxotó was performed to precipitation parameters, temperature, GDP, HDI and population in order to verifythe relationship between melon crop and apiculture. The districts analyzed were Arcoverde, Betânia, Custódia, Ibimirim, Inajá, Sertânia and Manari. Apis mellifera is the main pollinator of melon crop. Melon crop can support the bees during the shortage of bee flora and increase in bee production.

  15. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  16. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  18. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    combat many infectious-disease-causing agents over the years. However, evolution is a continuous process ... newly emerging virus infection that poses threat to the livestock industries. In addition to describing the life ... are the Symptoms of Infection by SBV. The first clinical signs in adult animals are acute diarrhoea, a dip.

  19. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  20. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Divergência genética entre linhagens de melão do grupo Inodorus Genetic divergence among lineages of melon of the group Inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de Sousa Nunes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a divergência genética entre linhagens Pele de Sapo e entre linhagens Honey Dew. Foram avaliadas dez linhagens de melão Pele de Sapo e dez linhagens de melão Honey Dew, em experimentos separados, conduzidos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. A divergência genética foi estimada pela distância de Mahalanobis. Foram utilizados os métodos de Tocher e UPGMA para o agrupamento das linhagens. Para as linhagens Pele de Sapo, constatou-se divergência genética com a formação de quatro e cinco grupos conforme os métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA, respectivamente. Sugere-se cruzamento das linhagens PS-01, PS-05 e PS-7 entre si ou com as demais linhagens do grupo I. Para as linhagens Honey Dew, verificou-se a formação dos mesmos três grupos nos métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O grupo II formado pelas linhagens OF-01 e OF-02; o grupo III pela linhagem OF-03 e o primeiro grupo pelas demais linhagens. Com relação às linhagens Honey Dew, recomenda-se os cruzamentos das linhagens OF-01 ou OF-02, com as demais linhagens avaliadas. A linhagem OF-03, com características semelhantes às linhagens OF-01 ou OF-02 pode ser cruzada com as linhagens do grupo I.The objective of this work was to study the genetic divergence among lines of Pele de Sapo melon and among lines of Honey Dew melon. Ten lines of Pele de Sapo melon and ten lines of Honey Dew melon were evaluated, in separate experiments, both carried in a randomized block design with three replications. The divergence was estimated by the Mahalanobis distance. The methods of Tocher and UPGMA were used for the grouping of the lineages. For the lineages Pele de Sapo, genetic divergence was verified with the formation of four five groups according to the methods of grouping of Tocher and UPGMA, respectively. Must be made crosses among lines PS-01, PS-05 and PS-07 or between theses and other lines of group I. For the

  2. Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) on the gut microbiota in high fat diet and low dose streptozocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying

    2016-09-01

    The effects on gut microbiota of type 2 diabetic rats fed a bitter melon formulation (BLSP, a lyophilized superfine powder) were investigated. BLSP treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels (p diabetic rats. The gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled by PCR amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (V3-V9 region). BLSP significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in diabetic rats, while the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus were significantly lowered in BLSP-treated rats compared to diabetic rats. Additionally, BLSP significantly suppressed the activation of MAPK (JNK and p38). The results indicate that BLSP can significantly modify the proportions of particular gut microbiota in diabetic rats without disturbing the normal population diversity. By suppressing the activation of MAPK signaling pathway, a BLSP containing diet may ameliorate type 2 diabetes.

  3. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  4. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  5. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo Physiological and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes na identificação do nível de vigor e da qualidade sanitária de lotes de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.. Foram avaliados quatro lotes de sementes das cultivares Gaúcho e Carvalho, submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem de germinação, emergência em campo, deterioração controlada, envelhecimento acelerado e sanidade. Os resultados indicaram que os testes de deterioração controlada e envelhecimento acelerado apresentam sensibilidade suficiente para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de melão, mas os testes de avaliação de plântulas não mostraram sensibilidade suficiente para realizar uma estratificação dos lotes pelo vigor. Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium oxysporum foram encontrados associados às sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different vigour tests in the identification of vigour levels and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo L. seeds. Four seed lots of Gaúcho and Carvalho cultivars were evaluated. Seeds were submitted to the first germination counting, field emergence, controlled deterioration and aging, cold vigour and health tests. Results indicated that controlled deterioration and accelerated aging tests presented enough sensibility for evaluating the physiological potential of melon seeds. Tests of seedling evaluation did not show enough sensibility to identify hiht quality seed lots. Aspergillus ssp. and Fusarium oxysporum were detected associated with seeds.

  6. Polyamine biosynthesis and degradation are modulated by exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid in root-zone hypoxia-stressed melon roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Fan, Longquan; Gao, Hongbo; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jingrui; Lv, Guiyun; Gong, Binbin

    2014-09-01

    We detected physiological change and gene expression related to PA metabolism in melon roots under controlled and hypoxic conditions with or without 5 mM GABA. Roots with hypoxia treatment showed a significant increase in glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and endogenous GABA concentration. Concurrently, PA biosynthesis and degradation accelerated with higher gene expression and enzymes activity. However, endogenous GABA concentrations showed a large and rapid increase in Hypoxia + GABA treated roots. This led to a marked increase in Glu concentration by feedback inhibition of GAD activity. Hypoxia + GABA treatment enhanced arginine (Arg), ornithine (Orn) and methionine (Met) levels, promoting enzyme gene expression levels and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) activities in roots. Hypoxia + GABA treatment significantly increased concentrations of free putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from day two to eight, promoting the PA conversion to soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. However, PA degradation was significantly inhibited in hypoxia + GABA treated roots by significantly decreasing gene expression and activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO). However, exogenous GABA showed a reduced effect in control compared with hypoxic conditions. Our data suggest that alleviating effect of exogenous GABA to hypoxia is closely associated with physiological regulation of PA metabolism. We propose a potential negative feedback mechanism of higher endogenous GABA levels from combined effects of hypoxia and exogenous GABA, which alleviate the hypoxia damage by accelerating PA biosynthesis and conversion as well as preventing PA degradation in melon plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Crescimento e produtividade do meloeiro Torreon influenciado pela cobertura do solo = Growth and yield of the Torreon melon crop influenced by soil cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elís Regina Costa de Morais

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar índices de crescimento e fisiológicos do meloeiro em função dos graus-dia acumulados e determinar a relação dos índices fisiológicos com a produtividade da cultura em coberto com filme plástico nas cores preto, prateado, amarelo e marrom, e do solo descoberto como testemunha. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Fazenda Santa Júlia Agrocomercial Exportadora de Frutos Tropicais Ltda., Mossoró, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (agosto-outubro de 2003, em Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico Argissólico, utilizando-se o melão Torreon em blocos casualizados comquatro repetições. A taxa de crescimento absoluta e a taxa de crescimento relativa para o número de folhas e índice de área foliar foram influenciadas pela cobertura do solo e decresceram com o desenvolvimento da planta, e ainda que a maior produtividade de frutoscomercializáveis foi registrada nas coberturas do solo com plástico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and physiological indexes of the melon crop in function of accumulated degree-days and to determine the relationship between the physiological index and yield of the crop in soil covered with plastic film in the colors black, silver, yellow, and brown, and of the uncovered soil as witness. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Santa Júlia Agrocomercial Exportadora de Frutos Tropicais Ltda, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State (August-October 2003 in Oxissol, using the Torreon melon in a randomized experimental blocks design with four replications. The relative growth rate for the number of leaves and leaf area index were influenced by soil cover and decreased with the development of the plant; the highestproductivity of marketable fruits was registered on plastic soil coverage.

  8. Effects of Tillage Methods on Some Soil Physical Properties, Growth and Yield of Water Melon in a Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate tillage method is necessary to create an optimum seed bed condition for optimum crop growth and yield. Two-year field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on the physical properties of sandy loam soil, growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris in a semi-arid environment. The Tillage treatments were disc ploughing plus disc harrowing (DP+DH, double disc ploughing (DDP, double disc harrowing (DDH, disc ploughing (DP and disc harrowing (DH as minimum tillage (MT and zero tillage (ZT and direct drilling method (control. The watermelon seeds were Planted manually placing three (3 seeds per hole at an interval of 1.5m along the rows and 50cm between the rows at an average depth of 5cm. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Results showed that disc ploughing + disc harrowing (DP+DH was found to be more appropriate and profitable tillage method in improving soil physical properties and growth and yield of water melon in a sandy loam soil. Watermelon yield, fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD and leaf area index (LAI were significantly influenced (P=0.05, but influence of tillage treatments were not significant on the number of fruit per plant (NFPP. A numerical value of 31.0t/ha, 26.0, 5.4kg, 29.0cm, and 33.8cm were recorded for maximum crop yield, NFPP, FW, FD and FL respectively in DP+DH-treated plots. For zero tillage (ZT treatment, maximum of crop yield and NFPP were 26.5t/ha and 20.0 respectively. Thus for enhanced growth and yield of watermelon, DP/DH would be more preferable. The orthodox method of zero tillage is out rightly discouraged

  9. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    , when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses....... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses....

  10. Development of a microarray for simultaneous detection and differentiation of different tospoviruses that are serologically related to Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-Yuan; Ye, He-Yi; Chen, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-10

    Tospoviruses, the plant-infecting genus in the family Bunyaviridae, are thrips borne and cause severe agricultural losses worldwide. Based on the serological relationships of the structural nucleocapsid protein (NP), the current tospoviruses are divided into six serogroups. The use of NP-antisera is convenient for virus detection, but it is insufficient to identify virus species grouped in a serogroup due to the serological cross-reaction. Alternatively, virus species can be identified by the N gene amplification using specific primers. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type species of the genus Tospovirus and one of the most destructive plant viruses. Eight known tospoviruses, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV), Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Melon severe mosaic virus (MeSMV), Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV), Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV), sharing serological relatedness with TSWV in NP, are grouped in the TSWV serogroup. Most of the TSWV-serogroup viruses prevail in Europe and America. An efficient diagnostic method is necessary for inspecting these tospoviruses in Asia, including Taiwan. A microarray platform was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses. Total RNAs extracted from Chenopodium quinoa leaves separately inoculated with ANSV, CSNV, GRSV, INSV, TCSV and TSWV were used for testing purposes. The 5'-biotinylated degenerate forward and reverse primers were designed from the consensus sequences of N genes of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. Virus-specific oligonucleotide probes were spotted on the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chips to hybridize with PCR products. The hybridization signals were visualized by hydrolysis of NBT/BCIP with streptavidine-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. The

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  16. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  17. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  18. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  19. Effect of Black and Clear Polyethylene Mulch on Yield and Yield Components of Melon in Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term of Mulch, is the German word (Molsh means the soft, however, not soft, and made of plant debris or synthetic substances. Many positive effects attributed to the use of plastic mulch such as adjusting the temperature in the root environment, conserve moisture, reduce weeds, increase root growth, reduce soil erosion, and soil condensation and improve germination and early plant establishment. The use of mulch can reduce the harmful effects of salt in plants. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of black and clear polyethylene mulch on yield and yield components of melon in salinity stress condition, a study was conducted in 2011 using split plot randomized based on complete block design with three replications in Varamin region. Three salinity levels of irrigation water of 2, 5 and 8 dS-1 as main factor and three plastic mulch treatments (no mulch, clear mulch and black mulch were considered as sub-plots. At harvest and after determining the yield and number of fruits harvested from each plot, the average number of fruits per plant was measured and fruit pulp thickness was recorded with calipers. Results Discussion The results showed interactive effects of salinity and mulch on fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first harvest and fruit soluble solids percentage were statistically significant. In salinity levels of 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1, fruit yield increased, respectively, 19.6, 59, and 45.4 %in clear mulch compared to control. Similarly these increases for the black mulch were equal to 15.7, 41.9, and 21.4 percent, respectively. With 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1 salinity levels, fruit yield in the first harvest were 7.44, 7.72, and 6.98 t ha -1, respectively, which was significantly higher than without mulch and black mulch. Mulch can reduce evaporation and increase the level of moisture in the soil and thereby dilute the salt and reduce the harmful effects of salinity. Some

  20. Screening, discovery, and characterization of angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from proteolytic hydrolysate of bitter melon seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanto, Anugerah Dany; Doerksen, Robert J; Chang, Chi-I; Sung, Wang-Chou; Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Kusnadi, Joni; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Ting-Chin; Hsu, Jue-Liang

    2015-10-14

    In this study, new angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were comprehensively identified from a thermolysin digest of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed proteins. The hydrolysate was fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the inhibitory activities of the resulting fractions were evaluated using ACE inhibitory assay. Two novel ACE inhibitory peptides (VY-7 and VG-8) were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database-assisted peptide sequencing. VY-7 and VG-8 were derived from momordin A and MAP30, respectively, and their IC50 values were as low as 8.64±0.60 and 13.30±0.62 μM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots further indicated that VY-7, which showed the best IC50 value, acts as a competitive inhibitor. Notably, the content of VY-7 in crude thermolysin digest was determined to be as high as 14.89±0.88 μg/mg using LC-MS/MS quantification. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, oral administration of VY-7 at 2mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure. The interaction between VY-7 and ACE was examined using molecular docking calculations and the results suggested that certain residues of VY-7 can fit perfectly into the S1, S1' and S2' regions of the binding pocket of ACE. One of the most common supportive therapies for treating hypertension is the use of synthetic drugs to inhibit ACE activity. Synthetic ACE inhibitors possess good antihypertensive effects, but come with accompanying side effects. Therefore, food-derived ACE inhibitory peptides are regarded as safer alternatives and are attracting much attention for hypertension treatment. In this study, we comprehensively identified peptides derived from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed proteins (BMSPs) using a shotgun proteomics approach. Based on results from an in vitro ACE inhibitory assay, two peptides (VY-7 and VG-8) derived from momordin A and MAP

  1. Produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo, sob cultivo protegido, em diferentes substratos Production of yellow melon seedlings in different substrates under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mudas mal formadas e debilitadas comprometem o desenvolvimento das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo, sob cultivo protegido, em diferentes substratos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em telado, na Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS, nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Testaram-se os seguintes substratos: T1 (vermicomposto bovino puro; T2 (substrato comercial Plantmax®; T3 (substrato comercial Húmus Fértil®; T4 (vermicomposto bovino 75% + casca de arroz carbonizada 25% e T5 (solo 75% + vermicomposto bovino 25%. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade e a percentagem de emergência do 6º ao 9º dia; a altura, o comprimento da raiz principal, a massa seca das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de meloeiro, aos 27 dias. Os substratos que proporcionaram maior índice de velocidade de emergência das mudas de meloeiro amarelo foram Húmus Fértil®, vermicomposto bovino puro e vermicomposto bovino 75% mais casca de arroz carbonizada 25%. Maior altura da muda é obtida com o substrato Húmus Fértil®. O comprimento da raiz principal foi maior com o uso de vermicomposto bovino puro, Húmus Fértil®, vermicomposto bovino puro mais casca de arroz carbonizada (VB75+CAC25, em comparação com solo 75% mais vermicomposto bovino 25%. A massa seca de raiz foi maior quando utilizado Húmus Fértil®, em comparação com solo 75% mais vermicomposto bovino 25%. É possível utilizar substratos isolados ou em combinação para a produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo sob cultivo protegido. Porém, deve-se evitar o uso de solo 75% em combinação com vermicomposto bovino 25%.Weak and malformed seedlings compromise the development of the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of yellow melon seedlings in different substrates under protected cultivation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during November and December, at the Federal University of Pelotas (RS. The following

  2. Desempenho de híbridos de melão do grupo inodorus em Mossoró Performance of melon hybrids of inodorus group in Mossoró, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de S. Nunes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Mossoró para avaliar o desempenho de híbridos de melão do grupo inodorus. Em ambos experimentos, foram utilizados delineamentos experimentais em blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. O primeiro experimento foi constituído de dez híbridos Pele de Sapo e o segundo de cinco híbridos de melão do tipo Amarelo e quatro Pele de Sapo. Avaliou-se a produtividade, peso médio do fruto, cavidade interna, espessura da polpa, índice de formato, aparências externa e interna, perda de peso, teor de sólidos solúveis, firmeza da polpa e concentração da produção. No primeiro experimento o híbrido PS RDR destacou-se como o mais promissor, com alta produtividade, alto teor de sólidos solúveis, elevada firmeza de polpa e boa aparência interna e externa. No segundo experimento, os melões do tipo Amarelo diferiram dos melões Pele de Sapo nas características avaliadas. Os híbridos 'Gold Mine' e 'AMR GLDX' tiveram as melhores performances entre os melões tipo Amarelo e o híbrido 'PS 07' entre os melões do tipo Pele de Sapo.Two experiments were carried out in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of melon hybrids of the inodorus group. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. In the first experiment ten 'Piel del Sapo" hybrids were evaluated and in the second five hybrids of Valenciano type of melon and four 'Piel del Sapo' hybrids were evaluated. Evaluations of yield, average fruit weight, format index, internal cavity, pulp thickness, external and intern appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids, pulp firmness and yield concentration, were done. In the first experiment, the hybrid 'PS RDR' was the most promising with high fruit yield and total soluble solids content, better pulp firmness besides good appearance. The Valenciano type of melons differed from 'Piel del Sapo' type of melons for the assessed

  3. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l. seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipp Matthew J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological transfer of conjugated fatty acid production to existing oilseed crops. It is expected that these studies will also provide basic information regarding the metabolism of other high-value novel fatty acids. Results Deep sequencing using 454 technology with non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries prepared from bitter melon seeds at 18 DAP resulted in the identification of transcripts for the vast majority of known genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. The non-normalized library provided a transcriptome profile of the early stage in seed development that highlighted the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding seed storage proteins as well as for a number of genes for lipid metabolism-associated polypeptides, including Δ12 oleic acid desaturases and fatty acid conjugases, class 3 lipases, acyl-carrier protein, and acyl-CoA binding protein. Normalization of cDNA by use of a duplex-specific nuclease method not only increased the overall discovery of genes from developing bitter melon seeds, but also resulted in the identification of 345 contigs with homology to 189 known lipid genes in Arabidopsis. These included candidate genes for eleostearic acid metabolism such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2, and a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1-related enzyme. Transcripts were also identified for a novel FAD2 gene encoding a functional Δ12 oleic acid desaturase with potential implications for eleostearic acid biosynthesis. Conclusions 454 deep sequencing, particularly with normalized cDNA populations, was an effective method for mining of genes associated with eleostearic acid metabolism in

  4. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  5. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  6. Changes in evapotranspiration of summer and winter crops of netted melon [Cucumis melo] grown under glass in relation to meteorological and plant-related factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of evapotranspiration taken in the summer and winter on netted melon crops grown under glass were taken to characterize seasonal and daily changes. The data were compared to meteorological and plant-related factors to seek some relationships. Evapotranspiration followed a sigmoid curve until one week after pollination, and then decreased gradually during fruit growth. Cumulative evapotranspirations after transplanting were about 116 kg and 60 kg, respectively, for the summer and winter crops, whereas the peak evapotranspirations were 3.O kg plant(-1) day(-1) and 1.3 kg plant(-1) day(-1). The rapid increase h the evapotranspiration during the early stage was associated with the increase in leaf area; its gradual decrease during fruit growth was associated with a decrease in the transpiration potential of leaves. Therefore, irrigation amounts should be increased with leaf development and decreased with fruit growth. The curve of solar radiation in sunny summer days peaked at noon, whereas vapor pressure deficit usually peaked in early or mid afternoon; evapotranspirations in the afternoon had higher values than had those in the morning. In winter, vapor pressure deficit was relatively high during late afternoon and early morning because of heating, whereas it was low during the remainder of the day on account of low ventilation. These fluctuations led to a weak correlation between evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficit. Regression analyses indicated that solar radiation was a main meteorological factor affecting evapotranspiration

  7. Altered white adipose tissue protein profile in C57BL/6J mice displaying delipidative, inflammatory, and browning characteristics after bitter melon seed oil treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsien Hsieh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO, which is rich in cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linolenic acid, is more potent than soybean oil in attenuating body fat deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive insight into how white adipose tissue (WAT is affected by BMSO administration and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the anti-adiposity effect of BMSO. METHODS AND RESULTS: A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the WAT of mice fed diets with or without BMSO for 11 wks. The WAT was also analyzed histologically for morphological changes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (pH 4-7 revealed 32 spots showing a statistically significant difference (P2-fold change. Combined with histological evidence of macrophage infiltration and brown adipocyte recruitment, the proteomic and immunoblotting data showed that the WAT in mice subjected to long-term high dose BMSO administration was characterized by reduced caveolae formation, increased ROS insult, tissue remodeling/repair, mitochondria uncoupling, and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, this last change being putatively related to an increased inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: The anti-adiposity effect of BMSO is associated with WAT delipidation, inflammation, and browning. Some novel proteins participating in these processes were identified. In addition, the BMSO-mediated WAT browning may account for the increased inflammation without causing adverse metabolic effects.

  8. Sterilization of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), with gamma-radiation: Effect of dose on oviposition behavior of irradiated females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a laboratory condition, the visiting and the puncturing frequencies of gamma-irradiated Dacus cucurbitae females on cucumber Cucumis sativus fruits were examined. In the non-irradiated females, the frequencies reached equilibrium ca. 1 week after adult emergence. The frequencies of the irradrated females decreased with irradiation dosage, but gradually resumed frequency with age. A similar trend was found in the relationship between the irradiation dose and the rates of the puncturing frequency to the visiting frequency. As the irradiation dose increased, the rate of under-developed ovaries increased. The ratio of cumulative puncturing frequency in the 70 Gy irradiated (completely sterile) females to that of the non-irradiated females was estimated as 1/200 when daily survival rate in the field was assumed to be 0.85. The completely sterile adult females (40 days old) made punctures on all sizes of cucumber cultivated in a greenhouse. However, these punctures do not significantly damage the fruit. The sting of the sterile melon fly would not be a serious problem in eradication programs based on the Sterile Insect Technique

  9. Comparison of acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds for wild, mass-reared, and irradiated melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmiya, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Kohjin; Tanaka, Akira; Kamiwada, Hidemi.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds produced by the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT in wild (W-), mass-reared (M-), and irradiated (I-) strains were analyzed. Properties included fundamental frequency (FFQ), peak power density of FFQ (PPD), overall root mean square value (ORMS), total harmonic RMS (THRMS), total harmonic distortion (THDIST), bandwidth of FFQ (BWFF), and the number of harmonics and wing-strokes. M- and I-strains developed FFQ 3 days earlier than the W-strain. The W-strain had a greater variance in the mean, and overall lower values for FFQ, PPD, and ORMS than M- and I-strains. The fluctuation of acoustic properties of wild strain with aging was markedly different from that of the laboratory strains. The fact that values of these parameters for laboratory strains developed at earlier adult age and continued relatively high may by due to selection effects. No significant differences were observed between laboratory strains resulting from effect of irradiation. There were, however, significant differences among the 6 parameters in 8 age groups which were recognized for 12 cases between W- and I-, 8 between W- and M-, and 4 between M- and I-strains. (author)

  10. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) inhibits adipocyte hypertrophy and down regulates lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ling; Hong, Ya-Wen; Wong, You-Hong; Chen, Ying-Nien; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chao, Pei-Min

    2008-02-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia; BM) has been shown to ameliorate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of BM supplementation on cell size and lipid metabolism in adipose tissues, three groups of rats were respectively fed a high-fat diet supplemented without (HF group) or with 5 % lyophilised BM powder (HFB group), or with 0.01 % thiazolidinedione (TZD) (HFT group). A group of rats fed a low-fat diet was also included as a normal control. Hyperinsulinaemia and glucose intolerance were observed in the HF group but not in HFT and HFB groups. Although the number of large adipocytes (>180 microm) of both the HFB and HFT groups was significantly lower than that of the HF group, the adipose tissue mass, TAG content and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the HFB group were significantly lower than those of the HFT group, implying that BM might reduce lipogenesis in adipose tissue. Experiment 2 was then conducted to examine the expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissues of rats fed low-fat, HF or HFB diets. The HFB group showed significantly lower mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein than the HF group (P effective as the anti-diabetic drug TZD. Furthermore, BM can suppress the visceral fat accumulation and inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy, which may be associated with markedly down regulated expressions of lipogenic genes in the adipose.

  11. Sustainability of melon cultivation in São Romão settlement in Mossoró/RN: determination of indicators by the MESMIS methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Martins Formiga Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, agriculture is one of the most discussed topics in the theoretical field of sustainability. Debates regarding this issue are increasingly recurrent and put in question the model adopted from the post-war, the so-called green revolution. In the state of Rio Grande do Norte, the agricultural potential lies mainly in irrigated horticulture, where stands the agropolo Acu-Mossoró as one of the greatest watermelon producing regions of Brazil. The cultivation of watermelon, once dominated by large agricultural companies, is currently developed by agroecosystems whose management is characterized by family participation, including small farmers of rural settlements created by Incra. Aiming to assess the sustainability of this type of cultivation, was used the MESMIS methodology in the in São Romão settlement in Mossoró-RN, which is primarily engaged in the cultivation of irrigated melon. Seven critical points were determined and selected twenty-three indicators that directly affect the sustainability of the researched area.

  12. Cafeteria diet induces obesity and insulin resistance associated with oxidative stress but not with inflammation: improvement by dietary supplementation with a melon superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Romain, Cindy; Bardy, Guillaume; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Gaillet, Sylvie; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

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    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  14. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) reduces obesity-associated macrophage and mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bin; Chen, Yan-Guang; Zhang, Lei; Na Xu, Yan Lin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jian; Qu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic disease that correlates closely with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-induced chronic adipose tissue inflammation is now considered as a critical contributor to the above complications. Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) is a traditional Chinese food and well known for its function of reducing body weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is unclear whether BM could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation caused by obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) with or without BM for 12 weeks. BM-contained diets ameliorated HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Histological and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated BM not only reduced macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Flow cytometry show that BM could modify the M1/M2 phenotype ratio of macrophages in EAT. Further study showed that BM lowered mast cell recruitments in EAT, and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in EAT and BAT as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in EAT. Finally, ELISA analysis showed BM-contained diets also normalized serum levels of the cytokines. In summary, in concert with ameliorated insulin resistance and fat deposition, BM reduced adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.

  15. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon reduces obesity-associated macrophage and mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a world-wide epidemic disease that correlates closely with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-induced chronic adipose tissue inflammation is now considered as a critical contributor to the above complications. Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM is a traditional Chinese food and well known for its function of reducing body weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is unclear whether BM could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation caused by obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD with or without BM for 12 weeks. BM-contained diets ameliorated HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Histological and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated BM not only reduced macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissues (EAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT. Flow cytometry show that BM could modify the M1/M2 phenotype ratio of macrophages in EAT. Further study showed that BM lowered mast cell recruitments in EAT, and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 expression in EAT and BAT as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α expression in EAT. Finally, ELISA analysis showed BM-contained diets also normalized serum levels of the cytokines. In summary, in concert with ameliorated insulin resistance and fat deposition, BM reduced adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO mice.

  16. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  17. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  18. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  19. Análise do progresso e danos causadas pelo amarelão do meloeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Antonio Apoliano dos; Cardoso,José Edmilson; Bezerra,Marlos Alves; Pinheiro Neto,Luiz Gonzaga

    2008-01-01

    A análise do progresso do amarelão do meloeiro causado pelo Melon Yellowing-associated Virus (MYaV) e os danos causados por essa doença na produção e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de frutos do meloeiro foram estudadas em dois híbridos (Aclain e Frevo), sob condições naturais de infecção, em um plantio comercial no município de Russas, Ceará. As plantas foram monitoradas durante todo o ciclo quanto à incidência. Ao final do ciclo, os frutos foram colhidos, pesados e o teor de sólidos solú...

  20. Reaction of melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew Reação de genótipos de melão ao crestamento gomoso e ao míldio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen

  1. Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X Y; Wolff, D W; Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

    1999-08-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) markers by converting RAPD markers E07 (a 1.25-kb band) and G17 (a 1.05-kb band), respectively. The RAPD-PCR polymorphic fragments from the susceptible line 'Vedrantais' were cloned and sequenced in order to construct primers that would amplify only the target fragment. The derived primers, E07SCAR-1/E07SCAR-2 from E07 and G17SCAR-1/G17SCAR-2 from G17, yielded a single 1.25-kb fragment (designated SCE07) and a 1.05-kb fragment (designated SCG17) (the same as RAPD markers E07 and G17), respectively, from both resistant and susceptible melon lines, thus demonstrating locus-specific associated primers. Potential CAPS markers were first revealed by comparing sequence data between fragments amplified from resistant (PI 161375) and susceptible ('Vedrantais') lines and were then confirmed by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease digestion products. Twelve restriction endonucleases were evaluated for their potential use as CAPS markers within the SCE07 fragment. Three (BclI, MspI, and BssSI) yielded ideal CAPS markers and were subsequently subjected to extensive testing using an additional 88 diverse melon cultigens, 93 and 119 F(2) individuals from crosses of 'Vedrantais' x PI 161375 and 'Ananas Yokneam'×MR-1 respectively, and 17 families from a backcross BC(1)S(1) population derived from the breeding line 'MD8654' as a resistance source. BclI- and MspI-CAPS are susceptible-linked markers, whereas the BssSI-CAPS is a resistant-linked marker. The CAPS markers that resulted from double digestion by BclI and BssSI are co-dominant. Results

  2. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  3. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  5. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and antigenic shift. Transmission of Influenza Viruses from Animals to People Influenza A viruses also are found in many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses and seals. ...

  6. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  9. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  10. Quality of the fresh cut ‘Orange Flesh’ melon stored under modified atmosphere/ Qualidade do melão ‘Orange Flesh’ minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluate the effect of the fresh cut ‘Orange Flesh’ melon stored under modified atmosphere. The cubes of melons were sanitizationed with 100 mg L-1 of hypoclorite of sodium for one minute, washed, drained and wrapped with different concentrations of O2 and CO2 in plastic bags of polyethylene (Nylon Polished. They were appraised every other day for ten days as regards the firmness, total pectin, soluble pectin and activity of the polifenoloxidase and peroxidase. At the end of the conservation period, it was verified that melons sustained the firmest texture of the vegetable products under modified atmosphere, and the concentration of 5%O2 + 3% CO2 showed smaller content of total pectin and together with the concentration of 100% N2 the smallest content of soluble pectin, the polifenoloxidase activity was not verified as well as of the peroxidase.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada na qualidade do melão‘Orange Flesh’minimamente processado. Os cubos de melões foram sanificados com 100 mg L-1 de hipoclorito de sódio por um minuto, lavados, drenados e embalados com diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2 em sacos plásticos de polietileno (Nylon Poli. Foram avaliados a cada dois dias durante dez dias quanto a firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel e atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase. Ao final do período de conservação, os produtos vegetais com modificação da atmosfera mantiveram a textura mais firme e a concentração de 5%O2 + 3% CO2 apresentaram menor teor de pectina total e juntamente com a concentração de 100% N2 o menor teor de pectina solúvel e não apresentaram atividades de polifenoloxidase e peroxidase.

  11. Qualidade do melão cantaloupe cv. Hy-Mark minimamente processado e armazenado sob refrigeração Quality of cantaloupe melon cv. Hy-Mark minimally processed and refrigerated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das pesquisas em melão minimamente processado é concentrada no tipo 'cantaloupe', devido à sua importância no mercado internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade do melão cantaloupe cv. Hy-Mark minimamente processado. Os frutos foram lavados e sanitizados, sendo em seguida cortados na forma de cubos, imersos em solução de CaCl2, acondicionados em embalagens flexíveis PET (tereftalato de polietileno e armazenados a 4ºC por 9 dias. O delineamento foi conduzido inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. A intervalos de três dias, amostras foram coletadas e analisadas quanto a coliformes totais e fecais, e contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e bolores e leveduras, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez, vitamina C, açúcares redutores totais, atividade de água, firmeza e análise sensorial através do atributo de aceitação global. O melão minimamente processado apresentou boa estabilidade física, físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial, estimando-se em 9 dias a vida útil deste produto a 4ºC.Most of the research into minimally processed melon is focused on cantaloupe melon, due to its importance in the international market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of cantaloupe melon cv. Hy-Mark, minimally processed and refrigerated. Fruits were washed, sanitized, cut and imbedded in a calcium chloride solution and packed in PET and stored at 4ºC during 9 days. At three-day intervals samples were collected and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, counting of aerobic mesophilic bacterias, molds and yeast, SS (soluble solids, TTA (total titrable acidity, firmness, pH, TRS (total reducing sugar, Aw, vitamin C, color and acceptability. The minimally processed melon showed good overall physical, pyisico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial stability during the storage period.

  12. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  13. Immunomodulation by viruses: the myxoma virus story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, P; Barrett, J; Cao, J X; Hota-Mitchell, S; Lalani, A S; Everett, H; Xu, X M; Robichaud, J; Hnatiuk, S; Ainslie, C; Seet, B T; McFadden, G

    1999-04-01

    Myxoma virus is a poxvirus pathogen of rabbits that has evolved to replicate successfully in the presence of an active immune response by an infected host. To accomplish this, the virus has developed a variety of strategies to avoid detection by or obstruct specific aspects of the antiviral response whose consolidated action is antagonistic to virus survival. We describe two distinct viral strategies carried out by viral proteins with which myxoma virus subverts the host immune response. The first strategy is the production of virus-encoded proteins known as viroceptors or virokines that mimic host receptors or cytokines. These seek to actively block extracellular immune signals required for effective virus clearance and produce a local environment in the infected tissue that is "virus friendly". The second strategy, carried out by intracellular viral proteins, seeks to retard the innate antiviral responses such as apoptosis, and hinder attempts by the infected cell to communicate with the cellular arm of the immune system. By studying these viral strategies of immune evasion, the myxoma system can provide insights into virus-host interactions and also provide new insights into the complex immune system.

  14. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  15. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  16. Conservação de melão rendilhado minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada ativa Conservation of minimally processed net melon under active modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Melões rendilhados cv. Bônus II foram minimamente processados manualmente na forma de cubos, acondicionados em diversos materiais de embalagem com injeção da mistura gasosa (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 e armazenados a 3ºC durante 12 dias. Os materiais de embalagem foram: BB-200: filme multicamada da Cryovac 65µm; PBC:filme poliolefínico Probag Conservax 64µm; PP: filme de polipropileno 52µm. Como controle, utilizou-se bandeja de polietileno com tampa perfurada. Realizou-se monitoramento da composição gasosa, análises microbiológicas, sensoriais e físico-químicas a cada 3 dias. Foram determinadas as taxas de permeabilidade ao O2 e CO2 de cada filme. A embalagem BB-200 promoveu acúmulo de CO2 até níveis de 24% e redução de O2 até níveis de 0,4%. Na embalagem PBC a concentração de O2 estabilizou-se ao redor de 8% e a de CO2 ao redor de 4%, enquanto na embalagem de PP os níveis de gases estabilizaram-se ao redor de 13% O2 e 6% CO2. De maneira geral, as características físico-químicas e sensoriais foram pouco influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A alteração da composição gasosa foi eficiente no controle de microrganismos. A partir do 9º dia de armazenamento, os melões controle apresentaram níveis de bactérias mesófilas acima de 10(5 NMP/g, com riscos de apresentarem microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deterioradores.Net melons cv. Bonus II were minimally processed as cubes, wrapped in several packaging materials with injection of the gaseous mixture (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 and stored at 3ºC for 12 days. The packaging materials were: BB-200: Cryovac multlayer film 65mm; PBC: Probag Conservax polyolephinic film 64µm; PP: polypropylene film 52µm. Polystyrene trays were used as control with perforated cover. Gaseous composition inside of the packaging, microbiological, sensorial and physical-chemical characteristics were determined each 3 days. The gas permeability was determined for each film. BB-200 packaging promoted CO

  17. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia Yossri; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Baiomy, Ahmed A; Yassin, Magdy Hassan; El-Sawy, Hanan Basiouni

    2017-06-17

    Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela. The treatments continued for 10 weeks. Karela was given for hypercholesterolemic rats after 6 weeks of cholesterol administration. Serum, liver and epididymal adipose tissues were taken for biochemical, histopathological and genetic assessments. Hypercholesterolemia induced a decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were ameliorated by karela administration. Hypercholesterolemia up regulated antioxidants mRNA expression and altered the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes. In parallel, hypercholesterolemic groups showed significant changes in the expression of PPAR-alpha and gamma, lipolysis, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acids synthase (FAS), sterol responsible element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at hepatic and adipose tissue levels. Interestingly, Karela ameliorated all altered genes confirming its hypocholesterolemic effect. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that hypercholesterolemia induced hepatic tissue changes compared with control. These changes include cholesterol clefts, necrosis, karyolysis and sever congestion of portal blood vessel. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity showed positive expression in

  18. The influence of wine-distillery waste compost on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and uptake by a melon crop in a shallow calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the large quantity of organic wastes generated by the winery industry constitutes a serious environmental concern, due to its low pH and high content of phenolic compounds. This is accompanied by a seasonal production that makes their management difficult. Winery wastes are characterized by high organic matter contents, low electrical conductivity values and notable contents in macronutrients, so their use as organic amendments is a good management option for improving soil fertility. However, a composting treatment is necessary to convert these organic wastes into more stable, hygienic and humic-rich materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of exhausted grape marc compost (composed of dealcoholized pulp, skins and stems) as fertilizer in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). This experiment was carried out from May to September 2011 in Ciudad Real (Spain). This area was designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 7.9), poor in organic matter (0.20%), rich in potassium (407 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (19.4 ppm). The experiment had a randomised complete block design, with four treatments consisted of four compost doses: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3), in order to determine the optimum dose to ensure nutrient demand, maximizing yield and minimizing nutrient losses. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  19. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  20. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  1. Methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for suppression of male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii: effects of lure mixtures and weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R I; Stark, J D; Kido, M H; Ketter, H M; Whitehand, L C

    2000-02-01

    Methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate) and cue-lure [4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] are highly attractive kairomone lures to oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. Plastic bucket traps were evaluated as dispensers for methyl eugenol and cue-lure for suppression of the 2 fruit flies in Hawaii. Methyl eugenol and cue-lure mixtures were compared with pure methyl eugenol or cue-lure over 4 seasons. B. dorsalis captures differed significantly with treatment and season. B. dorsalis captures with 100% methyl-eugenol were significantly greater than all other treatments (25, 50, and 75%). B. cucurbitae captures also differed significantly with treatment but not with season. Captures with 100, 75, and 50% cue-lure were not significantly different. Bucket traps baited with cue-lure (+ malathion) and weathered under Hawaiian climatic conditions were attractive to B. cucurbitae up to 8 wk. Two methyl eugenol dispensers (canec disks and Min-U-Gel) were compared with bucket traps. Dispensers (methyl eugenol + malathion) were weathered for 2-16 wk under Hawaiian climatic conditions and bioassayed during summer and winter. Initially, captures of B. dorsalis were not significantly different for the 3 dispensers. Bucket traps and canec disks were most resistant to weather, remaining attractive to B. dorsalis flies up to 16 wk. Min-U-Gel was least resistant, losing attractiveness to B. dorsalis flies within 2 wk. On the basis of performance, bucket traps and canec disks were equally long-lived up to 14 wk; thereafter, bucket traps were slightly more attractive during winter. Canec disks were cheapest, but on the basis of possible environmental concerns, bucket traps may be the best all-around choice for areawide suppression of fruit flies.

  2. Reação de genótipos de meloeiro a Myrothecium Reaction of melon genotypes to Myrothecium roridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissônia A Noronha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. no Nordeste brasileiro tem favorecido a ocorrência de doenças como o cancro-de-mirotécio, causado pelo fungo Myrothecium roridum. Visando selecionar genótipos com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 150 genótipos de meloeiro. Plantas com 22 dias de idade, desenvolvidas em casa de vegetação, foram feridas no colo e inoculadas com uma suspensão do patógeno (3x10(6 conídios/ml. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, até seis dias após a retirada da câmara úmida, com o auxílio de uma escala descritiva de notas de 0 a 4. Com os dados da última avaliação, os genótipos foram distribuídos em cinco classes de reação à doença. Nenhum genótipo foi imune ou altamente resistente ao patógeno, enquanto 26,7% foram medianamente resistentes (MR e 73,3% foram suscetíveis (S ou altamente suscetíveis (AS. Esses resultados evidenciam a dificuldade na obtenção de fontes com elevados níveis de resistência a M. roridum. Os grupos Cantaloupe, Charentais, Gália e 'Indefinido' apresentaram a maior freqüência de genótipos com a reação MR e a menor freqüência de genótipos AS. A maioria dos genótipos dos grupos Valenciano Verde (66,7%, Cantaloupe (57,4%, Gália (60,0% e 'Indefinido' (53,8% foram S. Os genótipos 'PI 420149', 'Caroline', 'A3', 'Chilton' e 'PS-1 Pele de Sapo' apresentaram os menores valores de severidade final da doença e mostraram-se promissoras fontes de resistência ao patógeno e devem ser preferidos sob condições favoráveis à doença.The expansion of the melon (Cucumis melo L. fields in the Brazilian Northeast favored the occurrence of diseases such as the Myrothecium stem canker caused by the fungus Myrothecium roridum. In order to select genotypes with potential use in genetic breeding programs and in integrated disease management, 150 melon genotypes were evaluated. Twenty

  3. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  5. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...... borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  6. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  7. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  8. Vaccinia virus immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L

    1999-01-01

    Vaccinia virus expresses many virulence factors that are non-essential for virus replication in cell culture but are important in vivo. In this paper three mechanisms are described that are used by vaccinia virus to evade the host immune response to infection. One of these is the release of a soluble protein that binds CC chemokines and that is unrelated to cellular chemokine receptors. The other two mechanisms are displayed by virus particles that are released from infected cells. This form of vaccinia virus is called extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) and is resistant to neutralisation by antibody and to destruction by complement. Resistance to complement is mediated by the acquisition of host complement control proteins, particularly CD55, during virus release from infected cells.

  9. Strain-specific and recessive QTLs involved in the control of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, L; Dogimont, C; Pitrat, M

    2005-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) causes serious economic losses in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Two dominant resistance genes have been identified, Fom-1 and Fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however FOM race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. A partial resistance to FOM race 1.2 that has been found in some Far East accessions is under polygenic control. A genetic map of melon was constructed to tag FOM race 1.2 resistance with DNA markers on a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between resistant (Isabelle) and susceptible (cv. Védrantais) lines. Artificial root inoculations on plantlets of this population using two strains, one that causes wilting (FOM 1.2w) and one that causes yellowing (FOM 1.2y), resulted in phenotypic and genotypic data that enabled the identification of nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These QTLs were detected on five linkage groups by composite interval mapping and explained between 41.9% and 66.4% of the total variation. Four digenic epistatic interactions involving seven loci were detected and increased the total phenotypic variation that was explained. Co-localizations between QTLs and resistance gene homologs or resistance genes, such as Fom-2 and Vat, were observed. A strain-specific QTL was detected, and some QTLs appeared to be recessive.

  10. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain; Implantacao de metodo funcional de conservacao pos-colheita de meloes cantaloupe, utilizando as radiacoes ionizantes como tecnica de controle de qualidade na cadeia produtiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aazcozzo@cena.usp.br; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  11. Viruses of botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hwan; Ju, Hye-Kyoung; Han, Jae-Yeong; Park, Jong-Seo; Kim, Ik-Hyun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2017-04-01

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome. Three CGMMV isolates (OMpj, Wpj, and Mpj) were separately evaluated for infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrated by either Agroinfiltration or inoculation with in vitro RNA transcripts. CGMMV nucleotide identities to other tobamoviruses were calculated from pairwise alignments using DNAMAN. CGMMV identities were 49.89% to tobacco mosaic virus; 49.85% to pepper mild mottle virus; 50.47% to tomato mosaic virus; 60.9% to zucchini green mottle mosaic virus; and 60.96% to kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, confirming that CGMMV is a distinct species most similar to other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. We further performed phylogenetic analysis to determine relationships of our new Korean CGMMV isolates to previously characterized isolates from Canada, China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, and Taiwan available from NCBI. Analysis of CGMMV amino acid sequences showed three major clades, broadly typified as 'Russian,' 'Israeli,' and 'Asian' groups. All of our new Korean isolates fell within the 'Asian' clade. Neither the 128 nor 186 kDa RdRps of the three new isolates showed any detectable gene silencing suppressor function.

  13. Aplicação do método QDF na avaliação do perfil do consumidor de melão amarelo Consumer profile evaluation by quality function development for melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Abrahão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca pela longevidade e a procura por alimentos mais saudáveis fizeram com que os consumidores se tornassem cada vez mais exigentes. Diante disso, procurou-se estabelecer o comportamento de compra dos consumidores de melão no Mercado Municipal de Piracicaba (SP através do método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD e, com base nas respostas obtidas nos questionários aplicados, traçou-se o perfil dos consumidores, destacando-se suas preferências, costumes, reclamações e exigências. Verificou-se que é a mulher que realiza as compras do melão, com preferência pelo consumo na forma in natura. Encontrou-se insatisfação de 42,8% dos entrevistados quanto à qualidade do melão, sendo o sabor aguado a principal causa de descontentamento. Logo, a qualidade do melão não correspondia àquela indicada pelos consumidores (casca sem defeitos, coloração amarela característica da variedade, textura firme, suculento, de preço acessível, garantia de qualidade e gosto doce. Diante da insatisfação dos consumidores e considerando-se que o melão é consumido preferencialmente in natura, deve-se atentar para a preservação da sua aparência e qualidade sensorial. A opinião dos consumidores deve ser considerada na tentativa de identificar os pontos que devem ser melhorados dentro da cadeia de comercialização a fim de minimizar as perdas e promover a melhoria e a manutenção da qualidade do produto final.The search for longevity and the demand for healthy food have made consumers more conscious. A study was carried out to evaluate the purchasing habits of melon consumers in the Municipal Market of Piracicaba (São Paulo State, Brazil by the Quality Function Development (QFD Method. With the answers to the questionnaire, it was possible to determine the consumers' preferences, habits, complaints, and demands. It was verified that women are the consumers and that melons are consumed raw. 42.8% of the interviewees complained about

  14. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  15. Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma. Michael C. Kew. Of the hepatitis viruses that have been identified and their pathological consequences characterised, three - hepatitis. B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus. (HDV) - have been implicated as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ...

  16. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil...... proteins with exceptional structures and unknown functions. Moreover, the ways in which these viruses interact with their hosts are also unique, as indicated by a unique virion egress mechanism, which involves formation of pyramidal portals on the cell surface. Some viruses that infect extremely halophilic...... Archaea are morphologically highly similar to head‐tail bacterial viruses of the order Caudovirales and apparently share an ancestry with them. Identified archaeal viruses almost exclusively carry double‐stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes and only a few species have single‐stranded DNA genomes....

  17. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  18. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological features...... which have not been observed for viruses from the other domains of life, the Bacteria and the Eukarya. This exceptional status of the archaeal viruses is reinforced by the finding that a large majority of their predicted genes yield no sequence matches in public sequence databases, and their functions...... remain unknown. One of the viruses, the bicaudavirus ATV (Acidianus two-tailed virus), is quite unique in that it undergoes a major morphological change, growing long tail structures, extracellularly. A small minority of archaeal viruses, which exclusively infect mesophilic or moderately thermophilic...

  19. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  20. Viruses infecting bivalve molluscs

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Tristan; Novoa, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders and as a consequence they may bioaccumulate in their tissues viruses that infect humans and higher vertebrates. However, there have also been described mortalities of bivalve molluscs associated with viruses belonging to different families. Mass mortalities of adult Portuguese oysters, Crassostrea angulata, among French livestocks (between 1967 and 1973) were associated with irido-like virus infections. Herpesviruses were reported in the eastern oyster, Pac...

  1. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  2. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  3. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • ... HIV Testing • For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the ...

  4. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological features...... remain unknown. One of the viruses, the bicaudavirus ATV (Acidianus two-tailed virus), is quite unique in that it undergoes a major morphological change, growing long tail structures, extracellularly. A small minority of archaeal viruses, which exclusively infect mesophilic or moderately thermophilic...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  6. Water system virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  7. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available to three logs ?4-. in a water treatment plant, a total of seven to eight log reduction in virus results. This leaves a water containing perhaps one TOlD of virus. per 1 000 litres. Shuval? ? suggests thht this is not an unimportant amount. On the basis...~~ water resources and by the direct treatment of waste water, is examined, as is the virus risk involved in the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater into the environment. -~ VIRUSES IN RENOVATED WATERS Ethel 14. Nupen [National Institute...

  8. Perda de nutrientes por lixiviação em um Argissolo Acinzentado cultivado com meloeiro Nutrient losses by leaching in an Ultisol with melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. de Aguiar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretendeu-se, com o presente estudo, avaliar as perdas de nutrientes por lixiviação, em função do tipo de matéria orgânica incorporada ao solo e a sua acumulação na cultura do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da UFC/CCA. O solo utilizado foi um Argissolo Acinzentado, coletado na camada de 0-10 cm. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualisado, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos testados, foram: 0% de matéria orgânica (TEST; 100% de esterco bovino (EB; 100% de palha de arroz (PA e 50% de esterco bovino + 50% de palha de arroz (EB + PA. Avaliaram-se: densidade do solo, nitrogênio (total NT, mineral NM e orgânico NO, C orgânico total (CO, P, K, Ca, Mg e Na no solo, na água percolada e na planta. Os menores valores de densidade do solo foram encontrados no tratamento PA e os maiores, no TEST. Ocorreu perda de nutrientes por lixiviação com destaque para o P. A lixiviação dos nutrientes foi maior nos tratamentos que contiam matéria orgânica, na forma de esterco bovino. As perdas de NT e CO não tiveram, como principal causa, a lixiviação.This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient losses by leaching as a function of the type of incorporated organic residues into the soil, as well as the accumulation in the melon crop. The experiment was developed in a greenhouse of the UFC/CCA. The soil was a Ultisol, collected in the layer of 0-10 cm. A completely randomized design considering four replications was adopted. The treatments tested were: 0% of organic residues (TEST; 100% of cattle manure (EB; 100% of rice straw (PA and 50% of cattle manure + 50% of rice straw (EB + PA. The soil bulk density, the nitrogen (total NT, mineral NM and organic NO, total organic carbon (CO, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na in the soil, in the leached water and in the plants were evaluated. The lowest and highest soil bulk density values were found in the PA and TEST treatments, respectively. Nutrients losses by leaching

  9. Assessment of Attractiveness of Cassava as a Roosting Plant for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2011-01-01

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its

  10. Qualidade de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L. em função do sistema de cultivo Quality of net melon (Cucumis melo L. in function of the culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Forlan Vargas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de frutos de cinco cultivares de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L., cultivados em casa de vegetação, em função do sistema de produção. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, no período de novembro de 2005 à fevereiro de 2006. O experimento foi delineado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis e dois sistemas de cultivo: no solo e em substrato de fibra da casca de coco. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca do fruto, espessura de mesocarpo, intensidade de rendilhamento da casca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, índice de maturação (RATIO, e vitamina C. Não houve interação significativa entre os sistemas de cultivo e cultivares para nenhuma das características avaliadas. O cultivo de melão em substrato resultou em frutos com qualidade superior ao cultivo em solo. Os híbridos Louis e Fantasy foram os que apresentaram melhor desempenho qualitativo de frutos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of five net melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, in function of production system. The study was carried out in a greenhouse at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, during the period of November, 2005 to February, 2006. The study was carried out using a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, in randomized complete block design with four repetitions. The treatments resulted the combination of five net melon hybrids: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy and Louis and two cultivations systems: in soil and in coconut fiber substrate. The characters evaluated were: fresh weight of fruit, mesocarp thickness, fruit shape index, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index (RATIO; and vitamin C. No interactions were observed

  11. Caracterização morfológica e dissimilaridade genética entre variedades crioulas de melão Morphological characterization and genetic dissimilarity in melon landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silviana Neitzke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Variedades crioulas de melão (Cucumis melo são cultivadas no Sul do Brasil para consumo familiar e também para comercialização dos frutos. No entanto, existe uma carência de trabalhos relativos a sua caracterização. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade genética de variedades crioulas de melão do Sul do Brasil mantidos no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cucurbitáceas da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 14 acessos utilizando 26 descritores morfológicos de fruto. Os dados foram analisados pelos métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e hierárquico UPGMA. Os métodos de agrupamento foram parcialmente concordantes. O acesso C88 possui características distintas, ficando isolado dos demais, pois é o único entre todos os avaliados que apresenta formato piriforme e sem gomos, cor de epicarpo creme, cor de polpa branca e ruptura profunda no fruto. Existe grande variabilidade genética, para caracteres de frutos, nas variedades crioulas de melão conservadas nesse Banco Ativo de Germoplasma, com potencial para uso no melhoramento genético, destacando-se o acesso C71 por possuir sabor adocicado e polpa de cor laranja e o C72, por apresentar elevados valores de peso de fruto e espessura de polpa.Melon landraces (Cucumis melo are cultivated in South of Brazil for family consumption and also for marketing fruits. However, there is a lack of works related to characterization of these landraces. The objective of this work was to characterize and evaluate genetic variability of melon landraces from South of Brazil which are maintained in the Cucurbitaceae Genebank at Embrapa Clima Temperado, trough morphological characterization. Fourteen accessions were characterized in 26 morphological fruit descriptors. Data were analyzed by Tocher grouping method and UPGMA hierarchical. The two methods agreed partially. The accession C88 has unique characteristics, being isolated when compared to the other accessions, it

  12. Viabilidade da irrigação do meloeiro com águas salinas em diferentes fases fenológicas Feasibility of irrigation of musk melon with salinity water in different phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Queiroz Porto Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de águas de irrigação de diferentes salinidades no rendimento do melão irrigado por gotejamento e de associar a produção obtida com o custo da água utilizada, desenvolveu-se este trabalho em Mossoró-RN. Águas de diferentes salinidades (S1=0,6, S2=1,9, S3=3,2 e S4=4,5dS m-1, utilizadas de forma incremental em três estádios de desenvolvimento ou sem variar durante o ciclo da cultura, formaram dez tratamentos arranjados em blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições. O uso de águas salinas por longos períodos afetou a produção de melão. Substituições tardias na salinidade da água tenderam a não exercer efeito significativo sobre a produção do meloeiro. O tratamento irrigado com a água de menor salinidade durante todo ciclo apresentou, simultaneamente, o maior custo com água de irrigação e o maior lucro na produção de melão.This study was carried out in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different irrigation water salinity levels on yield of drip irrigated melon, and to relate yield with the cost of water. The waters of different salinities (S1=0.6, S2=1.9, S3=3.2 e S4=4.5dS m-1 were used both in incremental way in three different phenological stages and without replacement during the crop cycle totalizing ten treatments arranged in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The use of saline waters without substitutions affected melon production. The treatments irrigated with low salinity water presented simultaneously the higher cost of irrigation water and higher profits of melon cultivation.

  13. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  14. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collaboration with experts and other health agencies. Zika Strategic Response Framework العربية 中文 français русский español Highlight Zika virus disease Zika podcast series History of Zika: digital timeline Zika virus Q&A Mosquito-borne diseases ...

  15. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  16. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever. Sexual transmission of Zika virus is also possible. Other modes of transmission such as blood transfusion are being investigated. Diagnosis Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms and recent history of travel (e.g. residence in or travel ...

  17. Blue Tongue Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupama

    thromboses and necrosis of infected tissues (Erasmus,. 1975) (Figure 1). In sheep, the onset of the disease is .... the skin to the local lymph nodes (Hemati et al., 2009), the sites of initial virus replication (MacLachlan, 2004). .... effects and provide protection against challenge with virulent virus of the same serotype. Animals ...

  18. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  19. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  1. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  2. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  3. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de melão amarelo minimamente processado submetido a tratamentos químicos Sensory profile and consumer acceptance of minimally processed melon submitted to chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo traçar o perfil sensorial ao longo do período de armazenamento e determinar a aceitação global de melões amarelos minimamente processados (submetidos a tratamentos químicos e os impactos desse processamento sobre a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor. Frutos selecionados, lavados e sanificados foram minimamente processados em forma de cubos, divididos em quatro lotes que constaram de: testemunha, tratados com solução de cloreto de cálcio (1%, tratados com ácido ascórbico (1% e revestidos com alginato de sódio (1%. Esses cubos foram acondicionados em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET com tampa e armazenados a 5 ± 1 ºC e 73 ± 5% UR por um período de 8 dias. No 1º, 3º, 5º e 8º dias após o processamento, os melões foram avaliados sensorialmente, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, por uma equipe de 8 provadores treinados. O teste de aceitação pelo consumidor foi conduzido em laboratório, com 50 provadores não treinados, utilizando as escalas: hedônica e de intenção de compra; além da frequência de consumo. A ADQ mostrou que os tratamentos testados não apresentaram efeito no prolongamento da vida útil dos melões amarelos minimamente processados. Os descritores que mais traduziram a qualidade do fruto submetido aos tratamentos químicos testados foram: aparência de fresco e brilhante; odor de fresco e característico; sabor ácido, salgado, amargo, fresco, característico, adstringente, aguado e estranho. O teste com os consumidores indicou que os melões tratados com cloreto de cálcio e com ácido ascórbico foram os mais aceitos pelos provadores e revelou que não houve diferença quanto à intenção de compra.The objective of this work was to trace the sensory profile during storage and to determine the global acceptance of minimally processed melon samples submitted to chemical treatments as well as to evaluate the impacts on the acceptance of the

  4. Melon Fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae, Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant T. Mcquate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae, with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae, Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae, and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae.

  5. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  6. Molecular characterization of Lelystad virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Petersen-den Besten, A.; Kluyver, de E.; Nieuwstadt, van A.; Wensvoort, G.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Lelystad virus (LV), the prototype of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus, is a small enveloped virus, containing a positive strand RNA genome of 15 kb. LV is tentatively classified in the family Arteriviridae, which consists of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), equine

  7. Preventive effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) against insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with the inhibition of NF-κB and JNK pathways in high-fat-fed OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soo Jin; Choi, Jung Mook; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

    2015-03-01

    Bitter melon (BM; Momordica charantia) has been used as a treatment method for various diseases including cancer and diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether BM has preventive effects against insulin resistance and diabetes and to identify the underlying mechanism by which BM ameliorates insulin resistance in obese and diabetic rats. The rats were separated into three groups as follows: (a) high-fat (HF) diet control, (b) HF diet and 1% BM and (c) HF diet and 3% BM. After 6 weeks of assigned treatments, body weight and food intake were not altered by BM administration. Bitter melon treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated in liver, muscle and epididymal fats from BM-treated rats. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the liver and muscle was decreased by BM compared with HF controls. The 3% BM supplementation significantly increased the levels of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr612) and phospho-Akt (Ser473). It also significantly decreased the levels of phospho-NF-κB (p65) (Ser536) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (Thr183/Tyr185) in liver, muscle and epididymal fats. The findings of this study indicate that BM exerted preventive effects against insulin resistance and diabetes through the modulation of NF-κB and JNK pathways. Therefore, BM may be useful in the prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  9. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  10. Avaliação de parentais e híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado Performance of parents and experimental hybrids of net melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Forlan Vargas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desempenho de 38 genótipos de melão rendilhado, sendo seis parentais, 30 híbridos experimentais (15 híbridos e 15 recíprocos e dois híbridos padrões de mercado (Bônus nº2 e Louis, quanto às características produtivas. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP-Jaboticabal, em casa de vegetação, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, e 38 tratamentos, contendo uma única fileira de cinco plantas, com espaçamento ente si de 0,5 m e 1 m entrelinhas. A semeadura foi realizada em 01 de agosto de 2007, utilizando bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, e quando as mudas apresentaram a primeira folha não cotiledonar, realizou-se o transplante. As plantas foram cultivadas em substrato de fibra da casca de coco, sendo a irrigação e adubação realizadas conjuntamente por fertirrigação. A colheita foi realizada durante o mês de dezembro, sendo avaliados: produção total, diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do fruto, índice de formato de fruto, diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do lóculo, índice de formato do lóculo, diâmetro médio da inserção do pedúnculo dos frutos, precocidade e concentração de colheita. Realizou-se análise de variância para cada característica e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que os genótipos (híbridos experimentais 4, 23, 24, 26 e 28 obtiveram os melhores desempenhos sendo semelhantes aos híbridos comerciais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 net melon genotypes, six parents, 30 experimental hybrids (15 hybrids and 15 reciprocals and two standard hybrid market, on the characteristics productive. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Sector of

  11. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  12. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  13. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  14. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  15. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV)

    OpenAIRE

    James S. Lawson; Brian Salmons; Wendy K. Glenn

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-al...

  16. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  17. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six “internal” influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production. PMID:27930325

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: ... 70620, Washington, DC 20024-9998 Copyright 2017. All rights reserved. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  20. mosaic virus disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . variabilis densities on the susceptible cultivar. Implications of these results for the control ofAfrican cassava mosaic virus disease are discussed. Key Words: Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis, cowpea, maize, intercropping. yield.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: ... Technology Professional Liability Managing Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual Meeting CME ...

  3. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The ... Ebola virus infection are made using the following diagnostic methods: antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ...

  4. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy Underserved Women ...

  6. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is seen ... This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  12. Viruses and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, A; Marcellus, R C; Branton, P E

    1999-01-01

    Successful viral replication requires not only the efficient production and spread of progeny, but also evasion of host defense mechanisms that limit replication by killing infected cells. In addition to inducing immune and inflammatory responses, infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis or programmed cell death of the infected cell. This cell response often results as a compulsory or unavoidable by-product of the action of critical viral replicative functions. In addition, some viruses seem to use apoptosis as a mechanism of cell killing and virus spread. In both cases, successful replication relies on the ability of certain viral products to block or delay apoptosis until sufficient progeny have been produced. Such proteins target a variety of strategic points in the apoptotic pathway. In this review we summarize the great amount of recent information on viruses and apoptosis and offer insights into how this knowledge may be used for future research and novel therapies.

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  15. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Dehghanian, Paria

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology and mainly affects young children. The histological feature is granuloma-like proliferation of langerhans-type dendritic cells. Although the possible role of viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV , Human Herpes virus -4 ), Human Herpes virus-6 ( HHV-6 ), Herpes Simplex virus ( HSV ) types 1 and 2 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Human Herpes virus-5 ) is suggested in the pathogenesis of LCH by some investigators, its exact pathophysiology has not been cleared yet. In this study, we investigated the presence of HSV types 1 and 2 in Iranian children with LCH. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of presence of HSV types 1 and 2 (in 30 patients with LCH), using paraffin-embedded tissue samples and 30 age and tissue-matched controls (operated for reasons other than infectious diseases) from the Department of Pediatric Pathology, Tehran, Iran, by nested Polymerase Chain reaction method. No ethical issues arose in the study, because only the pathology reports were reviewed and patients were anonymous. We failed to find HSV types 1 and 2 DNA in any of the 30 patients with LCH or the control group. According to our findings, HSV types 1 and 2 do not appear to have any etiologic role in the pathogenesis of LCH in Iranian children. These results are in accordance with previous investigations with negative findings.

  17. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions that are cons......The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...... distinct viral configurations that we claimhave infected most modern management knowledge - both on a discursive level and on the level ofconcrete organizational self-descriptions and practice. Third, we discuss our findings and raise thequestion of how viruses `work', how they interact, and why...

  18. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  19. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight ... virus to her baby. Facts About Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Nearly 1.2 million Americans are now ...