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Sample records for melon yellowing-associated virus

  1. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to characterize a virus causing severe mosaic, yellowing, stunting and leaf deformation on melon (Cucumis melo L.), and evaluate the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biofertilizer to improve plant growth and restrict the accumulation of the virus in the plant. The virus was identified as an ...

  2. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  3. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  4. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  5. Induction of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and phenylpropanoids in virus-infected cucumber and melon plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Belles Albert, José Mª; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Fayos, J.; Pallás Benet, Vicente; Rodrigo Bravo, Ismael; Conejero Tomás, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    [EN] In the present work, we have looked for the nature of the phenylpropanoids biosynthesized during the plant-pathogen reaction of two systems, Cucumis sativus and Cucumis melo infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), respectively. An accumulation of p-coumaric, caffeic and/or ferulic acids was observed in infected plant extracts hydrolysed with P-glucosidase or esterase. Analysis of undigested samples by HPLC/ESI revealed that these c...

  6. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  7. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhab

    The broad host range of CMV and its ability to be transmitted by aphids .... development of obvious yellow color in ELISA micro plate wells. The mean ... hosts harbor the virus in asymptomatic infection (Table. 1). ... Aster subulatus Michx.

  8. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability and genetic structure of the population of watermelon mosaic virus infecting melon in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.M.; Malpica, J.M.; Diaz-Pendon, J.A.; Moriones, E.; Fraile, A.; Garcia-Arenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic structure of the population of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in Spain was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of isolates sampled from its main host plant, melon. The population was a highly homogeneous one, built of a single pathotype, and comprising isolates closely related genetically. There was indication of temporal replacement of genotypes, but not of spatial structure of the population. Analyses of nucleotide sequences in three genomic regions, that is, in the cistrons for the P1, cylindrical inclusion (CI) and capsid (CP) proteins, showed lower similar values of nucleotide diversity for the P1 than for the CI or CP cistrons. The CI protein and the CP were under tighter evolutionary constraints than the P1 protein. Also, for the CI and CP cistrons, but not for the P1 cistron, two groups of sequences, defining two genetic strains, were apparent. Thus, different genomic regions of WMV show different evolutionary dynamics. Interestingly, for the CI and CP cistrons, sequences were clustered into two regions of the sequence space, defining the two strains above, and no intermediary sequences were identified. Recombinant isolates were found, accounting for at least 7% of the population. These recombinants presented two interesting features: (i) crossover points were detected between the analysed regions in the CI and CP cistrons, but not between those in the P1 and CI cistrons, (ii) crossover points were not observed within the analysed coding regions for the P1, CI or CP proteins. This indicates strong selection against isolates with recombinant proteins, even when originated from closely related strains. Hence, data indicate that genotypes of WMV, generated by mutation or recombination, outside of acceptable, discrete, regions in the evolutionary space, are eliminated from the virus population by negative selection

  11. Ring structure amino acids affect the suppressor activity of melon aphid-borne yellows virus P0 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Qi; Han, Cheng-Gui; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin

    2010-10-10

    Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) is a newly identified polerovirus occurring in China. Here, we demonstrate that the MABYV encoded P0 (P0(MA)) protein is a strong suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) with activity comparable to tobacco etch virus (TEV) HC-Pro. In addition we have shown that the LP F-box motif present at the N-terminus of P0(MA) is required for suppressor activity. Detailed mutational analyses on P0(MA) revealed that changing the conserved Trp 212 with non-ring structured amino acids altered silencing suppressor functions. Ala substitutions at positions 12 and 211 for Phe had no effect on P0 suppression-activity, whereas Arg and Glu substitutions had greatly decreased suppressor activity. Furthermore, substitutions targeting Phe at position 30 also resulted in reduced P0 suppression-activity. Altogether, these results suggest that ring structured Trp/Phe residues in P0 have important roles in suppressor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Importance of the KR-Rich Region of the Coat Protein of Ourmia melon virus for Host Specificity, Tissue Tropism, and Interference With Antiviral Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marika; Vallino, Marta; Abbà, Simona; Ciuffo, Marina; Balestrini, Raffaella; Genre, Andrea; Turina, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the Ourmia melon virus (OuMV) coat protein (CP) contains a short lysine/arginine-rich (KR) region. By alanine scanning mutagenesis, we showed that the KR region influences pathogenicity and virulence of OuMV without altering viral particle assembly. A mutant, called OuMV6710, with three basic residue substitutions in the KR region, was impaired in the ability to maintain the initial systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and to infect both cucumber and melon plants systemically. The integrity of this protein region was also crucial for encapsidation of viral genomic RNA; in fact, certain mutations within the KR region partially compromised the RNA encapsidation efficiency of the CP. In Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, OuMV6710 was impaired in particle accumulation; however, this phenotype was abolished in dcl2/dcl4 and dcl2/dcl3/dcl4 Arabidopsis mutants defective for antiviral silencing. Moreover, in contrast to CPwt, in situ immunolocalization experiments indicated that CP6710 accumulates efficiently in the spongy mesophyll tissue of infected N. benthamiana and A. thaliana leaves but only occasionally infects palisade tissues. These results provided strong evidence of a crucial role for OuMV CP during viral infection and highlighted the relevance of the KR region in determining tissue tropism, host range, pathogenicity, and RNA affinity, which may be all correlated with a possible CP silencing-suppression activity.

  13. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  14. Analysis of the interacting partners eIF4F and 3'-CITE required for Melon necrotic spot virus cap-independent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, Manuel; Truniger, Verónica; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Aranda, Miguel A

    2017-06-01

    We have shown previously that the translation of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) RNAs is controlled by a 3'-cap-independent translation enhancer (CITE), which is genetically and functionally dependent on the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Here, we describe structural and functional analyses of the MNSV-Mα5 3'-CITE and its translation initiation factor partner. We first mapped the minimal 3'-CITE (Ma5TE) to a 45-nucleotide sequence, which consists of a stem-loop structure with two internal loops, similar to other I-shaped 3'-CITEs. UV crosslinking, followed by gel retardation assays, indicated that Ma5TE interacts in vitro with the complex formed by eIF4E + eIF4G 980-1159 (eIF4F p20 ), but not with each subunit alone or with eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 , suggesting binding either through interaction with eIF4E following a conformational change induced by its binding to eIF4G 980-1159 , or through a double interaction with eIF4E and eIF4G 980-1159 . Critical residues for this interaction reside in an internal bulge of Ma5TE, so that their mutation abolished binding to eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 and cap-independent translation. We also developed an in vivo system to test the effect of mutations in eIF4E in Ma5TE-driven cap-independent translation, showing that conserved amino acids in a positively charged RNA-binding motif around amino acid position 228, implicated in eIF4E-eIF4G binding or belonging to the cap-recognition pocket, are essential for cap-independent translation controlled by Ma5TE, and thus for the multiplication of MNSV. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    seeds are not only edible but also used to produce fuel (An Ku, 2007). ... Nigeria, ''Egusi'' is cultivated over an area of 320,800 ha with a production figure of ... production of somatic embryos from melon cell suspension cultures (Oridate and ... (V/V) alcohol for 30 seconds, then 4% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 8 minutes.

  16. Disease Incidence of Melon Leaf Curl in East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Julijantono

    2010-12-01

    Infeksi penyebab penyakit yang disebabkan oleh geminivirus telah menyebabkan kerugian secara ekonomi berbagai jenis tanaman penting yang dibudidayakan. Kejadian penyakit pada tanaman melon telah diamati sejak tahun 2004, dan tersebar secara luas di pusat penanaman melon di Jawa Timur maupun Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Di Jawa Timur dan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY, pada tahun 2008 kejadian penyakit daun keriting melon mencapai 100% dan 14,3%. Penyebab penyakit telah dideteksi menggunakan teknik polymerase chain reaction. Amplifikasi Fragmen DNA virus dari tanaman yang terinfeksi dihasilkan dengan ukuran 770 bp menggunakan sepasang primer CPA5 dan CPA2.

  17. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  18. Screening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKBIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Çukurova University Department of Horticulture more than 350 melon accessions were collected from different ecological parts of Turkey which is located on the secondary genetic diversification center of this crop, and their characterization studies are near completion. Furthermore, evaluation studies of these materials have started. In the present study 67 melon accessions, sampled from this germplasm, were tested for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. After resistance tests made by mechanical inoculation, four accessions (‘CU 100’, ‘CU 287’, ‘CU 305’ and ‘CU 328’ were found resistant to ZYMV and three accessions (‘CU 305’, ‘C 264’, and ‘C 276’ to WMV. No resistant genotype was found to CMV.

  19. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  20. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  1. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  2. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... In vivo, 600 ppm of calcium silicate, calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide inhibited ... En 2013, la production du melon au Maroc a été .... Ca(OH)2, l'oxyde de calcium CaO, le sulfate de calcium ...... rot disease complex.

  3. Physicochemical Pro~rti~ of Curd Prepared from Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key~~;ds~ Mel6n curd, coagulati'an, protein, calcium, sulphate, acceptabilit:" . ' .' ~ I[. ,.} ..... from where they were prepared, Fat contents,~ar ied among ... Table 1: Chemical compositio'o ~f' Melon Seed Milk (IWSM) Raw Melon Curd RMC' .' -'.

  4. Postharvest firmness behaviour of near-isogenic lines of melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Dos-Santos, N.; Jowkar, M.M.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.; Monforte, A.J.; Fernández-Trujillo, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In two consecutive seasons the firmness of 13¿15 near-isogenic lines (NILs) of melons (Cucumis melo L.) was followed during storage at 21 °C. Firmness was measured using non-destructive compression of whole melon fruit to a predefined compression distance of 2 mm. The same individuals (about 6 per

  5. Efficacy of primextra gold in controlling weeds of melon ( Citrillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in the Center of Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State to evaluate the efficacy of Primextra Gold (290g /l S – Metalochlor and 370g/l Atrazine) herbicide in controlling weeds in melon and to determine its safety for use in melon. The experiment was carried out between ...

  6. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Gabardi, Steven; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2003-02-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and place in therapy of bitter melon are described. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Components of bitter melon extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Antiviral and antineoplastic activities have also been reported in vitro. Four clinical trials found bitter melon juice, fruit, and dried powder to have a moderate hypoglycemic effect. These studies were small and were not randomized or double-blind, however. Reported adverse effects of bitter melon include hypoglycemic coma and convulsions in children, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like syndrome, increases in gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in animals, and headaches. Bitter melon may have additive effects when taken with other glucose-lowering agents. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to properly assess safety and efficacy before bitter melon can be routinely recommended. Bitter melon may have hypoglycemic effects, but data are not sufficient to recommend its use in the absence of careful supervision and monitoring.

  7. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  8. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  9. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  10. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  11. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  12. Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing P; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Bitter melon, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), aqueous extracts are proposed to have health-promoting properties due to their content of saponins and their antioxidant activity. However, the optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon and the effects of spray drying have not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the aqueous extraction of the saponins from bitter melon, using response surface methodology, prepare a powder using spray drying, and compare the powder's physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity with aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and a commercial powder. The optimal aqueous extraction conditions were determined to be 40 °C for 15 min and the water-to-sample ratio was chosen to be 20:1 mL/g. For many of its physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity, the aqueous spray-dried powder was comparable to the aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and the commercial powder. The optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon followed by spray drying gave a high quality powder in terms of saponins and antioxidant activity. This study highlights that bitter melon is a rich source of saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activities, which may provide health benefits. The findings of the current study will help with the development of extraction and drying technologies for the preparation of a saponin-enriched powdered extract from bitter melon. The powdered extract may have potential as a nutraceutical supplement or as a value-added ingredient for incorporation into functional foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  14. Quality improvement of oriental melon and watermelon using bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.K.; Lee, K.J.; Ryou, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    Oriental melon and watermelon plants were cultivated in the soil treated with bioceramics in a greenhouse during summer season from June 1st to August 20th, 1995. Two application methods were employed, one was a mixed treatment of soil and bioceramics, and the other was a spray treatment of bioceramic solution on the stems and leaves. And two types of bioceramics were also stopped by five levels. In order to analyze the bioceramic effect on oriental melon and watermelon, the growth rate of stems, leaves and fruits were measured in the greenhouse. After harvest, the sweetness of fruits was measured and the freshness of fruits based on the storage period was tested by human taste and smell sense. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The growth rates of stems, leaves and fruits of oriental melon and watermelon were the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3. 2. The density of oriental melon and watermelon was the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3 and No. 2 respectively. 3. The Brix number of watermelon was 10.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 11.5 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2, and that of oriental melon was 8.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 12.3 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2. 4. The storage duration of watermelon treated with bioceramics was about 50 days in the condition of the ambient temperature of 25∼30°C. (author)

  15. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  16. Pembuatan Fruit Leather dari Campuran Buah Sirsak (Annoma Muricata L.)dan Buah Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Risti, Andika Pranata; Herawati, Netti

    2017-01-01

    Theaim of this study wasto get the best treatment fruit leather from mixed soursop (Annoma muricata L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.). The study used a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 3 replications.The treatments were SM1 (soursop 100 : melon 0), SM2 (soursop80 : melon 20), SM3 (soursop60 : melon40), SM4 (soursop40 : melon60) SM5 (soursop20 : melon80) and SM6 (soursop 0 : melon 100). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and DNMRT at 5%. Thestudyshowed that ...

  17. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  18. First attempts of linking modelling, Postharvest behaviour and Melon Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Santos, Don N.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of climacteric is associated with the end of melon fruit shelf-life. The aim of this research was to develop practical and applicable models of fruit ripening changes (hardness, moisture loss) also able to discriminate between climacteric and non-climacteric behaviour. The decrease in

  19. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  20. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  1. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cervical cancer will take several decades to be apparent. There are more effective ways of screening, such as HPV DNA testing,[2] ... ARTICLE. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! C Gordon, MB ChB, Diploma in HIV ...

  2. an evalution of some mechanical methods for shelling melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    When the pressure was increased, more seeds were broken and there was a lot of heat generated between the drum and the belt due to friction. In general the results of the tests on the two devices indicate that the application of pressure coupled .... The static bending properties of melon seeds show that both the shells and.

  3. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR MELON BASED ON NUTRITIONAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aridiano Lima de Deus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of the most demanding cucurbits regarding fertilization, requiring knowledge of soils, crop nutritional requirements, time of application, and nutrient use efficiency for proper fertilization. Developing support systems for decision-making for fertilization that considers these variables in nutrient requirement and supply is necessary. The objective of this study was parameterization of a fertilizer recommendation system for melon (Ferticalc-melon based on nutritional balance. To estimate fertilizer recommendation, the system considers the requirement subsystem (REQ, which includes the demand for nutrients by the plant, and the supply subsystem (SUP, which corresponds to the supply of nutrients through the soil and irrigation water. After determining the REQtotal and SUPtotal, the system calculates the nutrient balances for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, recommending fertilizer application if the balance is negative (SUP < REQ, but not if the balance is positive or zero (SUP ≥ REQ. Simulations were made for different melon types (Yellow, Cantaloupe, Galia and Piel-de-sapo, with expected yield of 45 t ha-1. The system estimated that Galia type was the least demanding in P, while Piel-de-sapo was the most demanding. Cantaloupe was the least demanding for N and Ca, while the Yellow type required less K, Mg, and S. As compared to other fertilizer recommendation methods adopted in Brazil, the Ferticalc system was more dynamic and flexible. Although the system has shown satisfactory results, it needs to be evaluated under field conditions to improve its recommendations.

  4. Cucurbits powdery mildew race identity and reaction of melon genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resistance is one of the most suitable strategies to control cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) on melon, incited by Podosphaera xanthii or Golovinomyces orontii. However, many races of these pathogens have been reported worldwide in recent years, what may compromise the effectiveness of this met...

  5. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in ... fertilizers replicated three timesfor two years as experiments 2009 and 2010, .... design. In 2011, the fertilizer rates were increased to six to further determine the ...

  6. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were carried out using urea activated melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husks as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium from industrial effluents. Bioabsorption parameters considered were as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be ...

  7. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  8. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  9. DNA Fingerprinting of Chinese Melon Provides Evidentiary Support of Seed Quality Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications. PMID:23285039

  10. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines. Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR codes of 471 melon varieties (lines were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  11. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  12. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    . This improvement is particularly important because midseason Kc refers to the peak Kc values and relies on the period of growing season that is usually the most important for irrigation and the most sensitive to water stress, thus when an accurate scheduling should be applied. Overall results indicate...... depend mainly on water management practices during the end of the season. A review of Kc for melon grown under mulch and the results of investigations on Policoro data confirmed relevant difference in the length of the growing period in respect to the data presented in FAO 56. Therefore, careful....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...

  13. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  14. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  15. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  16. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  17. Controlling fusarium wilt disease in melon(cucumis melo L.) using tilllered onion bulb extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushu, Z.; Guo, Q.; Xuezheng, W.; Yanan, Z.; Yuting, Li.

    2017-01-01

    Melon wilt disease is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. This disease incur of the heavy economic loss in melon crops. To decrease damage to melons, many control methods have been developed. However, many of the current control methods have limitations and disadvantages. For example, fungicides may cause health concerns for both humans and the environment due to high toxin content and the presence of residues. Therefore, biological control methods that reduce or eliminate the risk of environmental contamination and threats to human health are urgently needed to solve these issues and to protect melon crops from wilt disease.In this research, we assessed the efficacy of tillered onion bulb extract (TOE) for biocontrol of melon wilt disease in melon. Different concentrations of the TOE have been shown to have inhibitory effects on Fusariumspore germination and growth, pathogenic bacterial biomass, and fungal sporulation, with increased inhibitory effects at higher TOE concentrations. In melon wilt disease, concentrations of TOE greater than 250 mg/mL produced the highest protective effects in both susceptible and resistant melon cultivars. The disease index in resistant varieties was 18%, and the disease control effect was 63.51%, while the disease index in susceptible varieties was 21.41%, and the disease control effect reached 65.96%. These values indicate stronger control effects than those achieved using 40% Ning WP melon blight. High concentrations (over 500 mg/mL) of TOE had strong inhibitory effects on melon seed germination and the activity of protective enzymes in melon cultivars. (author)

  18. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non...

  19. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernillon, S.; Biais, B.; Deborde, C.; Maucort, M.; Cabasson, C.; Gibon, Y.; Hansen, T.; Husted, S.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Mumm, R.; Jonker, H.; Ward, J.L.; Miller, S.J.; Baker, J.M.; Burger, J.; Tadmor, Y.; Beale, M.H.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non-volatile

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  1. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  3. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda, E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fran_sininho@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co{sup 60} at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co 60 at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  6. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Itoyama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger–Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes–Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  7. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger-Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes-Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  8. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of melon in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosete A. G. Kohn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon farming is characterized as an important family agriculture activity and the organic production of fruits and vegetables has shown a large growth in terms of areas in Brazil and around the world. This work aimed to study the postharvest quality of melon cultivated in an organic system. The organic treatments constituted of base fertilizer with cattle manure vermicompost (recommended dose, ½ dose and double dose plus the use of biofertilizer (sprayed or sprayed + irrigated, and an additional treatment with chemical fertilization. The postharvest quality was evaluated through physico-chemical and phytochemical attributes. The organic management with half the recommended dose of vermicompost plus the sprayed biofertilizer and the chemical fertilization management produced fruits with higher levels of sugar, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and folates, obtaining more balanced fruits, with a better phytochemical quality. The antioxidant capacity was defined mainly by the presence of the phenolic compounds, which were influenced by the type and the dose of the evaluated fertilizers, with superiority in the organic treatments with double the dose of cattle manure vermicompost.

  10. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  11. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  12. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  13. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  14. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  15. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  16. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  17. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  18. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize ( Zea mays ) and egusi-melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  19. Instrumental and sensory analyses of quality attributes of grafted specialty melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjing; Zhao, Xin; Huber, Donald J; Sims, Charles A

    2015-11-01

    Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Galia melon 'Arava' (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon 'Honey Yellow' (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root-knot nematode-resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of 'Arava' fruit. By contrast with grafted 'Arava', grafted 'Honey Yellow' did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and rootstock selection. The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scion used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on melon fruit quality need to be considered in the selection and use of disease-resistant rootstocks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  1. The utilization of alkali-treated melon husk by broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, S S; Amalime, A C; Akadiri, K C

    2002-09-01

    The effects of alkali treatment on chemical constituents of melon husk (MH) and performance characteristics of broilers fed alkali-treated MH (ATMH) diets were investigated. The chemical analysis showed that alkali treatment increased the ash content of MH (from 15.70% to 16.86%) and reduced the crude fibre content (from 29.00% to 14.00%). Result of feed intake was superior on 30% alkali diet with a value of 100.14 g/bird/day. Body weight gain decreased with increase in the level of ATMH in the diet. Highest dressing percentage of 66.33% and best meat/bone ratio of 2.57 were obtained on 10% and 20% alkali diets, respectively. Dietary treatments had significant effect (P poultry carcases and chicken meat with favourable shelf life.

  2. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  3. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  4. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  5. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  6. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  7. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  9. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  10. Study on the sterilization of canned water melon by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the effects of gamma-irradiations on the storage life of canned water melon, the contents of canning water melon were controlled pH to 4.0 and 5.0 by adding some kinds of organic acids such as citric acid, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The pH controlled water melons were canned, followed by being exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 Mrads of gamma-ray, respectively. The results were as follows: In non-acid canned water melon, the higher doses of radiation induced the more efficiency on the extension of storage life of it even if the efficiency was mot so great. By irradiations of 1.0 Mrads, it could be kept for 15 days without any deterioration. By means of the addition of organic acids, the radiation effect on the extension of the storage life of the above food increased remarkably. In particular, the water melon cans with ascorbic acid (pH 4.0) could be kept for 60 days without any deterioration by gamma-irradiation of 0.5 and 1.0 Mrads. (Author)

  11. Microstructural and thermal study of Al-Si-Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite

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    M. Abdulwahab

    Full Text Available The microstructural study via scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermal study via differential scanning calorimetric (DSC study of Al-7%Si-0.3Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite has been carried out. The melon shell ash was used in the production of MMC ranging from 5% to 20% at interval of 5% addition using stir casting method. The melon shell ash was characterized using X-ray fluorescent (XRF that reveal the presence of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and TiO2 as major compounds. The composite was machined and subjected to heat treatment. Microstructural analyses of the composite produced were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure obtained reveals a dark ceramic (reinforcer and white metallic phase. Equally, the 5 wt% DSC result gives better thermal conductivity than other proportions (10 wt%, 15 wt%, and 20 wt%. These results showed that an improved property of Al-Si-Mg alloy was achieved using melon shell ash particles as reinforcement up to a maximum of 20 wt% for microstructural and 5% wt DSC respectively. Keywords: Microstructural analysis, Melon shell ash, Stir casting, X-ray fluorescent, Reinforcement, Composite

  12. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  13. Efisiensi Tular Benih Squash mosaic virus pada Cucurbitaceae

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    Susanti Mugi Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection of viruses on Cucurbitaceae may cause high yield and economic losses. Squash mosaic virus is a seed borne virus and among the most important virus infecting Cucurbitaceae. The aims of these research was to detect infection of several viruses on Cucurbitaceae and to examine seed transmission efficiency of SqMV. Detection of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV from field samples and seeds was conducted using Indirect-ELISA method. Infection of CMV, SqMV and ZYMV was detected from field samples. Seed transmission of SqMV on commercial seeds of bottle gourd, watermelon, zucchini, cabocha, cucumber, and melon was 13, 13, 33, 73, 100, and 100%, respectively. Seed transmission of ZYMV was only occurred on bottle gourd and zucchini, i.e. 13.3% and 26.67%, respectively. Infection of SqMV through F2 seed was determined from cucumber, bottle gourd, and melon, i.e. 93, 100, and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the status of SqMV as quarantine pest should be evaluated since SqMV was already found in West Java.

  14. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sterilization of the melon fly, dacus cucurbitae coquillett, with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Tadashi; Zukeyama, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between radiation dose and mating competitiveness of gamma irradiated melon fly males were studied with two methods; those being FRIED's method and the method of the direct counting of normal and irradiated flies in copula under the coexistence of normal females, normal males and irradiated males. In the former method, the mating competitiveness of irradiated males did not reduced significantly with doses from 1 to 10 kR, but at 30 kR, reduced significantly. In the latter method, the mating competitiveness values of males irradiated with 7 and 12 kR were less than unity, but not significant. At 30 kR, the mating competitiveness reduced significantly. It can be said that the harmful effect of irradiation on the mating competitiveness of the melon flies was negligible with a dose of 7 kR, which was used in the eradication project of melon fly from Kume Island. (author)

  16. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  17. Identification of Local Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek Based on Chromosomal Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartek is one of local melon varieties mainly cultivated in Pemalang, Central Java. Bartek has three variations of fruits; Long-Green, Ellips-Green, and Yellow. Chromosome characterization of the Bartek was investigated to determine the genetic variation. The main purpose of this research was to determine the genetic characters of Bartek including chromosome number, mitosis, cell cycle, and karyotype. Squash method was used for chromosome preparation. The results showed that all of Bartek observed in this study have similar diploid (2n chromosome number = 24. According to the total number of chromosome, Bartek is closer to melon than cucumber. The mitotic analysis exhibited that the Bartek has similar karyotype formula, 2n = 2x = 24m. Based on the R value of the three kinds of Bartek (R < 0.27, it indicated that three kinds of Bartek were considered to be originated from similar species and one of melon varieties (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek.

  18. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, H.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  19. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  20. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  1. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  2. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon (ClLEA) and 61 LEA genes from melon (CmLEA) were identified in this co...

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  4. Cantaloupe melon ( Cucumis melo L. conservation using hydrocooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Mendes Aroucha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maintaining cantaloupe melon at field temperature impairs conservation as it speeds up cell metabolism and transpiration, and, consequently, reduces shelf life. This study aimed to evaluate the conservation of Torreon hybrid cantaloupe using the hydrocooling treatment. Fruits were harvested at the commercial maturity stage (60 days after planting, in the morning, at the Nova California Farm, municipality of Mossoró-RN, in September 2007. One set of fruit was immersed in chilled water at 5 ºC for 5 min, at the packing house, while the remaining set was not hydro cooled. Then, both sets (treated and untreated with hydrocooling were pre-cooled in air forced tunnels at 7 ºC, until the temperature in the pulp reached 10 ºC. Both fruit sets were stored for 0, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days under modified atmosphere at 3 ± 1 oC and 90 ± 5% RH. After each storage period, the fruits were incubated in an atmosphere-controlled chamber at 20 ± 2 oC and 80 ± 5% de RH, for seven days. The following characteristics were evaluated: external and internal appearance, mass loss, soluble solids, firmness and titrable acidity. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized split-plot design with four replications of three fruits. The plots consisted of the hydrocooling conditions (with and without fruit soaking in chilled water, and the sub-plots consisted of the storage times (0, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days.The treatment with hydrocooling was efficient in keeping the firmness and soluble solids of the fruits and shortened the pre-cooling time in the cooling tunnel. However, hydrocooling did not increase fruit shelf-life.

  5. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  6. Genetic Characterization of Turkish Snake Melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo flexuosus Group) Accessions Revealed by SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Ilknur; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Simsek, Ozhan; Sari, Nebahat

    2016-08-01

    Snake melon is an important cucurbit crop especially in the Southeastern and the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is consumed as fresh or pickled. The production is mainly done with the local landraces in the country. Turkey is one of the secondary diversification centers of melon and possesses valuable genetic resources which have different morphological characteristics in case of snake melon. Genetic diversity of snake melon genotypes collected from different regions of Turkey and reference genotypes obtained from World Melon Gene Bank in Avignon-France was examined using 13 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 69 alleles were detected, with an average of 5.31 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content of SSR markers ranged from 0.19 to 0.57 (average 0.38). Based on cluster analysis, two major groups were defined. The first major group included only one accession (61), while the rest of all accessions grouped in the second major group and separated into different sub-clusters. Based on SSR markers, cluster analysis indicated that considerably high genetic variability exists among the examined accessions; however, Turkish snake melon accessions were grouped together with the reference snake melon accessions.

  7. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  8. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  9. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  10. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  11. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  12. THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern homeland assortment of vegetable crops is given. The donors of the most important traits and the accessions  of vegetable and melon crops perspective for breeding from the VIR collection are shown. The short characteristic of the varieties is given.

  13. A Specific Melon Concentrate Exhibits Photoprotective Effects from Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Egoumenides

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest body organ and the first barrier to exogenous threats. This organ is constantly exposed to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation, which induces many adverse effects including sunburn, depigmentation, photo aging, photo immune suppression, and even skin cancer. Antioxidants seem to be good candidates in order to reduce ultraviolet-mediated damages and to prevent the health consequences of ultraviolet exposure. The present investigation aims to further characterize the potential skin photoprotective effects of a food supplementation and a topical administration of a melon concentrate alone or in combination. A clinical study assessing the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED was first set up to evaluate photoprotection. Afterward, an independent in vitro study was performed on human skin explants from a donor to evaluate the effect of the melon concentrate at different levels including on the sunburn cells formation and on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and its influence on melanin. Clinical study results demonstrate that melon concentrate application and/or supplementation increased MED. It also increased the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced sunburn cells and melanin level on irradiated skin explants. Therefore, it is suggested that melon concentrate administration (oral and/or topical could be a useful strategy for photoprotection due to its antioxidant properties.

  14. Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide phenotypic diversity, in melon fruits, is the result of consumer preferences combined with genotype fitness to the different agro-climatic zones. There is no sufficient information with respect to the extent of genetic divergence, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in mel...

  15. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  16. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  17. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon ( ClLEA ) and 61 LEA genes from melon ( CmLEA ) were identified in this comprehensive study. They were classified into four and three distinct clusters in watermelon and melon, respectively. There was a correlation between gene structure and motif composition among each LEA groups. Segmental duplication played an important role for LEA gene expansion in watermelon. Maximum gene ontology of LEA genes was observed with poplar LEA genes. For evaluation of tissue specific expression patterns of ClLEA and CmLEA genes, publicly available RNA-seq data were analyzed. The expression analysis of selected LEA genes in root and leaf tissues of drought-stressed watermelon and melon were examined using qRT-PCR. Among them, ClLEA - 12 - 17 - 46 genes were quickly induced after drought application. Therefore, they might be considered as early response genes for water limitation conditions in watermelon. In addition, CmLEA - 42 - 43 genes were found to be up-regulated in both tissues of melon under drought stress. Our results can open up new frontiers about understanding of functions of these important family members under normal developmental stages and stress conditions by bioinformatics and transcriptomic approaches.

  18. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    OpenAIRE

    javad baghani; A. Alizadeh; H. Ansari; M. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any researc...

  19. orphological Evaluation and Classification of Melon Genotypes in Khorasan Provinces (Razavi, North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aireza sobhany

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melon is a tropical species that originates from Iran or Africa and Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia, Saudi Arabia, India and China are the most important centers of genetic diversity of cultivated varieties (1. The original area for cantaloupe and melon is Iran. Dry and warm climate is the best condition for Melon. This plant needs heat and light for good grows. Cloudy and rainy weather at the time of fruit ripening may affect melon taste and quality(2. According to the FAO statistics in 2012, the total area devoted to melon was 1,339,006 hectares with an average yield of 23.8 tons per hectare and 31,925,787 tons production. The highest production belonged to China (55% of world production. Iran produces about 5.4 percent of world production which is about 1450000 tons from 80,000 hectares (2. Recently, a great number of studies have studied the correlation between melon yield and its components. The first branch (5, the number of primary branches, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant (6, length and width of fruit and fruit shape index were the most important melons traits which have been evaluated by other studies (4. Fruit yield has significant positive correlation with the length of the stem, primary branches, the date of the first appearance of female flowers and fruit weight. Studies revealed that there is a negative correlation between the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2008 with 17 landrace seeds collected from different locations of Khorasan provinces included Kashmar, sarakhs, Boshruye, Sabzevar, Dargaz and Bajestan. Experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications at agricultural Research Station of Khorasan Razavi. Results and Discussion: The cultivars did not show any different in the time of emergence as all of them emerged 4 to 7 days after the first irrigation. The comparison

  20. Investigation about selecting strong type of melons by using melon paleness factor fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Kunter, B.; Erzurum, K.; Maden, S.; Yanmaz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a very serious disease factor for farmers in Turkey. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of different FOM races. According to our results we determined effective irradiation doses and filtrate treatment dose by Linear Regression Analysis. According to our results 21.75 Gy is effective dose for in vitro Yuva cv. explants to induce mutation and for filtrate treatment 6.73% is the proper dose to select survive calluses and plantlets. We recommended using 10 and 20 Gy gamma ray doses for in vitro melon plantlets to induce mutation by our results. We succeed to regenerate 6% plantlets which were obtained and selected from irradiated plantlets and regenerated in in vitro medias which were include 6.73 % filtrate. Although 16.7% of resistant or tolerant plantlets can continue their viability in greenhouse conditions after disease inoculation treatment, we observed 4 plants had a surviving capability in a limited time. That is very important for breeding cycle and this research can lead to the development of new melon cultivars that will be resistant to Fusarium wilt.

  1. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis M. de C. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar, cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD, in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments were only about the soil covering with plastic mulch: with (CC or without (SC plastic mulch. The economically optimal irrigation depths were 208.83 and 186.88 mm, resulting in yields of 50.85 and 44.51 t ha-1 for the experiments with and without mulching, respectively. The results showing the economically optimal irrigation depths were very close to those that produced the highest yield.

  2. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Prickly Paddy Melon (Cucumis myriocarpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brodie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing list of herbicide-resistant biotypes and environmental concerns about chemical use has prompted interest in alternative methods of managing weeds. This study explored the effect of microwave energy on paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus plants, fruits, and seeds. Microwave treatment killed paddy melon plants and seeds. Stem rupture due to internal steam explosions often occurred after the first few seconds of microwave treatment when a small aperture antenna was used to apply the microwave energy. The half lethal microwave energy dose for plants was 145 J/cm2; however, a dose of at least 422 J/cm2 was needed to kill seeds. This study demonstrated that a strategic burst of intense microwave energy, focused onto the stem of the plant is as effective as applying microwave energy to the whole plant, but uses much less energy.

  3. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  4. Improving the quality of fresh-cut apples, pears, and melons using natural additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes, L; Quiles, A; Pérez-Munuera, I; Hernando, I

    2009-03-01

    Improving the quality of different fresh-cut fruits by adding natural substances was studied. "Fuji" apples, "Flor de Invierno" pears, and "Piel de Sapo" melons were treated with calcium lactate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and malic acid and stored for 4 wk at 4 degrees C. Instrumental texture (penetration), microstructure (light microscopy), acidity, soluble solids, color, pectinmethylesterase activity, and microflora were studied. The results showed that the combined treatment reinforced the cell walls strengthening the structure and texture of these fruits and maintained the L* and a* values throughout 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C. The combination of additives provided low microbial counts in apples until the 4th week and in melons until the 2nd week. So, this combined treatment could be used to extend the shelf life of some fresh-cut fruits while preserving their quality.

  5. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  6. The fate of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus during preparation of fresh produce by cutting and grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Erickson, Marilyn; Ortega, Ynes R; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    Human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are commonly associated with outbreaks occurring in restaurant establishments and catered events. Food handlers are major contributing factors to foodborne illnesses initiated in the kitchen setting. In this study, transfer of HAV and murine norovirus (MNV-1), a human norovirus surrogate, between produce (cucumbers, strawberries, tomatoes, cantaloupes, carrots, and honeydew melons) and common kitchen utensils (graters and knives) was investigated. The extent of virus transfer to produce during utensil application, in the presence and the absence of food residue, and the impact of knife surface properties (sharp, dull, serrated) was also investigated. Transfer of MNV-1 and HAV from produce items, initially contaminated with ~5.5 log PFU, to knives and graters during application ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 log PFU. MNV-1 transfer to knives was the greatest for cucumbers, strawberries, and tomatoes, and the least for honeydew melons, while transfer of HAV to knives was greater for tomatoes and honeydew melons than strawberries, cantaloupes, and cucumbers. After preparation of a contaminated produce item, knife cross-contamination easily occurred as viruses were detected on almost all of the seven produce items successively prepared. Produce residues on utensils often resulted in less virus transfer when compared to utensils without residue accumulation. Knife surface properties did not impact virus transfer. The ease of virus transfer between produce and utensils demonstrated by the current study highlights the importance of efforts aimed toward preventing cross-contamination in the kitchen environment.

  7. Influence of Potassium Installment (K on Melon Features Using System Tutoring in Sinop-Mt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Andrade Bonetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an extremely important nutrient for the production of melon. To produce with quality is a necessity in today's market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in productivity, length, diameter and oBrix content and acidity due to the fragmentation of fertilization. The research was developed in the city of Sinop-MT, in 2010. In the experience, randomized blocks (RBD with 2 treatments (DBC and 11 plots, totaling 22 repetitions, were used. Treatment (T1 consisted of the application of the total recommendation of potassium at planting (240 kg ha-¹. In treatment two (T2, 20% of the recommendation were applied at sowing, 20%, 30 days after sowing (DAS, 40%, 45 DAS and 20%, 60 DAS. Each plot consisted of 8 melon plants. 8 melons were harvested by repetition when they reached the point of physiological maturity. Productivity (kg-1, length and diameter (cm-1, sugar content and acidity were the parameters for evaluation. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the obtained means were compared by Tukey test with p <(0.05. The analysis of variance showed significant results for treatment. Regarding the means, T1 was lower when compared to T2 °Brix values of 8.775 and 10.15 respectively differing among themselves. The same was true for the acidity, (T1 8,6 and T2 11.1. As for productivity, length and diameter there was no statistical difference. The results showed that potassium fertilizer management is important for obtaining high-quality melons.

  8. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  9. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed Whales from the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    description and comparison of diet composition as well as provide insight into the foraging behavior and ecology of these whales in the North...activities. Assessing diet for many species of cetaceans is difficult, given that most foraging occurs far below the surface and that stomach...furthering our understanding of the foraging behavior of this species. Such an examination of food habits from Hawaiian melon-headed whales would be

  10. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  11. Estimatation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of melon cultivated in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S. Lozano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the water consumption and the crop coefficient of melon in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Technical Center of Irrigation of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá, PR. The melon hybrid used was Sunrise and the irrigations were performed daily by drip irrigation. Crop water requirement was quantified based on its evapotranspiration directly measured through constant water table lysimeters. Weather information was collected in an automatic weather station, installed inside the protected environment, which allowed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration by the Penman-Monteith method. The total water consumption of the melon crop was 295 mm, reaching maximum crop evapotranspiration of 5.16 mm d-1. The phenological stages were shorter in the initial, growth and intermediate phases, compared with the data from FAO. The determined crop coefficients were 0.87, 1.15 and 0.64 for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively

  12. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  13. Screening of melon genotypes for resistance to vegetable leafminer and your phenotypic correlations with colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico I C DE; Fiege, Leonardo B C; Celin, Elaine F; Innecco, Renato; Nunes, Glauber H S; Aragão, Fernando A S DE

    2017-01-01

    Melon is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. With short cycle in a system of phased planting, phytosanitary control is compromised, and a great volume of agricultural chemicals is used to control vegetable leafminer. Genetic control is an ideal alternative to avoid the damage caused by this insect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate Cucumis accessions in regard to resistance to leafminer and correlate the variables analyzed. Fifty-four accessions and four commercial hybrids of melon were tested. The study was divided into two experiments: with and with no choice. The following characteristics were evaluated: with choice, in field - subjective score based on the infestation and the number of mines per leaf; and with no choice, in cage - number of mines per leaf, chlorophyll content, and leaf colorimetry. The results showed variability among the accessions and some genotypes showed favorable results for resistance in both experiments. There was correlation between the two variables in the experiment in the field. The accessions CNPH 11-282, CNPH 06-1047, and CNPH 11-1077 are the most recommended for future breeding programs with aim on introgression of resistance to vegetable leafminer in melon.

  14. Endogenous microbial contamination of melons (Cucumis melo) from international trade: an underestimated risk for the consumer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cuesta, Irene; Drees, Nathalie; Ulrich, Sebastian; Stauch, Peter; Sperner, Brigitte; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred; Gottschalk, Christoph

    2018-03-31

    Fruits and vegetables have increasingly been related to foodborne outbreaks. Besides surface contamination, a possible internalization of microorganisms into edible parts of plants during growth has already been observed. To examine an actual risk for the consumer, microbial contamination of the rind and pulp of 147 muskmelons from international trade was assessed using cultural and biochemical methods, polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. One hundred percent of the rind samples [3.69-8.92 log colony forming units (CFU) g -1 ] and 89.8% of the pulp samples (maximum load 3.66 log CFU g -1 ) were microbiologically contaminated. Among the 432 pulp isolates, opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria were identified, mainly Staphylococcus spp. (48.9%), Clostridium spp. (42.9%) and Enterobacteriaceae (27.9%). Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and isolates of the Bacillus cereus group were found on the rind (1.4%, 0.7% and 42.9%, respectively) and in the pulp (0.7%, 1.4% and 4.7%). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from the rind of seven melons. The present study revealed a regularly occurring internal contamination of melons. Possible health risks for consumers because of an occurrence of microorganisms in melon pulp should be considered in future food safety assessments. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  17. Volatile emerging contaminants in melon fruits, analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of volatile emerging contaminants in fruit. The method showed good precision (RSD ≤ 14%) and satisfactory recoveries (99.1-101.7%) and LOD and LOQ values ranging between 0.011-0.033 μg kg -1 and 0.037-0.098 μg kg -1 , respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of volatile emerging contaminants in two varieties of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) cultivated adjoining high-risk areas. Glycol ethers, BHT, BHA and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were determined in melon fruit pulps for the first time, with different sensitivities depending on sample and variety. Although the amount of the volatile contaminants in the melon samples were in the order of µg kg -1 , the safety of vegetable crops cultivated near risk areas should be more widely considered. The results showed that this accurate and reproducible method can be useful for routine safety control of fruits and vegetables.

  18. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sensory and quality analysis of different melon cultivars after prolonged storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Edelgard; Ulrich, Detlef; Schulz, Hartwig; Tuvia-Alkali, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sensory and general quality of four different melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) immediately after harvest and at the end of storage and marketing simulation. After 16 days of storage at 5 degrees C and additional 3 days at 20 degrees C, only cultivar 'C-8' had a poor general appearance due to significant low firmness and relatively high decay incidence compared to the cultivars '5080', 'Ideal' and '7302'. The cultivar '7302' was found to have the higher overall quality. The human-sensory and organoleptic analyses revealed that the cultivars can be differentiated on the basis of retronasal odour. The texture of the melons seems to be dependent on the genotype. All the complex perceptions analysed in this work contribute to the acceptability, which is in the fresh fruits of '7302' the best and in 'Ideal' the worst. After storage and marketing simulation 'Ideal' and 'C-8' are no longer favoured, but '5080' and '7302', despite different characters, were found to be similarly accepted. It can be concluded that with the aid of the human-sensory method developed to characterize the melon varieties it is possible to distinguish the different genotypes.

  20. Biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C; Bernal, A; Pascual, J A

    2005-01-01

    The biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed. The composts consisted of pruning wastes, with or without addition of coffee wastes (3/1 and 4/1, dry wt/dry wt) or urea (1000/1, dry wt/dry wt). In vitro experiments suggested the biopesticide effect of the composts against Fusarium oxysporum, while only the compost of pine bark and urea (1000/1dry wt/dry wt) had an abiotic effect. Melon plant growth with composts and F. oxysporum was one to four times greater than in the non-amended soil, although there was no significant decrease in the level of the F. oxysporum in the soil. The addition of composts to the soil also improved its biological quality, as assessed by microbiological and biochemical parameters: ATP and hydrolases involved in the P (phosphatase), C (beta-glucosidase) and N (urease) cycles. Green composts had greater beneficial characteristics, improved plant growth and controlled fusarium wilt in melon plants. These composts improve the soil quality of semi-arid agricultural soils. Biotic and abiotic factors from composts have been tested as responsible of their biopesticide activity against fusarium wilt.

  1. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  2. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  3. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  4. Secondary and sucrose metabolism regulated by different light quality combinations involved in melon tolerance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Wang, Hui; Gong, Biao; Liu, Shiqi; Wei, Min; Ai, Xizhen; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of different light combinations on powdery mildew resistance and growth of melon seedlings. Light-emitting diodes were used as the light source and there were five light combinations: white light (420-680 nm); blue light (460 nm); red light (635 nm); RB31 (ratio of red and blue light, 3: 1); and RB71 (ratio of red and blue light, 7: 1). Compared with other treatments, blue light significantly decreased the incidence of powdery mildew in leaves of melon seedlings. Under blue light, H 2 O 2 showed higher accumulation, and the content of phenolics, flavonoid and tannins, as well as expression of the genes involved in synthesis of these substances, significantly increased compared with other treatments before and after infection. Lignin content and expression of the genes related to its synthesis were also induced by blue light before infection. Melon irradiated with RB31 light showed the best growth parameters. Compared with white light, red light and RB71, RB31 showed higher accumulation of lignin and lower incidence of powdery mildew. We conclude that blue light increases melon resistance to powdery mildew, which is dependent on the induction of secondary metabolism that may be related to H 2 O 2 accumulation before infection. Induction of tolerance of melon seeds to powdery mildew by RB31 is due to higher levels of sucrose metabolism and accumulation of lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, D.; Li, W.; Tang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  6. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  7. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  8. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  9. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  10. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  12. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  13. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  14. Biological effects and application of proton beam (H+) implantation on melon seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xun; Ren Ruixing; Meng Hui; Shi Jinguo; Tang Zhangxiong; Tao Xianping

    2006-01-01

    Various doses and energy of the proton beam (H + ) were used to treat dry seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Results show that, the proton beam irradiation can induced structural variations of chromosomes and abnormal behaviors during mitosis and meiosis. The percentage of cells with chromosomal aberration increased with the increment of energy and dose of the proton. The micronuclei, chromosomal bridge and chromosomal fragments were included in chromosomal aberration. The proton beam was effective in inducing mutants of early maturity. A early maturity line T 63-1-17-8-1-3 was selected from the progenies of the seeds treated with the proton beam. (authors)

  15. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.; Mills-Lujan, K.; Idris, Ali

    2011-01-01

    divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade

  17. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  18. Effect of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella M. de A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Main stem pruning and fruit thinning are cultivation practices that can influence the yield and quality of the fruit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of Charentais Banzai melons. In the field, the plants were subjected to main stem pruning and fruit thinning, with harvesting done 74 days after sowing (DAS. The fruits were transported to the laboratory where they were cleaned, characterized, and stored in a cold chamber (5 °C and 90 ± 2% RH. In the field, the experiment was designed as a split-plot using a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial design, with two levels of main stem pruning (pruned and unpruned, four levels of thinning times (42, 45, 48, and 51 DAS, and a control (unpruned and unthinned. The sub-plot consisted of storage times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, with four blocks. The preharvest treatments did not significantly influence the production characteristics of the Banzai hybrid. The treatment without pruning increased the titratable acidity of fruit, and the thinning at 51 days after sowing (DAS reduced soluble sugars. There was a decline in pulp firmness, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, and an increase in soluble solids, total soluble sugar, and non-reducing sugars during storage. Pruning the main melon stem reduced the weight loss of the fruit after 28 days of storage.

  19. Expression analysis of fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon by real-time quantitative pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, B.; Zhao, L.; Gao, P.; Luan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Melon Actin gene was used as a reference gene, to explore the gene expression profiles of the Fom-2 gene in roots, stems, and leaves of melon MR-1 under induction by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Monitoring using real-time quantitative PCR showed similar accumulation patterns of Fom-2 in roots, stems, and leaves over the observation period of 1 to 11 days; the expression level in stems was the highest. The expression of the Fom-2 gene was strengthened by the prolongation of induction time. In stems, the expression of Fom-2 was 5.737 times higher than in the control at three days; in roots, expression of Fom-2 was 5.617 times higher than in the control at five days. Similarly, the expression of Fom-2 in leaves obviously increased. It was 4.441 times higher than in the control at 5 days. The expression of Fom-2 was non-tissue specific, up-regulated under induction by Fusarium, and related to early resistance to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  20. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  1. Odor-Active Compounds in the Special Flavor Hops Huell Melon and Polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiens, Silva D; Steinhaus, Martin

    2018-02-14

    The volatiles isolated from samples of the special flavor hop varieties, Huell Melon and Polaris, and from the aroma hop variety, Hallertau Tradition, by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), which resulted in 46 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16 to 2048. On the basis of high FD factors, myrcene, (3R)-linalool, and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were confirmed as important variety-independent hop odorants. (1R,4S)-Calamenene was identified for the first time as an odor-active compound in hops. Clear differences in the FD factors and their subsequent objectification by stable isotope dilution quantitation suggested that high concentrations of the esters ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and propyl 2-methylbutanoate cause the characteristic fruity, cantaloupe-like odor note in Huell Melon hops, whereas the fruity and minty odor notes in Polaris are associated with high amounts of 3-methylbutyl acetate and 1,8-cineole.

  2. Pemacuan Pertumbuhan Melon (Cucumis melo L. dengan Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula dan Bakteri Azospirillum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Diana Tetelepta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMelon (Cucumis melo L. is a high economic value horticultural crop that is cultivated in some regions of Indonesia under fertilization management. Application of inorganic fertilizer continuously can reduce soil microbial abundance. One of the soil microbial that promote plant growth is arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Azospirillum sp. The aim of this study was to analysed the effect of AMF and Azospirillum sp. in promoting growth and production of melon. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Five treatments tested were: control, fertilized with NPK, inoculated with AMF, inoculated with Azospirillum sp., inoculated with AMF + Azospirillum sp. The results showed that the effect of AMF on root growth and shoot growth were similar to NPK fertilizer. Azospirillum sp. increased root growth. On the other side, the effect of Azospirillum sp. on shoot growth was similar to NPK fertilizer. However, AMF and Azospirillum sp. inoculation solely increased plant height, fruit weight, fruit diameter, flavor and length of fruit storage. Meanwhile, combination of AMF and Azospirillum sp. increased plant height, root growth, shoot growth, fruit weight, fruit diameter, flavor and length of fruit storage. This study revealed that application of AMF and Azospirillum sp. in melon cultivation was more effective and efficient than NPK fertilizer.Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Azospirillum sp., Cucumis melo L.

  3. Molecular characterization and expression studies during melon fruit development and ripening of L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irene; Sanmartin, Maite; Kalamaki, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    of a GalLDH full-length cDNA from melon (Cucumis melo L.) are described. Melon genomic DNA Southern analysis indicated that CmGalLDH was encoded by a single gene. CmGalLDH mRNA accumulation was detected in all tissues studied, but differentially expressed during fruit development and seed germination....... It is hypothesized that induction of CmGalLDH gene expression in ripening melon fruit contributes to parallel increases in the AA content and so playing a role in the oxidative ripening process. Higher CmGalLDH message abundance in light-grown seedlings compared with those raised in the dark suggests that Cm......GalLDH expression is regulated by light. Finally, various stresses and growth regulators resulted in no significant change in steady state levels of CmGalLDH mRNA in 20-d-old melon seedlings. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of GalLDH transcript induction in seed germination and differential gene...

  4. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzo, E.; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M.L.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly

  5. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J M; Ahnert, C; Gomez Santamaria, J; Rodriguez Olabarria, I

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Appearance and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces from whole melon treated with wet steam process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf-life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and changes in physiological processes. Whole melons were inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) and then t...

  7. Survival and growth populations of Salmonella transferred from melon rind surfaces to cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon pulps during preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers are eating more fresh vegetable and fruit due to nutritional and health-related benefits. Whole melons (cantaloupes, honeydew and watermelons) are of particular interest because of their nutrient contents. However, they are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Conditions neces...

  8. The effect of leaf presence on the rooting of stem cutting of bitter melon and on changes in polyamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimal hormone treatment for rooting in bitter melon and the effect of defoliation on rooting and polyamine levels. Commercial preparation (diluted 1:10 and 1: 20) gave extensive rooting within five days after treatment. The presence of leaf with the stem ...

  9. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  11. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  13. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L * , a * and b * were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p * parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a * and b * which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the content β-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs 137 source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in β-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific β-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and α -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 kGy ranging from 0.8 to 9

  15. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  16. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  17. Mass rearing of the melon fly in Okinawa, Japan - Special reference to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishii, Masaaki; Kakinohana, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), had been completely eradicated from Okinawa, Japan in 1993 (Yamagishi et al. 1993, Kakinohana 1994, Kuba et al. 1996). Following the expansion of target areas during the eradication campaign, the number of flies produced was increased from 5 million to 280 million per week. In the process of the eradication project, the mass reared strains had been replaced three times with new strains. The aim of this paper is to show the changes in various traits of the third strain that were regularly monitored in the factory. First, unintentional and intentional artificial selections to which the strain was exposed are mentioned. Second, the changes in the monitored traits are shown, and finally, the relation between selection and the response to selection is discussed

  18. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  19. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  20. Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, F A S; Torres Filho, J; Nunes, G H S; Queiróz, M A; Bordallo, P N; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, M A; Costa, Z P; Bezerra Neto, F

    2013-12-06

    The genetic divergence of 38 melon accessions from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast and three commercial hybrids were evaluated using fruit descriptors and microsatellite markers. The melon germplasm belongs to the botanic varieties cantalupensis (19), momordica (7), conomon (4), and inodorus (3), and to eight genotypes that were identified only at the species level. The fruit descriptors evaluated were: number of fruits per plant (NPF), fruit mass (FM; kg), fruit longitudinal diameter (LD; cm), fruit transversal diameter (TD; cm), shape index based on the LD/TD ratio, flesh pulp thickness, cavity thickness (CT; cm), firmness fruit pulp (N), and soluble solids (SS; °Brix). The results showed high variability for all descriptors, especially for NPF, LD, and FM. The grouping analysis based on fruit descriptors produced eight groups without taxonomic criteria. The LD (22.52%), NPF (19.70%), CT (16.13%), and SS (9.57%) characteristics were the descriptors that contributed the most to genotype dissimilarity. The 17 simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers amplified 41 alleles with an average of 2.41 alleles and three genotypes per locus. Some markers presented a high frequency for the main allele. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, the observed heterozygosity had very low values, and the mean polymorphism information content was 0.32. Molecular genetic similarity analyses clustered the accessions in 13 groups, also not following taxonomic ranks. There was no association between morphoagronomic and molecular groupings. In conclusion, there was great variability among the accessions and among and within botanic groups.

  1. Application of water footprint in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In recent times, there has been a major increase in the use of water and fertilizers in order to increase agricultural production, while at the same time there has increased evidence that aquifers are reducing their water level, enriched by nutrient and degraded as a result of pollution. So best management practices are needed for much of cropped, irrigated and fertirrigated land, to avoid contamination of fresh water and groundwater. The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). This study is focused in calculating the crops WF using a real case of study in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. This application help us to review the different concepts in which is based WF. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, winery waste, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

  2. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  3. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  4. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  5. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Lee, S.G.; Saul, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  6. Symptoms and Sensitivity to Chilling Injury of Cantaloupe Melons during Postharvest Síntomas y Sensibilidad a Daño por Enfriamiento de Melones Reticulados durante Poscosecha

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    Christian Krarup

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature and development of specific symptoms of chilling injury (CI and the variation in sensitivity to the disorder of different cultivars of cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin was assessed during two seasons. Twenty-three cultivars of the Eastern Shipper (2, Western Shipper (13 and Galia (8 types were grown in a semiarid environment in Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ W, Chile, using common cultural practices. Fruits were harvested at the half-slip stage, except Galia (3/5 color, graded ,washed, and stored for 18 days at 0 ºC, with an additional 3 days at 20 ºC. Symptoms of CI appeared with varying intensity in almost all cultivars and were generally similar. Symptoms developed progressively: surface discoloration progressed from light pink to brownish to black, followed by large sunken areas, and eventually, discrete indentations and net whitening. Surface decay was not present in most fruits and should be considered a consequence rather than a symptom of CI. Cultivars had different sensitivities to the disorder; some cultivars were severely injured (Athena, Colima and Revigal whereas others developed almost no symptoms of CI (Hy-Mark, Gal 96, and Voyager I. The response variability to chilling showed the need for precise temperature recommendations for these cultivars, and signaled a potential for future long-term transport or storage of some cultivars.La naturaleza y el desarrollo de los síntomas de daño por enfriamiento (CI y la variación en sensibilidad de diversos cultivares de melones reticulados (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin a este desorden fisiológico se evaluaron durante dos temporadas. Veintitrés cultivares de los tipos Eastern (1, Western (15 y Galia (8 se cultivaron en un ambiente semi-árido en Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ O, Chile, en cultivos realizados de manera convencional, y los frutos se cosecharon al estado de madurez de medio desprendimiento

  7. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

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    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  8. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  9. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  10. BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN MELONS FROM FAMILY FARMING IN THE STATE OF MARANHÃO

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    SIMONE DE SOUZA MACÊDO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform botanical identification and to estimate genetic diversity in two sequential inbred generations (progenies S1 and S2 of melon accessions from traditional agriculture in the state of Maranhão, in order to generate useful information for commercial melon breeding. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block, using four replicates of 15 accessions from a first selfing cycle in 2013, and three replicates of 25 subaccessions (generation S2 in 2014. Flower and fruit descriptors were measured to obtain quantitative and qualitative data, in addition to a systematized photographic documentation of fruit for visually comparing the progenies S1 and S2. Distance matrices for quantitative and qualitative data were obtained and used to perform a joint analysis and UPGMA method. Large genetic diversity was found in the accessions analysed, since the presence of melon progenies was observed in the Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis, with its botanical varieties momordica and conomom, and of the Cucumis melo ssp. melo, with the botanical varieties cantalupensis and chandalak. Divergence analysis showed the formation of three groups in generation S1 and four groups in S2. However, the groups were not separated either by subspecies or by botanical variety. Thus, in addition to the large genetic diversity among and within melon accessions from family farming in the state of Maranhão, the progenies presented a large introgression of traits of the different subspecies and their botanical varieties due to the reproductive system and seed management of these species.

  11. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on CAPS Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. M.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Luan, F.; Baloch, A. W.; Baloch, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F/sub 2/ populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F/sub 2/ population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits. (author)

  12. Assessment of agro-ecological service crop managements combined with organic fertilisation strategies in organic melon crop

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    Mariangela Diacono

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In organic horticultural systems, cover crops could provide several ecological services, therefore, they can be defined agroecological service crops (ASCs. The objective of this two-year research was to study the suitability on melon production of different ASC termination strategies, in combination with organic fertilisers application. In a split-block design, the main-plot was the ASC management, comparing: i green manure, in which the vetch was chopped and plowed into the soil; and ii roller-crimper (RC, in which the vetch was flattened by a roller-crimper; with iii fallow control, without vetch. The subplot consisted of offfarm organic inputs: i commercial humified fertiliser; ii anaerobic digestate fertiliser; iii composted municipal solid wastes; which were compared to iv unfertilised control (N0. At vetch termination, above soil biomass and nitrogen (N content were determined. At harvesting, crop yield performance and quality, N status and N efficiency were investigated. Also, main soil characteristics were assessed at the end of the trial. Among the ASC managements, the slightly reduced yield in the RC plots particularly in combination with N0 might have been the result of less N supplied by the vetch during the melon cycle. Anyway, no negative effects were observed for yield quality. The use of the RC showed a great potential in enhancing soil fertility. Our study suggests the suitability in organic farming of properly matching management of ASC and fertilisation strategies on melon crop.

  13. Performance Evaluation Of Africa Elemi Melon And Africa Locust Bean Oil As Potential Quenchants For Medium Carbon Steel

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    C. S. Ibeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and comparative study was carried out on some locally sourced oils melon oil Africa elemi oil and Africa locust bean oil to evaluate suitability as substitute quenching media to mineral-based oil. The cooling ability of the oils was investigated using AISI 1034 medium carbon steel. The effect of heat transfer coefficient on quench severity mechanical properties of the quenched specimens were investigated in the course of the study. Results showed that the peak rate of heat extraction of melon oil Africa locust bean and Africa elemi oil were higher than that of mineral oil. Higher heat transfer coefficient of 1463 1023 Wm2k were obtained for melon oil and Africa locust bean Africa elemi and SAE 40 oil have heat transfer coefficient of 982 and 469 Wm2k respectively. The selected oils can be used as quenchants for medium carbon steel since the oils exhibits better cooling properties and mechanical properties than mineral-based oil.

  14. Use of Non-Normalized, Non-Amplified cDNA for 454-Based RNA Sequencing of Fleshy Melon Fruit

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    Vitaly Portnoy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The melon ( L. fruit is an important crop and model system for the genomic study of both fleshy fruit development and the Cucurbitaceae family. To obtain an accurate representation of the melon fruit transcriptome based on expressed sequence tag (EST abundance in 454-pyrosequencing data, we prepared double-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA of melon without the usual amplification and normalization steps. A purification step was also included to eliminate small fragments. Complementary DNAs were obtained from 14 individual fruit libraries derived from two genotypes, separated into flesh and peel tissues, and sampled throughout fruit development. Pyrosequencing was performed using Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX technology, resulting in 1,215,359 reads, with mean length of >200 nucleotides. The global digital expression data was validated by comparative reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR of 40 selected genes and expression patterns were similar for the two methods. The results indicate that high-quality, nonbiased cDNA for next-generation sequencing can be prepared from mature, fleshy fruit, which are notorious for difficulties in ribonucleic acid (RNA preparation.

  15. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values of binary mixture tests of (Alachlor + Bromacil), (Alachlor + Diuron), and (Bromacil + Diuron) were 12.21, 5.84, 10.22 on melon, 0.982, 925.4, 38.1 on molokhia, and 0.673, 1.34, 0.644 on wheat. Tertiary mixture tests showed EC50 values (TU/kg soil) of (Alachlor + Bromacil + Diuron) was 633.9 on melon, 3.02 on molokhia and 32.174 on wheat. Diuron was more toxic than Alachlor and Bromacil to the tested crops based on individual tests. Molokhia was the most sensitive crop to herbicides. Binary mixtures showed a synergistic effect as compared to the tertiary mixtures.

  16. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  18. Differential metabolism of L-phenylalanine in the formation of aromatic volatiles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Bar, Einat; Lev, Shery; Jhirad, Pliaa; Meshulam, Yuval; Wissotsky, Guy; Portnoy, Vitaly; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Yaakov; Giovannoni, James J; Fei, Zhangjun; Fait, Aaron; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2018-04-01

    Studies on the active pathways and the genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine-derived volatiles in fleshy fruits are sparse. Melon fruit rinds converted stable-isotope labeled L-phe into more than 20 volatiles. Phenylpropanes, phenylpropenes and benzenoids are apparently produced via the well-known phenylpropanoid pathway involving phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and being (E)-cinnamic acid a key intermediate. Phenethyl derivatives seemed to be derived from L-phe via a separate biosynthetic route not involving (E)-cinnamic acid and PAL. To explore for a biosynthetic route to (E)-cinnamaldehyde in melon rinds, soluble protein cell-free extracts were assayed with (E)-cinnamic acid, CoA, ATP, NADPH and MgSO 4 , producing (E)-cinnamaldehyde in vitro. In this context, we characterized CmCNL, a gene encoding for (E)-cinnamic acid:coenzyme A ligase, inferred to be involved in the biosynthesis of (E)-cinnamaldehyde. Additionally we describe CmBAMT, a SABATH gene family member encoding a benzoic acid:S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxyl methyltransferase having a role in the accumulation of methyl benzoate. Our approach leads to a more comprehensive understanding of L-phe metabolism into aromatic volatiles in melon fruit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of a mathematical model for growth of pathogens in cut melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh-cut melons have been reported. The objective of our research was to develop a mathematical model that predicts the growth rate of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe over a range of storage temperatures and to validate that model by using Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, using both new data and data from the published studies. The growth of Salmonella on honeydew and watermelon and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon was monitored at temperatures of 4 to 25°C. The Ratkowsky (or square-root model) was used to describe Salmonella growth on cantaloupe as a function of storage temperature. Our results show that the levels of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe with an initial load of 3 log CFU/g can reach over 7 log CFU/g at 25°C within 24 h. No growth was observed at 4°C. A linear correlation was observed between the square root of Salmonella growth rate and temperature, such that √growth rate = 0.026 × (T - 5.613), R(2) = 0.9779. The model was generally suitable for predicting the growth of both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, for both new data and data from the published literature. When compared with existing models for growth of Salmonella, the new model predicts a theoretic minimum growth temperature similar to the ComBase Predictive Models and Pathogen Modeling Program models but lower than other food-specific models. The ComBase Prediction Models results are very similar to the model developed in this study. Our research confirms that Salmonella can grow quickly and reach high concentrations when cut cantaloupe is stored at ambient temperatures, without visual signs of spoilage. Our model provides a fast and cost-effective method to estimate the effects of storage temperature on fresh-cut melon safety and could also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk

  20. Optimising the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon on a farm scale

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    Paolo Benincasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in-farm research study was aimed at evaluating new strategies in the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon in order to expand the production period and reduce costs. Four experiments were set up in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Central Italy, in an inland region with a temperate climate. We evaluated: i the use of high tunnels for two growing cycles per year, i.e. for very early and very late production (target transplanting in late winter and mid-summer, respectively, for either one year or two consecutive years, and the use of grafted plants in the second year as an alternative to normal plants to prevent soil born diseases; ii the use of ethylene-vinyl-acetate film low tunnels alone or combined with non-woven floating row covers for transplanting in early spring; iii the use of non-woven low tunnels for transplanting in mid-spring; iv the use of biodegradable and conventional polyethylene ground mulch films, both in the presence of nonwoven low tunnels. As far as the non-woven cover is concerned, we adopted the strategy of removing later with respect to usual practices, i.e. ten days after the onset of first pistillate flowers. This was based on the evidence that covers hamper honeybee circulation, which may be exploited on a farm-scale to delay pollination until an adequate number of pistillate flowers set, in order to shorten scaled fruit ripening and harvest. Our results demonstrate that high tunnels may be used for at least four consecutive melon growing cycles (early and late productions for two years with good off-season yields and no appreciable drawbacks in terms of disease scale-up, irrespective of the use of normal or grafted plants. The non-woven low tunnel was effective in hampering honeybee circulation and its delayed removal allowed the harvest period to be halved, a more uniform fruit size to be obtained, and labour productivity of harvest to be increased. This had positive implications on the management of

  1. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

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    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  2. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  3. A comparative study on the effectiveness of ozonated water and peracetic acid in the storability of packaged fresh-cut melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; Moscetti, Roberto; Massantini, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water and peracetic acid were tested as sanitizers to enhance the storability of fresh-cut melon cubes. Sanitizers were also combined with suitable packaging materials (polypropylene and polylactic acid based plastic films). Fresh-cut melon cubes were stored at 4 °C for up to 7 days. Ozonated water and peracetic acid treatments were given by dipping cubes into 0.8 ppm O3 and 100 ppm Tsunami 100™ solutions, respectively, for 3 min. Both sanitizers exhibited efficiency in reducing the total microbial counts on melon cubes (acid treatment in combination with polypropylene film packaging, consequently developing off-odors starting from day 3. Strong color changes were noted in cubes stored in polylactic acid packaging after 7 days of storage, affecting the sensory quality of the melon cubes. Sensory evaluation (overall visual quality) indicated loss in flavor in the polypropylene packaging. The overall visual quality started to decline on 3rd day because of the development of translucency.Overall, the use of ozone in combination with polypropylene packaging provided the best solution to maintain the quality of melon cubes for up to 5 days of storage at 4 °C.

  4. Dietary supplementation with a superoxide dismutase-melon concentrate reduces stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-06-19

    We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32 and placebo (n = 29 for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  6. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Nitrogen uptake dynamics, yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen fertilization in Piel de sapo melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, A.; Ribas, F.

    2012-11-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution strengthens the importance of improving the utilization efficiency of applied N to crops. This requires knowledge of crop N uptake characteristics and how fertilization management affects it. A three-year field experiment was conducted from May to September in central Spain to investigate the influence of different N rates, which ranged from 11 to 393 kg ha{sup -}1, applied through drip irrigation, on the dynamics of N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), fruit yield and quality of a Piel de sapo melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho). Both N concentration and N content increased in different plant parts with the N rate. Leaves had the highest N concentration, which declined by 40-50% from 34-41 days after transplanting (DAT), while the highest N uptake rate was observed from 30-35 to 70-80 DAT, coinciding with fruit development. In each year, NUE declined with increasing N rate. With N fertilizer applications close to the optimum N rate of 90-100 kg ha -1, the fruits removed approximately 60 kg N ha -1, and the amount of N in the crop residue was about 80 kg N ha -1; this serves to replenish the organic nutrient pool in the soil and may be used by subsequent crops following mineralization. (Author) 36 refs.

  8. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  9. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  10. Identification of innovative potential quality markers in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Bulgari, Roberta; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ready-to-eat fresh cut produce are exposed to pre- and postharvest abiotic stresses during the production chain. Our work aimed to identify stress responsive genes as new molecular markers of quality that can be widely applied to leaves and fruits and easily determined at any stage of the production chain. Stress responsive genes associated with quality losses were isolated in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce and their expression levels analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time points after harvest at 20 °C and 4 °C. qRT-PCR results were supported by correlation analysis with physiological and biochemical determinations evaluated at the same conditions such as chlorophyll a fluorescence indices, total, reducing sugars, sucrose, ethylene, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species. In both species the putative molecular markers increased their expression soon after harvest suggesting a possible use as novel and objective quality markers of fresh-cut produces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of hot water dip and gamma irradiation on postharvest fungal decay of Galia melons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai-Golan, R.; Padova, R.; Ross, I.; Lapidot, M.; Copel, A.; Davidson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dipping Galia melons in hot water at 52 deg C for 5 min or at 55 deg for 2 min resulted in 12-15% decay (caused by Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Trichothecium roseum) during prolonged storage (12 d at 6 deg plus 3 d at 18 deg ) compared with 75% decay in untreated fruit or 60% decay in cold-water-dipped fruit. Irradiation at 0.5 or 1 kGy had no significant effect on decay development. However, combination of heat treatment with a 0.5 kGy dose prevented fungal growth, resulting in 5% decay during storage. Combinations of heating with 1 kGy irradiation gave no improvement in anti-fungal effect over treatment with 0.5 kGy and sometimes resulted in a decreased suppressive effect. Reducing the duration of dipping at 55 deg from 2 to 0.5 min, applied alone or in combination with irradiation, considerably reduced the anti-fungal effect of the treatment. The effective combined treatment resulted in 12-15% of slight peel damage, but all the fruits were regarded as marketable. No differences in fruit firmness were recorded among the treatments

  12. [Outlier sample discriminating methods for building calibration model in melons quality detecting using NIR spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Wang, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang

    2012-11-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0.6010 Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0.854 degrees Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.797, RMSEC= 0.849 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 1.19 degrees Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.892, RMSEC = 0.605 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 0.862 degrees).

  13. Renormalizable group field theory beyond melonic diagrams: An example in rank four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozza, Sylvain; Lahoche, Vincent; Oriti, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    We prove the renormalizability of a gauge-invariant, four-dimensional group field theory (GFT) model on SU(2), whose defining interactions correspond to necklace bubbles (found also in the context of new large-N expansions of tensor models), rather than melonic ones, which are not renormalizable in this case. The respective scaling of different interactions in the vicinity of the Gaussian fixed point is determined by the renormalization group itself. This is possible because the appropriate notion of canonical dimension of the GFT coupling constants takes into account the detailed combinatorial structure of the individual interaction terms. This is one more instance of the peculiarity (and greater mathematical richness) of GFTs with respect to ordinary local quantum field theories. We also explore the renormalization group flow of the model at the nonperturbative level, using functional renormalization group methods, and identify a nontrivial fixed point in various truncations. This model is expected to have a similar structure of divergences as the GFT models of 4D quantum gravity, thus paving the way to more detailed investigations on them.

  14. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  16. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  17. Pewarisan Karakter Fenotip Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel Aromatis’ Hasil Persilangan ♀ ‘Hikapel’ dengan ♂ ‘Hikadi Aromatik’

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    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop cultivars with superior phenotypes of melon and high level of productivity. This research used the individual results of crossing between melon  ♀ ‘Hikapel' with ♂ 'Hikadi Aromatik'. The research included qualitative and quantitative phenotype characterization test. The research was conducted in Center of Agrotechnology Innovation University of Gadjah Mada (PIAT-UGM, Kalitirto, Berbah, Sleman, Yogyakarta and Laboratory of Genetics Faculty of Biology UGM on December 2016 until March 2017. Quantitative data analysis used ANOVA testing through PKBT-STAT 2.02 software with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD method at significance level of 1% and 5%. Melon 'Hikapel Aromatik' has several advantages including oval shape, without net, without lobes, crispy texture, skin-collored yellow RHS (6A, has a 7-14 brix, has volatile aromatic compound and transposon influenced. Based on the results of recapitulation of variance, the characters of 'Hikapel Aromatik' was not uniform.

  18. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways participate in the anti-fibrotic effect of a melon concentrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model of human essential hypertension, oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with hypertension. Dietary supplementation with agents exhibiting antioxidant properties could have a beneficial effect in remodeling of the heart. We previously demonstrated a potent anti-hypertrophic effect of a specific melon (Cucumis melo L. concentrate with antioxidant properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP were reported to reduce collagen deposition and fibrosis progression in various experimental models. Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that, beside reduction in oxidative stress, the melon concentrate may act through relaxin, its receptor (relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1, RXFP1, and ANP in SHR. Design and results: The melon concentrate, given orally during 4 days, reduced cardiomyocyte size (by 25% and totally reversed cardiac collagen content (Sirius red staining in SHR but not in their normotensive controls. Treatment with the melon concentrate lowered cardiac nitrotyrosine-stained area (by 45% and increased by 17–19% the cardiac expression (Western blot of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, plasma relaxin concentration was normalized while cardiac relaxin (Western blot was lowered in treated SHR. Cardiac relaxin receptor level determined by immunohistochemical analysis increased only in treated SHR. Similarly, the melon concentrate reversed the reduction of plasma ANP concentration and lowered its cardiac expression. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that reversal of cardiac fibrosis by the melon concentrate involves antioxidant defenses, as well as relaxin and ANP pathways restoration. It is suggested that dietary SOD supplementation could be a useful additional strategy against cardiac hypertrophy

  19. Anatomical Description of the Female Reproductive Organ and Radiation Induced Histological changes of Ovary of Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roksana Huque and Sharmina Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation as a physical method of disinfestations against melon flies was recognized as a potential quarantine treatment. At 50 Gy, oocytes showed degeneration one day after treatment whereas seven-day-old oocytes did not differ greatly in appearance from control groups. Abnormal enlargement of trophocyte cells and vacuolization of oocytes occurred predominantly following the treatment with 100 and 150 Gy. One day after treatment with 150 Gy trophocytes underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Irradiation at 100 and 150 Gy reduced the fertility to almost zero percent in the female melon flies.(authors)

  20. Modelling sensorial and nutritional changes to better define quality and shelf life of fresh-cut melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Amodio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh-cut produce is mostly determined by evaluating the external appearance since this is the major factor affecting consumer choice at the moment of purchase. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the major quality attributes in order to better define the shelf life of fresh-cut melons. Melon pieces were stored for eight days in air at 5°C. Sensorial and physical attributes including colour, external appearance, aroma, translucency, firmness, and chemical constituents, such as soluble solids, fructose, vitamin C, and phenolic content, along with antioxidant activity were monitored. Attributes showing significant changes over time were used to test conventional kinetic models of zero and first order, and Weibullian models. The Weibullian model was the most accurate to describe changes in appearance score, translucency, aroma, firmness and vitamin C (with a regression coefficient always higher than 0.956, while the other parameters could not be predicted with such accuracy by any of the tested models. Vitamin C showed the lowest kinetic rate among the model parameters, even though at the limit of marketability (appearance score 3, estimated at five days, a loss of 37% of its initial content was observed compared to the fresh-cut product, indicating a much lower nutritional value. After five days, the aroma score was already 2.2, suggesting that this quality attribute, together with the vitamin C content, should be taken into account when assessing shelf life of fresh-cut melons. In addition, logistical models were used to fit the percentage of rejected samples on the basis of non-marketability and non-edibility (appearance score <3 and <2, respectively. For both parameters, correlations higher than 0.999 were found at P<0.0001; for each mean score this model helps to understand the distribution of the samples among marketable, nonmarketable, and non-edible products.

  1. Optimization of Vacuum Impregnation with Calcium Lactate of Minimally Processed Melon and Shelf-Life Study in Real Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappi, Silvia; Tylewicz, Urszula; Romani, Santina; Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Rocculi, Pietro

    2016-10-05

    Vacuum impregnation (VI) is a processing operation that permits the impregnation of fruit and vegetable porous tissues with a fast and more homogeneous penetration of active compounds compared to the classical diffusion processes. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact on VI treatment with the addition of calcium lactate on qualitative parameters of minimally processed melon during storage. For this aim, this work was divided in 2 parts. Initially, the optimization of process parameters was carried out in order to choose the optimal VI conditions for improving texture characteristics of minimally processed melon that were then used to impregnate melons for a shelf-life study in real storage conditions. On the basis of a 2 3 factorial design, the effect of Calcium lactate (CaLac) concentration between 0% and 5% and of minimum pressure (P) between 20 and 60 MPa were evaluated on color and texture. Processing parameters corresponding to 5% CaLac concentration and 60 MPa of minimum pressure were chosen for the storage study, during which the modifications of main qualitative parameters were evaluated. Despite of the high variability of the raw material, results showed that VI allowed a better maintenance of texture during storage. Nevertheless, other quality traits were negatively affected by the application of vacuum. Impregnated products showed a darker and more translucent appearance on the account of the alteration of the structural properties. Moreover microbial shelf-life was reduced to 4 d compared to the 7 obtained for control and dipped samples. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

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    Luigi Lucini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1 as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses.

  3. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values ...

  4. Plantas hospederas de los virus más importantes que infectan el melón, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies hospederas naturales de los virus (PRSV, WMV-2, CMV y ZYMV que infectan el cultivo de melón (Cucumis melo L. para la exportación en Costa Rica se identificaron en plantaciones comerciales de dos fincas ubicadas, una en la provincia de Guanacaste, y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas. En ambas fincas se cultiva el melon con irrigación durante la época seca, pero su manejo cultural es diferente. La finca A con una larga trayectoria en el cultivo de melón en rotación con maíz, sorgo y arroz, y con poco control de malezas; mientras que la finca B con una corta trayectoria en la producción del melón y un mayor control de malezas. La diversidad de especies vegetales fue estudiada en cuadrantes de 100 m2 en cinco diferentes comunidades de plantas previamente seleccionadas en la finca A (cultivo, canal de drenaje, charral, potrero mejorado, y semi-bosque y tres en la finca B (cultivo, charral, pastizal natural, semi-bosque. El número de cuadrantes estudiados dependió del área total cultivada en cada una de las fincas. Todas las especies de plantas representadas en cada cuadrante se recolectaron e identificaron pero solo aquellas especies que presentaron síntomas virales en el campo fueron analizadas por ELISA para determinar la presencia de los cuatro virus estudiados. La diversidad de especies, porcentaje de cobertura y época de aparición de las especies hospederas fue monitoreada durante un año calendario en cinco fechas diferentes. Un total de 86 y 72 especies de plantas fueron identificadas en las fincas A y B respectivamente. Catorce encontradas positivas por lo menos para uno de los cuatro virus. Los cuatro virus fueron encontrados en cada finca en cada fecha de muestreo indicando que la permanencia y abundancia de algunas especies hospederas garantiza la permanencia de los cuatro virus en el campo como fuente de inóculo primario para la próxima siembra. Varias especies de plantas hospederas silvestres previamente

  5. Melão minimamente processado: um controle de qualidade Minimally processed melon: a quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno

    2005-12-01

    distribution of agricultural products, through procedures like selection, cleaning, washing, peeling and cutting, which do not affect their organoleptic characteristics and add value to them. The process results in natural and practical products, which require less time for preparation and consumption to fulfill the demands of modern life. The purpose of minimally processed and cooled food is to provide a product that is similar to the fresh one to guarantee safety, maintaining the nutritive and sensory quality. The process has attracted attention to research mainly regarding microbiological, physicochemical and sensory alterations that influence the shelf life of these products. The target of the research was to evaluate the effect of commercialization temperature (15ºC on the quality of the Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. inodorus minimally processed. Fruits packed in trays and involved in plastic film were randomly acquired in a local supermarket. Treatments were: temperatures (4 and 15ºC, storage periods (5, 10, 15 and 1, 2 and 3 days at 4 and 15ºC, respectively and a control treatment of minimally processed melon on day zero. Samples were analyzed as far as their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics are concerned. The melon quality was significantly affected during refrigerated storage. At commercialization temperature (15ºC, the product is only valid for 24 hours. Storage at 4°C allows conservation up to 5 days and it is necessary to display the adequate time of storage and temperature on the label of the product.

  6. Optimization of the production of bio diesel from egusi melon (Colocynthis Citrullus L.) oil using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giwa, S.O.; Chuah, L.A.; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed oil. Three process factors were evaluated at three levels (2 3 experimental design): the oil/ methanol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the reaction temperature. The amounts of catalyst and reaction temperature were the most significant (P 2 = 0.98). Using multiple regression analysis a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting methyl ester yield of the transesterification reaction. The squared terms of catalyst amount (P < 0.0001) and oil/ methanol molar ratio (P < 0.0072) showed significant effects on esters yield. The optimum reaction conditions for synthesis of EMOME were 1:6.55 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1.22 % catalyst amounts, and 65 degree Celsius reaction temperature resulting in a yield of 84.01 %. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions a methyl esters yield of 84.04 % was obtained on an average, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. RSM was found to be a suitable technique for optimizing transesterification of egusi melon seed oil. Fuel properties of EMOME measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy all prescribed ASTM (D 6751) and EN 14214 specifications. (author)

  7. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  9. Studies on the dispersal behavior of melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the influence of gamma-irradiation on dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Ryoichi

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of released male adults of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, was not the same in three directions from the release point. This bias seemed to depend on the habitat selection of melon flies because these was a linear relationship between the number of released flies caught and that of wild flies caught. The mean dispersal distance ranged from 50 m to 90 m and there were no remarkable differences in the values among groups which were allowed to disperse for different periods. Flies released at one point reached a stable distribution pattern in two or three days after their release. Another group of flies released at a different point, where the environment was less favourable to melon flies, showed a wider range of dispersal. It was concluded that in planning the arrangement of release points for the sterile male technique, a preliminary survey is needed to determine whether habitats favorable to the insect, that is, areas of high population density, exist continuously or not. A preliminary test to assess the influence of γ-irradiation on dispersal showed that the dosage of 10000 R reduced the dispersing ability of male adults of the melon fly. (author)

  10. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M.; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  11. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa E. Yonny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+ESI-MS/MS was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  12. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  13. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  14. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella in melons)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    and 2012. Risk factors for melon and watermelon contamination by Salmonella were considered in the context of the whole food chain, together with available estimates of Salmonella occurrence and mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria......Melons and watermelons are ready-to-eat foods, with an internal pH of 5.1 to 6.7 and can be consumed whole, as fresh-cut products or as fresh juices. Epidemiological data from the EU identified one salmonellosis outbreak associated with consumption of both pre-cut and whole melon between 2007....... It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of Salmonella in melon and watermelon production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene...

  15. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo. L is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR, which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  16. Genetic diversity and potential vectors and reservoirs of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Juarez, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro; Mengual, Carmen M; Sempere, Raquel N; Plaza, María; Elena, Santiago F; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto; Aranda, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year, or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97 to 100 and 94 to 97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  18. Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA H.P. KIILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 – ‘Yellow melon’ and Sancho -‘Piel de Sapo’ in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001, floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001 and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001. The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types.

  19. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  20. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in

  1. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Arthur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L. over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS. Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org, an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability

  2. Response of gut microbiota and inflammatory status to bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juan; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Ying

    2016-12-24

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota. Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw. We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (p<0.05). BMP suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK/p38 MAPKs) in adipose tissue. Sequencing results illustrated that BMP treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased butyrate producers. These results demonstrate that BMP ameliorates insulin sensitivity partly via relieving the inflammatory status in the system and in white adipose tissues of obese rats, and is associated with a proportional regulation of specific gut microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-01-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a * ) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a * and b * ), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  4. Qualidade dos frutos de tipos de melão,produzidos em ambiente protegido Quality of melon fruit type produced under protected system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Tavares Paduan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela cultura do melão no Brasil tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos, pelas crescentes exportações e pelo incremento no consumo do mercado interno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físicas e químicas, assim como a atividade da pectinametilesterase dos frutos de tipos de melão (Cucumis melo L., produzidos em ambiente protegido, no município de Centenário do Sul-PR. Os tipos estudados foram: Valenciano ('Amarelo-Ouro', Caipira ('Gaúcho Caipira', Net Melon ('Net Galia', Orange ('Orange Melon' e Pele-de-Sapo ('Filipo', com cinco repetições, utilizando seis frutos por repetição em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os frutos do Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo destacaram-se quanto à massa, com valores 2,02 e 2,07 kg, respectivamente, e formatos alongados, enquanto os demais tipos apresentaram formatos arredondados e massa em torno de 1,4 kg. Os melões Pele-de-Sapo apresentaram espessura da polpa de 43,36 mm, estatisticamente superior à dos frutos Valenciano, com 38,98 mm. A menor espessura de polpa, 24,78 cm, e a maior espessura de casca, 9,74 mm, foram encontradas nos frutos do tipo Caipira que diferiu estatisticamente dos outros tipos. Os valores de pH não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes e variaram de 6,24 a 6,48. O Net Melon apresentou polpa com 12,3ºBrix e diferiu estatisticamente do Orange, Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo, com 11;12; 10,34 e 9,94 ºBrix, respectivamente. O Caipira atingiu 5,06ºBrix, e também o menor conteúdo de acidez, 0,10 g de ac. cítrico.100-1 g de suco, o que inviabiliza sua comercialização. A atividade da pectinametilesterase na polpa dos frutos foi muito baixa, inferior a 0,005 PEu x 10(4 mL-1, nos cinco tipos avaliados. Na região norte do Paraná (Vale do Paranapanema, sob condições de cultivo protegido, os melões Pele-de-Sapo, Net Melon, Orange e Valenciano apresentaram boas características físicas e químicas dos frutos, destacando-se o Net Melon

  5. Sterilization of melon flies: mating competitiveness after treatment with tepa or gamma irradiation and ratios of treated to untreated flies producing population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Keiser, I.; Harris, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66 percent of that of untreated males. In another study, melon flies (males and females) sterilized with 0.0125 percent tepa, the threshold dose for both sexes, completely suppressed a population when the ratio was 16:16:1:1 (sterile males-sterile females-untreated males-untreated females) as determined by no egg hatch

  6. Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted galia c8 melon cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarsi, G.; Sivaci, A.; Dasgan, H.Y.; Altuntas, O.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress. (author)

  7. Getting to know you: Identification of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata and melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.

  8. Evaluation of an analytical methodology using QuEChERS and GC-SQ/MS for the investigation of the level of pesticide residues in Brazilian melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Sousa, Jonas; de Castro, Rubens Carius; de Albuquerque Andrade, Gilliane; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Lima, Lucélia Kátia; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    A multiresidue method based on the sample preparation by modified QuEChERS and detection by gas chromatography coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometers (GC-SQ/MS) was used for the analysis of 35 multiclass pesticides in melons (Cucumis melo inodorus) produced in Ceara-Brazil. The rates of recovery for pesticides studied were satisfactory (except for the etridiazole), ranging from 85% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 15%, at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for most compounds was below the MRLs established in Brazil. The combined relative uncertainty (Uc) and expanded uncertainty (Ue) was determined using repeatability, recovery and calibration curves data for each pesticide. Analysis of commercial melons samples revealed the presence of pesticides bifenthrin and imazalil at levels below the MRLs established by ANVISA, EU and USEPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Saul, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  10. Modulation of aroma volatiles and phytochemical quality of fresh-cut melon (Cucumis melo L.) by oxygen levels, 1-methylcyclopropene and lysophosphatidylethanolameine

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Ana Luísa Leite Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Current fresh-cut technologies are effective in the effort of maintaining visual quality during the fresh-cut fruit supply chain. However, studies on extended shelf life based on appearance attributes or microbial stability have neglected the understanding of the effect of processing technologies and conservation techniques in the aromatic, nutritional, and functional properties of processed fruit. Three technologies were evaluated for their effects on quality of fresh-cut melon, with emphasi...

  11. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Extract Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Overcomes Cisplatin-Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells Through Targeting AMPK Signaling Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Mingo M H; Ross, Fiona A; Hardie, D Grahame; Leung, Thomas H Y; Zhan, Jinbiao; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Chan, David W

    2016-09-01

    Objective Acquired chemoresistance is a major obstacle in the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Therefore, searching for alternative therapeutic modalities is urgently needed. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a traditional dietary fruit, but its extract also shows potential medicinal values in human diabetes and cancers. Here, we sought to investigate the extract of bitter melon (BME) in antitumorigenic and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. Three varieties of bitter melon were used to prepare the BME. Ovarian cancer cell lines, human immortalized epithelial ovarian cells (HOSEs), and nude mice were used to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity, cisplatin resistance, and tumor inhibitory effect of BME. The molecular mechanism of BME was examined by Western blotting. Cotreatment with BME and cisplatin markedly attenuated tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, whereas there was no observable toxicity in HOSEs or in nude mice in vivo Interestingly, the antitumorigenic effects of BME varied with different varieties of bitter melon, suggesting that the amount of antitumorigenic substances may vary. Studies of the molecular mechanism demonstrated that BME activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in an AMP-independent but CaMKK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase)-dependent manner, exerting anticancer effects through activation of AMPK and suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K and/or the AKT/ERK/FOXM1 (Forkhead Box M1) signaling cascade. BME functions as a natural AMPK activator in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and might be useful as a supplement to improve the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  13. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  14. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  15. Métodos de conservação aplicados a melão minimamente processado Conservation methods applied to fresh-cut melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaí Peter Batista

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar alguns métodos de conservação que podem ser utilizados para prolongar a vida útil do melão minimamente processado. Dentre os métodos, serão abordados revestimento comestível, irradiação, antimicrobianos naturais, antioxidantes, agentes de firmeza, atmosfera modificada, branqueamento, luz ultravioleta e alta pressão. Dependendo do método pode haver redução das alterações associadas ao processo mínimo do melão, como a perda de água, alteração da cor e firmeza, alteração do metabolismo e crescimento de micro-organismos, sendo o resultado muitas vezes dependente da cultivar do melão utilizado.The objective of this review is to present some conservation methods that can be used to prolong the life of fresh-cut melon. Among the methods, edible coating, irradiation, natural antimicrobials, antioxidants, firmness agent, modified atmosphere, whitening, ultraviolet light and high pressure will be discussed. Depending on the method, the changes associated to minimum process of melon, such as water loss, change in color and firmness, change in the metabolism and growth of micro-organisms can be reduced and the result is often dependent on the melon cultivar used.

  16. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  17. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the Japanese coasts: Maternal transfer and temporal trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kamikawa, Satoko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Amano, Masao [Department of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science and Technology, 2525 Yatsusawa, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Hayano, Azusa [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Tadasu K. [National Museum of Nature and Science, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai 1-15-1, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than DDTs and PCBs, but comparable with HCHs and HCB. Maternal transfer of PBDEs to offspring through the whole reproductive process was estimated to be 85% of the mother's body burden, while that occurring during gestation was much lower (2.6-3.5%). Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB were lower in melon-headed whales stranded after the year 2000 than those stranded in 1982, whereas PBDE and CHL levels showed a temporal increase during the past 20 years, suggesting that the peak of their usage and contamination occurred after the year 1982. - PBDE levels in melon-headed whales increased during the past two decades.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the Japanese coasts: Maternal transfer and temporal trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kamikawa, Satoko; Amano, Masao; Hayano, Azusa; Yamada, Tadasu K.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than DDTs and PCBs, but comparable with HCHs and HCB. Maternal transfer of PBDEs to offspring through the whole reproductive process was estimated to be 85% of the mother's body burden, while that occurring during gestation was much lower (2.6-3.5%). Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB were lower in melon-headed whales stranded after the year 2000 than those stranded in 1982, whereas PBDE and CHL levels showed a temporal increase during the past 20 years, suggesting that the peak of their usage and contamination occurred after the year 1982. - PBDE levels in melon-headed whales increased during the past two decades

  20. Identification of QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew and SSR markers diagnostic for powdery mildew resistance genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Monforte, Antonio J; Sugiyama, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Yoshiteru; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is an important foliar disease in melon. To find molecular markers for marker-assisted selection, we constructed a genetic linkage map of melon based on a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from crosses between highly resistant AR 5 and susceptible 'Earl's Favourite (Harukei 3)'. The map spans 877 cM and consists of 167 markers, comprising 157 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 7 sequence characterized amplified region/cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers and 3 phenotypic markers segregating into 20 linkage groups. Among them, 37 SSRs and 6 other markers were common to previous maps. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci for resistance to powdery mildew. The effects of these QTLs varied depending on strain and plant stage. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained for resistance to the pxA strain was similar between QTLs (R (2) = 22-28%). For resistance to pxB strain, the QTL on linkage group (LG) XII was responsible for much more of the variance (41-46%) than that on LG IIA (12-13%). The QTL on LG IIA was located between two SSR markers. Using an independent population, we demonstrated the effectiveness of these markers. This is the first report of universal and effective markers linked to a gene for powdery mildew resistance in melon.

  1. A deletion of the gene encoding amino aldehyde dehydrogenase enhances the "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and is a functional marker for the development of the aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangnam, Saowalak; Wanchana, Samart; Phoka, Nongnat; Saeansuk, Chatree; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya; de Hoop, Simon Jan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2017-12-01

    The gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon was identified. The sequence variation (804-bp deletion) found in the gene was used as the target for functional marker development. Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries that is popular for its nutritional and medicinal value. A "pandan-like" aroma, which is economically important in crops including rice and soybean, is rarely found in most commercial varieties of winter melon, but is present in some landraces. This aroma is a value-added potential trait in breeding winter melon with a higher economic value. In this study, we confirmed that the aroma of winter melon is due to the potent volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) as previously identified in other plants. Based on an analysis of public transcriptome data, BhAMADH encoding an aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was identified as a candidate gene conferring aroma of winter melon. A sequence comparison of BhAMADH between the aromatic and non-aromatic accessions revealed an 804-bp deletion encompassing exons 11-13 in the aromatic accession. The deletion caused several premature stop codons and could result in a truncated protein with a length of only 208 amino acids compared with 503 amino acids in the normal protein. A functional marker was successfully developed based on the 804-bp deletion and validated in 237 F 2 progenies. A perfect association of the marker genotypes and aroma phenotypes indicates that BhAMADH is the major gene conferring the aroma. The recently developed functional marker could be efficiently used in breeding programs for the aroma trait in winter melon.

  2. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of different sources of fertilizers on the phosphorus absorption and the yield of the under irrigation melon (Cucumis melo L) sowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Ocampo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The fertilizer injection through irrigation system is a common practice in second melon sowings. Nevertheless, the application of some phosphoric sources by that way can have problems due to the absorption reactions and precipitation in the ground, which reduces its mobility and assimilation by the plants. Phosphoric sources of fertirrigation to diverse doses, were evaluated in melon (Cucusmis melo L.) Cantaloupe cv Hy Mark in second sowings, about the phosphoric absorption and the fruit commercial production , (b) the content of soluble P in the solution of the ground, to correlate this with the optimal production and thus obtain the external requirement of P and (c) to quantify the economic costs of the application of the different sources. The experiment took place in the ground of the Inceptisol order, sub-group Vertic Haplustepts in Carrillo, Guanacaste, in the property Melones de Sardinal S.A. The used sources of P2O5 were: Map(12-60-0) in doses of 36 and 54 kg/ha, H3PO4 to 36kg/ha and Fertg (8-24-0) in doses of 18 and 36 kg/ha. Besides, establishing in absolute witness 0 kg/ha. The melon redeeming was evaluated in number of cajas/ha, sizes 9, 12, 15 and 18. According to the dry weight and the nourishment concentration of the aerial biomass of each sample, the absorption of nourishment in the cultivation in kg/ha and g/ha was calculated, for a sowing density of 12940 plantas/ha. The external efficiency of phosphorus for melon with the different sources was determined, for getting this were made applications of progressively increasing doses of P. The dose of phosphorus to reach that requirement (concentration of P in the solution of the ground that is necessary for an optimal yield), in the balance point it's obtained by means of interpolation of the dose of P through the isotherm and the correlation of the optimal yield of the cultivation. The greater absorption of P took place in the stage of previous growth to the flowering and in the beginning and arrival

  4. Cristalização de melão pelo processo lento de açucaramento Crystallization of melon fruit through slow sugary process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Shigueyuki Morita

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró (ESAM. Avaliou-se a possibilidade de processar o melão como fruta cristalizada. Foram testadas as variedades Gália, Pele de Sapo e Orange Fresh, utilizando-se o processo lento de açucaramento, retirando-se as polpas em formas de bolas e colocando-as sucessivamente em soluções de sacarose a 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70º Brix até abrir a fervura, mantendo-se a polpa em repouso por 24 horas a cada solução de sacarose. Em seguida, os frutos foram colocados em uma estufa a 50ºC durante 6 horas, atingindo-se assim, a umidade final entre 26,16 a 27,53%. Foram determinados teor de umidade, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, e os produtos submetidos a uma análise sensorial. Constatou-se que a cristalização em melão foi tecnicamente viável, que a variedade Pele de Sapo foi a melhor aceita, e que não houve mudança na coloração da polpa das variedades.The experiment was carried out in the Food Technology Laboratory of the Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró (ESAM, Mossoró-RN, Brazil to evaluate the possibility of processing the melon pulp as a crystallized fruit by using the us following melon varieties: Gália, Pele de Sapo, and Orange Flesh, utilizing the slow sugary process. The pulps were withdrawn in little ball form and put successively into sucrose solutions at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°Brix, until boiling, keeping them in inactivity for 24 hours in each solution. After that, the fruits were placed in a stove at 50°C during 6 hours, reaching final humidity between 26.16 and 27.53%. Evaluations for humidity content, pH and total soluble solids were made. In addition a sensorial analysis was made. It was observed that the melon crystallization was technically feasible. Pele de Sapo melon was the best in comparison to the other types. Changing in the melon pulp colouring was not observed.

  5. Plantas hospederas de los virus más importantes que infectan el melón, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, M.V.; Agüero, R.; Rivera, C.

    1998-01-01

    Las especies hospederas naturales de los virus (PRSV, WMV-2, CMV y ZYMV) que infectan el cultivo de melón (Cucumis melo L.) para la exportación en Costa Rica se identificaron en plantaciones comerciales de dos fincas ubicadas, una en la provincia de Guanacaste, y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas. En ambas fincas se cultiva el melon con irrigación durante la época seca, pero su manejo cultural es diferente. La finca A con una larga trayectoria en el cultivo de melón en rotación con maíz, ...

  6. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  7. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  8. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  9. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  10. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  11. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  12. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  13. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  14. Efficacy of protein bait sprays in controlling melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] in vegetable agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Z.U.A.; Baloch, N.

    2017-01-01

    Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them , B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on onemeter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80+-2.63, 21.20+-2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80+-3.26, 24.20+-3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40+-13.81, 115.00+-14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. (author)

  15. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  16. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamena, A. E

    2013-07-01

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  17. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  19. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  20. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  1. Model of the process with piecewise-constant extremals to minimize losses of vitamins during the melting of melons and gourds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Inochkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of periods of storage of fruits of gourds is an urgent task processing industry. The most developed and available for injection is a method of dehydration of raw materials due to supply of heat transfer fluids. In addition to solid dry frame in raw materials is 80–90% water. In the period of moisture removal from raw material changes of thermal-physical and structural-mechanical and physicochemical characteristics. The ratio of water and dry matter in vegetative raw materials largely determines the modes of drying and storage conditions of the finished product. During drying, there are a number of limitations: the drying temperature should not exceed the degradation temperature of vitamins and proteins, and the magnitude of course, the moisture content of the product depends on the reaction prevention malonodinitrile sugars at the critical moisture content. An important problem of the drying of production is quality control stages of drying, the dynamics of which is quite difficult to describe using mathematical models. The main factors of optimization of industrial drying processes is preservation of valuable components of the feedstock, the drying time, energy and resource conservation. Development of effective control algorithm for the process of dehydration of raw materials described in the article on the example of drying of slices of melon. Experimental approach a two-stage process of drying of melon varieties Taman, the proposed regression model with the relaxation-based on humidity and content of vitamin C from the variable in time temperature and pressure, based on the available literature and own experimental data. According to the optimal control of the drying process to search for the thermobaric regime that maximizes the vitamin C content at the end of the drying, under specified conditions, the humidity. The main findings are the solution of the problem for the case of piecewise constant temperature and pressure in

  2. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  3. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  4. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  5. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  6. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  7. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Conclusion Our data

  8. Characterization of Acanthosicyos horridus and Citrullus lanatus seed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1 H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus , respectively. Significant differences ( p  yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  9. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber (C. sativus belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F, adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis. Results Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene. Conclusion Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian

  10. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  11. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  13. Bitter melon juice exerts its efficacy against pancreatic cancer via targeting both bulk and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Deepanshi; Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Sushil; Wempe, Michael F; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-05-04

    Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is one of the deadliest malignancies worldwide and frontline treatment with gemcitabine becomes eventually ineffective due to increasing PanC resistance, suggesting additional approaches are needed to manage PanC. Recently, we have shown the efficacy of bitter melon juice (BMJ) against PanC cells, including those resistant to gemcitabine. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are actively involved in PanC initiation, progression, relapse and drug-resistance, here we assessed BMJ ability in targeting pancreatic cancer-associated cancer stem cells (PanC-CSCs). We found BMJ efficacy against CD44 + /CD24 + /EpCAM high enriched PanC-CSCs in spheroid assays; BMJ also increased the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant PanC-CSCs. Exogenous addition of BMJ to PanC-CSC generated spheroids (not pre-exposed to BMJ) also significantly reduced spheroid number and size. Mechanistically, BMJ effects were associated with a decrease in the expression of genes and proteins involved in PanC-CSC renewal and proliferation. Specifically, immunofluorescence staining showed that BMJ decreases protein expression/nuclear localization of CSC-associated transcription factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, and CSC marker CD44. Immunohistochemical analysis of MiaPaCa2 xenografts from BMJ treated animals also showed a significant decrease in the levels of CSC-associated transcription factors. Together, these results show BMJ potential in targeting PanC-CSC pool and associated regulatory pathways, suggesting the need for further investigation of its efficacy against PanC growth and progression including gemcitabine-resistant PanC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative analysis among the small RNA populations of source, sink and conductive tissues in two different plant-virus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Navarro, Jose Antonio; Sommen, Evelien; Pallas, Vicente

    2015-02-22

    In plants, RNA silencing plays a fundamental role as defence mechanism against viruses. During last years deep-sequencing technology has allowed to analyze the sRNA profile of a large variety of virus-infected tissues. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have been restricted to a unique tissue and no comparative analysis between phloem and source/sink tissues has been conducted. In the present work, we compared the sRNA populations of source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues in two different plant virus pathosystems. We chose two cucurbit species infected with two viruses very different in genome organization and replication strategy; Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Our findings showed, in both systems, an increase of the 21-nt total sRNAs together with a decrease of those with a size of 24-nt in all the infected tissues, except for the phloem where the ratio of 21/24-nt sRNA species remained constant. Comparing the vsRNAs, both PNRSV- and MNSV-infected plants share the same vsRNA size distribution in all the analyzed tissues. Similar accumulation levels of sense and antisense vsRNAs were observed in both systems except for roots that showed a prevalence of (+) vsRNAs in both pathosystems. Additionally, the presence of overrepresented discrete sites along the viral genome, hot spots, were identified and validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Despite that in PNRSV-infected plants the presence of vsRNAs was scarce both viruses modulated the host sRNA profile. We compare for the first time the sRNA profile of four different tissues, including source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues, in two plant-virus pathosystems. Our results indicate that antiviral silencing machinery in melon and cucumber acts mainly through DCL4. Upon infection, the total sRNA pattern in phloem remains unchanged in contrast to the rest of the analyzed tissues indicating a certain tissue-tropism to this polulation. Independently of the

  15. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  16. An accurate, specific, sensitive, high-throughput method based on a microsphere immunoassay for multiplex detection of three viruses and bacterial fruit blotch bacterium in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Makornwattana, Manlika; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Phuengwas, Sudtida; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2017-09-01

    To employ a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to simultaneously detect multiple plant pathogens (potyviruses, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Melon yellow spot virus, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli) in actual plant samples, several factors need to be optimized and rigorously validated. Here, a simple extraction method using a single extraction buffer was successfully selected to detect the four pathogens in various cucurbit samples (cucumber, cantaloupe, melon, and watermelon). The extraction method and assay performance were validated with inoculated and field cucurbit samples. The MIA showed 98-99% relative accuracy, 97-100% relative specificity and 92-100% relative sensitivity when compared to commercial ELISA kits and reverse transcription PCR. In addition, the MIA was also able to accurately detect multiple-infected field samples. The results demonstrate that one common extraction method for all tested cucurbit samples could be applied to detect multiple pathogens; avoiding the need for multiple protocols to be employed. This multiplex method can therefore be instrumental for high-throughput screening of multiple plant pathogens with many advantages such as a shorter assay time (2.5h) with single assay format, a lower cost of detection ($5 vs $19.7 for 4 pathogens/sample) and less labor requirement. Its multiplex capacity can also be expanded to detect up to 50 different pathogens upon the availability of specific antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  18. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), which is very detrimental to muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). Fusarium wilt of melon is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions and causes a worldwide problem. FOM can survive in the soil for extended periods of time as chlamydospores, and is capable of colonizing crop residues and roots of most crops grown in rotation with melon. The only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Four races of FOM have been identified, namely 0, 1, 2 and 1.2. Race 1.2 was further subdivided into race 1.2y and 1.2w, which cause yellowing and wilt symptoms, respectively. Two resistance genes (Fom-1 and Fom-2) have been identified in melons. Fom-1 confers resistance to FOM races 0 and 2, and Fom-2 confers resistance to races 0 and 1. These two genes are extensively used in breeding programmes, which can be assisted by marker assisted selection using markers linked to these resistance genes. No genes have been identified that confer resistance to race 1.2. However, polygenic recessive genes have been found to confer resistance to race 1.2 in Piboule genotypes. Melon production in Turkey is 1,700,000 tons and it is declining the year after year because of Fusarium wilt. Therefore, Fusarium wilt has a high economic importance in the cultivation of muskmelon in Turkey. In some parts of Turkey the prevalent races of this pathogen were determined. FOM has caused severe losses for farmers as our native cultivars are not resistant to this disease. It is believed our native cultivars will disappear if resistance to FOM is not introduced into the cultivated material. For this reason, many scientists in Turkey are focusing on research to develop new resistant cultivars via conventional and biotechnological breeding methods. In vitro techniques became widely spread during the 20th century, and their potential to make important contributions to plant

  19. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Hadjilouka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2 including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products.

  20. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Polychronopoulou, Melissanthi; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Tzamalis, Periklis; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA) (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2) including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products. PMID:27682104

  1. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  2. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  3. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  4. Beneficiamento do cultivo do Meloeiro pela apicultura no sertão do Moxotó representado por Modelo Digital do Terreno | Processing of Melon crops for beekeeping in the backwoods of Moxotó represented by Digital Terrain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Miller de Souza Caldas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A região Nordeste é a principal produtora de melão do Brasil. O Semiárido brasileiro é uma região caracterizada por apresentar fatores climáticos favoráveis ao desenvolvimento da cultura do meloeiro. No presente estudo foi realizada a modelagem digital do terreno (MDT da microrregião Sertão do Moxotó para os parâmetros de precipitação, temperatura, PIB e IDH, afim de verificar a relação entre a cultura do meloeiro e a apicultura. Os municípios analisados foram Arcoverde, Betânia, Custódia, Ibimirim, Inajá, Sertânia e Manari. O cultivo do meloeiro tem potencial para ser implantado nos municípios do Sertão do Moxotó e está diretamente ligado a apicultura, pois a Apis mellifera é seu principal polinizador. Seu cultivo pode desempenhar papel vital no aumento ou manutenção da produção apícola. The Northeast region is the main melon producer of Brazil. The Brazilian semiarid region is characterized by climatic conditions favorable to the development of melon crop. In the present study, the digital terrain modeling (DTM of Sertão do Moxotó was performed to precipitation parameters, temperature, GDP, HDI and population in order to verifythe relationship between melon crop and apiculture. The districts analyzed were Arcoverde, Betânia, Custódia, Ibimirim, Inajá, Sertânia and Manari. Apis mellifera is the main pollinator of melon crop. Melon crop can support the bees during the shortage of bee flora and increase in bee production.

  5. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  6. Transcriptomic events involved in melon mature-fruit abscission comprise the sequential induction of cell-wall degrading genes coupled to a stimulation of endo and exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Corbacho

    Full Text Available Mature-fruit abscission (MFA in fleshy-fruit is a genetically controlled process with mechanisms that, contrary to immature-fruit abscission, has not been fully characterized. Here, we use pyrosequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of melon abscission zone (AZ at three stages during AZ-cell separation in order to understand MFA control at an early stage of AZ-activation.The results show that by early induction of MFA, the melon AZ exhibits major gene induction, while by late induction of MFA, melon AZ shows major gene repression. Although some genes displayed similar regulation in both early and late induction of abscission, such as EXT1-EXT4, EGase1, IAA2, ERF1, AP2D15, FLC, MADS2, ERAF17, SAP5 and SCL13 genes, the majority had different expression patterns. This implies that time-specific events occur during MFA, and emphasizes the value of characterizing multiple time-specific abscission transcriptomes. Analysis of gene-expression from these AZs reveal that a sequential induction of cell-wall-degrading genes is associated with the upregulation of genes involved in endo and exocytosis, and a shift in plant-hormone metabolism and signaling genes during MFA. This is accompanied by transcriptional activity of small-GTPases and synthaxins together with tubulins, dynamins, V-type ATPases and kinesin-like proteins potentially involved in MFA signaling. Early events are potentially controlled by down-regulation of MADS-box, AP2/ERF and Aux/IAA transcription-factors, and up-regulation of homeobox, zinc finger, bZIP, and WRKY transcription-factors, while late events may be controlled by up-regulation of MYB transcription-factors.Overall, the data provide a comprehensive view on MFA in fleshy-fruit, identifying candidate genes and pathways associated with early induction of MFA. Our comprehensive gene-expression profile will be very useful for elucidating gene regulatory networks of the MFA in fleshy-fruit.

  7. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  8. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  9. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo Physiological and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes na identificação do nível de vigor e da qualidade sanitária de lotes de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.. Foram avaliados quatro lotes de sementes das cultivares Gaúcho e Carvalho, submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem de germinação, emergência em campo, deterioração controlada, envelhecimento acelerado e sanidade. Os resultados indicaram que os testes de deterioração controlada e envelhecimento acelerado apresentam sensibilidade suficiente para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de melão, mas os testes de avaliação de plântulas não mostraram sensibilidade suficiente para realizar uma estratificação dos lotes pelo vigor. Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium oxysporum foram encontrados associados às sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different vigour tests in the identification of vigour levels and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo L. seeds. Four seed lots of Gaúcho and Carvalho cultivars were evaluated. Seeds were submitted to the first germination counting, field emergence, controlled deterioration and aging, cold vigour and health tests. Results indicated that controlled deterioration and accelerated aging tests presented enough sensibility for evaluating the physiological potential of melon seeds. Tests of seedling evaluation did not show enough sensibility to identify hiht quality seed lots. Aspergillus ssp. and Fusarium oxysporum were detected associated with seeds.

  11. Crescimento e produtividade do meloeiro Torreon influenciado pela cobertura do solo = Growth and yield of the Torreon melon crop influenced by soil cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elís Regina Costa de Morais

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar índices de crescimento e fisiológicos do meloeiro em função dos graus-dia acumulados e determinar a relação dos índices fisiológicos com a produtividade da cultura em coberto com filme plástico nas cores preto, prateado, amarelo e marrom, e do solo descoberto como testemunha. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Fazenda Santa Júlia Agrocomercial Exportadora de Frutos Tropicais Ltda., Mossoró, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (agosto-outubro de 2003, em Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico Argissólico, utilizando-se o melão Torreon em blocos casualizados comquatro repetições. A taxa de crescimento absoluta e a taxa de crescimento relativa para o número de folhas e índice de área foliar foram influenciadas pela cobertura do solo e decresceram com o desenvolvimento da planta, e ainda que a maior produtividade de frutoscomercializáveis foi registrada nas coberturas do solo com plástico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and physiological indexes of the melon crop in function of accumulated degree-days and to determine the relationship between the physiological index and yield of the crop in soil covered with plastic film in the colors black, silver, yellow, and brown, and of the uncovered soil as witness. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Santa Júlia Agrocomercial Exportadora de Frutos Tropicais Ltda, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State (August-October 2003 in Oxissol, using the Torreon melon in a randomized experimental blocks design with four replications. The relative growth rate for the number of leaves and leaf area index were influenced by soil cover and decreased with the development of the plant; the highestproductivity of marketable fruits was registered on plastic soil coverage.

  12. Contamination levels of mercury and cadmium in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)], E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Baker, C. Scott [Marine Mammal Institute and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon 97365 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Total mercury (T-Hg), methyl mercury (M-Hg), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast were analyzed. The mean concentration of T-Hg in the liver (126 {+-} 97 {mu}g/wet g, n = 13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34 {+-} 2.36 {mu}g/wet g, n = 12) and muscle (4.90 {+-} 2.33 {mu}g/wet g, n = 15). In contrast, the mean concentration of M-Hg in the liver (9.08 {+-} 2.24 {mu}g/wet g) was similar to those in the kidney (3.47 {+-} 0.91 {mu}g/wet g) and muscle (3.78 {+-} 1.53 {mu}g/wet g). The mean percentage of M-Hg in the T-Hg found in the liver (13.1 {+-} 10.3) was significantly lower than those in the kidney (58.3 {+-} 15.0) and muscle (78.9 {+-} 8.4). The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver was effectively 1.0, but those in the kidney and muscle were markedly lower. Conversely, the mean concentration of Cd was markedly higher in the kidney (24.4 {+-} 7.4 {mu}g/wet g) than in the liver (7.24 {+-} 2.08 {mu}g/wet g) and muscle (less than 0.05 {mu}g/wet g). These results suggest that the formation of Hg-Se compounds mainly occurs in the liver after the demethylation of M-Hg, and Cd preferentially accumulates in the kidney of melon-headed whales.

  13. Contamination levels of mercury and cadmium in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Baker, C. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (T-Hg), methyl mercury (M-Hg), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast were analyzed. The mean concentration of T-Hg in the liver (126 ± 97 μg/wet g, n = 13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34 ± 2.36 μg/wet g, n = 12) and muscle (4.90 ± 2.33 μg/wet g, n = 15). In contrast, the mean concentration of M-Hg in the liver (9.08 ± 2.24 μg/wet g) was similar to those in the kidney (3.47 ± 0.91 μg/wet g) and muscle (3.78 ± 1.53 μg/wet g). The mean percentage of M-Hg in the T-Hg found in the liver (13.1 ± 10.3) was significantly lower than those in the kidney (58.3 ± 15.0) and muscle (78.9 ± 8.4). The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver was effectively 1.0, but those in the kidney and muscle were markedly lower. Conversely, the mean concentration of Cd was markedly higher in the kidney (24.4 ± 7.4 μg/wet g) than in the liver (7.24 ± 2.08 μg/wet g) and muscle (less than 0.05 μg/wet g). These results suggest that the formation of Hg-Se compounds mainly occurs in the liver after the demethylation of M-Hg, and Cd preferentially accumulates in the kidney of melon-headed whales

  14. Effects of Tillage Methods on Some Soil Physical Properties, Growth and Yield of Water Melon in a Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate tillage method is necessary to create an optimum seed bed condition for optimum crop growth and yield. Two-year field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on the physical properties of sandy loam soil, growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris in a semi-arid environment. The Tillage treatments were disc ploughing plus disc harrowing (DP+DH, double disc ploughing (DDP, double disc harrowing (DDH, disc ploughing (DP and disc harrowing (DH as minimum tillage (MT and zero tillage (ZT and direct drilling method (control. The watermelon seeds were Planted manually placing three (3 seeds per hole at an interval of 1.5m along the rows and 50cm between the rows at an average depth of 5cm. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Results showed that disc ploughing + disc harrowing (DP+DH was found to be more appropriate and profitable tillage method in improving soil physical properties and growth and yield of water melon in a sandy loam soil. Watermelon yield, fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD and leaf area index (LAI were significantly influenced (P=0.05, but influence of tillage treatments were not significant on the number of fruit per plant (NFPP. A numerical value of 31.0t/ha, 26.0, 5.4kg, 29.0cm, and 33.8cm were recorded for maximum crop yield, NFPP, FW, FD and FL respectively in DP+DH-treated plots. For zero tillage (ZT treatment, maximum of crop yield and NFPP were 26.5t/ha and 20.0 respectively. Thus for enhanced growth and yield of watermelon, DP/DH would be more preferable. The orthodox method of zero tillage is out rightly discouraged

  15. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  16. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  2. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  3. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  4. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  5. CONSUMERS'ACCEPTANCE OF FRESH AND COMBINED METHODS PROCESSED MELON, MANGO AND CASHEW APPLE ACEITAÇÃO DO CONSUMIDOR DE MELÃO, MANGA E CAJU IN NATURA E PROCESSADOS POR MÉTODOS COMBINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA TIEKO NASSU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh and combined methods processed Cantaloupe melons, mangoes and cashew apples were submitted to consumers' acceptance and scored on a nine-point hedonic scale. Fruits were osmotically treated in sucrose syrup with two different concentrations of SO2. Overall acceptance, appearance, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated. Fresh cashew apples received lower scores for acceptance than processed cashew apples while fresh mangoes were more acceptable than processed mangoes. Acceptance of fresh melons and processed melons was similar. Treatments of the tropical fruits with two different concentrations of SO2 did not demonstrate significant differences between the fruits tested.Melões 'Cantaloupe', mangas e pedúnculos de caju in natura e processados por métodos combinados foram submetidos a testes de aceitação, utilizando-se de escala hedônica de nove pontos. As frutas sofreram tratamento osmótico em um xarope de sacarose com duas diferentes concentrações de SO2. Foram avaliados aceitação global, aparência, aroma, sabor e textura. Pedúnculos de caju in natura obtiveram notas menores para aceitação se comparados aos processados, enquanto mangas in natura foram mais aceitas do que as processadas. A aceitação de melões in natura e processados foi similar. Tratamentos com diferentes concentrações de SO2 não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os frutos estudados.

  6. Effect of Black and Clear Polyethylene Mulch on Yield and Yield Components of Melon in Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term of Mulch, is the German word (Molsh means the soft, however, not soft, and made of plant debris or synthetic substances. Many positive effects attributed to the use of plastic mulch such as adjusting the temperature in the root environment, conserve moisture, reduce weeds, increase root growth, reduce soil erosion, and soil condensation and improve germination and early plant establishment. The use of mulch can reduce the harmful effects of salt in plants. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of black and clear polyethylene mulch on yield and yield components of melon in salinity stress condition, a study was conducted in 2011 using split plot randomized based on complete block design with three replications in Varamin region. Three salinity levels of irrigation water of 2, 5 and 8 dS-1 as main factor and three plastic mulch treatments (no mulch, clear mulch and black mulch were considered as sub-plots. At harvest and after determining the yield and number of fruits harvested from each plot, the average number of fruits per plant was measured and fruit pulp thickness was recorded with calipers. Results Discussion The results showed interactive effects of salinity and mulch on fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first harvest and fruit soluble solids percentage were statistically significant. In salinity levels of 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1, fruit yield increased, respectively, 19.6, 59, and 45.4 %in clear mulch compared to control. Similarly these increases for the black mulch were equal to 15.7, 41.9, and 21.4 percent, respectively. With 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1 salinity levels, fruit yield in the first harvest were 7.44, 7.72, and 6.98 t ha -1, respectively, which was significantly higher than without mulch and black mulch. Mulch can reduce evaporation and increase the level of moisture in the soil and thereby dilute the salt and reduce the harmful effects of salinity. Some

  7. Produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo, sob cultivo protegido, em diferentes substratos Production of yellow melon seedlings in different substrates under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mudas mal formadas e debilitadas comprometem o desenvolvimento das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo, sob cultivo protegido, em diferentes substratos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em telado, na Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS, nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Testaram-se os seguintes substratos: T1 (vermicomposto bovino puro; T2 (substrato comercial Plantmax®; T3 (substrato comercial Húmus Fértil®; T4 (vermicomposto bovino 75% + casca de arroz carbonizada 25% e T5 (solo 75% + vermicomposto bovino 25%. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade e a percentagem de emergência do 6º ao 9º dia; a altura, o comprimento da raiz principal, a massa seca das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de meloeiro, aos 27 dias. Os substratos que proporcionaram maior índice de velocidade de emergência das mudas de meloeiro amarelo foram Húmus Fértil®, vermicomposto bovino puro e vermicomposto bovino 75% mais casca de arroz carbonizada 25%. Maior altura da muda é obtida com o substrato Húmus Fértil®. O comprimento da raiz principal foi maior com o uso de vermicomposto bovino puro, Húmus Fértil®, vermicomposto bovino puro mais casca de arroz carbonizada (VB75+CAC25, em comparação com solo 75% mais vermicomposto bovino 25%. A massa seca de raiz foi maior quando utilizado Húmus Fértil®, em comparação com solo 75% mais vermicomposto bovino 25%. É possível utilizar substratos isolados ou em combinação para a produção de mudas de meloeiro amarelo sob cultivo protegido. Porém, deve-se evitar o uso de solo 75% em combinação com vermicomposto bovino 25%.Weak and malformed seedlings compromise the development of the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of yellow melon seedlings in different substrates under protected cultivation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during November and December, at the Federal University of Pelotas (RS. The following

  8. Crescimento de meloeiro sob estresse salino e doses de potássio Growth of melon cultivated under saline stress and potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo T. Gurgel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, em destaque a região da Chapada do Apodi, se destaca na produção e exportação de melão no País, em regime de irrigação, devido à distribuição pluvial baixa e irregular. A Chapada do Apodi possui dois aqüíferos subterrâneos; a do lençol menos profundo de alta salinidade, porém com menor custo de bombeamento, ocorrendo o contrário com o de maior profundidade. Objetivou-se, ante o exposto, avaliar o efeito de duas águas de salinidades diferentes (0,52 e 2,41 dS m-1, combinadas com cinco doses de K2O (218, 273, 328, 383 e 438 kg ha-1 sobre o crescimento do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cultivar Goldex, utilizando-se do delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas; amostras de planta foram coletadas aos 21, 28, 35, 49 e 63 dias após a semeadura, determinando-se a fitomassa seca das plantas, estas separadas em ramos (caule + folhas, flores e frutos; avaliou-se, também, a taxa de crescimento absoluto e relativo e a produção de frutos. Em geral, o crescimento do melão foi favorecido com o uso de água mais salina; a taxa de crescimento absoluto foi máxima entre 35 e 49 dias após a semeadura. Obteve-se maior produção de fitomassa total com 438 kg ha-1 de K2O e uso de água mais salina, ao final do ciclo.The region of 'Chapada do Apodi', in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, stands out in Brazilian production and exportation of melon. This region possesses two aquiffers, one of lower exploration cost, though of high salinity, another of low salinity, with higher cost and limited use. This work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effect of waters of different salinities combined with five doses of K in the dry matter accumulation and productivity of the melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivar Goldex. The experimental design adopted was split plot in completely randomized blocks. The melon crop was irrigated with low (0.52 dS m-1 and high (2.41 dS m-1 salinity water combined with

  9. Temperatura de armazenamento e tipo de corte para melão minimamente processado Storage temperature and cut type to minimally processed melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a temperatura de armazenamento e o tipo de corte que proporciona melhor manutenção da qualidade de melões minimamente processados. Melões rendilhados, híbrido Bonus II, foram processados em câmara fria a 12ºC. Os frutos foram cortados manualmente em 8 fatias longitudinais. Em um dos tratamentos, as fatias foram divididas em pedaços de aproximadamente 3 cm de base e, no outro tratamento, foram utilizadas fatias inteiras. O produto minimamente processado foi acondicionado em embalagem rígida de politereftalato de etileno e armazenado a 3; 6 e 9ºC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e sensoriais a cada 3 dias, por um período de 9 dias. A coloração e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O produto armazenado a 3ºC manteve maiores valores de firmeza, independentemente do tipo de corte. A aparência foi considerada boa até o 9º dia de armazenamento e o aroma, até o 6º dia, para melões a 3ºC. Em todos os tratamentos, houve declínio das notas atribuídas ao sabor durante o armazenamento. Pelos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a qualidade de melões minimamente processados pode ser mantida por 6 dias a 3ºC, independentemente do tipo de corte.The objective of this work was to determine the storage temperature and the cut type that provides the better maintenance of the quality of minimally processed melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus hybrid. Bonus II. Fruits were hand cut in 8 longitudinal slices in cold chamber at 12ºC. One of the slices was divided in 3cm pieces, in the other treatment whole slices were used. The product minimally processed was packed in rigid polyethylene terephthalate tray and stored at 3, 6 and 9ºC. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial arrangement. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics were

  10. Mapping and Introgression of QTL Involved in Fruit Shape Transgressive Segregation into ‘Piel de Sapo’ Melon (Cucucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Aurora; Zarouri, Belkacem; Fergany, Mohamed; Eduardo, Iban; Álvarez, José M.; Picó, Belén; Monforte, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    A mapping F2 population from the cross ‘Piel de Sapo’ × PI124112 was selectively genotyped to study the genetic control of morphological fruit traits by QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis. Ten QTL were identified, five for FL (Fruit Length), two for FD (Fruit Diameter) and three for FS (Fruit Shape). At least one robust QTL per character was found, flqs8.1 (LOD = 16.85, R2 = 34%), fdqs12.1 (LOD = 3.47, R2 = 11%) and fsqs8.1 (LOD = 14.85, R2 = 41%). flqs2.1 and fsqs2.1 cosegregate with gene a (andromonoecious), responsible for flower sex determination and with pleiotropic effects on FS. They display a positive additive effect (a) value, so the PI124112 allele causes an increase in FL and FS, producing more elongated fruits. Conversely, the negative a value for flqs8.1 and fsqs8.1 indicates a decrease in FL and FS, what results in rounder fruits, even if PI124112 produces very elongated melons. This is explained by a significant epistatic interaction between fsqs2.1 and fsqs8.1, where the effects of the alleles at locus a are attenuated by the additive PI124112 allele at fsqs8.1. Roundest fruits are produced by homozygous for PI124112 at fsqs8.1 that do not carry any dominant A allele at locus a (PiPiaa). A significant interaction between fsqs8.1 and fsqs12.1 was also detected, with the alleles at fsqs12.1 producing more elongated fruits. fsqs8.1 seems to be allelic to QTL discovered in other populations where the exotic alleles produce elongated fruits. This model has been validated in assays with backcross lines along 3 years and ultimately obtaining a fsqs8.1-NIL (Near Isogenic Line) in ‘Piel de Sapo’ background which yields round melons. PMID:25126852

  11. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  12. Sterilization of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), with gamma-radiation: Effect of dose on oviposition behavior of irradiated females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a laboratory condition, the visiting and the puncturing frequencies of gamma-irradiated Dacus cucurbitae females on cucumber Cucumis sativus fruits were examined. In the non-irradiated females, the frequencies reached equilibrium ca. 1 week after adult emergence. The frequencies of the irradrated females decreased with irradiation dosage, but gradually resumed frequency with age. A similar trend was found in the relationship between the irradiation dose and the rates of the puncturing frequency to the visiting frequency. As the irradiation dose increased, the rate of under-developed ovaries increased. The ratio of cumulative puncturing frequency in the 70 Gy irradiated (completely sterile) females to that of the non-irradiated females was estimated as 1/200 when daily survival rate in the field was assumed to be 0.85. The completely sterile adult females (40 days old) made punctures on all sizes of cucumber cultivated in a greenhouse. However, these punctures do not significantly damage the fruit. The sting of the sterile melon fly would not be a serious problem in eradication programs based on the Sterile Insect Technique

  13. Comparison of acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds for wild, mass-reared, and irradiated melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmiya, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Kohjin; Tanaka, Akira; Kamiwada, Hidemi.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds produced by the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT in wild (W-), mass-reared (M-), and irradiated (I-) strains were analyzed. Properties included fundamental frequency (FFQ), peak power density of FFQ (PPD), overall root mean square value (ORMS), total harmonic RMS (THRMS), total harmonic distortion (THDIST), bandwidth of FFQ (BWFF), and the number of harmonics and wing-strokes. M- and I-strains developed FFQ 3 days earlier than the W-strain. The W-strain had a greater variance in the mean, and overall lower values for FFQ, PPD, and ORMS than M- and I-strains. The fluctuation of acoustic properties of wild strain with aging was markedly different from that of the laboratory strains. The fact that values of these parameters for laboratory strains developed at earlier adult age and continued relatively high may by due to selection effects. No significant differences were observed between laboratory strains resulting from effect of irradiation. There were, however, significant differences among the 6 parameters in 8 age groups which were recognized for 12 cases between W- and I-, 8 between W- and M-, and 4 between M- and I-strains. (author)

  14. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  15. Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS-SPME/GC-MS and INDEX/MS-E-nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behaviour in melon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Torres, Libia A; Bueso, María C; Fernández-Trujillo, Juan P

    2016-05-01

    Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC3-5-1 with two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) introgressed which produced climacteric behaviour and its non-climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS-based electronic nose (MS-E-nose). Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified, most were found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3-5-1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur-derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3-5-1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3-5-1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. GC-MS gave better discrimination than E-nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behaviour. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  17. Changes in evapotranspiration of summer and winter crops of netted melon [Cucumis melo] grown under glass in relation to meteorological and plant-related factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of evapotranspiration taken in the summer and winter on netted melon crops grown under glass were taken to characterize seasonal and daily changes. The data were compared to meteorological and plant-related factors to seek some relationships. Evapotranspiration followed a sigmoid curve until one week after pollination, and then decreased gradually during fruit growth. Cumulative evapotranspirations after transplanting were about 116 kg and 60 kg, respectively, for the summer and winter crops, whereas the peak evapotranspirations were 3.O kg plant(-1) day(-1) and 1.3 kg plant(-1) day(-1). The rapid increase h the evapotranspiration during the early stage was associated with the increase in leaf area; its gradual decrease during fruit growth was associated with a decrease in the transpiration potential of leaves. Therefore, irrigation amounts should be increased with leaf development and decreased with fruit growth. The curve of solar radiation in sunny summer days peaked at noon, whereas vapor pressure deficit usually peaked in early or mid afternoon; evapotranspirations in the afternoon had higher values than had those in the morning. In winter, vapor pressure deficit was relatively high during late afternoon and early morning because of heating, whereas it was low during the remainder of the day on account of low ventilation. These fluctuations led to a weak correlation between evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficit. Regression analyses indicated that solar radiation was a main meteorological factor affecting evapotranspiration

  18. Cafeteria diet induces obesity and insulin resistance associated with oxidative stress but not with inflammation: improvement by dietary supplementation with a melon superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Romain, Cindy; Bardy, Guillaume; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Gaillet, Sylvie; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bitter melon seed oil may reduce the adiposity through the hypothalamus mTOR signaling in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Yi Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon seed oil (BMSO was found to have an advantageous effect on anti-obesity. Up to date, the mechanisms underlying this process have been extensively investigated. However, there are very few reports focusing on the roles of central nervous system (CNS involved. In this study, Golgi-Cox staining and western blotting assays were used to examine the hypothalamic spine density and the expression levels of NMDA-2B receptor and P-S6 protein, respectively. A significant reduction concerning hypothalamic spine density was observed in HFD mice, a phenomenon that could be partially rescued by the BMSO administration. Furthermore, it was found that BMSO could also reverse the changes upon the phosphorylation levels of S6, a typical protein involved in mTOR signaling pathway, indicating that mTOR signaling potentially participated in this metabolism regulation. Besides, NMDA-2B levels were up-regulated in HFD mice, which could not be considerably influenced by BMSO. In summary, this study first proposed aberrant hypothalamic plasticity as CNS's roles in BMSO's fat-reducing effects, favoring the better recognition and treatment of the intractable hypothalamic obesity.

  20. Sustainability of melon cultivation in São Romão settlement in Mossoró/RN: determination of indicators by the MESMIS methodology

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    Ivanildo Martins Formiga Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, agriculture is one of the most discussed topics in the theoretical field of sustainability. Debates regarding this issue are increasingly recurrent and put in question the model adopted from the post-war, the so-called green revolution. In the state of Rio Grande do Norte, the agricultural potential lies mainly in irrigated horticulture, where stands the agropolo Acu-Mossoró as one of the greatest watermelon producing regions of Brazil. The cultivation of watermelon, once dominated by large agricultural companies, is currently developed by agroecosystems whose management is characterized by family participation, including small farmers of rural settlements created by Incra. Aiming to assess the sustainability of this type of cultivation, was used the MESMIS methodology in the in São Romão settlement in Mossoró-RN, which is primarily engaged in the cultivation of irrigated melon. Seven critical points were determined and selected twenty-three indicators that directly affect the sustainability of the researched area.

  1. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  2. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  3. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  4. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  5. Reaction of melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew Reação de genótipos de melão ao crestamento gomoso e ao míldio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen

  6. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  9. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  10. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  14. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  15. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  17. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  20. Qualidade do melão cantaloupe cv. Hy-Mark minimamente processado e armazenado sob refrigeração Quality of cantaloupe melon cv. Hy-Mark minimally processed and refrigerated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das pesquisas em melão minimamente processado é concentrada no tipo 'cantaloupe', devido à sua importância no mercado internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade do melão cantaloupe cv. Hy-Mark minimamente processado. Os frutos foram lavados e sanitizados, sendo em seguida cortados na forma de cubos, imersos em solução de CaCl2, acondicionados em embalagens flexíveis PET (tereftalato de polietileno e armazenados a 4ºC por 9 dias. O delineamento foi conduzido inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. A intervalos de três dias, amostras foram coletadas e analisadas quanto a coliformes totais e fecais, e contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e bolores e leveduras, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez, vitamina C, açúcares redutores totais, atividade de água, firmeza e análise sensorial através do atributo de aceitação global. O melão minimamente processado apresentou boa estabilidade física, físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial, estimando-se em 9 dias a vida útil deste produto a 4ºC.Most of the research into minimally processed melon is focused on cantaloupe melon, due to its importance in the international market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of cantaloupe melon cv. Hy-Mark, minimally processed and refrigerated. Fruits were washed, sanitized, cut and imbedded in a calcium chloride solution and packed in PET and stored at 4ºC during 9 days. At three-day intervals samples were collected and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, counting of aerobic mesophilic bacterias, molds and yeast, SS (soluble solids, TTA (total titrable acidity, firmness, pH, TRS (total reducing sugar, Aw, vitamin C, color and acceptability. The minimally processed melon showed good overall physical, pyisico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial stability during the storage period.

  1. Aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de híbridos de melão cultivados no agropolo Mossoró-Assu Yield and quality aspects of melon hybrids grown in agropolo Mossoró-Assu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de S. Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e qualitativo de híbridos de melão no agropolo Mossoró-Assu. Em ambos os experimentos foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O primeiro experimento foi constituído de seis híbridos de melão Gália e dois do tipo Cantaloupe, e o segundo foi composto de sete híbridos de melão Amarelo, um Pele de sapo e três Orange Flesh. Avaliaram-se a produtividade, peso médio do fruto, cavidade interna, espessura da polpa, aparências externa e interna, perda de peso, teor de sólidos solúveis e firmeza da polpa. Considerando as variáveis utilizadas na avaliação, constatou-se variação entre os híbridos nos dois experimentos. Entre os melões Gália, destacaram-se os híbridos DRG 1531 e DRG 1537. Os melões Red Flesh e AFX 700 foram os mais promissores entre os melões do tipo Orange Flesh. Por fim, entre os melões do tipo Valenciano, destacaram-se os híbridos Gold Mine, Gold Pride e Gold Star.Two experiments were carried out with the objective of evaluating the quality and yield performance of hybrids of melon in agropolo Mossoró-Assu, Brazil. In both experiments a randomized complete blocks design with four replications was used. In the first experiment six Galia and two Cantaloupe hybrids were used and in the second experiment seven Yellow hybrids, one Piel del Sapo and three Orange Flesh hybrids were evaluated. Evaluations of productivity, average fruit weight, internal cavity, pulp thickness, external and internal appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids and pulp firmness were made. Variation among the hybrids in both experiments for the assessed characteristics were observed. Among Gália melons, the hybrids DRG 1531 and DRG 1537 were the most promising while among Orange Flesh melons, the Red Flesh and AFX 700 hybrids were the best. Among Yellow melons, the hybrids Gold Mine, Gold Pride and Gold Star were the

  2. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  3. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  4. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  5. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  6. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  7. Influência do manejo da irrigação no meloeiro rendilhado cultivado em ambiente protegido Irrigation management on net-melon fruits cultivated under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny J. A. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar a cultura do melão rendilhado em função do manejo da irrigação, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com a cultivar Bônus nº 2, na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de manejo (tensiômetro e lisímetro de tensão controlada, e dois níveis de fertilidade (presença e ausência de fertilizantes. O lisímetro de tensão controlada é um dispositivo que utiliza cápsula porosa, capaz de fornecer água automaticamente, acoplado a um tubo de Mariotte, que permite realizar leituras de volume de água consumido pela planta. Para os tratamentos com lisímetro de tensão controlada, a porosidade livre de água média (PLA foi de 15%; já para os irrigados com base nos tensiômetros, a PLA permaneceu em média 35%, favorecendo boa relação ar-água durante todo o experimento. Com relação à variação temporal do potencial matricial do solo (média das três profundidades, os tratamentos com tensiômetro apresentaram valores médios de tensões com desvios de 9,10%, enquanto, para os tratamentos com lisímetro de tensão controlada, os desvios foram de 1,33%. Com manejo da irrigação por tensiômetros, sem adição de fertilizantes, a massa média dos frutos (1.070,4 g quase duplicou em relação ao padrão mínimo comercial (550 g. Adicionando a fertirrigação nesse manejo, o incremento passou a ser de 4,5 vezes (2.493,8 g. O meloeiro apresentou baixo rendimento em condição de porosidade livre de água inferior a 20%.Aiming to evaluate net-melon fruits under irrigation management, it was carried out an experiment in greenhouse conditions. The experimental area was located at the irrigation farm of the Engineering Department of - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, planted with Bonus 2 cultivar. Two irrigation management systems were

  8. Híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado cultivados em solo e substrato Net melon experimental hybrids cultivated in soil and substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de Oliveira Charlo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o desempenho de híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado em dois sistemas de cultivo. Foram avaliados seis híbridos experimentais (Jab 07#16, Jab 07#17, Jab 07#23, Jab 07#24, Jab 07#26, Jab 07#28 e três híbridos comerciais (Bônus nº 2, Louis e Fantasy, em dois sistemas de cultivo (em solo e em fibra da casca de coco. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições, para cada experimento, realizando-se análise conjunta dos dados. Foram avaliados: massa média do fruto; produtividade; diâmetro médio transversal do fruto; diâmetro médio longitudinal do fruto; índice de formato de fruto; diâmetro médio transversal do lóculo; diâmetro médio longitudinal do lóculo; índice de formato do lóculo; espessura do mesocarpo; diâmetro médio da inserção do pedúnculo dos frutos; sólidos solúveis; pH; vitamina C; rendilhamento da casca; e firmeza do fruto. Pode-se concluir que, para o sistema de cultivo em fibra da casca de coco, todos os híbridos são recomendados, exceto o Jab 07#17, enquanto os híbridos Bônus nº 2, Fantasy, Jab 07#26, Jab 07#28 e Jab 07#16 devem ser cultivados em solo.This work aimed check net melon experimental hybrids performance in two cultivation systems. Six experimental hybrids (Jab 07#16, Jab 07#17, Jab 07#23, Jab 07#24, Jab 07#26, and Jab 07#28 and three commercial hybrids (Bônus nº 2, Louis, and Fantasy were evaluated, in two cultivation systems (soil and coconut fiber cultivation. The statistical design used was the randomized blocks, with nine treatments and four replications, and the data analysis was done together. The evaluations were: fruit weight, productivity, transversal fruit diameter, longitudinal fruit diameter, fruit shape index, transversal locule diameter, longitudinal locule diameter, locule shape index, mesocarp thickness, insertion diameter of the stalk's insertion, soluble

  9. Variabilidade espacial da fertirrigação em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo cultivado com melão Spatial variability of fertirrigation in a Oxissol cultivated with melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyton de O. Miranda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, realizado em Mossoró, RN, investigou a variabilidade de parâmetros da fertirrigação por gotejamento, sua dependência espacial e correlação com a produtividade e qualidade de frutos de melão. Em uma malha de 20 por 20 m foram tomadas 75 amostras, para se determinar: produção de frutos tipo exportação (PEXP, mercado nacional (PNAC e comerciável (PCOM, peso médio de frutos comerciáveis (PMCOM, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, firmeza de polpa, espessura da polpa (ESPOLP, elevação, distância até a entrada de água, além da quantidade de adubo aplicada e vazão dos gotejadores com os respectivos coeficientes de uniformidade de emissão (CUE. A variabilidade foi determinada através da estatística descritiva e da geoestatística. A vazão e a quantidade de adubo aplicada no primeiro teste, foram menores que o esperado. O CUE foi bom e excelente para vazão, e regular e bom para a quantidade de adubo aplicada. A dependência espacial foi observada para vazão e quantidade de adubo aplicada, cujas isolinhas permitiram localizar-se áreas onde ocorreu déficit ou excesso. As correlações sugerem influência da vazão sobre PNAC, PCOM e PMCOM, e da quantidade de adubo sobre PEXP e ESPOLP.This study investigated the variability of drip fertirrigation parameters, its spatial dependence and relationship to yield and quality of melon fruits in a field in Mossoró, RN, Brazil. A total of 75 plots were sampled in a 20 by 20 m grid to determine the following parameters: yield of export type melon (PEXP and national market type (PNAC, marketable yield (PCOM, mean weight of marketable fruits (PMCOM, total soluble solids content (SST, pulp firmness, pulp thickness (ESPOLP, emitter discharge rate, elevation, distance to water inlet, amount of fertilizer applied, and emission uniformity (CUE of discharge rate and fertilizer amount. The variability was assessed by conventional statistics methods and by geostatistics

  10. Conservação de melão rendilhado minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada ativa Conservation of minimally processed net melon under active modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Melões rendilhados cv. Bônus II foram minimamente processados manualmente na forma de cubos, acondicionados em diversos materiais de embalagem com injeção da mistura gasosa (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 e armazenados a 3ºC durante 12 dias. Os materiais de embalagem foram: BB-200: filme multicamada da Cryovac 65µm; PBC:filme poliolefínico Probag Conservax 64µm; PP: filme de polipropileno 52µm. Como controle, utilizou-se bandeja de polietileno com tampa perfurada. Realizou-se monitoramento da composição gasosa, análises microbiológicas, sensoriais e físico-químicas a cada 3 dias. Foram determinadas as taxas de permeabilidade ao O2 e CO2 de cada filme. A embalagem BB-200 promoveu acúmulo de CO2 até níveis de 24% e redução de O2 até níveis de 0,4%. Na embalagem PBC a concentração de O2 estabilizou-se ao redor de 8% e a de CO2 ao redor de 4%, enquanto na embalagem de PP os níveis de gases estabilizaram-se ao redor de 13% O2 e 6% CO2. De maneira geral, as características físico-químicas e sensoriais foram pouco influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A alteração da composição gasosa foi eficiente no controle de microrganismos. A partir do 9º dia de armazenamento, os melões controle apresentaram níveis de bactérias mesófilas acima de 10(5 NMP/g, com riscos de apresentarem microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deterioradores.Net melons cv. Bonus II were minimally processed as cubes, wrapped in several packaging materials with injection of the gaseous mixture (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 and stored at 3ºC for 12 days. The packaging materials were: BB-200: Cryovac multlayer film 65mm; PBC: Probag Conservax polyolephinic film 64µm; PP: polypropylene film 52µm. Polystyrene trays were used as control with perforated cover. Gaseous composition inside of the packaging, microbiological, sensorial and physical-chemical characteristics were determined each 3 days. The gas permeability was determined for each film. BB-200 packaging promoted CO

  11. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia Yossri; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Baiomy, Ahmed A; Yassin, Magdy Hassan; El-Sawy, Hanan Basiouni

    2017-06-17

    Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela. The treatments continued for 10 weeks. Karela was given for hypercholesterolemic rats after 6 weeks of cholesterol administration. Serum, liver and epididymal adipose tissues were taken for biochemical, histopathological and genetic assessments. Hypercholesterolemia induced a decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were ameliorated by karela administration. Hypercholesterolemia up regulated antioxidants mRNA expression and altered the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes. In parallel, hypercholesterolemic groups showed significant changes in the expression of PPAR-alpha and gamma, lipolysis, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acids synthase (FAS), sterol responsible element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at hepatic and adipose tissue levels. Interestingly, Karela ameliorated all altered genes confirming its hypocholesterolemic effect. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that hypercholesterolemia induced hepatic tissue changes compared with control. These changes include cholesterol clefts, necrosis, karyolysis and sever congestion of portal blood vessel. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity showed positive expression in

  12. Reação de genótipos de meloeiro a Myrothecium Reaction of melon genotypes to Myrothecium roridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissônia A Noronha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. no Nordeste brasileiro tem favorecido a ocorrência de doenças como o cancro-de-mirotécio, causado pelo fungo Myrothecium roridum. Visando selecionar genótipos com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 150 genótipos de meloeiro. Plantas com 22 dias de idade, desenvolvidas em casa de vegetação, foram feridas no colo e inoculadas com uma suspensão do patógeno (3x10(6 conídios/ml. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, até seis dias após a retirada da câmara úmida, com o auxílio de uma escala descritiva de notas de 0 a 4. Com os dados da última avaliação, os genótipos foram distribuídos em cinco classes de reação à doença. Nenhum genótipo foi imune ou altamente resistente ao patógeno, enquanto 26,7% foram medianamente resistentes (MR e 73,3% foram suscetíveis (S ou altamente suscetíveis (AS. Esses resultados evidenciam a dificuldade na obtenção de fontes com elevados níveis de resistência a M. roridum. Os grupos Cantaloupe, Charentais, Gália e 'Indefinido' apresentaram a maior freqüência de genótipos com a reação MR e a menor freqüência de genótipos AS. A maioria dos genótipos dos grupos Valenciano Verde (66,7%, Cantaloupe (57,4%, Gália (60,0% e 'Indefinido' (53,8% foram S. Os genótipos 'PI 420149', 'Caroline', 'A3', 'Chilton' e 'PS-1 Pele de Sapo' apresentaram os menores valores de severidade final da doença e mostraram-se promissoras fontes de resistência ao patógeno e devem ser preferidos sob condições favoráveis à doença.The expansion of the melon (Cucumis melo L. fields in the Brazilian Northeast favored the occurrence of diseases such as the Myrothecium stem canker caused by the fungus Myrothecium roridum. In order to select genotypes with potential use in genetic breeding programs and in integrated disease management, 150 melon genotypes were evaluated. Twenty

  13. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  14. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  16. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  17. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain; Implantacao de metodo funcional de conservacao pos-colheita de meloes cantaloupe, utilizando as radiacoes ionizantes como tecnica de controle de qualidade na cadeia produtiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aazcozzo@cena.usp.br; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  18. Aplicação do método QDF na avaliação do perfil do consumidor de melão amarelo Consumer profile evaluation by quality function development for melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Abrahão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca pela longevidade e a procura por alimentos mais saudáveis fizeram com que os consumidores se tornassem cada vez mais exigentes. Diante disso, procurou-se estabelecer o comportamento de compra dos consumidores de melão no Mercado Municipal de Piracicaba (SP através do método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD e, com base nas respostas obtidas nos questionários aplicados, traçou-se o perfil dos consumidores, destacando-se suas preferências, costumes, reclamações e exigências. Verificou-se que é a mulher que realiza as compras do melão, com preferência pelo consumo na forma in natura. Encontrou-se insatisfação de 42,8% dos entrevistados quanto à qualidade do melão, sendo o sabor aguado a principal causa de descontentamento. Logo, a qualidade do melão não correspondia àquela indicada pelos consumidores (casca sem defeitos, coloração amarela característica da variedade, textura firme, suculento, de preço acessível, garantia de qualidade e gosto doce. Diante da insatisfação dos consumidores e considerando-se que o melão é consumido preferencialmente in natura, deve-se atentar para a preservação da sua aparência e qualidade sensorial. A opinião dos consumidores deve ser considerada na tentativa de identificar os pontos que devem ser melhorados dentro da cadeia de comercialização a fim de minimizar as perdas e promover a melhoria e a manutenção da qualidade do produto final.The search for longevity and the demand for healthy food have made consumers more conscious. A study was carried out to evaluate the purchasing habits of melon consumers in the Municipal Market of Piracicaba (São Paulo State, Brazil by the Quality Function Development (QFD Method. With the answers to the questionnaire, it was possible to determine the consumers' preferences, habits, complaints, and demands. It was verified that women are the consumers and that melons are consumed raw. 42.8% of the interviewees complained about

  19. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  20. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  1. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  2. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  3. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  4. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  5. Regeneração in vitro de melão, cv. 'Gaúcho' In vitro regeneration of melon, cv. 'Gaúcho'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Schmidt de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi otimizar um protocolo de regeneração de explantes cotiledonares de melão, cultivar 'Gaúcho', avaliando a composição de meios de germinação e o tempo de permanência dos explantes nesses meios. Para isso, as sementes foram germinadas em meio MS semi-sólido contendo BAP ou ANA e sem esses reguladores de crescimento. As sementes permaneceram nesses meios por um, dois, três e quatro dias, sendo então seus cotilédones inoculados em meio MS contendo diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 0,9; 1,5 e 2,0mg L-1. As maiores taxas de regeneração ocorreram nos cotilédones oriundos de sementes mantidas durante um e dois dias nos meios contendo 0,5 e 0,9mg L-1 de BAP. O aumento da permanência dos explantes nos meios de germinação e as elevadas concentrações de BAP nos meios de regeneração diminuíram a capacidade organogênica dos explantes e incrementaram a formação de calos.The aim of the present study was to optimize a cv. Gaucho melon cotyledon explant regeneration protocol, evaluating the germination media composition and the explant exposition period in these media. For this purpose, seeds were germinated in semi-solid MS medium containing either BAP or ANA, and without growth regulators. The seeds were kept in these media for one, two, three or four days; afterwards, their cotyledons were inoculated in MS medium containing different BAP concentrations (0.5; 0.9; 1.5 and 2.0mg L-1. The highest regeneration rates occurred with cotyledons from seeds which had been kept for one or two days in media containing 0.5 and 0.9mg L-1 BAP. Both the increase in the explant exposition time in germination media and high BAP concentrations in regeneration media decreased explant organogenic capacity, and increased callus formation.

  6. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  7. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Viabilidade da irrigação do meloeiro com águas salinas em diferentes fases fenológicas Feasibility of irrigation of musk melon with salinity water in different phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Queiroz Porto Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de águas de irrigação de diferentes salinidades no rendimento do melão irrigado por gotejamento e de associar a produção obtida com o custo da água utilizada, desenvolveu-se este trabalho em Mossoró-RN. Águas de diferentes salinidades (S1=0,6, S2=1,9, S3=3,2 e S4=4,5dS m-1, utilizadas de forma incremental em três estádios de desenvolvimento ou sem variar durante o ciclo da cultura, formaram dez tratamentos arranjados em blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições. O uso de águas salinas por longos períodos afetou a produção de melão. Substituições tardias na salinidade da água tenderam a não exercer efeito significativo sobre a produção do meloeiro. O tratamento irrigado com a água de menor salinidade durante todo ciclo apresentou, simultaneamente, o maior custo com água de irrigação e o maior lucro na produção de melão.This study was carried out in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different irrigation water salinity levels on yield of drip irrigated melon, and to relate yield with the cost of water. The waters of different salinities (S1=0.6, S2=1.9, S3=3.2 e S4=4.5dS m-1 were used both in incremental way in three different phenological stages and without replacement during the crop cycle totalizing ten treatments arranged in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The use of saline waters without substitutions affected melon production. The treatments irrigated with low salinity water presented simultaneously the higher cost of irrigation water and higher profits of melon cultivation.

  9. Qualidade de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L. em função do sistema de cultivo Quality of net melon (Cucumis melo L. in function of the culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Forlan Vargas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de frutos de cinco cultivares de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L., cultivados em casa de vegetação, em função do sistema de produção. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, no período de novembro de 2005 à fevereiro de 2006. O experimento foi delineado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis e dois sistemas de cultivo: no solo e em substrato de fibra da casca de coco. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca do fruto, espessura de mesocarpo, intensidade de rendilhamento da casca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, índice de maturação (RATIO, e vitamina C. Não houve interação significativa entre os sistemas de cultivo e cultivares para nenhuma das características avaliadas. O cultivo de melão em substrato resultou em frutos com qualidade superior ao cultivo em solo. Os híbridos Louis e Fantasy foram os que apresentaram melhor desempenho qualitativo de frutos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of five net melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, in function of production system. The study was carried out in a greenhouse at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, during the period of November, 2005 to February, 2006. The study was carried out using a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, in randomized complete block design with four repetitions. The treatments resulted the combination of five net melon hybrids: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy and Louis and two cultivations systems: in soil and in coconut fiber substrate. The characters evaluated were: fresh weight of fruit, mesocarp thickness, fruit shape index, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index (RATIO; and vitamin C. No interactions were observed

  10. Evaluation of the metam sodium in joint action with the clomazone and sulfentrazone like alternative to the use of methyl bromide in the melon cultivation of cantaloupe kind, in Carrillo, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzano Barrantes, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    This research realized a study in the melon cultivation of cantaloupe kind with the objective to evaluate the utilization of metam sodium joint with the clomazone and sulfentrazone weed-killers like substitutes of methyl bromide in the experimental station of Melons de Costa Rica located in Carrillo, Guanacaste, during the season of 1998-1999. The treatments were: metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (60 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (240 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), sulfentrazone (60 g.i.a.), sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a.), clomazone (240 g.i.a./ha), clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha), methyl bromide (250 kg./ha) and an absolute control. The experimental design was unconditional at random with eleven treatments and three repetitions by treatments with four beds of 35m x 0.8m by repetition. The results showed that the best treatments were: metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), with a 13.3% less of weeds control than the methyl bromide (250 kg/ha) and the treatment with metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) with a 19.2% less of weeds control than the methyl bromide (250 Kg/ha). The 5,9% of difference among them is by the clomazone's action (480 g.i.a./ha). The treatment with methyl bromide (250 Kg./ha) was the highest in output, 2286 total boxes by hectare, followed by the treatments with metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a./ha) with 1906 and metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha) that produced 1912.33 boxes of melon by hectare. (Author) [es

  11. Caracterização morfológica e dissimilaridade genética entre variedades crioulas de melão Morphological characterization and genetic dissimilarity in melon landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silviana Neitzke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Variedades crioulas de melão (Cucumis melo são cultivadas no Sul do Brasil para consumo familiar e também para comercialização dos frutos. No entanto, existe uma carência de trabalhos relativos a sua caracterização. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade genética de variedades crioulas de melão do Sul do Brasil mantidos no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cucurbitáceas da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 14 acessos utilizando 26 descritores morfológicos de fruto. Os dados foram analisados pelos métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e hierárquico UPGMA. Os métodos de agrupamento foram parcialmente concordantes. O acesso C88 possui características distintas, ficando isolado dos demais, pois é o único entre todos os avaliados que apresenta formato piriforme e sem gomos, cor de epicarpo creme, cor de polpa branca e ruptura profunda no fruto. Existe grande variabilidade genética, para caracteres de frutos, nas variedades crioulas de melão conservadas nesse Banco Ativo de Germoplasma, com potencial para uso no melhoramento genético, destacando-se o acesso C71 por possuir sabor adocicado e polpa de cor laranja e o C72, por apresentar elevados valores de peso de fruto e espessura de polpa.Melon landraces (Cucumis melo are cultivated in South of Brazil for family consumption and also for marketing fruits. However, there is a lack of works related to characterization of these landraces. The objective of this work was to characterize and evaluate genetic variability of melon landraces from South of Brazil which are maintained in the Cucurbitaceae Genebank at Embrapa Clima Temperado, trough morphological characterization. Fourteen accessions were characterized in 26 morphological fruit descriptors. Data were analyzed by Tocher grouping method and UPGMA hierarchical. The two methods agreed partially. The accession C88 has unique characteristics, being isolated when compared to the other accessions, it

  12. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  13. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  14. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  15. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  17. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  18. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  19. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  20. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  1. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  2. Crescimento e acúmulo de N, P e K pelo meloeiro irrigado com água salina Growth and N, P and K accumulation by melon irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francismar de Medeiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação é muito comum em cultivos de melão em regiões semi-áridas, o que pode resultar na salinização do solo e redução de rendimento se o manejo da irrigação não for adequado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de N, P e K em plantas de melão (Cucumis melo, L. irrigadas com água salina. Os tratamentos estudados resultaram da combinação de dois fatores: salinidade da água de irrigação (1,1; 2,5 e 4,5 dS m-1 e materiais de melão (híbrido Trusty e cultivar Orange Flesh. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições, com tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. A época de coleta de plantas foi analisado como outro fator e os resultados interpretados por análise multivariada. As plantas amostradas foram fracionadas em folhas + ramos e frutos, determinaram-se as produções de matérias secas e os conteúdos de N, P e K nestes materiais. Os acúmulos dos nutrientes nos frutos e de fitomassa seca na planta diminuíram com o incremento da salinidade da água de irrigação. Os frutos exportaram, em média, 57,1%, 67,1% e 70,0% dos totais de N, P, K, absorvidos pela planta e alocados na parte aérea, mostrando, portanto, que foram o principal dreno para estes nutrientes na planta.The use of saline water for irrigation is very common in cultivation of melon in semiarid zones, which can result in the soil salinization if irrigation management is not appropriate. The growth and accumulation of N, P and K by melon (Cucumis melo, L. irrigated with saline water was evaluated. Treatments resulted from the combination of the factors irrigation water salinity levels (1.1; 2.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and melon materials (hybrid Trusty and cultivar Orange Flesh. Treatments were arranged following a completely randomized block design with four replications, arranged in 3 x 2 factorial. Another factor analyzed was time of

  3. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  4. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de melão amarelo minimamente processado submetido a tratamentos químicos Sensory profile and consumer acceptance of minimally processed melon submitted to chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo traçar o perfil sensorial ao longo do período de armazenamento e determinar a aceitação global de melões amarelos minimamente processados (submetidos a tratamentos químicos e os impactos desse processamento sobre a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor. Frutos selecionados, lavados e sanificados foram minimamente processados em forma de cubos, divididos em quatro lotes que constaram de: testemunha, tratados com solução de cloreto de cálcio (1%, tratados com ácido ascórbico (1% e revestidos com alginato de sódio (1%. Esses cubos foram acondicionados em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET com tampa e armazenados a 5 ± 1 ºC e 73 ± 5% UR por um período de 8 dias. No 1º, 3º, 5º e 8º dias após o processamento, os melões foram avaliados sensorialmente, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, por uma equipe de 8 provadores treinados. O teste de aceitação pelo consumidor foi conduzido em laboratório, com 50 provadores não treinados, utilizando as escalas: hedônica e de intenção de compra; além da frequência de consumo. A ADQ mostrou que os tratamentos testados não apresentaram efeito no prolongamento da vida útil dos melões amarelos minimamente processados. Os descritores que mais traduziram a qualidade do fruto submetido aos tratamentos químicos testados foram: aparência de fresco e brilhante; odor de fresco e característico; sabor ácido, salgado, amargo, fresco, característico, adstringente, aguado e estranho. O teste com os consumidores indicou que os melões tratados com cloreto de cálcio e com ácido ascórbico foram os mais aceitos pelos provadores e revelou que não houve diferença quanto à intenção de compra.The objective of this work was to trace the sensory profile during storage and to determine the global acceptance of minimally processed melon samples submitted to chemical treatments as well as to evaluate the impacts on the acceptance of the

  5. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  6. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis);Utilizacao de radiacao gama em meloes cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis) como tecnica de conservacao pos-colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-07-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a{sup *}) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a{sup *} and b{sup *}), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  7. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  8. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  9. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  10. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  11. Avaliação de parentais e híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado Performance of parents and experimental hybrids of net melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Forlan Vargas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desempenho de 38 genótipos de melão rendilhado, sendo seis parentais, 30 híbridos experimentais (15 híbridos e 15 recíprocos e dois híbridos padrões de mercado (Bônus nº2 e Louis, quanto às características produtivas. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP-Jaboticabal, em casa de vegetação, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, e 38 tratamentos, contendo uma única fileira de cinco plantas, com espaçamento ente si de 0,5 m e 1 m entrelinhas. A semeadura foi realizada em 01 de agosto de 2007, utilizando bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, e quando as mudas apresentaram a primeira folha não cotiledonar, realizou-se o transplante. As plantas foram cultivadas em substrato de fibra da casca de coco, sendo a irrigação e adubação realizadas conjuntamente por fertirrigação. A colheita foi realizada durante o mês de dezembro, sendo avaliados: produção total, diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do fruto, índice de formato de fruto, diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do lóculo, índice de formato do lóculo, diâmetro médio da inserção do pedúnculo dos frutos, precocidade e concentração de colheita. Realizou-se análise de variância para cada característica e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que os genótipos (híbridos experimentais 4, 23, 24, 26 e 28 obtiveram os melhores desempenhos sendo semelhantes aos híbridos comerciais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 net melon genotypes, six parents, 30 experimental hybrids (15 hybrids and 15 reciprocals and two standard hybrid market, on the characteristics productive. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Sector of

  12. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  13. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  14. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  15. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  16. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  18. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  19. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  7. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  9. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  12. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  13. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  16. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  17. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  18. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  19. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  2. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  3. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  4. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  5. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  6. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  7. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  8. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  10. Substrato e solução nutritiva desenvolvidos a partir de efluente de biodigestor para cultivo do meloeiro Substrate and nutrient solution developed using a biodigestor effluent for melon cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz V. E. Villela Jr.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscando a sustentabilidade em uma pequena propriedade agrícola visou-se com o presente estudo, ao aproveitamento do efluente de biodigestor proveniente da fermentação anaeróbia de estrume bovino, no cultivo sem solo do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, localizado na Latitude 21º 15- 22" S e Longitude 48º 18- 58" W. Cultivou-se o meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2 em substrato, com semeadura realizada em outubro de 2003 e se utilizou delineamento experimental em blocos casualisados com 16 tratamentos e 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (4 substratos e 4 soluções nutritivas. Os 4 substratos se compunham de diferentes proporções da mistura entre a parte sólida do efluente de biodigestor e a areia grossa lavada; as 4 soluções nutritivas foram compostas pela parte líquida do efluente de biodigestor (biofertilizante em substituição a adubos minerais hidrossolúveis. A adição do efluente à areia proporcionou crescimento vegetativo mais rápido, maior precocidade na colheita, frutos mais pesados e maior produtividade à cultura do meloeiro. Adubos minerais hidrossolúveis utilizados no cultivo de plantas em substrato podem ser parcialmente substituídos pelo biofertilizante estudado.Looking for the sustainability of a small farming enterprise, the present study focused the benefit of the biodigestor effluent resulting from the anaerobic fermentation of the bovine manure in a soilless melon plant experiment. The research was conducted in Jaboticabal, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, at latitude of 21° 15- 22-- S and a longitude of 48° 18- 58-- W. The melon plant (Cucumis melo L. cv Bonus n° 2 was grown with substrate, seedling obtained in 10/2003. An experimental design was adapted in a randomized block with 16 treatments and 5 replications in a factorial 4 x 4 (4 substrates and 4 nutrient solutions. The 4 substrates were made up of different proportions in volume of the blend

  11. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  12. Aplicação de co2 via água de irrigação em relação à produtividade do meloeiro Co2 application through irrigation water in relation to melon yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Pinto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do melão tem se firmado no Brasil como importante fonte de divisas para o agricultor, ocupando expressiva parcela na nossa pauta de exportações. A concentração do dióxido de carbono (CO2 na atmosfera era de 250 mimolCO2 mol-1 antes da revolução industrial, atingiu a 315 mimolCO2 mol-1 em 1958, estando, hoje, próximo de 365 mimolCO2 mol-1, com tendência de aumentar ainda mais. O aumento da concentração de CO2 aumenta a fotossíntese e a absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas. Nesse trabalho avaliaram-se a produtividade e as características dos frutos de melão em função da aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação por gotejamento. A aplicação de CO2 foi realizada diariamente, três vezes por semana e sem aplicação de CO2 (testemunha em três maneiras de condução da cultura: com proteção lateral; solo coberto com plástico e solo sem proteção. A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação não modificou o ciclo da cultura. As maiores produtividades de melão foram obtidas nos tratamentos com aplicação de dióxido de carbono via água de irrigação. Aplicação de CO2 através da irrigação não alterou a qualidade do fruto de melão e nem os teores de macro e micronutrientes na folha do melão.The melon crop represents an important contribution to the total Brazilian agricultural export. Carbon dioxide concentration was assumed to be 250 mumolCO2 mol-1 before industrial revolution, achieving 315 mumolCO2 mol-1 in 1958. Nowadays it is approximately 365 mumolCO2 mol-1, with a tendency of increasing. In this research the effect of carbon dioxide application through irrigation water on melon fruit productivity and chemical characteristics was evaluated. A trickle irrigation system was used. The carbon dioxide applications were daily and three times a week, in three different types of crop management: lateral protection, mulching and soil without protection. The carbon dioxide application through irrigation

  13. Eficiência do uso da água pelo meloeiro sob diferentes freqüências de irrigação Water use efficiency of the melon crop under different irrigation frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemício Ferreira de Sousa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de cinco freqüências de irrigação por gotejamento, na maximização da produtividade e na eficiência do uso da água pelo meloeiro cultivado em solo arenoso de Tabuleiro Costeiro do Piauí. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Meio-Norte, localizado no município de Parnaíba, PI, latitude 3º5'S longitude 41º47'W e altitude de 46,8 m. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram: freqüências de irrigação de 0,50, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,0 dias. Foram avaliadas as produtividades comercial e total e a eficiência do uso de água, constatando-se que a maior produtividade total (77.985 kg ha-1 e a máxima eficiência do uso da água (EUAEt pelo meloeiro (282,83 kg ha-1 mm-1 são obtidas com freqüência de irrigação de um dia. As freqüências de irrigação de 3 e 4 dias, ou superiores, não são recomendadas para o meloeiro e, se a água é escassa, utilizam-se irrigações com freqüência diária.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of five trickle irrigation frequencies to obtain high yields and maximum water use efficiency in a melon crop cultivated in sandy soil of the Coastal Tablelands of Piauí, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Parnaíba, Piauí State, Brazil, latitude 3º5' S, longitude 41º47' W and altitude 46.8 m. A randomized block with five treatments and six replications was used, with irrigation frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 days. The total and commercial yield and water use efficiency were evaluated. The highest total yield (77.985 kg ha-1 and the maximum water use efficiency by melon crop (282.83 kg ha-1 mm-1 were obtained with an irrigation frequency of one day. The irrigation frequencies of 3 and 4 days or higher are not recommended for the melon crop, and if the water is scarce an

  14. Necessidade hídrica do meloeiro irrigado com água de diferentes salinidades e cultivado com ou sem cobertura do solo Water requirements of melon irrigated with different water salinities, cultivated with and without mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. S. B. de Medeiros

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade hídrica das culturas pode ser estimada a partir da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo e do coeficiente de cultura (kc. Com o objetivo de se estimar a necessidade hídrica de duas cultivares de melão (Gold mine e Trusty cultivadas com e sem cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno e irrigadas por gotejamento com água de diferentes salinidades (1,2, 2,5 e 4,4 dS m-1 instalou-se um experimento no município de Mossoró, RN, em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo. Para se obter a necessidade hídrica da cultura, realizou-se o balanço hídrico nas parcelas, obtendo-se os coeficientes de cultura. Para medir a variação de armazenamento de água no perfil do solo e o fluxo subterrâneo, foram instaladas baterias com três tensiômetros em cada parcela de dois blocos experimentais. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada pela metodologia FAO e ajustada de acordo com o monitoramento da umidade do solo. A água de maior salinidade diminuiu a evapotranspiração do meloeiro em 14%, a cobertura de solo reduziu em 18% e a cultivar Trusty evapotranspirou 11% a menos que a Gold mine. O balanço hídrico permitiu que se estimassem os coeficientes de cultura do meloeiro para diferentes salinidades, cobertura de solo e cultivares.The water requirement of the crops can be estimated from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficients (kc. Aiming to estimate the water requirement of two cultivars of melon (Gold mine and Trusty cultivated with and without soil covering with polyethylene film and irrigated by trickle irrigation with water of different salinities (1.2, 2.5 and 4.4 dS m-1, an experiment was installed in the municipal district of Mossoró, RN, in an Alfissol. To obtain the water requirement of the crop the water balance was accomplished in the plots, obtaining the crop coefficients. To obtain the variation in water storage in the soil profile and the subsurface flow three tensiometers were installed in each plot of two

  15. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  16. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  17. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  18. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  19. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  20. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  1. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  2. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  4. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  5. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  6. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  7. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  8. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  9. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  11. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  12. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  13. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  14. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  15. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  16. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  17. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  18. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  19. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  20. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  1. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  2. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  3. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  4. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  5. Estudo da estabilidade de melões desidratados obtidos por desidratação osmótica seguida de secagem convencional Stability evaluation in dehydrated melons obtained by a combination of osmotic dehydration and conventional drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa da Silva Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade de melões desidratados obtidos por desidratação osmótica à pressão atmosférica (760 mmHg e a vácuo parcial (660 mmHg seguida de secagem convencional. A estabilidade dos produtos foi avaliada segundo suas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, durante 180 dias de armazenamento, à temperatura ambiente. Ambos os processos resultaram em boa estabilidade físico-química e microbiológica dos produtos que mostraram boa aceitação durante todo o período de armazenamento.The objective of the present work was to evaluate storage stability of melons processed by a previous osmotic dehydration at atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg or partial vacuum (660 mmHg followed by conventional drying. The stability was assessed monthly by means of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial methods, during 180 days of storage at room temperature. Both the processes resulted in good physico-chemical and microbiological stability of the products, which presented good acceptability during all the storage time.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  7. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  8. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  9. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  10. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  12. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  13. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  15. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Fresh cut yellow melon (CAC submitted to different type cuts and concentrations of calcion chloride stored under modified passive atmosphereMelão amarelo (CAC minimamente processado submetido a diferentes cortes e concentrações de cloreto de cálcio armazenado em atmosfera modificada passiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of yellow melon inodorus Valenciano Amarelo (CAC fresh cut submitted to two cut types and with application postharvest of calcium chloride. After preparation cubes and slices melon were immersed in solution with different calcium chloride (CaCl2 concentrations for two minutes, afterwards they were conditioned in trays of expanded polystyrene (EPS, covered by plastic film of low density polyethylene (PEBD, stored in cold camera to 5°C ±1 and analyzed for 8 days. They were evaluated pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS sugar reducer and ratio. The pH values varied from 5.27 to 5.68. The sugars reducers content and the ratio were superior in the slices compared to the cubes. The melon slices maintained larger firmness values compared to the cubes and in general there was reduction in the values of this parameter along the storage period for all treatments. Concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% of CaCl2, result in larger values of firmness. The storage temperature and modified passive atmosphere they contributed to quality maintenance of MP melon. Concentrations of up to 1.0% of CaCl2 they could be recommended to maintain the melon quality MP melon yellow inodorus (CAC.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade de melão amarelo inodorus (cultivar Valenciano Amarelo CAC minimamente processado (MP submetido a dois tipos de corte e com aplicação pós-colheita de cloreto de cálcio. Após preparo cubos e fatias de melão foram imersos em solução com diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 por dois minutos, sendo em seguida acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (EPS, revestidas por filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, armazenados em câmara fria a 5°C ±1 e analisadas durante 8 dias. Foram avaliados pH, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcar redutor e ratio. Os valores de pH variaram de 5,27 a 5,68. O teor

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  18. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  19. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  20. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.