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  1. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

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    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  2. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

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    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the

  3. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

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    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  4. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

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    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  5. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

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    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  6. Estudo de métodos de infestação para avaliação precoce da resistência do cafeeiro a Meloidogyne exigua Evaluation of four screening methods for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua in coffee seedlings

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    L. C Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se desenvolver um método para avaliar a resistência de mudas novas de cafeeiros ao nematóide Meloidogyne exigua. Dois experimentos foram realizados, a fim de testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de infestação, em mudas do cultivar mundo novo de Coffea arabica, utilizando-se areia como substrato, em caixas de plástico. A avaliação do ataque pelo nematóide foi realizada subjetivamente, dando-se um ponto na ausência de galhas e cinco pontos na presença de elevado número de galhas nas raízes do cafeeiro. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, verificou-se que 60 dias após a germinação das sementes, o sistema de infestação mais eficiente consistiu na colocação de pequenos pedaços de raízes de cafeeiro com galhas, misturados com o substrato das caixas de germinação, juntamente com uma suspensão em água, de ovos e larvas do nematóide. Em leitura efetuada 150 dias após a germinação, não se verificou diferença significativa entre a infestação provocada através do uso de pequenos pedaços de raízes e com a suspensão contendo ovos e larvas ou a associação de ambos os métodos de infestação. Em todos estes tratamentos notou-se que as raízes dos cafeeiros possuíam elevado número de galhas. Os dados obtidos indicam a possibilidade de realizar testes precoces de resistência ao nematóide M. exigua, o que é de particular interesse no plano geral de melhoramento visando resistência a esse parasita.Four methods of infestation namely: a sand infestation with small pieces of root-knots; b irrigation of sand with nematode eggs and larvae; c the combination of a and b, and d soil infested plus sand, were compared to develop a screening method for the evaluation of resistance of coffee seedlings to Meloidogyne exigua. Seedlings of Mundo Novo cultivar belonging to the Coffea arabica species were obtained by sowing seeds in plastic trays containing sand. A five point scale was used to determine the intensity of the

  7. Activity of chalcones derived from 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde against Meloidogyne exigua and in silico interaction of one chalcone with a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase from Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Nunes, Alexandro Silva; Campos, Vicente Paulo; Mascarello, Alessandra; Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domenghini; Machado, Alan Rodrigues Teixeira; Santos Júnior, Helvécio Martins; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Meloidogyne exigua is a parasitic nematode of plants that causes great losses to coffee farmers. In an effort to develop parasitic controls, 154 chalcones were synthesized and screened for activity against this nematode. The best results were obtained with (2E)-1-(4'-nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (6) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 171 μg/ml against M. exigua second-stage juveniles, in comparison to the commercially-available nematicide carbofuran which had an LC50 of 260 μg/ml under the same conditions. When coffee plants were used, 6 reduced the nematode population to ~50% of that observed in control plants. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6, an in silico study was carried out, which indicated that 6 may act against M. exigua through inhibition of a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase homodimer, the amino acid sequence of which was determined by examining the genome of Meloidogyne incognita. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DENSIDAD CRÍTICA DE Meloidogyne exigua EN PLANTAS DE ALMÁCIGO DE CAFÉ VARIEDAD CATURRA

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    Mainor Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm3 de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensayo con diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm3 de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m ZP-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm3, respectivamente; la producción mínima relativa (m fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm3. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo.

  9. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

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    S.L. MACIEL

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  10. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

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    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A

  11. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.

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    Vanessa dos Santos Paes-Takahashi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP, foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, que apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo.

  12. Controle alternativo de nematoide das galhas (Meloidogyne incognita raça 2, com óleos essenciais em solo

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    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A ação de produtos naturais sobre fitopatógenos tem sido investigada visando-se avaliar sua eficácia no controle alternativo de doenças, principalmente na agricultura orgânica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides e capim citronela (Cymbopogonwinterianus no controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2, em tomate (Solanumlycopersicum e celósia (Celosia plicata. Para tanto, conduziu-se ensaio em esquema fatorial 6 x 2, com cinco repetições. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Setor de Fitossanidade do Departamento de Fitotecnia/CCA/UFC, no período de abril a junho de 2007. As mudas utilizadas neste ensaio foram transplantadas para vasos plástico contendo 2 kg de solo estéril, nos quais, 24 horas após o transplantio, foram inoculados com 4.000 ovos/J2 de M. incognita, raça 2, exceto as testemunhas negativas. Em 50% do número de vasos, aplicou-se, logo em seguida, 100 ml das soluções de cada óleo essencial em cada vaso na concentração de 2,5 ml L-1. Esperaram-se mais 48 horas para aplicação da mesma quantidade nos vasos restantes. Este volume corresponde a 60% da capacidade de campo desse substrato, que foi previamente calculada. A avaliação final do ensaio deu-se aos 45 dias após a inoculação. Analisou-se em relação ao nematoide: número de galhas (NG, número de ovos (NO, índice de massas de ovos (IMO, fator de reprodução (FR, redução no fator de reprodução (RFR. Quanto ao desenvolvimento das plantas mensurou-se: altura da planta, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e massa fresca do sistema radicular. Verificou-se que a reprodução do nematoide, mostrou-se menos eficiente em tomate. Os óleos essenciais empregados reduziram a taxa reprodutiva do nematoide em 83 e 29%, em tomate e celósia, respectivamente. As épocas de aplicação dos óleos essenciais diferiram quanto à reprodução do nematoide, para número de galhas e fator de

  13. Parasitismo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em espécies de myrtaceae

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    Luiza Suely Semen Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis, é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1 a 42,81(A-PASTO. Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp. AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com

  14. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

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    Sebahattin Çürük

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfested soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala. Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L. Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em solo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito

  15. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose

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    Juliana Nogueira Westerich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicular de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M' e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI. O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI, foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas.

  16. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of <em>Meloidogyne haplaem> in root galls and in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Skantar, Andrea M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    . haplaand showed no significant amplification of DNA from non-target nematodes. The assay was able to detect M. haplain a background of plant and soil DNA. A dilution series of M. haplaeggs in soil showed a high correlation ( R 2 = 0 . 95 , P ...Early detection and quantification of Meloidogyne haplain soil is essential for effective disease management. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for detection of M. haplain soil. Primers and a TaqMan probe were designed for M. hapladetection. The assay detected M......-knot development in carrots by testing soils before planting. The assay could be useful for management decisions in carrot cultivation....

  17. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  18. Reação de linhagens de feijão-vagem ao Meloidogyne javanica e M. paranaensis em casa-de-vegetação = Reaction of snap bean to Meloidogyne javanica and M. paranaensis in greenhouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Baida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematoides formadores de galhas (Meloidogyne sp. são responsáveis pela baixa produtividade na cultura do feijoeiro, cujas perdas, provocadas por esses patógenos, podem chegar até 90%. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento de seis linhagens de feijoeiro (‘Hav 06’, ‘Hav 11’, ‘Hav 28’, ‘Hav 50’, ‘Hav 69’ e ‘Torino’ frente ao parasitismo de M. javanica e de M. paranaensis. As linhagens foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis dos respectivos nematoides. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições para cada tratamento com os nematoides e dez repetições para testemunha sem inoculação. Quarenta e cinco dias após inoculação, os sistemas radiculares foram coletados, lavados e avaliados quanto à produção de ovos e estimativa do Fator de Reprodução (FR. Os resultados mostraram baixa reprodução dos nematoides nas linhagens de feijão-vagem avaliadas, e que, para M. javanica, o FR variou de 0,02 a 0,05, enquanto que, para M. paranaensis, a variação foi de 0,04 a 0,36, indicando que todas as linhagens se comportaram como resistentes, apresentando FR Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp. are responsable for low productivity on bean culture, where the losses caused by this pathogen can reach 90%. The present study aimed to evaluate the behavior of six bean lineages (‘Hav 06’, ‘Hav 11’, ‘Hav 28’, ‘Hav 50’,‘Hav 69’ and ‘Torino’ against the parasitism of M. javanica and M. paranaensis. The lineages were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of each nematode in a completely randomized design, with 10 replications per treatment with the nematodes and 10replications per treatment without inoculation (control. Forty-five days after inoculation, the roots systems were collected, washed and evaluated for egg production and estimated reproduction factor (RF. The results showed that, for M. javanica, the RF varied from 0.02to

  19. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de

  20. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant <em>(Piper nigrumem> L. ) and three of its pathogens, <em>Meloidogyne Incognitaem> (Kofoid & White) , <em>Radopholus similisem> (Cobb) , Thorne and

  1. Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivane Aparecida Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita.

  2. Methods of estimation of the pathogenicity of the fungus Phoma exigua var. exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1977-1981 33 isolates of Phoma exigua were recovered from diseased leaves, stems, root crowns and seeds of soybean cultivated in different localities of Poland. None of the obtained isolates caused disease symptoms on soybean and other plant species when they were inoculated by spraying with conidial suspension. Infection developed only on wounded plants after inoculation. Phoma exigua occurring on soybean in Poland is not a specialized pathogen of this plant, but a plurivorous weak or waund parasite which attacks all kinds of plants and so is P. exigua var. exigua. Among seven of the applied inoculation methods the best one seems to be the laboratory one, in Petri plates, with culture discs exposed on the seedling hypocotyl. Other methods varied in precision and were more time-consuming.

  3. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (<em>Solanum quitoense em>L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical <em>Meloidogyne  em>spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (<em>Solanum em>>quitoense  em>L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (<em>S. em>mammosum>, <em>S. hirtumem>,       <em>S. marginatum  em>y <em>S. umbellatumem> buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de <em>Meloidogyne em>spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de <em>Meloidogyne em>spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de <em>Meloidogyne em>spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (<em>S. mammosumem> es altamente susceptible, <em>Meloidogyne incognita em>presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  4. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  5. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, M E; Pinochet, J

    1992-12-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information.

  6. Resistance of maize to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W P; Windham, G L

    1990-12-01

    A diallel cross of eight maize, Zea mays L., inbred lines was analyzed for reaction to two species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Egg production following inoculation of F1 hybrid seedlings with nematode eggs was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Data were analyzed using Griffing's Method 4, Model I. General combining ability was a significant source of variation in egg production of both M. arenaria and M. javanica; specific combining ability was not a significant source of variation for either. The correlation between egg production of the two nematode species on the 28 F1 hybrids was highly significant. Hybrids with Mp313 or SC213 as one parent were the most resistant to both species. This indicates that germ plasm is available for developing inbred lines and hybrids with resistance to both M. arenaria race 2 and M. javanica.

  7. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia dos Santos Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, mostarda (Brassica campestris e alho (Allium sativum sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris, de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados

  8. Management of Meloidogyne incognita in nematodesusceptible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars are highly susceptible to the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), with considerable yield losses when this nematode is not managed. Empirical evidence suggested that wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) and wild cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus) were highly ...

  9. Cytology of parthenogenesis of five Meloidogyne species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Beek, JG; Loss, JA; Pijnacker, LP

    1998-01-01

    Oogenesis was investigated using a fluorescent staining technique with Hoechst 33258 in several isolates of facultative meiotic parthenogenetic -Meloidogyne hapla race A, M. chitwoodi, M. fallax - and obligate ameiotic (mitotic) parthenogenetic - M. hapla race B, M. javanica - and isolate Xa of an

  10. (ajst) response of meloidogyne hapla to mycorrhiza

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, G. macrocarpum Tul and Tul and G. fasciculatum Walker and. Koske have been reported to reduce disease severity and suppress development of Meloidogyne incognita ... was done at National Agricultural Research Laboratories. (NARL). About 2kg of soil was used to ...

  11. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the control of the beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse crops with nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae, subgroup A) were studied.

    Beet armyworm behaviour was observed in various

  12. Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst Ex. A. Rich) Harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments.

  13. Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3. Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica.

  14. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid

  15. Enzyme phenotypes of Meloidogyne spp. populations

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Quénéhervé, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Les phénotypes enzymatiques de l'estérase (EST), la malate déshydrogènase (MDH), la superoxide dismutase (SOD) et la glutamate-oxaloacétate transaminase (GOT) ont été utilisés de manière systématique afin de caractériser plusieurs espèces de #Meloidogyne$ provenant principalement du Brésil et de quelques pays des régions américaines. C'est l'activité estérastique qui a présenté le plus grand polymorphisme et s'est montrée la plus utile dans la caractérisation des espèces. A l'aide de cette en...

  16. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade, com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis.The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control, with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  17. Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Lakshmi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1 extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 ug/ml and 250 ug/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions. Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.

  18. RESISTANCE OF POTATO GENOTYPES TO Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAQUELINE TAVARES SCHAFER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of a group of clones and cultivars from the potato breeding program of Embrapa to Meloidogyne javanica . The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Temperate Climate, Pelotas / RS, under greenhouse conditions at temperatures of 25 ± 5°C. Individual potato plants of different genotypes [BRSIPR Bel, BRS F63 (Camila, CL02 - 05, F23 - 11 - 06, F32 - 02 - 06, F38 - 03 - 07, F189 - 09 - 06, F23 - 24 - 06 and F22 - 01 - 08], kept in pots with sterilized soil were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and J2 of M. javanica , using six replicates per treatment. The susceptible control, potato cultivar BRS Ana was inoculated with the same level of inoculum. Fifty - five days after inoculation, the number of galls on the roots of each plant was determined as well as the number of protuberances caused by nematodes in the different treatments. Then, the roots of each plant were processed for counting the number of eggs and J2, as well as determining the nematode reproduction factor (FR: final population / initial population. All genotypes were susceptible (FR> 1.00 to M. javanica . However, there were different levels of susceptibility among the cultivars tested.

  19. Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita.The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were

  20. Cuticular hydrocarbons of buffalo fly, Haematobia exigua, and chemotaxonomic differentiation from horn fly, H. irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Rudolf; Brown, Geoffrey W; Moore, Christopher J; Green, Peter E

    2005-10-01

    We determined the quantity and chemical composition of cuticular hydrocarbons of different strains, sexes, and ages of buffalo flies, Haematobia exigua. The quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons increased from less than 1 microg/fly for newly emerged flies to over 11 microg/fly in 13-d-old flies. The hydrocarbon chain length varied from C(21) to C(29), with unbranched alkanes and monounsaturated alkenes the major components. Newly emerged flies contained almost exclusively C(27) hydrocarbons. Increasing age was accompanied by the appearance of hydrocarbons with shorter carbon chains and an increase in the proportion of alkenes. 11-Tricosene and 7-tricosene were the most abundant hydrocarbons in mature H. exigua. Cuticular hydrocarbons of H. exigua are distinctly different from those of horn flies, Haematobia irritans. The most noticeable differences were in the C(23) alkenes, with the major isomers 11- and 7-tricosene in H. exigua and (Z)-9- and (Z)-5-tricosene in H. irritans, respectively. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis provides a reliable method to differentiate the two species, which are morphologically difficult to separate. The differences in cuticular hydrocarbons also support their recognition as separate species, H. exigua and H. irritans, rather than as subspecies.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  2. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  3. Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... less gall formation, number of eggs per egg mass and final nematode population over the untreated control in the pot house experiment. ...... to Control Plant Pests. University of Idaho. Moscow ...

  4. Water transport through tomato roots infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, R.; Gommers, F.J.; Kollöffel, C.

    1991-01-01


    The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on water flow in tomato roots was investigated in rooted split-stem cuttings. Total water flow through infected root parts was significantly lower than through comparable uninfected parts. Total water uptake was correlated with total length of the root

  5. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The sedentary endoparasite Meloidogyne incognita is an important plant parasitic nematode that infects cotton causing significant yield losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate reproduction of M. incognita in Bt cotton (06Z604D), isoline (99M03) and HART 89M (local ...

  6. Response of meloidogyne hapla to mycorrhiza fungi inoculation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) isolated from pyrethrum were screened in the greenhouse for efficacy in improving pyrethrum growth and in suppressing a root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla. The fungi screened were Glomus spp. (isolates LM61, ML34 and ML35), Scutellospora sp. (isolate KS74) and ...

  7. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the

  8. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  9. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  10. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  11. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, R.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  12. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  13. Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tiancai; Su, Jianya

    2011-11-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of numerous cultivated crops. Chlorantraniliprole, the first commercialised ryanodine receptor insecticide from the anthranilic diamide class, has exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of lepidopteran pests. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole in the laboratory. A field-collected population of S. exigua was selected after repeated exposure to chlorantraniliprole to determine the risk of resistance evolution. After 22 generations of selection, there was a 12.0-fold increase in LC(50) . The realised heritability (h(2)) of resistance was estimated as 0.1082 by using threshold trait analysis. The projected rate of resistance evolution indicated that, if h(2) = 0.1082 and 70% of the population was killed at each generation, then a tenfold increase in LC(50) would be expected in 21.7 generations for chlorantraniliprole. These results show that the risk of resistance development to chlorantraniliprole exists in S. exigua after continuous application. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A new quinolizidine alkaloid from the Papua New Guinean sponge Xestospongia exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagawa, T; Kaneko, M; Okamura, H; Nakatani, M; van Soest, R W; Shiro, M

    2000-09-01

    A new bis-quinolizidine alkaloid, xestosin A (1), possessing cis- and trans-quinolizidine nuclei, has been isolated from the Papua New Guinean sponge Xestospongia exigua. The structure was determined by spectrometric and single-crystal X-ray analyses.

  15. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  16. Nematicide and nematostatic potential of Curcuma longa on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaísa Muriel Mioranza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes can reduce yield potential of plants, thus requiring searching control methods that are effective and eco-friendly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficiency of turmeric rhizome aqueous extract (Curcuma longa on hatching, immobilization and mortality of juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. A completely randomized design was used, with concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of turmeric extract and distilled water as a control treatment, with four replications. The juveniles of nematodes were directly exposed to turmeric extract for 24 h, while eggs were exposed during 15 days. The turmeric extract on J2 of Meloidogyne incognita, in vitro tests, promoted from the concentration of 10% total paralysis of nematodes and in the concentration of 15% more than 90% mortality. All tested concentrations caused reduction in juveniles hatching. Thereby, the turmeric aqueous extract has nematicidal potential against M. incognita, encouraging its study in the interaction plant-nematode.

  17. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Robaina,Renata Rodrigues; Campos,Graziella Siqueira; Marinho,Cláudia Sales; Souza,Ricardo Moreira; Bremenkamp,Cíntia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was...

  18. Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the laboratory rearing of the beet armyworm Spodoptera Exigua (HBN.) in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Vlak, J.M.; Ziemnicka, J.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh,

  19. Caracterização genética e molecular de acessos de bananeira a Radopholus similis e Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Jansen Rodrigo Pereira

    2011-01-01

    A cultura da bananeira tem grande importância econômica e social em todo o mundo. O Brasil é o quarto produtor mundial de banana, sendo esta cultivada de Norte a Sul do País e, praticamente toda produção é comercializada no mercado interno. Problemas fitossanitários de variadas etiologias reduzem a vida útil dos plantios e levam a perdas na produção e na qualidade dos frutos. Dentre os fitonematoides, Radopholus similis, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, Helicotylenchus multici...

  20. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA DE MILHO A MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAWAZAKI EDUARDO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas linhagens de milho, resistente (IAC Ip 365-4-1 e suscetível (IAC Ip 48-5-3 a Meloidogyne javanica, suas gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, bem como os cruzamentos recíprocos, foram avaliados em dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, em 1989/90 e 1992, em Campinas, para estudar a herança da resistência a M. javanica. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com número de repetição maior nas gerações segregantes, parcelas de uma planta por vaso plástico com 500 cm3 de areia fina, previamente tratada com brometo de metila e adubada com NPK. Cinco dias após a germinação das sementes, cada vaso foi inoculado com 5.000 ovos e larvas de M. javanica. Aos 70 e aos 60 dias após a inoculação, respectivamente, nos experimentos 1 e 2, avaliaram-se o índice de massa de ovos, o número de ovos por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os cruzamentos recíprocos. O comportamento da média do F1, a distribuição de freqüência da população F2 e a segregação monofatorial indicaram que a resistência a M. javanica da linhagem IAC Ip 365-4-1 se deve a um gene dominante associado a um pequeno efeito de polígenes.

  1. Expression of Hox4 during development of the pentamerous juvenile sea star, Parvulastra exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Paula; Byrne, Maria

    2009-12-01

    Expression of Hox4 during development of the bilateral larva and pentameral juvenile sea star was investigated in Parvulastra exigua. The role of Hox4, possibly the anterior-most gene in the echinoderm Hox cluster, in the formation of the echinoderm adult body plan has not been examined previously. In the larva of P. exigua, PeHox4 is expressed in the developing coeloms-the anterior and the right and left coeloms that generate the aboral and oral coeloms of the juvenile. At the rudiment stage, PeHox4 was expressed in the five primary lobes of the hydrocoel that give rise to primary podia, the foundation of the adult body plan. This suggests a role for this gene in the development of the echinoderm body plan. In contrast to other bilaterians, Hox4 was not expressed in the developing asteroid central nervous system.

  2. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume sieb. et zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica (treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Newton Alex

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  5. Biology of Meloidogyne platani Hirschmann Parasitic on Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Sasser, J N

    1982-04-01

    The development of Meloidogyne platani on sycamore was followed for 40 days (22-28 C). Juveniles penetrated the feeder roots behind the root cap and invaded the vascular cylinder within 3 days after inoculation. All subsequent development of the nematodes and host effects occurred only within the stele. The second juvenile molt and sex differentiation occurred by the 17th day. Young females were observed by the 26th day. Eggs were observed inside the roots by the 35th day and were exposed to the surface of galls by the 40th day. In pathogenicity studies, a significant negative correlation was shown to exist between fresh shoot and root weights and inoculum density. Besides sycamore, white ash was the only hardwood species tested to become infected. Of the herbacious plants tested, tobacco was heavily galled, tomato and watermelon moderately galled, and pepper only slightly galled. Egg production was moderate on tobacco, slight on tomato and watermelon, and absent on pepper.

  6. Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum with Meloidogyne incognita on Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Ooi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were tested for their pathogenicity to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa in a plant house. The most virulent isolate was later used in a disease complex experiment with a root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Disease severity of roselle seedlings inoculated with a combination of fungus and nematode was higher than those inoculated with either fungus or nematode individually. Seedlings that were inoculated with fungus two weeks after nematode inoculation showed the highest disease severity compared to that inoculated with nematode two weeks after fungal inoculation or that inoculated simultaneously with both pathogens. It seems that root infections by M. incognita increased the colonization of roselle by F. oxysporum and subsequently caused higher damage to the roselle seedlings. The high wilt incidence in the presence of M. incognita and F. oxysporum may be due to the synergistic relationship between these two pathogens.

  7. PENGARUH EKSTRAK LIMBAH DAUN TEMBAKAU MADURA TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MAKAN LARVA Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwanto -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ekstrak tanaman untuk insektisida nabati tidak hanya berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas saja akan tetapi juga berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas makan serangga. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstraklimbah daun tembakau madura terhadap aktivitas makan larva instar III Spodoptera exigua. Metode uji ada dua yakni pakan pilihan dan pakan tanpa pilihan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 6 perlakuan konsentrasi dan 1 kontrol yang diulang 5 kali. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ekstrak limbah daun tembakau dengan metode pakan pilihan: (1 berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi pada semua konsentrasi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, (2 bersifat antifeedant terhadap larva S. exigua dengan indeks hambatan makan berkisar 17,51 – 38,12%, sedang ekstrak limbah daun tembakau pada uji pakan tanpa pilihan (3 berpengaruh nyata pada konsentrasi > 0,21% terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan (4 bersifat antifeedant dengan indeks hambatan makan lebih tinggi (22,87 – 69,39% daripada dengan pakan pilihan (17,51 – 32,12%. Plants extracts used for botanical insecticides do not only influence the mortality but also the feeding activity of insects. The aim of this test was to determine the activity of the extract of Madura tobacco leaf on the feeding activity of the third instar of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. There were two test methods, choice and no-choice feeding tests. The design of each test was a completely randomized design (CRD, with six treatment concentrations and one control, replicated five times. The results showed that the exposure of tobacco leaf extracts with the choice feeding: (1 had significant effect on the leaf weight consumed at all concentration compared to the controls, (2 act as antifeedant against the larvae of S. exigua with the index of food consumption barrier ranging from 17.51 to 38.12%; while the extract of

  8. Novel chromone derivatives from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhan; Brauers, Gernot; Ebel, Rainer; Wray, Victor; Berg, Albrecht; Sudarsono; Proksch, Peter

    2003-01-01

    From the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua collected in Indonesia the fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated. Following cultivation in a seawater-based medium seven new angular tricyclic chromone derivatives (1-7) were obtained from the mycelia and culture filtrate. Compounds 2-7 contain an additional dihydropyran ring system which is replaced by a pyridine ring in 1. The structures of the new natural products were established on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic studies (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOE difference spectra) as well as on mass spectral analysis.

  9. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  10. Avoidance of crude-oil contaminated sediment by the Australian seastar, Patiriella exigua (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, K. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Temara, A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Procter and Gamble, Environmental Safety (Belgium); Holdway, D.A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada). Faculty of Science

    2004-12-01

    This study attempted to determine whether Patiriella exigua, an Australian seastar, could detect and/or avoid oiled sediment when given an equal choice of unoiled sediment. The sediment was spiked once to produce one of three concentrations of oiled sediment used in the test chambers versus unoiled sediment. Behavioral observations were repeated over a 32 day period to test the effects of aging the oiled sediment. Results show that Patiriella exigua was capable of detecting oiled sediment and/or an oiled environment. Seastars avoided oiled sediment, with significantly higher numbers choosing either to reside on the clean sediment (p<0.05) or to travel up the glass sides of the tanks (p<0.0001). Avoidance of oiled sediment increased with increasing sediment oil concentrations. Aging the oiled sediment decreased the oil content of the sediment and increased the number of seastars able to inhabit it (p<0.001). A potential narcotic effect of exposure to oiled sediment was observed. (author)

  11. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-12-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.

  12. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the

  13. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  14. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  15. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  16. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  17. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  18. Horários de atividade forrageadora e itens coletados por Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) na região do médio São Francisco, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Agda Alves da [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi estudada a atividade diária de busca por recursos de Protopolybia exigua em duas áreas no município de Bom Jesus da Lapa (13º15 S; 43º25 W), Bahia, Brasil, localizado na região do Médio São Francisco, com o objetivo de responder as seguintes questões: Qual a amplitude de horário da atividade forrageadora? Qual a relação entre os fatores físicos do tempo (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, luminosidade e velocidade do vento) e a freqüência de saídas do ninho? Qual a influê...

  19. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  20. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  1. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ros Ibáñez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively. A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801 were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field.

  2. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  3. Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane C Salata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco.Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (factorial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte

  4. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.

    2004-01-01

    In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included

  5. Developmental and behavioural effects of the endophytic Fusarium moniliforme Fe14 towards Meloidogyne graminicola in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, H.T.T.; Padgham, J.L.; Hagemann, M.H.; Sikora, R.A.; Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, is an important pest of rice in many rice production areas worldwide. The endophyte Fusarium moniliforme strain Fe14, isolated from a disinfected root of rice, has previously shown potential antagonistic activity against M. graminicola. This study

  6. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  7. Physiological and DNA fingerprinting of the bacterial community of Meloidogyne fallax egg masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papert, A; Kok, CJ; van Elsas, JD

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne fallax egg masses were compared with those present in the rhizoplane. Two agricultural soils with different nematode population dynamics were used in a glasshouse study, with either potato or tomato as host plant for the

  8. Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi

  9. Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an

  10. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological

  11. Nematicides control rice root-knot, caused by Meloidogyne graminicola

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    Mujeebur Rahman KHAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine damage potential of Meloidogyne graminicola on the commonly grown rice cv. Sugandh-5 and to devise an effective management strategy. The nematicides were applied through root-dip (200 ppm solution and soil application of 2 kg ha-1 phorate 10G (25 mg a.i./pot, carbofuran 3G (83.3 mg a.i./pot and 1 L ha-1, carbosulfan 20EC (5µL/pot and chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.25 µL/pot in both nematode infested and non-infested soil with five modes of application viz., root-dip, single soil application (15 days after transplanting, root-dip + one soil application, two soil applications, and root-dip + two soil applications (15 and 30 days. Application of nematicides did not cause any toxicity symptoms on rice plants. In nematode infested soil, terminal and spiral galls developed on the rice roots, and plants suffered 20−31% decrease in the plant growth parameters. Carbofuran and phorate through root-dip plus single soil application provided greatest suppression in galling (16−20%, egg mass production (18−22% and soil population (27.5−58.2% of M. graminicola, and subsequently increased all the plant growth variables by 9−19%. Root-dip + two soil applications increased plant growth and suppressed nematodes, but was equal to root dip + one soil application. Root-dip treatment alone with carbosulfan also significantly suppressed root galling (10−12% and improved the dry weight of roots and shoots (7−10%.

  12. Nematicidal activity of crambe extracts on Meloidogyne spp.

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    Sidiane Coltro-Roncato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the control of nematodes, such as the use of plant secondary metabolites, can be explored for integrated pest management systems. The objective of this work was to assess the best solvent for obtaining allyl isothiocyanate from Crambe abyssinica leaves, and the effects of this extract on Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Dry leaves of C. abyssinica at 200 mg L-1 were used to prepare extracts by using water (by infusion and grinding, acetone, water + ethanol (hydroalcoholic extraction, methanol, hexane, and chloroform as solvents. Following the evaporation of the solvents, the residue was resuspended in water for use in the experiments. Distilled water and chemical nematicide were used as control treatments. Once the most effective extracts were defined, the following dosages of dried crambe leaves were used: 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg L-1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify the allyl isothiocyanate present in the extracts. After the solvents evaporated, the residues were eluted with water and used in assays with 200 eggs for the hatching test or 200 second stage juveniles (J2 for mobility and mortality tests. The hydroalcoholic extract was the most effective in reducing the hatching of M. incognita and M. javanica juveniles, by 71.6 and 74.4 percentage points, respectively. The mortality of M. incognita and M. javanica in the hydroalcoholic extract was 93.2 and 64.4%, respectively, followed by the methanol extract (17.6 and 34% and the extract obtained by grinding (9.2 and 28%. The hydroalcoholic extract at 250 mg L-1 showed high nematicidal effect. The HPLC analysis of the extracts revealed that only the methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts had allyl isothiocyanate, indicating that the inhibitory effects on the hatching, mobility, and mortality were not solely attributed to the presence of this compound.

  13. The genome of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus : a study on unique features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJkel, W.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The <em>Baculoviridae> are a family of rod-shaped viruses with large circular double-stranded DNA genomes (Chapter 1). The family is subdivided into two genera, <em>Granulovirus> (GV) and <em>Nucleopolyhedrovirus> (NPV) on the basis of the

  14. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  15. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  16. Pengendalian Nematoda Puru Akar (Meloidogyne spp. pada Buncis dengan Bakteri Pasteuria penetrans dan Solarisasi

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    B. Triman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the effect of P. penetrans and soil solarization on the population of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. and the effect of soil solarization on the infectivity of P. penetrans. The research was done in the field with high population of plant parasitic nematode especially root-knot nematodes. Soil solarization was done in dry season by covering the soil before french beans (buncis were planted with transparent plastic and P. penetrans were inoculated before soil solarization. Factorial design in Completely Randomized Design was used in this experiment with the following factors: 1 soil solarization (within 1, 2, and 3 moths; 2 isolates of P. penetrans (i.e. isolate 2 and 3. The research results were: 1 Isolate 2 and 3 of P. penetrans were able to parasitize root-knot nematodes in soil solarized within 1, 2, and 3 months; 2 the length of soil solarization afected the infectivity of P. penetrans on Meloidogyne spp. The percentages of Meloidogyne spp. infected with isolate 2 of P. penetrans in soil solarization within 1, 2, and 3 months were 40.3%; 25.7%, and 10.1%, respectively, whereas in soil inoculated with isolate 3 of P. penetrans were: 37.3%, 10.2%, and 2.2%, respectively; 3 inoculation of P. penetrans reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.; and 4 treatment of P. penetrans combined with soil solarization reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Key words: Pasteuria penetrans, soil solarization, root-knot nematode

  17. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  18. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata

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    Érika Cristina Teixeira dos Anjos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant and S. heterogama (200 spores/plant inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da

  19. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  20. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of greenhouse chrysanthemum on the interaction between the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and the baculovirus SeMNPV : parameter quantification for a process-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Joosten, N.N.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2001-01-01

    During the building of a process-based simulation model for the epidemiology of the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of S. exigua (SeMNPV) in populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in greenhouse chrysanthemum, it was found that the effect of host plants had been under-rated. 'Missing links'

  2. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  3. Effect of extracts from three plant species on nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood

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    Tulio F. Solano Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of Meloidogyne genus are a serious problem for tomato production in the province of Loja, Ecuador. Because of the negative side effects of chemical nematicides, to solve this problem it is necessary look for alternatives. This work aimed to study the effect of ethanolic extracts from Lonchocarpus nicou (Aubl.,Piscidia carthagenensis Jacq. and Thevetia peruviana (Pers. K. Schum., in Meloidogyne incognita control, “invitro ” and glasshouse conditions, on tomato plants. The extracts induced a significant mortality, “ in vitro”, on juveniles. This effect was related with the source and concentrations of the extracts. In tomato growing in glasshouse, it was observed an appreciable reduction in the root gall index and in the nematode populations in soil, related with the plant species and the concentration used, too.

  4. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.; Yang, W.; Yan, Y.; Crutcher, F.; Kolomiets, M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plant...

  5. Colored Mulches Affect Yield of Fresh-market Tomato Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Fortnum, B. A.; Decoteau, D. R.; Kasperbauer, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different-colored polyethylene mulches on the quantity and spectra of reflected light, earliness of fruit set, fruit yield and quality, and root-knot disease were studied in field-grown, staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). White mulch reflected more photosynthetic light and a lower far-red-to-red ratio than red mulch, whereas black mulch reflected less than 5 percent of any color. Soil temperatures and fruit yields were recorded for tomato plants inoculated with Meloidogyn...

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute...

  7. Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane fields in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

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    Marissônia de Araujo Noronha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to accomplish a survey on populations of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane farming areas in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty samples of soil and roots were processed to extract and quantify nematodes; however, the identification of Meloidogyne species was performed using only 12 samples. Pratylenchus spp. were reported at moderate population levels of 68-1556 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 2-298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil in twenty analyzed samples. For Meloidogyne spp., these values were of 12-487 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 0-140 specimens 100cm-3 of soil. Based on electrophoresis of esterase isozymes, M. incognita was reported to be the most frequent species, followed by M. javanica and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus species identified through morphometrical and morphological characteristics were P. zeae and P. brachyurus , with predominance for the first species. No significant correlation (P≤0.05 were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.

  8. Deteksi dan Identifikasi Spesies Meloidogyne pada Tanaman Wortel dari Dataran Tinggi Malino, Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan

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    Hishar Mirsam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne spp. was reported as the cause of branched tuber disease on several carrot production areas in Java, Indonesia and may potentially cause yield loss. This research aimed to use morphological and molecular characters to detect and identify Meloidogyne species on carrot from Malino Highland, Sub-district of Tinggimoncong, District of Gowa, South Sulawesi. Morphological identification was done based on character of the female perineal pattern. Molecular identification was based on amplification of r-DNA by polymerase chain reaction technique using species specific primers (Fjav/Rjav for M. javanica, Far/Rar for M. arenaria, and Finc/Rinc for M. incognita and multiplex primer (JMV1/JMVhapla/JMV2 for M. hapla, M. chitwoodi, and M. fallax.Two of Meloidogyne species, i.e. M. incognita and M. arenaria were detected associated with the incidence of carrot branched tuber. The specific primers amplified two DNA bands, i.e. ± 999 bp of M. incognita and ± 420 bp of M. arenaria, while multiplex primer was failed to amplify DNA bands. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed M. incognita isolate of Malino was closely related to M. incognita isolate from Bangka-Indonesia, China (isolate JS2, and Malaysia (isolates JIK4, FIK4, JIT19, and FIT19 with homology of 99.2–100.0%. The nucleotide sequences of M. arenaria from Malino was submitted to GenBank with accession number KP234264, which was the first nucleotide sequence data in GenBank.

  9. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongwei; Mishima, Yuri; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Akira; Mine, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng; Yamada, Junko; Oda, Taiko; Namikoshi, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1), has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2) and D (3), dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13), from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua) collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral...

  10. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

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    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  12. Mutations in the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin demonstrate the role of domain II and III in the specificity towards Spodoptera exigua larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero Sendra, S.; González-Cabrera, J.; Ferré, J.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Several mutants of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin affected with regard to specific activity towards Spodoptera exigua were studied. Alanine was used to replace single residues in loops 2 and 3 of domain II (mutant pPB19) and to replace residues 541-544 in domain III (mutant pPB20).

  13. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Maagd, de R.A.; Purwito, A.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2005-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

  14. Identification and Functional Analysis of a Novel Cytochrome P450 Gene CYP9A105 Associated with Pyrethroid Detoxification in Spodoptera exigua Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Long Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s or CYPs are known to be involved in the detoxification and metabolism of insecticides, leading to increased resistance in insect populations. Spodoptera exigua is a serious polyphagous insect pest worldwide and has developed resistance to various insecticides. In this study, a novel CYP3 clan P450 gene CYP9A105 was identified and characterized from S. exigua. The cDNAs of CYP9A105 encoded 530 amino acid proteins, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that CYP9A105 was expressed at all developmental stages, with maximal expression observed in fifth instar stage larvae, and in dissected fifth instar larvae the highest transcript levels were found in midguts and fat bodies. The expression of CYP9A105 in midguts was upregulated by treatments with the insecticides α-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate at both LC15 concentrations (0.10, 0.20 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively and LC50 concentrations (0.25, 0.40 and 10.00 mg/L, respectively. RNA interference (RNAi mediated silencing of CYP9A105 led to increased mortalities of insecticide-treated 4th instar S. exigua larvae. Our results suggest that CYP9A105 might play an important role in α-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate detoxification in S. exigua.

  15. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  16. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    to infer increased seasonality in organic matter production, thus variation in strength or duration of monsoon. Thus, this study establishes that the down-core variation in the abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua can be used to infer past...

  17. Evaluation of Dry Ice as a Potential Cryonematicide for Meloidogyne incognita in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wergin, William P.; Yaklich, Robert W.; Chitwood, David J.; Erbe, Eric F.

    1999-01-01

    Solid CO₂ (dry ice) was added to pots containing soil that was infested either with eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, or with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers') root fragments that were infected with various stages of the nematode. Two hours after dry ice was added, thermocouples in the soil recorded temperatures ranging from -15 °C to -59 °C. One day after treatment with the dry ice, the temperature of the soil was allowed to equilibrate with that of the greenhou...

  18. Linhagens de alface-crespa para o verão resistentes ao Meloidogyne javanica e ao vírus mosaico-da-alface Lineages of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer cropping resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias F4 de alface, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Verônica e Salinas 88, para o cultivo no verão, com relação ao tipo de folha, e à resistência ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Primeiramente, avaliaram-se a coloração da folha, tipos de borda e limbo foliares, além da tolerância ao calor no campo, em blocos ao acaso compostos pelas 15 famílias F4 previamente selecionadas, pelas cultivares parentais e pela cultivar testemunha Regina 71 (folhas lisas e tolerante ao calor, com cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Na segunda etapa, as famílias foram avaliadas quanto à resistência ao LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas, em bandejas de 128 células acondicionadas em estufa. As médias das notas atribuídas a cada família foram comparadas às médias de cada cultivar parental pelo teste de Dunnet (5%. A família AFX007B-140-21, homozigota resistente aos nematóides e ao LMV e, também, tolerante ao calor, foi a mais promissora. O cruzamento entre uma cultivar de folhas crespas e soltas com uma de folhas crespas e repolhuda, pode originar linhagens promissoras tanto de folhas crespas quanto de folhas lisas.The aim of this work was to select F4 lettuce families, derived from the cross 'Veronica' x 'Salinas 88 ', for summer cropping, type of leaves, and for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. First, evaluations were made for leaf colour, leaf limb, border type, and heat tolerance in the field, in a complete blocks desing, in 15 F4 families previously selected, parent cultivars and, as control, the cultivar Regina 71 (butterleaf and tolerant to heat. Five replicates and eight plants per plot were used. As second step, the families were evaluated in greenhouse, in 128-cell expanded polystyrene trays, for resistance to LMV and root-knot nematodes. Score means of each family were compared to the means of

  19. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  20. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  1. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  2. Geschikte onderstammen voor biologisch geteelde komkommers, tomaten en paprika's in relatie tot wortelknobbelaaltjes (Meloidogyne spp.) - Resultaten onderzoek 2006-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.; Slooten, van M.A.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    During 5 years, Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture did research to find a rootstock with high resistance against the most important root knot nematodes or Meloidogyne species in greenhouses in the Netherlands, M. incognita, M. hapla and M. javanica. Rootstocks should combine resistance with good

  3. Sequence analysis of the D2/D3 region of the large subunit RDNA from different Meloidogyne isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenente, G.C.M.V.; Ley, de P.; Ley, de I.T.; Karssen, G.; Vanfleteren, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of eight Meloidogyne species and twelve isolates from Brazil and other countries were investigated using sequence data of the D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA. The phylogenetic procedures used were maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and

  4. Microflora of Meloidogyne egg masses: species composition, population density and effect on the biocontrol agent Verticillium chlamudosporium (Goddard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, C.J.; Papert, A.; Hok-A-Hin, C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Egg masses of Meloidogyne fallax from tomato and potato growing in soil from a nematode suppressive and a nonsuppressive field sustained bacterial population densities two to three orders of magnitude higher than those of the rhizosphere soil. BIOLOG metabolic profiling identified 16 bacterial

  5. Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.

    2017-01-01

    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.

  6. Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moslemi, F.; Fatemy, S.; Bernard, F.

    2016-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA) could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with. (Author)

  7. Resistance of sweet potato clones to meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Assis Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate sweet potato clones for resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3. For each nematode physiological race, a greenhouse experiment was set up in a randomized block experimental design with three replications and six plants per plot. Fifty-eight sweet potato clones from the UFVJM germplasm bank were evaluated, plus five commercial cultivars (Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas, Princesa and Coquinho, plus the cv. Santa Clara tomato (susceptible to Meloidogyne spp.. Stems were planted in 72-cell expanded polystyrene trays, filled with commercial substrate and inoculated with the pathogen thirty days after planting. Forty-five days after inoculation, the eggs were extracted, counted, and later evaluated. Resistance level classification was performed based on reproduction factor (RF and reproduction index (RI. Among the 63 analyzed clones, a percentage of 78% were classified as resistant to M. incognita race 1.79% to race 3 and 67% showed multiple resistance to both M. incognita races.

  8. Resistance of sweet potato clones to meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Assis Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate sweet potato clones for resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3. For each nematode physiological race, a greenhouse experiment was set up in a randomized block experimental design with three replications and six plants per plot. Fifty-eight sweet potato clones from the UFVJM germplasm bank were evaluated, plus five commercial cultivars (Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas, Princesa and Coquinho, plus the cv. Santa Clara tomato (susceptible to Meloidogyne spp.. Stems were planted in 72-cell expanded polystyrene trays, filled with commercial substrate and inoculated with the pathogen thirty days after planting. Forty-five days after inoculation, the eggs were extracted, counted, and later evaluated. Resistance level classification was performed based on reproduction factor (RF and reproduction index (RI. Among the 63 analyzed clones, a percentage of 78% were classified as resistant to M. incognita race 1.79% to race 3 and 67% showed multiple resistance to both M. incognita races.

  9. Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Developmental Stages of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Subramanian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita is a common root-knot nematode with a wide range of plant hosts. We aimed to study the metabolites produced at each stage of the nematode life cycle to understand its development. Metabolites of Meloidogyne incognita were extracted at egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages and 110 metabolites with available standards were quantified using CE-TOF/MS. Analyses indicated abundance of stage-specific metabolites with the exception of J3 and J4 stages which shared similar metabolic profiles. The egg stage showed increased abundance in glycolysis and energy metabolism related metabolites while the J2 metabolites are associated with tissue formation, motility, and neurotransmission. The J3 and J4 stages indicated amino acid metabolism and urea cycle- related metabolites. The female stage was characterized with polyamine synthesis, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of reproduction related metabolites. Such metabolic profiling helps us understand the dynamic physiological changes related to each developmental stage of the root-knot nematode life cycle.

  10. Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V.; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH₃-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil. PMID:19277325

  11. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  12. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with uptall ornamentals plants in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano-Gonzalez, Stefany; Esquivel-Hernandez, Alejandro; Molina-Bravo, Ramon; Morera-Brenes, Bernal

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants were identified. Ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery were sampled in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the trail length, and the hyaline region of J 2 s as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J 2 s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica), and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions. (author) [es

  13. Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Estaún, V; Pinochet, J; Marfá, O

    1995-12-01

    The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil.

  14. Molecular changes in vitellogenin gene of Spodoptera exigua after long-time exposure to cadmium - Toxic side effect or microevolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Chwiałkowska, Karolina; Augustyniak, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The reproduction of pest insects is a continuously ongoing issue, especially in the environmental pollution context. Natural or artificial stressing factors enforce a kind of trade-off, most often between growth/survival and reproduction, which improves fitness of the organism. Harmful factors, such as cadmium, can affect the vitellogenesis leading to reduction of yolk synthesis and egg production. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection to cadmium in food might have induced change in vitellogenesis of Spodoptera exigua. We analyzed the level of Vg gene expression in S. exigua from the control and the cadmium strain at regular time intervals within 48h after eclosion. The full sequence of Vg gene was also compared between strains. The vitellogenin gene expression in both strains was time-dependent. This dependence was more visible in the control strain. In the cadmium strain the vitellogenin expression was significantly lower, comparing with the control strain in the first day after eclosion but increased significantly in the second day. The sequenced CDS (5286bp long) of the control and the cadmium strains were translated into protein sequences containing both 1761 aa. The protein sequences comparison revealed that there is one amino acid change at aa position 1282. Multiple alignments of six orthologous proteins from different species showed that amino acid change is located in the conserved position. Long-lasting exposure to cadmium resulted in permanent mutation in vitellogenin gene. We do not know yet if the mutation can improve fitness of the cadmium-selected insects. However, we can suppose that the mutation is neutral or even beneficial. The mutation and most probably additional effects of cadmium exposure have an influence on the vitellogenin expression. Some modification in the expression of the vitellogenin receptor are also likely to be important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhou; Jun Liu; Shengyou Bao; Yan Yang; Yong Zhuang

    2018-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum, a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, design...

  16. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Mishima, Yuri; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Akira; Mine, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng; Yamada, Junko; Oda, Taiko; Namikoshi, Michio

    2004-01-01

    A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1), has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2) and D (3), dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13), from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua) collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral data analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. This compound may be produced by an endosymbiotic Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. Compounds 1–3 and 11–13 showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 at IC50’s of 5.5, 5.5, 5.9, 22.4, 9.5, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The possible biosynthesis origin of the isolated metabolites is discussed.

  17. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  18. Eksplorasi Bakteri yang Berpotensi Sebagai Agens Pengendali Hayati Fusarium solani dan Meloidogyne incognita pada Lada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Mayang Wardhika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is major producer of black pepper (Piper nigrum L., however the pepper production has been decreasing in the last decades. Black pepper yellowings caused by Fusarium solani and Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most important disease on pepper causing the decrease of pepper production. This research was aimed at the selection of potential bacteria as a biological control agents of F. solani and M. incognita on black pepper. The bacteria were isolated from rhizospheric soil of healthy plant. To determine the ability of biological agents, they were tested against F. solani and M. incognita. Seven isolates fluorescent pseudomonads, 19 isolates of Bacillus spp. and 21 bacterial isolates which were yet to be identified were isolated from soil rhizosphere. The results show that there are 5 antagonist bacterial isolates which were able to inhibit the growth of F. solani but so far no bacteria that caused cell lysis to M. incognita larvae was found.     Indonesia merupakan negara produsen lada yang pada beberapa waktu terakhir ini telah mengalami penurunan produksi. Penyakit kuning yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium solani dan Meloidogyne incognita merupakan salah satu penyebab terjadinya penurunan tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menyeleksi bakteri yang berpotensi sebagai pengendali hayati Fusarium solani dan Meloidogyne incognita pada lada. Isolasi bakteri dilakukan dari tanah rizosfer pertanaman lada sehat dan selanjutnya untuk mengetahui kemampuan agens hayati dilakukan uji antagonis terhadap F. solani dan M. incognita. Hasil isolasi dari rizosfer pertanaman didapatkan 7 isolat bakteri kelompok Pseudomonad fluoresen, 19 isolat bakteri Bacillus spp. dan 21 isolat bakteri yang belum diidentifikasi lebih lanjut. Hasil uji antagonis menunjukkan bahwa ada 5 isolat bakteri yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan F. solani namun belum ditemukan adanya bakteri yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan M. incognita.

  19. Inoculum levels of Meloidogyne hispanica and M. javanica affect nematode reproduction, and growth of tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M.N. MALEITA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three inoculum levels (2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs/plant on the reproduction of Meloidogyne hispanica and M. javanica isolates and growth of the susceptible tomato genotypes Easypeel and Moneymaker, and genotypes Motelle and VFnt-Cherr, which possess the Mi-gene, at 25±2°C. sixty days after inoculation, roots were assessed for gall index (Gi, reproduction factor (Rf=final/initial population density and reproduction index (RI=Rf in the Mi-gene tomato plants/Rf in tomato Easypeel × 100. shoot and root lengths and fresh and dry root and shoot weights were also recorded. both species of Meloidogyne reproduced at all inoculum levels on all four tomato genotypes (4≤GI≤5 and 3.44≤Rf≤317.30. The M. javanica isolate, obtained from an infected potato field, was identified as natural and partially virulent to the Mi-gene (3.71≤RI≤20.19. This emphasizes the need for new sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes and for testing Mi-tomato plants for their susceptibility to local populations. Reproduction of M. javanica and M. hispanica on the resistant Motelle and VFNT-Cherr was significantly less than on the susceptible Easypeel and Moneymaker. VFNT-Cherr was more resistant than Motelle, which suggest an influence of the genetic background of the plants on the nematode response. For Easypeel and Moneymaker, there was a trend of decreased plant growth parameters with increasing inoculum level, irrespective of the nematode species, due to damage caused by the increasing number of nematodes that invaded plant roots. However, these values on Motelle and VFnt-Cherr remained relatively stable regarding shoot and total shoot plus root dry weight. the reproductive rate of M. javanica was greater than that of M. hispanica on all four genotypes tested, and tomato plants inoculated with M. hispanica had greater growth parameters. the resistance response of the Mi-tomato plants was independent

  20. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

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    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  1. Tagetes Patula y T Erecta para Controlar Meloidogyne Incognita y Hellcotylenchus Dihystera

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    Vergel German

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the control of Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera by Tagetes patula nana var. Petit Harmony and T. erecta var. Orange. For each of these nematode species, the population levels tested were considered as high, moderate and low. These populations were obtained mixing infested soil with sterilized one. Both Tagetes species gave satisfactory control. The decrease in population of nematodes in comparison with tomato was ranged from 15.5 to 136.3% depencing on the nematode species and on its population level on the soil No significate difference was found between the two Tagetes species. There was a greater decrease in population density for M. incognita than for H. dihystera; this was particulary true at the lowest population levels tested. In the case of M. incognita, an inverse relation was found between degree of control and population density of these nematodes in soil.

  2. Host status of progenies of yellow passion fruit to Meloidogyne incognita race 2

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    Roxana Stefane Mendes Nascimento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The host status of eighteen progenies (CRP 01-12 to CRP 16-12, CRP 19-12 and CRP 20-12 and two cultivars (FB 200 Yellow Master and FB 300 Araguari of yellow passion fruit to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The height and the biomass of the plants, besides the numbers of galls, eggs and second-stage juveniles in roots and soil were assessed after 70 days of cultivation of the genotypes and tomato (control in plastic pots with 2 kg of soil infested with 5,000 eggs of the nematode. The reproduction factor of the pathogen (RF = Final population/Initial population was calculated for classifying the genotypes as immune (RF = 0, resistant (RF < 1 or susceptible (RF ≥ 1. The cultivar FB 200 is resistant to M. incognita race 2 and can be cultivated in areas infested with this nematode.

  3. Effect of Artemisia vulgaris Rhizome Extracts on Hatching, Mortality, and Plant Infectivity of Meloidogyne megadora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da R Costa, S Dos S; de A Santos, M S N; Ryan, M F

    2003-12-01

    The activity of an ethanolic rhizome extract of Artemisia vulgaris against hatching, mortality, host plant infectivity, and galling of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne megadora was investigated. The extract inhibited egg hatch (50% inhibition by 2.35mg/ml) and caused second-stage juvenile mortality (50% lethality at 12 hours' exposure to 55.67 mg/ml), both in a dose-dependent manner. Nematode infectivity on Phaseolus vulgaris 'Bencanta Trepar', a susceptible host, decreased in a dose-responsive manner (50% inhibition at 6.28 hours exposure to extract). When applied directly to the soil, the extract reduced root galling on a susceptible host in a dose-dependent manner (50% inhibition by 32.36 mg/ml). After dilution in distilled water, the extract did not lose activity when stored in the dark at 25 degrees C for 15 days.

  4. Pathogenicity of four species of meloidogyne on three varieties of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Baines, R C

    1969-04-01

    'Ascolano' and 'Sevillano' olive trees, Olea europaea L., were highly susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood, and growth of their tops was decreased greatly in tests in a glasshouse. Roots of 'Manzanillo' olive trees were galled moderately by M. javanica, and their tops weighed 6% less than those of noninoculated trees. 'Manzanillo' olive is considered highly tolerant to M. javanica. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were highly susceptible to M. incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood. Their roots were galled moderately to severely, and growth of their tops were decreased between 13% and 44%. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were considered to be highly resistant to M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood and M. hapla Chitwood since no galls or mature females were found on their roots three and one-half months after inoculation.

  5. Subproduto da indústria vinícola no controle de Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Driéli Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a eficiência da atividade nematicida de diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso do subproduto da indústria vinícola sobre a eclosão e a mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne javanica e o efeito da incorporação ao solo desse subproduto sobre a eclosão e a viabilidade de J2 do nematoide; identificar, por meio da análise de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, a composição fitoquímica do extrato aquoso do subproduto da indús...

  6. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  7. Mangrove formulations for the management of meloidogyne javanica (treub) chitwood under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Dawar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder. (author)

  8. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed G.; Elwakil, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incognita had a greater effect alone than did either of the other pathogens. The length of split roots was reduced by the infection of M. incognita and A. tumefaciens or F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The number of galls induced by nematodes on roots was higher where the bacterium was applied and lower where the fungus was applied to the opposite split root. PMID:19283119

  9. Physiological changes in leaves of mungbean plants infected with Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sequential changes induced by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek cv. MN95 were studied. Physiological and biochemical changes were recorded 15, 30 and 45 days after nematode inoculation. The changes noted varied with the length of exposure to the nematode. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased in nematode-infected plants. Total phenols increased in the leaves compared with the controls for up to 30 days after inoculation. Protein content declined significantly at 30 days after exposure to the nematodes. Amylase activity was enhanced in both the leaves and the stems as compared with the controls. The results suggested that plants responded to the nematode by adopting biochemical strategies to withstand the adverse effects of infection.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Postnikova

    Full Text Available Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp. are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69 and susceptible (cv. Lahontan alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with

  11. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  12. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD EL FATTAH, A.I.; KAMEL, H.A.; EL-NAGDI, W.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89

  13. Dehydrogenases, Acid and Alkaline Phosphatases, and Esterases for Chemotaxonomy of Selected Meloidogyne, Ditylenchus, Heterodera and Aphelenchus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Huisingh, D; Sasser, J N

    1971-01-01

    Various taxonomically useful profiles of four dehydrogenases (lactate, malate, glucose-6-phosphate, and a-glycerophosphate) and three hydrolases (acid and alkaline phosphatase and esterase) were detected in whole nematode homogenates of Meloidogynejavanica, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. arenaria, Ditylenchus dipsaci, D. triformis, Heterodera glycines, and Aphelenchus avenae. The enzyme profiles were stable in populations cultured on several different hosts. A tentative enzymically-determined phylogeny of Meloidogyne is given.

  14. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  15. Gene expression analysis in Musa acuminata during compatible interactions with Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Nancy Eunice Niño; Alves, Gabriel Sergio Costa; Almeida, Rosane Mansan; Amorim, Edson Perito; Fortes Ferreira, Claudia; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota Do Carmo; Grynberg, Priscila; Santos, Jansen Rodrigo Pereira; Cares, Juvenil Enrique; Miller, Robert Neil Gerard

    2017-03-01

    Endoparasitic root-knot nematodes (RKNs) ( Meloidogyne spp.) cause considerable losses in banana ( Musa spp.), with Meloidogyne incognita a predominant species in Cavendish sub-group bananas. This study investigates the root transcriptome in Musa acuminata genotypes 4297-06 (AA) and Cavendish Grande Naine (CAV; AAA) during early compatible interactions with M. incognita . Roots were analysed by brightfield light microscopy over a 35 d period to examine nematode penetration and morphological cell transformation. RNA samples were extracted 3, 7 and 10 days after inoculation (DAI) with nematode J2 juveniles, and cDNA libraries were sequenced using lllumina HiSeq technology. Sequences were mapped to the M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis var. Pahang genome sequence, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified and transcript representation determined by gene set enrichment and pathway mapping. Microscopic analysis revealed a life cycle of M. incognita completing in 24 d in CAV and 27 d in 4279-06. Comparable numbers of DEGs were up- and downregulated in each genotype, with potential involvement of many in early host defence responses involving reactive oxygen species and jasmonate/ethylene signalling. DEGs revealed concomitant auxin metabolism and cell wall modification processes likely to be involved in giant cell formation. Notable transcripts related to host defence included those coding for leucine-rich repeat receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinases, peroxidases, thaumatin-like pathogenesis-related proteins, and DREB, ERF, MYB, NAC and WRKY transcription factors. Transcripts related to giant cell development included indole acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.8 genes, involved in auxin metabolism, as well as genes encoding expansins and hydrolases, involved in cell wall modification. Expression analysis in M. acuminata during compatible interactions with RKNs provides insights into genes modulated during infection and giant cell formation. Increased

  16. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin ?1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin ?1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. Principal Findings The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cul...

  17. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    ‘SZX12’, with a maximum magnification of 180× and precision of ±3 µm, by keeping the specimen in dorsal view. A total of 872 E. exigua speci- mens were picked from 50 samples, for the present study and each data point is an average of ∼ 18 specimens...- ure 3). From ∼ 42kyr BP upwards, the abundance shows a fluctuating trend, with an increase till ∼ 33kyr BP. Above ∼ 33kyr BP, the abundance decreases sharply till ∼ 27kyr BP to increase again till ∼ 25kyr BP. From ∼ 25kyr BP upwards, the abundance...

  18. Evaluación de la actividad biocontroladora de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. sobre Meloidogyne javanica in vitro y bajo condiciones de invernadero en crisantemo (Drendranthema grandiflora Andernson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Lida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Para evaluar la acción biocontroladora de <em>Arthrobotrys sp. em>y <em>Paecilomyces sp. em>sobre huevos y larvas de <em>Meloidogyne javanica em>en crisantemo, se realizaron prue­bas <em>in vitro em>y en invernadero. Se tomaron 500 larvas y 500 huevos del nematodo contenidos en suspensiones de agua estéril y se trataron con concentraciones de 1,3· 106; 1,4· 107 y 6,4· 106; 1,14· 107 conidias/mL de <em>Arthrobotrys sp. em>y <em>Paecilomyces sp. em>Se observó bajo estereos­copio cada 24 horas, mientras la acción de los hongos sobre <em>M. javanica em>se cuantificó a las 72 horas de incu­bación, con un índice de control mayor de 50% sobre larvas y huevos. En invernadero se sembraron esquejes en suelo con compost estéril bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: hongos de forma individual y combinada; compost sólo y combinado con cada hongo; carbofurán (Fura­dan®; testigo patógeno y testigo absoluto. A los 45 días después de la inoculación se evaluó el peso fresco de la raíz, la longitud de la raíz, el número de nódulos y el de individuos de <em>M. javanica em>ambulatorios en 100 g de suelo. Mediante la prueba de Duncan (5% se determi­nó que el tratamiento de hongos en forma combinada controló a <em>M. javanicaem>, con un promedio de 18 nódulos en raíz, y fue menos eficiente comparado con el control individual, con un promedio de 7 y 8 nódulos en raíz respectivamente a los 45 días de transcurrida la infec­ción. El compost no ejerció control sobre <em>M. javanica em>pues presentó un promedio de 50 nódulos en raíz; el tratamiento (Furadán® exhibió un promedio de 25 nó­dulos en raíz, mostrando diferencias

  19. Hydrogen Cyanide Produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Exhibits Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne hapla

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    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are parasites that attack many field crops and orchard trees, and affect both the quantity and quality of the products. A root-colonizing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, possesses beneficial traits including strong nematicidal activity. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the nematicidal activity of P. chlororaphis O6, we constructed two mutants; one lacking hydrogen cyanide production, and a second lacking an insecticidal toxin, FitD. Root drenching with wild-type P. chlororaphis O6 cells caused juvenile mortality in vitro and in planta. Efficacy was not altered in the fitD mutant compared to the wild-type but was reduced in both bioassays for the mutant lacking hydrogen cyanide production. The reduced number of galls on tomato plants caused by the wild-type strain was comparable to that of a standard chemical nematicide. These findings suggest that hydrogen cyanide-producing root colonizers, such as P. chlororaphis O6, could be formulated as “green” nematicides that are compatible with many crops and offer agricultural sustainability.

  20. Elucidation of the compatible interaction between banana and Meloidogyne incognita via high-throughput proteome profiling.

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    Aisyafaznim Al-Idrus

    Full Text Available With a diverse host range, Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode is listed as one of the most economically important obligate parasites of agriculture. This nematode species establishes permanent feeding sites in plant root systems soon after infestation. A compatible host-nematode interaction triggers a cascade of morphological and physiological process disruptions of the host, leading to pathogenesis. Such disruption is reflected by altered gene expression in affected cells, detectable using molecular approaches. We employed a high-throughput proteomics approach to elucidate the events involved in a compatible banana- M. incognita interaction. This study serves as the first crucial step in developing natural banana resistance for the purpose of biological-based nematode management programme. We successfully profiled 114 Grand naine root proteins involved in the interaction with M. incognita at the 30th- and 60th- day after inoculation (dai. The abundance of proteins involved in fundamental biological processes, cellular component organisation and stress responses were significantly altered in inoculated root samples. In addition, the abundance of proteins in pathways associated with defence and giant cell maintenance in plants such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glycolysis and citrate cycle were also implicated by the infestation.

  1. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-03-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg a.i./kg soil). The data were analyzed using a custom response surface regression model and the response surface curve and contour plots were drawn. Reliability of the model was examined by comparing the result of new experimental treatments with the predicted results. The optimal levels of these two variables also were calculated. The interactive effects of concentrations of Trichoderma and cadusafos were insignificant for several responses such as the total number of eggs per gram soil, the number of intact eggs per gram soil, nematode reproduction factor, and control percent. Closeness of experimental mean values with the expected values proved the validity of the model. The optimal levels of the cadusafos concentration and Trichoderma concentration that caused the best plant growth and lowest nematode reproduction were 1.7 mg a.i./kg soil and 10(8) conidia/ml suspension, respectively.

  2. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

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    Tayyaba Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  3. Dose assessment of HeberNem to control of Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood in greenhouses

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    Mario Fleitas Díaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the houses of protected crops Agricultural Company República Dominicana, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes municipality, Camagüey, an experiment was developed to evaluate different doses of bionematicide HeberNem in controlling the nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and his participation in the growth and development of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum crop, the experimental design was in randomized blocks, the test was composed of 8 treatments replicated twice, evaluating a total of 40 plants for each treatment which were measured: plant height, stem diameter the number of leaflets, the number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster and number of fruits per bunch, they were made weekly. Also at the end of the campaign took root degree determined according to the scale indicated by Zeck, (1971. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and determined the levels of statistical significance at 5%, by dócima Tukey multiple range. We found an inverse relationship between the parameters of growth and development weighed against the presence of M. incognita Chitwood. At doses of 8 l / ha, 12 l / ha and 16 l / ha were achieved better results in controlling the nematode M. incognita Chitwood.

  4. Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity.

  5. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    Alexandre Macedo Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days later variables related to nematode reproduction and plant development were evaluated, which indicated a potential nematicidal effect of the MBM at 3%. Another experiment assessed nematode- and plant-related variables 90 days after treatment of the seedlings with MBM, chitosan, shrimp shell or neem cake at 3%, 0.05%, 2% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. The MBM ranked first, reducing nematode reproduction. This MBM rate was converted to 25 kg/tree and assessed in three application regimes (monthly, bimonthly or trimonthly, for six months, in an orchard affected by guava decline. The variables assessed were soil density of colony forming units (CFU of bacteria and fungus, and soil and/or root density of M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., and of different nematode trophic groups. In all three application regimes the MBM reduced all plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil and the fungus CFUs. It also promoted an increase in bacterial CFU and bacterivorous nematodes.

  6. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively.

  7. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmint accessions was susceptible to this species. Plant dry weights generally were unaffected by infection with root-knot nematodes at these densities. Growing peppermint and spearmint accessions for 8 or 12 weeks in M. arenaria-infested soil before tomato resulted in 90% reduction of root galls compared with tomato following tomato. Cineole, eugenol, geraniol, linalool, and peppermint oils at 50 and 250 mg oil/kg soil caused no reduction in the number of galls caused by M. arenaria on tomato. At 1,500 mg oil/kg soil, geraniol, eugenol, linalool, and peppermint oils (P =0.05) reduced the number of galls caused by M. arenaria, but the decrease in galling caused by M. incognita was not significant. Geraniol, linalool, and peppermint oil at 1,000 and 1,500 mg were phytotoxic to tomato. PMID:19277186

  8. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita

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    Gai Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20–12.60 μg/mL and 1.06–4.96 μg/mL, respectively exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83–103.44 μg/mL and 17.21–30.91 μg/mL, respectively against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  9. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gai; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2016-09-23

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20-12.60 μg/mL and 1.06-4.96 μg/mL, respectively) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83-103.44 μg/mL and 17.21-30.91 μg/mL, respectively) against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  10. Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva; da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; de Melo, Natoniel Franklin; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Régis; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus etunicatum or Acaulospora longula and 55 days later with 4,000 eggs of M. enterolobii. The interactions between the AMF and M. enterolobii were assessed by measuring leaf number, aerial dry biomass, CO2 evolution and arbuscular and total mycorrhizal colonization. In general, plant growth was improved by the treatments with A. longula or with G. albida. The presence of the nematode decreased arbuscular colonization and increased general enzymatic activity. Higher dehydrogenase activity occurred with the A. longula treatment and CO2 evolution was higher in the control with the nematode. More spores and higher production of glomalin-related soil proteins were observed in the treatment with G. albida. The numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs were reduced in the presence of A. longula. Inoculation with this fungus benefitted plant growth and decreased nematode reproduction. PMID:25288951

  11. Crop Rotation Studies with Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) for the Management of Meloidogyne spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Pinochet, J; Robertson, D G; Wells, L

    1992-12-01

    Results from a greenhouse experiment at Cabrils, Spain, with two velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) accessions (Florida and Mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. In contrast, roots of 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentum), 'Summer Crookneck' squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 'Davis' soybean (Glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse experiments at Auburn, Alabama, using soils infested with Heterodera glycines (race 14) + M. incognita or with H. glycines + M. arenaria (race 2) showed that, in contrast to Davis soybean, a Mexican and the Florida velvetbean accessions were not hosts for the nematodes. An experiment with 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and the Florida velvetbean in a field infested with M. arenaria (race 1), near Headland, Alabama, showed that significant juvenile populations of the nematode at peanut harvest time were present only in plots with peanut. A microplot rotation experiment demonstrated that 'Black Beauty' eggplant (Solanum melongena) following the Florida velvetbean had heavier shoots and lower numbers of M. arenaria juveniles in the roots and in the soil than eggplant after Summer Crookneck squash or Davis soybean.

  12. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  13. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  14. Interplay between Carotenoids, Abscisic Acid and Jasmonate Guides the Compatible Rice-Meloidogyne graminicola Interaction

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    Tina Kyndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have characterized the role of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the compatible interaction between the sedentary root knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne graminicola and the monocot model plant rice (Oryza sativa. Previous transcriptome data showed a differential expression of carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in nematode-induced giant cells and gall tissue. Metabolite measurement showed that galls indeed accumulate chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA. When ABA was externally applied on rice plants, or when ABA-biosynthesis was inhibited, a significant increase in gall formation and nematode development was found, showing the complex role of ABA in this interaction. ABA application suppressed jasmonic acid (JA levels in the plants, while ABA-biosynthesis inhibition lead to increased JA levels confirming an antagonism between ABA and JA in rice roots. In addition, combined applications of ABA and JA showed that the ABA-effect can overcome JA-induced defense. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid precursors would be beneficial to nematode infection. Indeed, when chemically blocking the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway at different steps, which leads to differential accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the plants, a positive and clear link between accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll and rice susceptibility to RKN was detected.

  15. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

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    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  16. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( <em>Allium cepaem> L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( <em>A. cepaem> L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of <em>A. cepaem> . Both onion and shallot together with other <em>Allium> species like garlic ( <em>A.

  17. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunseong Kim

    Full Text Available Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT.The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt.This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt.

  18. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt.

  19. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Yao

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1, has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2 and D (3, dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13, from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral data analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. This compound may be produced by an endosymbiotic Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. Compounds 1–3 and 11–13 showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 at IC50’s of 5.5, 5.5, 5.9, 22.4, 9.5, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The possible biosynthesis origin of the isolated metabolites is discussed.

  20. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Gruyter, de J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  1. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) : a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; de Gruyter, J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  2. Control Effect of Sudan Grass on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in Cucumber and Lettuce Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Hwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cucumber and lettuce was evaluated with green manure crop species in greenhouse. Nematicidal effect of sudan grass cultivation in cucumber greenhouse was comparable to that of chemical treatment with fosthiazate GR, showing the high activity of 88.6%. Sudan grass cultivation in lettuce greenhouse significantly reduced the number of M. incognita in soil, showing 93.5% of nematiidal activity. In addition, since growth of sudan grass was superior to other green manure crop species, it is considered that cultivation of sudan grass is proper to control M. incognita in greenhouse.

  3. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...

  4. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170

  5. Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Abrantes, Isabel M.; de A. Santos, M. Susana N.

    1991-01-01

    A root-knot nematode from Portugal, Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Females of the new species have a characteristic perineal pattern with medium to high trapezoidal dorsal arch with distinct punctuations in the tail terminus area. The excretory pore is located posterior to the stylet, about 1.5-2.5 stylet lengths from the anterior end. The stylet is 17.1 μm long with pear-shaped knobs. Males have a round...

  6. Overexpression of MIC-3 indicates a direct role for the MIC gene family in mediating Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped to Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) chromosomes 11 and 14 that govern the highly resistant phenotype in response to infection by root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood & White); however, nearly nothing is known regarding the ...

  7. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  8. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Yang, W; Yan, Y; Crutcher, F; Kolomiets, M

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plants whereas expression of several other defense related genes was increased. In this study, we used more specific gene primers to examine the expression of six PAL genes in three maize genotypes that were good, moderate, and poor hosts for M. incognita, respectively. Of the six PAL genes interrogated, two (ZmPAL3 and ZmPAL6) were not expressed in either M. incognita-infected or noninfected roots. Three genes (ZmPAL1, ZmPAL2, and ZmPAL5) were strongly expressed in all three maize lines, in both nematode-infected and noninfected roots, between 2 and 16 d after inoculation (DAI). In contrast, ZmPAL4 was most strongly expressed in the most-resistant maize line W438, was not detected in the most-susceptible maize line CML, and was detected only at 8 DAI in the maize line B73 that supported intermediate levels of reproduction by M. incognita. These observations are consistent with at least one PAL gene playing a role in modulating host status of maize toward M. incognita and suggest a need for additional research to further elucidate this association.

  9. Control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenaria on kenaf and roselle with genetic resistance and nematicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N. A.; Adamson, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and roselle (H. sabdarifla) were evaluated in nematicide-treated and untreated field soil naturally infested with either Meloidogyne javanica or M. arenaria. Root-knot indices indicated that the kenaf breeding line j-l-113 had moderate resistance to M. javanica and low resistance to M. arenaria. Kenaf cv Everglades 71 was highly susceptible to both M. javanica and M. arenaria, and roselle breeding line A59-56 was highly resistant. Both nematode species reproduced on all plant entries, but more larvae were recovered from the soil in plots planted to Everglades 71 than in plots planted to j-l-l13 or A59-56. In untreated soil infested with M. javanica, dry-matter yields were greater (P = 0.05) for j-l-l13 and A59-56 than for Everglades 71. The percentages of live plants at harvest were: j-l-l13, 88; A59-56, 93; and Everglades 71, 9. Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane) at 73.9 kg a.i./ha and DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) at 17.6 kg a.i./ha increased dry-matter yields significantly for all entries planted in soil infested with M. arenaria. Carbofuran (2.3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) at 5.9 kg a.i./ha did not increase the dry-matter yields of any entry. None of the nematicides increased the growth of any entry significantly in soil infested with M. javanica. PMID:19305526

  10. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A; Eckert, J W

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P

  11. Direct identification of the Meloidogyne incognita secretome reveals proteins with host cell reprogramming potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bellafiore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins. Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth. Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi, suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible

  12. How to reduce the number of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in tomato using earthworms?

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    Jair Alves Dionísio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the incidence of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in the roots of Solanum lycopersicum, after inoculation with Amynthas spp. and Pontoscolex corethrurus. The experiment was performed in the greenhouse in a randomised block experimental design was adopted, with four treatments and five repetitions: T1. M. paranaensis; T2. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. T3. M. paranaensis +P. corethrurus; T4. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. + P. corethrurus. Initially, six adult worms of Amynthas spp. or P. corethrurus, isolated or in the same proportion (3:3, with the previously determined fresh biomass. After one week, tomato seedlings (cultivar “Rutgers” were transplanted to the pots and inoculated with 5 mL of a suspension of M. paranaensis containing 5,000 eggs and/or juveniles per pot. Sixty-five days after inoculation, the number of remaining worms was counted after manual collection; the fresh biomass was determined by direct weighing, and the number of galls on the roots of the tomato was counted directly in a stereomicroscope. The results demonstrated a reduction in the number of galls per plant with treatments involving inoculation with worms, varying between 26,7% and 63,3%, respectively, for Amynthas spp. and P. corethrurus. Meanwhile, the combination of worms lead to a reduction of 50,0% in the incidence of galls. The results demonstrate that the use of worms in the biological control of nematodes, during tomato cultivation, has great potential that requires further investigation.

  13. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  14. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  15. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program

  16. EVALUATION OF THE REACTION OF WATERMELON PARENT AND F1 PLANTS TO Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉIA SANTOS DAMACENO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of progenies from Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (cultivated watermelons when crossed with progenies from C. lanatus var. citroides (fodder watermelon with a historic of resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. The parents and their F1s were evaluated for resistance to this nematode. In the initial stages of eleven treatments, watermelon seedlings plantlets were transplanted to plastic bags of six kilograms once the first leaves developed. Ten inoculated plants with 5,200 eggs in the soil near the stem of the plant and four non-inoculated ones were used in each treatment, in a complete block design. Sixty-two days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: the length of the aerial part of the plant (LAP, in m, fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP, in g, root fresh mass (RFM, in g, egg number (EN and reproduction factor (RF. A comparison between the averages of inoculated and non-inoculated plants was performed using Scott-Knott test at 5% and the diallelic analysis was performed using the GENES program. The morphological characteristics did not allow for the identification of the parent plants or the F1s with respect to nematode resistance, but the variables EN and RF were useful for such identification. The analyses of the general and specific combining abilities indicate highly significant effects with respect to this resistance, showing additive gene effects as well as dominance and epistatic gene effects, allowing for identification of parents and F1s that can be used in watermelon breeding programs to improve resistance to the M. enterolobii.

  17. Characterization of Streptomyces netropsis Showing a Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Ja Yeong Jang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of nematode has become difficult owing to the restricted use of effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide, and other non-fumigant nematicides. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop microbial nematicide to replace chemical nematicides. In this study, the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of fermentation broths of 2,700 actinomycete strains were tested for their nematicidal activity against second stage of juveniles (J2s of Meloidogyne incognita. As the results, only the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of AN110065, at 20% equivalent to 10% fermentation broth, showed strong nematicidal activity with 78.9% of mortality 24 h after treatment and 94.1% of mortality at 72 h. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain sequence was 99.78% identical to Streptomyces netropsis. The extract of S. netropsis AN110065 fermentation broth was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and butanol and then the ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers were investigated for their nematicidal activity against the M. incognita. At 1,000 mg/ml, ethyl acetate layer showed the strongest activity of 83.5% of juvenile mortality 72 h after treatment. The pot experiment using the fermentation broth of AN110065 on tomato plant against M. incognita displayed that it evidently suppressed gall formation at a 10-fold diluent treatment. The tomato plants treated with the fermentation broth of S. netropsis AN110065 did not show any phytotoxicity. The results suggest that S. netropsis AN110065 has a potential to serve as microbial nematicide in organic agriculture.

  18. Comparative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean

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    Ahmad S. Al-Hazmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean. These approaches included chemical (fumigant, non-fumigant, seed dressing, and seed dip, biological (the egg-parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp., physical (soil solarization, and cultural (chicken litter and urea methods. Accordingly, nine different control materials and application methods plus nematode-infected and non-infected controls were compared. Two important parameters were considered: plant response (plant growth and root galling and nematode reproduction (production of eggs and the reproduction factor Rf. The results showed that the use of chicken litter as an organic fertilizer severely affected the growth and survival of the plants. Therefore, this treatment was removed from the evaluation test. All of the other eight treatments were found to be effective against nematode reproduction, but with different levels of efficacy. The eight treatments decreased (38.9–99.8% root galling, increased plant growth and suppressed nematode reproduction. Based on three important criteria, namely, gall index (GI, egg mass index (EMI, and nematode reproduction factor (RF, the tested materials and methods were categorized into three groups according to their relative control efficacy under the applied test conditions. The three groups were as follows: (1 the relatively high effective group (GI = 1.0–1.4, Rf = 0.07–0.01, which included the fumigant dazomet, the non-fumigant fenamiphos, soil solarization, and seed dip with fenamiphos; (2 the relatively moderate effective group (GI = 3.4–4.0, Rf = 0.24–0.60, which included seed dressing with fenamiphos and urea; and (3 the relatively less effective group (GI = 5.0, Rf = 32.2–37.2, which included P. lilacinus and Glomus sp.

  19. Nematicidal activity of acetophenones and chalcones against Meloidogyne incognita and structure-activity considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Aissani, Nadhem; Demurtas, Monica; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Onnis, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of identifying new compounds active against root-knot nematodes, a set of 14 substituted chalcones were synthesised, starting from acetophenones. These chalcones and various acetophenones were tested in vitro against Meloidogyne incognita. The most potent acetophenones were 4-nitroacetophenone and 4-iodoacetophenone, with EC(50/24 h) values of 12 ± 5 and 15 ± 4 mg L(-1) respectively, somewhat weaker than that of the chemical control fosthiazate in our previous experiments (EC(50/24 h) 0.4 ± 0.3 mg L(-1)). When we converted the acetophenones to chalcones, the nematicidal activity differed, based on their substitution pattern. The condensation of 4-nitroacetophenone with 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde to give the corresponding chalcone (E)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one led to a slight reduction in activity (EC(50/24 h) value 25 ± 17 mg L(-1)). Moreover, (E)-3-(2-hydroxy-5-iodophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one showed better activity (EC(50/24) h value 26 ± 15 mg L(-1)) than 4-methoxyacetophenone (EC(50/24 h) value 43 ± 10 mg L(-1)). Acetophenones and chalcones may represent good leads in the discovery of new nematicidal compounds and may have potential use in crop management as active ingredients. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Nematode pests threatening soybean production in South Africa, with reference to Meloidogyne

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    Hendrika Fourie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The area planted to soybean in South Africa has increased by 54% since the 2009 growing season, mainly as a result of the increasing demand for protein-rich food and fodder sources. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technology, namely the availability of genetically modified herbicide tolerant soybean cultivars also contributed towards increased soybean production. The omnipresence of plant-parasitic nematodes in local agricultural soils, however, poses a threat to the sustainable expansion and production of soybean and other rotation crops. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the predominant nematode pests in local soybean production areas and those where other grain-, legume- and/or vegetable crops are grown. The lack of registered nematicides for soybean locally, crop production systems that are conducive to nematode pest build-ups as well as the limited availability of genetic host plant resistance to root-knot nematode pests, complicate their management. Research aimed at various aspects related to soybean-nematode research, namely, audits of nematode assemblages associated with the crop, identification of genetic host plant resistance in soybean germplasm to M. incognita and M. javanica, the use of molecular markers that are linked to such genetic resistance traits as well as agronomic performance of pre-released cultivars that can be valuable to producers and the industry are accentuated in this review. Evaluation of synthetically-derived as well as biological-control agents are also discussed as complementary management tactics. It is important that lessons learned through extensive research on soybean-nematode interactions in South Africa be shared with researchers and industries in other countries as they might experience or expect similar problems and/or challenges.

  1. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  2. EFECTO DE POBLACIONES DE Meloidogyne sp. EN EL DESARROLLO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL TOMATE

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    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.

  3. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

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    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  5. Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

    2013-06-01

    The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

  6. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Chiravathanapong, S.

    1971-01-01

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  7. Developmental control of a lepidopteran pest Spodoptera exigua by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA of a non-midgut gene.

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    Honggang Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi induced through double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been used widely to study gene function in insects. Recently, it has been reported that gene knockdown in several insects can be induced successfully through feeding with dsRNA. However, it is still unknown whether phenotypic silencing of genes not expressed in the midgut occurs after ingestion of insect dsRNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using chitin synthase gene A (SeCHSA as the target gene, which is expressed in the cuticle and tracheae of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera exigua, we showed that the growth and development of S. exigua larvae fed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA of SeCHSA was disturbed, resulting in lethality. In the 4th and 5th larval instars, prepupae, and pupae, the mean survival rates of insects fed the dsRNA-containing diet were 88.64%, 74.24%, 68.43% and 62.63% respectively. The survival rates in the 5th instar larvae, prepupae and pupae stages were significantly lower than those of all controls, and significant lethality differences were also found between dsSeCHSA treatment and dsControl or ddH(2O control in the 4th instar larvae. The effects of ingesting bacterially expressed dsRNA on transcription of the target gene, tissue structure, and survival rates of insects were dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SeCHSA dsRNA may be useful as a means of insect pest control.

  8. Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B

    2008-06-01

    Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.

  9. Hospitability of ornamental and medicinal plants to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2

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    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of species and genus of nematodes that affect a particular culture is of great importance to form a quantity of information that will be useful to laboratories for diagnosis and control of these pathogens. Because of the increase in the production of ornamental and medicinal plants in the of Cear. á State, the agricultural importance of the genus Meloidogyne and the scarcity of information on the hospitability this pathogen in these species, in that it was to evaluate the susceptibility testing of 30 species, and 20 ornamental (Antirrhimum majus, Gazania ringens, Carthamus tinctorius, Bryophyllum cayicinum, Ceasalpinia pulcherrima, Thumbergia alata, Petunia hibryda, Exacum affine, Catharanthus roseus, Opuntia sp., Sansevieria trifasciata, Asparagus densiflorus, Hibiscus mutabilis-roreus, Impatiens balsamiana, Celosia spicata, Antirrhimum sp., Dianthus chinensis, Zinnia elegans, Tagetes patula, Capsicum annuum and 10 medicinal (Peumus boldus, Ocimum gratissimum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Mentha x Vilosa, Plectranthus amboinicus, Ocimum bassilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba, Cymbopogon winterianus. The test was conducted in a greenhouse, of the Phytosanitary Sector, Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. The inoculation was conducted with 4,000 eggs/J2 for pot. Evaluation of the plants gave to 60 days after inoculation. Evaluated is the reaction of the plants, measuring up: number of galls and eggs, egg mass index, reproduction factor and reduce the reproduction factor. From these variables it was classified the reaction of plants to the nematode by means of five criterions. Of ownership of the results, it was verified that of the ornamental plants only species T. patula didn’t presented galls in your root system. Concerning medicinal species M. vilosa, C. citrates, L. alba, C. winterianus and P. boldus showed no galls in their root systems. Thus, concluded

  10. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

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    Lucia Rivera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ≤ 0.05. No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos de té (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos s

  11. Genomes of parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi) have a reduced complement of small RNA interference pathway genes: knockdown can reduce host infectivity of M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sadia; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as an endogenous mechanism of gene regulation in a range of eukaryotes has resulted in its extensive use as a tool for functional genomic studies. It is important to study the mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon in different organisms, and in particular to understand details of the effectors that modulate its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic sequences encoding genes involved in the RNAi pathway of four parasitic nematodes: the plant parasites Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita and the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi because full genomic sequences were available-in relation to those of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The data generated was then used to identify some potential targets for control of the root knot nematode, M. incognita. Of the 84 RNAi pathway genes of C. elegans used as model in this study, there was a 42-53 % reduction in the number of effectors in the parasitic nematodes indicating substantial differences in the pathway between species. A gene each from six functional groups of the RNAi pathway of M. incognita was downregulated using in vitro RNAi, and depending on the gene (drh-3, tsn-1, rrf-1, xrn-2, mut-2 and alg-1), subsequent plant infection was reduced by up to 44 % and knockdown of some genes (i.e. drh-3, mut-2) also resulted in abnormal nematode development. The information generated here will contribute to defining targets for more robust nematode control using the RNAi technology.

  12. Evaluation of Cultivars, Experimental Lines and Plant Introduction Collection of Sainfoin for Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A

    1987-01-01

    Stands of several cultivars and experimental lines of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were severely reduced (92% average loss) in a field naturally infested with Meloidogyne hapla. Stands of two alfalfa cultivars included in the test were unaffected. In studies conducted in the greenhouse with plants inoculated at the time of seeding, average mortality was 55% for sainfoin entries and 7% for Ladak alfalfa. Little mortality occurred when plants were inoculated after establishment. Three months after inoculation, all sainfoin entries were heavily galled (range of 3.3-3.7 on a scale of 1-4) while roots of Ladak were only slightly galled (rating of 1.6). Intermating of plants selected in the field plots for resistance to M. hapla showed a slight increase in resistance. Of the 147 plant introduction lines tested in the greenhouse, none were resistant to M. hapla.

  13. Crosses prior to parthenogenesis explain the current genetic diversity of tropical plant-parasitic Meloidogyne species (Nematoda: Tylenchida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargette, Mireille; Berthier, Karine; Richaud, Myriam; Lollier, Virginie; Franck, Pierre; Hernandez, Adan; Frutos, Roger

    2010-08-01

    The tropical and subtropical parthenogenetic plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne are polyphagous major agricultural pests. Implementing proper pest management approaches requires a good understanding of mechanisms, population structure, evolutionary patterns and species identification. A comparative analysis of the mitochondrial vs nuclear diversity was conducted on a selected set of Meloidogyne lines from various geographic origins. Mitochondrial co2-16S sequences and AFLP markers of total DNA were applied because of their ability to evidence discrete genetic variation between closely related isolates. Several distinct maternal lineages were present, now associated with different genetic backgrounds. Relative discordances were found when comparing mitochondrial and nuclear diversity patterns. These patterns are most likely related to crosses within one ancestral genetic pool, followed by the establishment of parthenogenesis. In this case, they mirror the genetic backgrounds of the original individuals. Another aspect could be that species emergence was recent or on process from this original genetic pool and that the relatively short time elapsed since then and before parthenogenesis settlement did not allow for lineage sorting. This could also be compatible with the hypothesis of hybrids between closely related species. This genetic pool would correspond to a species as defined by the species interbreeding concept, but also including the grey area of species boundaries. This complex process has implications on the way genotypic and phenotypic diversity should be addressed. The phenotype of parthenogenetic lines is at least for part determined by the ancestral amphimictic genetic background. A direct consequence is, therefore, in terms of risk management, the limited confidence one can have on the direct association of an agronomic threat to a simple typing or species delineation. Risk management strategies and tools must thus consider this complexity when

  14. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveskamp, Maikel M; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; de Gruyter, Johannes; Turco, Elena; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2009-05-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to distinguish P. exigua from its close relatives and to correctly identify isolates up to the variety level, because of their low genetic variation and high morphological similarity. Because of quarantine issues and phytosanitary measures, a robust DNA-based tool is required for accurate and rapid identification of the separate taxa in this species complex. The present study therefore aims to develop such a tool based on unique nucleotide sequence identifiers. More than 60 strains of P. exigua and related species were compared in terms of partial actin gene sequences, or analysed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with short, arbitrary, mini-hairpin primers. Fragments in the fingerprint unique to a single taxon were identified, purified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence data and subsequent primer trials led to the identification of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), and to a set of specific oligonucleotide combinations that can be used to identify these organisms in plant quarantine inspections.

  15. Identification de marques épigénétiques chez le nématode à galles parasite de plantes Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Pratx, Loris

    2017-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is the most damaging plant-parasitic nematode in agriculture. M. incognita reproduces in an asexual way by obligatory parthenogenesis. Genetically identical individuals develop from females and form clonal populations. Although these clones share the same genetic heritage, modifications of their phenotype can be observed when they are exposed to unfavorable environments. This phenotypic plasticity is characterized through two phenotypes of interest: sex-differentiation a...

  16. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of three putative aminopeptidases N affects susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang-Liang; Ma, Yan; Cui, Jin-Jie; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According to a phylogenetic analysis, these two novel SeAPNs, along with the four SeAPN isoforms already described, belong to six different clades. All the six SeAPNs share similar structural features. From N- to C-terminus a signal peptide, a gluzincin aminopeptidase motif, a zinc binding/gluzincin motif, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor sequence are located. The six Seapn genes were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut. Ingestion during four consecutive days of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting Seapn1, Seapn2, Seapn3, Seapn4, Seapn5 and Seapn6 significantly reduced corresponding mRNA levels by 55.6%, 45.5%, 43.2%, 56.8%, 45.4%, and 46.0% respectively, compared with those recorded in control larvae fed on non-specific dsRNA (dsegfp). When the larvae that previously ingested phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, dsegfp-, or six dsSeapns-overlaid diets were then exposed to a diet containing Cry1Ca, the larval mortalities were 71.2%, 69.3%, 52.0%, 77.2%, 43.3%, 62.0%, 65.4% and 53.8% respectively recorded after 6days. ANOVA analysis revealed that the larvae previously fed on dsSeapn1-, dsSeapn3-, and dsSeapn6-overlaid diets had significantly lower mortalities than those previously ingested PBS-, dsegfp-, dsSeapn2-, dsSeapn4- and dsSeapn5-overlaid diets. Thus, these results suggest that SeAPN1, SeAPN3 and SeAPN6 may be candidate receptors for Cry1Ca in S. exigua. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  18. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  19. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  20. EFECTO NEMATICIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE Quassia amara Y Brugmansia suaveolens SOBRE Meloidogyne sp. ASOCIADO AL TOMATE EN NICARAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de hojas de Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae y flores de Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae para determinar su efecto nematicida contra Meloidogyne sp. El estudio se realizó en el Campus Agropecuario de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua-León (UNAN- León en el año 2012. El material vegetal fue deshidratado, pulverizado y sus compuestos fueron extraídos utilizando como solvente metanol. Este estudio se realizó in vitro, se evaluó la mortalidad de los juveniles de Meloidogyne sp. en segundo instar después de 12, 24 y 48 horas de exposición a los extractos. Además, estos se aplicaron a plantas de tomate en maceteras bajo condiciones de invernadero, cuantificándose las poblaciones de nematodos a los 25, 50 y 75 días de exposición al extracto (DEE. En el experimento in vitro Q. amara y B. suaveolens diluidos al 10%, presentaron los más altos porcentajes de mortalidad después de 48 h, alcanzando 89 y 78% de juveniles muertos, respectivamente. En maceteras se evaluó la mortalidad de juveniles, índice de agallamiento (IA y factor de reproducción (FR. Los mejores resultados para Q. amara se obtuvieron a los 25 DEE, con un porcentaje de mortalidad de 80%, un IA de 1 en una escala de 0-5 y FR de 0,20. Con B. suaveolens, a los 25 DEE se alcanzó el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de 71%, un IA de 1,2 y un FR de 0,29. Estos resultados in vitro y en maceteras evidenciaron que ambos extractos poseen propiedades nematicidas, ya que redujeron significativamente (P≤0,05 las poblaciones de nematodos, su reproducción y el nivel de agallamiento de las raíces de tomate.

  1. Improved structural annotation of protein-coding genes in the Meloidogyne hapla genome using RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuelong; Bird, David McK; Nielsen, Dahlia M

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is increasingly applied to hypothesis-driven biological studies, the prediction of protein coding genes based on these data are usurping strictly in silico approaches. Compared with computationally derived gene predictions, structural annotation is more accurate when based on biological evidence, particularly RNA-Seq data. Here, we refine the current genome annotation for the Meloidogyne hapla genome utilizing RNA-Seq data. Published structural annotation defines 14 420 protein-coding genes in the M. hapla genome. Of these, 25% (3751) were found to exhibit some incongruence with RNA-Seq data. Manual annotation enabled these discrepancies to be resolved. Our analysis revealed 544 new gene models that were missing from the prior annotation. Additionally, 1457 transcribed regions were newly identified on the ends of as-yet-unjoined contigs. We also searched for trans-spliced leaders, and based on RNA-Seq data, identified genes that appear to be trans-spliced. Four 22-bp trans-spliced leaders were identified using our pipeline, including the known trans-spliced leader, which is the M. hapla ortholog of SL1. In silico predictions of trans-splicing were validated by comparison with earlier results derived from an independent cDNA library constructed to capture trans-spliced transcripts. The new annotation, which we term HapPep5, is publically available at www.hapla.org. PMID:25254153

  2. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

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    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  3. Single basal application of thiacloprid for the integrated management of Meloidogyne incognita and Bemisia tabaci in tomato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Ren, Xiaofen; Zhang, Dianli; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Qiao, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Tomato growers commonly face heavy nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and whitefly (B-biotype Bemisia tabaci) infestations, and previous studies demonstrated that thiacloprid could be used to control M. incognita and B. tabaci in cucumber. However, the efficacy of a single basal application of thiacloprid to control both pests and its effect on yield in tomato remains unknown. In this study, the potential of thiacloprid application to the soil for the integrated control of M. incognita and B. tabaci in tomato was evaluated in the laboratory and the field. Laboratory tests showed that thiacloprid was highly toxic to whitefly adults and eggs with an average lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 14.7 and 62.2 mg ai L-1, respectively, and the LC50 of thiacloprid for nematode J2s and eggs averaged 36.2 and 70.4 mg ai L-1, respectively. In field trials, when thiacloprid was applied to the soil at 7.5, 15 and 30 kg ha-1 in two consecutive years, whitefly adults decreased by 37.8-75.4% within 60 days of treatment, and the root-galling index was reduced by 31.8-85.2%. Optimum tomato plant growth and maximum yields were observed in the 15 kg ha-1 treatment. The results indicated that a single basal application of thiacloprid could control M. incognita and B. tabaci and enhance tomato growth and yield.

  4. Application of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi during the Acclimatization of Alpinia purpurata to Induce Tolerance to Meloidogyne arenaria

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    Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of micropropagated and mycorrhized alpinia plants to the parasite Meloidogyne arenaria. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of four inoculation treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Gigaspora albida, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Acaulospora longula, and a non-inoculated control in the presence or absence of M. arenaria with five replicates. The following characteristics were evaluated after 270 days of mycorrhization and 170 days of M. arenaria inoculation: height, number of leaves and tillers, fresh mass of aerial and subterranean parts, dry mass of aerial parts, foliar area, nutritional content, mycorrhizal colonization, AMF sporulation, and the number of galls, egg masses, and eggs. The results indicated a significant interaction between the treatments for AMF spore density, total mycorrhizal colonization, and nutrient content (Zn, Na, and N, while the remaining parameters were influenced by either AMF or nematodes. Plants inoculated with A. longula or C. etunicatum exhibited greater growth than the control. Lower N content was observed in plants inoculated with AMF, while Zn and Na were found in larger quantities in plants inoculated with C. etunicatum. Fewer galls were observed on mycorrhized plants, and egg mass production and the number of eggs were lower in plants inoculated with G. albida. Plants inoculated with A. longula showed a higher percentage of total mycorrhizal colonization in the presence of the nematode. Therefore, the association of micropropagated alpinia plants and A. longula enhanced tolerance to parasitism by M. arenaria.

  5. Reduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and ozone mass transfer in soil treated with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinya Jack; Westerdahl, Becky B; Pryor, Alan

    2009-09-01

    Ozone gas (O₃) is a reactive oxidizing agent with biocidal properties. Because of the current phasing out of methyl bromide, investigations on the use of ozone gas as a soil-fumigant were conducted. Ozone gas was produced at a concentration of 1% in air by a conventional electrical discharge O₃ generator. Two O₃ dosages and three gas flow rates were tested on a sandy loam soil collected from a tomato field that had a resident population of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica. At dosages equivalent to 50 and 250 kg of O₃/ha, M. javanica were reduced by 24% and 68%, and free-living nematodes by 19% and 52%, respectively. The reduction for both M. javanica and free-living nematodes was dosage dependent and flow rate independent. The rates of O₃ mass transfer (OMT) through three soils of different texture were greater at low and high moisture levels than at intermediate ones. At any one soil moisture level, the OMT rate varied with soil texture and soil organic matter content. Results suggest that soil texture, moisture, and organic matter content should be considered in determining O₃ dosage needed for effective nematode control.

  6. Understanding the interaction between an obligate hyperparasitic bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans and its obligate plant-parasitic nematode host, Meloidogyne spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterium, which is a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. that are economically important pests of a wide range of crops. The life cycle of the bacterium and nematode are described with emphasis on the bacterium's potential as a biocontrol agent. Two aspects that currently prohibit the commercial development of the bacterium as a biocontrol agent are the inability to culture it outside its host and its host specificity. Vegetative growth of the bacterium is possible in vitro; however, getting the vegetative stages of the bacterium to enter sporogenesis has been problematic. Insights from genomic survey sequences regarding the role of cation concentration and the phosphorylation of Spo0F have proved useful in inducing vegetative bacteria to sporulate. Similarly, genomic data have also proved useful in understanding the attachment of endospores to the cuticle of infective nematode juveniles, and a Velcro-like model of spore attachment is proposed that involves collagen-like fibres on the surface of the endospore interacting with mucins on the nematode cuticle. Ecological studies of the interactions between Daphnia and Pasteuria ramosa are examined and similarities are drawn between the co-evolution of virulence in the Daphnia system and that of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  7. Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams for the management of lettuce infected with Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885

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    José R Viggiano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams during seedling production of vegetable crops can be an efficient approach to control root-knot nematode. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating seedlings and/or soil with bionematicide (wettable powder formulation based on chlamydospores from isolate Pc-10 on the Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 control in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Isolate Pc-10 was diluted in water and applied when watering the seedlings (0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 g L-1 and/or to the potted soil (5000 chlamydospores g-1 used for growing lettuce. The soil in each pot was infested with 3000 M. javanica eggs. The number of M. javanica eggs was reduced in lettuce roots when isolate Pc-10 was applied either to seedlings or soil; there was no interaction between application methods. The decrease in the number of eggs was proportional to the increase of isolate Pc-10 applied to seedlings with maximum reduction of 43.5% at the 18 g L-1 dose. When the fungus was applied to the soil, the number of eggs was reduced by 12.3%. Increasing doses of isolate Pc-10 reduced the number of galls up to 21% with the 18 g L-1 dose. Applying bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 at 18 g L-1 on seedlings controls M. javanica in lettuce.

  8. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

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    Soraya C. M. Leal-Bertioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp. are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.

  9. OPDA has key role in regulating plant susceptibility to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in Arabidopsis

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    Cynthia Gleason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid (JA is a plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, but the role of JA in mediating the plant responses to root-knot nematodes has been unclear. Here we show that an application of either methyl jasmonate (MeJA or the JA-mimic coronatine (COR on Arabidopsis significantly reduced the number of galls caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Interestingly, the MeJA-induced resistance was independent of the JA-receptor COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1. The MeJA-treated plants accumulated the JA precursor cis-(+-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA in addition to JA/JA-Isoleucine, indicating a positive feedback loop in JA biosynthesis. Using mutants in the JA-biosynthetic pathway, we found that plants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA and OPDA were hyper-susceptible to M. hapla. However, the opr3 mutant, which cannot convert OPDA to JA, exhibited wild-type levels of nematode galling. In addition, mutants in the JA-biosynthesis and perception which lie downstream of opr3 also displayed wild-type levels of galling. The data puts OPR3 (OPDA reductase 3 as the branch point between hyper-susceptibility and wild-type like levels of disease. Overall, the data suggests that the JA precursor, OPDA, plays a role in regulating plant defense against nematodes.

  10. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

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    Yunhee Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI, gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0, while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0 with coefficient of variance (CV of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

  11. A novel Meloidogyne enterolobii effector MeTCTP promotes parasitism by suppressing programmed cell death in host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Kan; Chen, Jiansong; Lin, Borong; Wang, Jing; Sun, Fengxia; Hu, Lili; Liao, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the most important plant-parasitic nematodes that can overcome the Mi-1 resistance gene and damage many economically important crops. Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is a multifunctional protein that exists in various eukaryotes and plays an important role in parasitism. In this study, a novel M. enterolobii TCTP effector, named MeTCTP, was identified and functionally characterized. MeTCTP was specifically expressed within the dorsal gland and was up-regulated during M. enterolobii parasitism. Transient expression of MeTCTP in protoplasts from tomato roots showed that MeTCTP was localized in the cytoplasm of the host cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing MeTCTP were more susceptible to M. enterolobii infection than wild-type plants in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in planta RNA interference (RNAi) targeting MeTCTP suppressed the expression of MeTCTP in infecting nematodes and attenuated their parasitism. Furthermore, MeTCTP could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. These results demonstrate that MeTCTP is a novel plant-parasitic nematode effector that promotes parasitism, probably by suppressing programmed cell death in host plants. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nematoides fitoparasitos em áreas de cultivo de antúrio dos estados de São Paulo, Paraná e Santa Catarina

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    Claudio Marcelo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os nematoides associados a plantas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum cultivadas como flor de corte (13 amostras ou plantas em vaso (41 amostras nos estados de São Paulo, Paraná e Santa Catarina. Nematoides foram extraídos de 10g de raízes e 250cm3 de solo ou substrato e identificados sob microscópio de luz. A espécie mais frequente foi Radopholus similis, detectada em 54% das amostras de antúrio cultivado como flor de corte. Constituíram novas ocorrências em antúrio no Brasil: Helicotylenchus erythrinae, H. californicus, H. multicinctus, Meloidogyne paranaensis e R. similis. Entretanto, nenhum nematoide parasito de plantas foi encontrado nos antúrios cultivados em vaso, com substrato de fibra de coco.

  13. REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AOS NEMATÓIDES DE GALHAS (Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita REACTION OF CORN GENOTYPES (Zea mays L. TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (Melodoigyne javanica and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hércules Diniz Campos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sob condições de estufa de produção, com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de oito genótipos de milho em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas <em>Meloidogyne> <em>javanica> e <em>M. incognitaem>. Foram testados os híbridos DINA-657, DINA-766, DINA-170, HATÃ-1045, HATÃ-1001, FT-5140, CO-9560 E CO-32. Com relação a <em>M. javanicaem>, observou-se que as cultivares HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 E FT-5140 apresentam os menores fatores de reprodução, destacando-se para uso em programas de rotação de culturas com a soja. Todas as cultivares testadas comportaram-se como boas multiplicadoras de <em>M. incognitaem>, apresentando fatores de reprodução superiores a 3,98. Estas cultivares não devem ser recomendadas para áreas infestadas por esta espécie de nematóide.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; nematóides de galhas; milho.

  14. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Yolanda; Jakubowska, Agata K; Costa, Juliana; Herrero, Salvador; Escriche, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition) at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  16. Motuporamines, anti-invasion and anti-angiogenic alkaloids from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick): isolation, structure elucidation, analogue synthesis, and conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E; Craig, Kyle S; Patrick, Brian; McHardy, Lianne M; van Soest, Rob; Roberge, Michel; Andersen, Raymond J

    2002-01-11

    Extracts of the sponge Xestospongia exigua collected in Papua New Guinea were positive in a new assay for anti-invasion activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of the three known motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) along with the new motuporamines D (4), E (5), and F (6) and a mixture of G, H, and I (15). Motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) and the mixture of G, H, and I (15) were responsible for the anti-invasion activity of the crude extract. Motuporamine C (3) has also been found to be anti-angiogenic. A series of analogues of the motuporamines have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-invasive activity. These SAR results revealed that a saturated 15-membered cyclic amine fused to the natural motuporamine diamine side chain (13) represented the optimal structure for anti-invasive activity in this family. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the analogues 20 showed that in the solid state its 16-membered macrocyclic amine fragment adopted the [4444] quadrangular conformation predicted by calculations to be the lowest energy conformation for the corresponding cycloalkane, cyclohexadecane. These data along with literature X-ray data and conformational analysis for derivatives of azacyclotridecane have been used as precedents for predicting the lowest energy ring conformations of other motuporamines. The SAR data from the natural and synthetic motuporamines have been combined with the conformational analyses to provide an outline of the functionality and shape required for activity in this family of alkaloids and to design a new analogue 49 that showed good anti-invasion activity.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  18. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

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    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras

  19. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...

  20. Expression of Arabidopsis genes AtNPR1 and AtTGA2 in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants confers resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most destructive of the plant parasitic nematodes, infecting almost all cultivated plants and resulting in yield losses of billions of dollars annually. NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis related genes 1, AtNPR1) plays a positive role in the ...

  1. Coupling of MIC-3 overexpression with the chromosome 11 and 14 root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance QTLs provides insights into the regulation of the RKN resistance response in Upland cotton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is mediated by two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosomes 11 and 14. We had previously determined that MIC-3 expression played a direct role in suppressing RKN egg...

  2. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann (Tylenchida: Meloidoginidae) Infection in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. P.; Dolinski, C.; Souza, R. M.; Lewis, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Some studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) affect plant-parasitic nematode populations. Here, the effects of live and dead IJ of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4, H. baujardi LPP7, Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All were evaluated against eggs and J2 of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. According to treatment, 100 IJ were applied with 350 eggs, 350 J2 or 175 eggs + 175 J2 to tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in March to May and repeated in September to November 2005. Both experiments lasted 9 weeks, and the variable evaluated was number of galls per plant. When eggs were used for infections in the first trial, plants exhibited lower gall number compared to control when live and dead H. baujardi IJ and live S. feltiae IJ were added (9.7, 4.5, 7.3 and 85.7 galls, respectively). In the second trial, live S. feltiae and S. carpocapasae IJ influenced gall formation compared to control (14.33, 14.57 and 168.02 galls, respectively). When J2 were used for infections, plants with live H. baujardi IJ presented less galls when compared to control in both trials (38.3 and 355.7 galls in the first trial and 145.2 and 326.2 in the second one, respectively). Infection with a mixture of J2 and eggs resulted in fewer galls than when live S. feltiae IJ were present in both trials, compared to control (38.3 and 44.2 galls vs. 275.3 and 192.2 galls, respectively). We conclude that H. baujardi and S. feltiae apparently may be inhibiting egg hatching and J2 infection. PMID:19259509

  3. Multiple Modes of Nematode Control by Volatiles of Pseudomonas putida 1A00316 from Antarctic Soil against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Yile Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida 1A00316 isolated from Antarctic soil showed nematicidal potential for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita; however, little was known about whether strain 1A00316 could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and if they had potential for use in biological control against M. incognita. In this study, VOCs produced by a culture filtrate of P. putida 1A00316 were evaluated by in vitro experiments in three-compartment Petri dishes and 96-well culture plates. Our results showed that M. incognita juveniles gradually reduced their movement within 24–48 h of incubation with mortality ranging from 6.49 to 86.19%, and mostly stopped action after 72 h. Moreover, egg hatching in culture filtrates of strain 1A00316 was much reduced compared to that in sterile distilled water or culture medium. Volatiles from P. putida 1A00316 analysis carried out by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS included dimethyl-disulfide, 1-undecene, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, 2-undecanone, and 1-(ethenyloxy-octadecane. Of these, dimethyl-disulfide, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, and 2-undecanone had strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita J2 larvae by direct-contact in 96-well culture plates, and only 2-undecanone acted as a fumigant. In addition, the seven VOCs inhibited egg hatching of M. incognita both by direct-contact and by fumigation. All of the seven VOCs repelled M. incognita J2 juveniles in 2% water agar Petri plates. These results show that VOCs from strain 1A00316 act on different stages in the development of M. incognita via nematicidal, fumigant, and repellent activities and have potential for development as agents with multiple modes of control of root-knot nematodes.

  4. A study of interaction between Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedizadeh, Ayatollah; Kheiri, Ahmad; Zad, Javad; Etebarian, Hasan Reza; Bandani, Ali Reza; Nasiri, Mohammad Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Second stage juvenile (J2) of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and microsclerotia of verticillium wilt, Verticillium dahliae, were used as the source of inoculum for nematode and fungus respectively. One-year-old seedlings of olive cultivars, Zard, Roghani, Koroneiki and Manzanilla, were transplanted to pots containing 2000g of sterilized sandy loam soil. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 32 treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: control, nematode alone, fungus alone and fungus + nematode. Pots were inoculated with (0, 2000, 3000, 4000) J2 of nematode and/or (10 no/g soil) microsclerotia of fungus according to the treatments. Experiment was terminated after 10 months and fallowing parameters were determined i.e., fresh weight of root and stem, number of galls and egg masses per root system, and percentage of incidence of symptom on aerial parts, browning of vascular tissue, decrease of seedling height and stem/root tissue colonization by fungus. Results showed that presence of nematode caused reduction on colonization of the fungus in the root and stem and vice versa i.e. presence of fungus caused reduction on number of galls and egg masses produced by the nematode. Severe fungus wilt on aerial parts of Manzanilla cultivar was observed when both pathogens were inoculated and mild fungus wilt was observed in fungus alone treatments of Koroneiki cultivar. Galling and egg mass production in root system were reduced in cvs Manzanilla, Zard, Roghani and Koroneiki, respectively (p Manzanilla, respectively (p < or = 0/05).

  5. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

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    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

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    Xiaohui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum, a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance gene, designated as SacMi. The full-length cDNA of the SacMi gene was obtained using the technique of rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The open reading frame of the SacMi gene was 4014 bp and encoded a protein of 1338 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that SacMi belong to the non- Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-NBS-LRR type disease-resistance genes. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR showed that SacMi is expressed at low levels in uninfected roots, but was up-regulated by infection with M. incognita. To investigate the role of SacMi in S. aculeatissimum resistance against M. incognica, the tobacco rattle virus (TRV-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS system was used. Silencing of SacMi enhanced susceptibility of S. aculeatissimum plants to M. incognita, suggesting the possible involvement of SacMi in resistance against M. incognita infection.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Jun; Bao, Shengyou; Yang, Yan; Zhuang, Yong

    2018-02-15

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum , a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita , is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, designated as SacMi . The full-length cDNA of the SacMi gene was obtained using the technique of rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the SacMi gene was 4014 bp and encoded a protein of 1338 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that SacMi belong to the non- Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR type disease-resistance genes. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR showed that SacMi is expressed at low levels in uninfected roots, but was up-regulated by infection with M. incognita . To investigate the role of SacMi in S. aculeatissimum resistance against M. incognica , the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system was used. Silencing of SacMi enhanced susceptibility of S. aculeatissimum plants to M. incognita , suggesting the possible involvement of SacMi in resistance against M. incognita infection.

  8. EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO

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    Leida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

  9. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source

  10. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

    2010-09-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root

  11. Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Ni Xiang

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2 is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05 to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds.

  12. Bioactive Volatiles from an Endophytic Daldinia cf. concentrica Isolate Affect the Viability of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne javanica.

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    Orna Liarzi

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes form one of the largest sources of biotic stress imposed on plants, and are very difficult to control; among them are the obligate parasites, the sedentary root-knot nematodes (RKNs-Meloidogyne spp.-which are extremely polyphagous and exploit a very wide range of hosts. Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissue without causing visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs that exhibit biological activity. Recently, we demonstrated that the endophytic fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica secrets biologically active VOCs. Here we examined the ability of the fungus and its VOCs to control the RKN M. javanica both in vitro and greenhouse experiments. The D. cf. concentrica VOCs showed bionematicidal activity against the second-stage juveniles (J2s of M. javanica. We found that exposure of J2s to fungal volatiles caused 67% reduction in viability, and that application of a synthetic volatile mixture (SVM, comprising 3-methyl-1-butanol, (±-2-methyl-1-butanol, 4-heptanone, and isoamyl acetate, in volumetric ratio of 1:1:2:1 further reduced J2s viability by 99%. We demonstrated that, although each of the four VOCs significantly reduced the viability of J2s relative to the control, only 4-heptanone elicited the same effect as the whole mixture, with nematicidal activity of 90% reduction in viability of the J2s. Study of the effect of the SVM on egg hatching demonstrated that it decreased eggs hatching by 87%. Finally, application of the SVM to soil inoculated with M. javanica eggs or J2s prior to planting susceptible tomato plants resulted in a significantly reduced galling index and fewer eggs produced on each root system, with no effect on root weight. Thus, D. cf. concentrica and/or SVM based on fungal VOCs may be considered as a novel alternative approach to controlling the RKN M. javanica.

  13. COMBINING EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES AND RESISTANT CULTIVARS ON REDUCING THE INCIDENCE OF Meloidogyne spp. AND Thrips palmy Karny ON POTATO

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    Wiwin Setiawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. and melon thrips (Thrips palmy Karny are two serious pests on potato. These pests are conventionally controlled with synthetic pesticides. Cultural practices based on integrated pest management (IPM are alternative methods to control these pests. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined applications of cultural practices and potato cultivars in reducing the incidences of nematode and thrips. Treatments evaluated were methods of nematode and thrips control by implementing IPM and conventional practices. A split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications was  sed. The main plots were IPM or cultural practices (subsoiling, soil solarization and use of trap crop of marigold Tagetes erecta and conventional practices using synthetic pesticides. The subplots were five potato cultivars, i.e. No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17, 720050/Kikondo, 676068/ I.1085, Granola, and Atlantic. The results showed that applications of cultural practices in combination with potato cultivars reduced Meloidogyne spp. population and potato tuber damage by 53.70% and 61.36%, respectively, as well as a significantly decreased thrips population. In the cultural control plots, thrips populations were below the action threshold (10.0 nymphs per leaf, therefore no single application of pesticide was used. This was in contrast to the conventional control treatments where insecticide was spayed 10 times until harvest. The subsoiling and solarization cut off the life cycle of the thrips and any survive thrips were trapped by marigold plant. Population of T. palmi on the five potato cultivars differed significantly; the lowest population was found on the cultivars No. 095 (Herta x FLS-17 and 676068/I.1085. The cultural control practices combined with potato cultivar No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17 were the best treatment for controlling Meloidogyne spp. and T. palmi on potato and also produced the highest yield (31.01 t

  14. Incidence de quelques facteurs agronomiques sur les populations de Meloidogyne spp. et leurs principaux organismes parasites en culture maraîchère sahélienne

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo, A.; Diop, M.T.; Thio, B.; Konaté, Y.A.; Mateille, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Des prospections nématologiques ont été réalisées dans les régions de production maraîchère de deux pays sahéliens, le Burkina Faso et le Sénégal. Des analyses de correspondances entre quelques facteurs agronomiques et les populations de #Meloidogyne$ spp. ont montré que les niveaux des populations telluriques et racinaires n'étaient pas exclusivement liées à la sensibilité des cultures maraîchères en place, mais dépendaient aussi des précédents culturaux ou des agrosystèmes (terres inondées ...

  15. Evaluation of biological nematicides on the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood at protected crops house in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    Pedro Fidel Fuentes Chaviano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. variety HA 3105 at the protected crops houses in Empresa Azucarera Melanio Hernández of Sancti Spiritus, located at the southwest of Tuinucú, from November 2009 to May 2010 with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of biological nematicides on the control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood. Three treatments were used: Agrocelhone, biological nematicide HeberNem and HeberNem + Trichoderma. Biological nematicides showed better results than Agrocelhone regarding the length of the leaf, the height of the plant, the yield of tomato and the control of nematodes HeberNem showed the best results in the control of the nematode, decreasing the infestation from degree V to degree II.

  16. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949 on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. in Yola, Nigeria

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    M. Y. Jada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc. is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.. Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none. Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars.

  17. Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination.

  18. Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Yukio; Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32 P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO 2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14 C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14 C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

  19. The map-1 gene family in root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.: a set of taxonomically restricted genes specific to clonal species.

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    Iva Tomalova

    Full Text Available Taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs, i.e., genes that are restricted to a limited subset of phylogenetically related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, TRG-encoded proteins are possible determinants of the specificity of host-parasite interactions. In the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita, the map-1 gene family encodes expansin-like proteins that are secreted into plant tissues during parasitism, thought to act as effectors to promote successful root infection. MAP-1 proteins exhibit a modular architecture, with variable number and arrangement of 58 and 13-aa domains in their central part. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of this gene family using a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. Map-1 genes were solely identified in one single member of the phylum Nematoda, i.e., the genus Meloidogyne, and not detected in any other nematode, thus indicating that the map-1 gene family is indeed a TRG family. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of map-1 genes in RKNs further showed that these genes are specifically present in species that reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, with the exception of M. floridensis, and could not be detected in RKNs reproducing by either meiotic parthenogenesis or amphimixis. These results highlight the divergence between mitotic and meiotic RKN species as a critical transition in the evolutionary history of these parasites. Analysis of the sequence conservation and organization of repeated domains in map-1 genes suggests that gene duplication(s together with domain loss/duplication have contributed to the evolution of the map-1 family, and that some strong selection mechanism may be acting upon these genes to maintain their functional role(s in the specificity of the plant-RKN interactions.

  20. Dinámica de población de Meloidogyne spp. en cultivos protegidos y pérdidas de producción de pepino, calabacín, sandía y tomate susceptible y resistente

    OpenAIRE

    Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Giné Blasco, Ariadna; López Gómez, Manuel; Vela Delgado, María Dolores; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Talavera Rubia, Miguel Francisco; Verdejo Lucas, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    Se realizaron estudios en invernaderos infestados con Meloidogyne incognita o M. javanica, y que presentaban gradientes de infestación entre 0 y 11800 juveniles 250 cm-3 de suelo, para determinar la tasa máxima de multiplicación del nematodo (TMM), la densidad de equilibrio de la población (DE) y el efecto sobre la producción

  1. Antinematicidal Efficacy Of Root Exudates Of Some Crotalaria Species On Meloidogyne Incognita Root-Knot Nematode Kofoid And White Chitwood Isolated From Infected Lycopersicum Esculentum L.Tomato Plant

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    L.S Danahap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates P0.05 using analysis of variance ANOVA. The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.

  2. Ação de extratos de plantas medicinais sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2

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    Maria da Conceição Beserra Martins

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os fitonematoides são parasitas que afetam seriamente as culturas em todo o mundo comprometendo a produção agrícola e, por vezes, inviabilizando a utilização de numerosas áreas de cultivo. A busca por medidas alternativas de controle em substituição aos nematicidas convencionais é uma preocupação mundial, justificando pesquisas com substâncias naturais por serem eficientes e ecologicamente corretos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais de agrião-do-brejo (Eclipta alba L., alfavaca (Ocimum basilicum, artemísia (Artemísia vulgaris, capim citronela (Cymbopogon winteranus, chambá (Justicia pectoralis, confrei (Symphytum officinalle, hortelã (Mentha x vilosa, lombrigueira (Spigelia anthelmia, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides e menta (Mentha arvensis na motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis de Meloidogyneincognita raça 2. Os extratos, obtidos a partir de folhas secas sob infusão ou sob maceração em água, foram diluídos e distribuídos em placas de Petri às quais foram adicionados 50 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2. Após permanecerem por 48 horas nos extratos, todos os J2 móveis ou imóveis foram contados e, em seguida, transferidos para água determinando-se, após 24 horas, a porcentagem de J2 mortos. Os J2 ainda ativos foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro ‘Santa Clara’ em casa de vegetação para avaliar a sua infectividade. Os extratos macerados das plantas medicinais, excetuando-se capim citronela, hortelã e menta, apresentaram alta atividade nematicida com mais de 70% de J2 mortos. Mortalidade total ocorreu em extratos de lombrigueira, agrião-do-brejo e mastruz. A ausência de galhas nas raízes de tomateiros inoculados confirmou o efeito tóxico desses extratos.

  3. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

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    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso identificar genes candidatos involucrados en el proceso de patogenicidad de huevos de Meloidogyne. Con este fin se construyeron librerías diferenciales mediante el método de hibridación sustractiva. La secuenciación de 188 clones obtenidos permitió identificar 80 unigenes, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje correspondió a secuencias sin homología (32%, seguidas por genes candidatos a funciones de patogénesis (22%, transporte celular (17%, síntesis de proteínas (11% y en menor proporción aquellos involucrados con transcripción y metabolismo primario (18%. Dentro de aquellos genes que contienen marcos de lectura con homología a proteínas que intervienen en la patogenicidad se encuentran una peptidasa, un receptor para sitios de ubiquitinación, una deubiquinasa, una ubiquinona oxidoreductasa, proteína relacionada con la degradación de pared celular, glicosil hidrolasa e hidroxilasa de ácidos grasos, asi como una serin proteasa. Se hace necesaria la validación de las funciones putativas de estos genes candidatos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento básico de la fisiología de este hongo con potencial biorregulador.In 1997 it was reported for the first time from soil isolation of a Hyphomycete fungus from Chinchiná ( Caldas, Colombia , attacking eggs and other biological stages of the plant parasite nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, from commercial coffee plots. Due to the impossibility to classify it taxonomically under current

  4. Avaliação de acessos de Psidium spp. quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    Guilherme Bessa Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e sete acessos de Psidium spp. foram avaliados em casa de vegetação quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii, visando ao desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos e cultivares resistentes. Cinco a sete mudas de cada acesso foram produzidas por propagação vegetativa ou a partir de sementes e, no estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram submetidas à inoculação com 500 ovos desse nematoide. Cento e trinta e cinco dias após, extraiu-se metade do sistema radicular das plantas (cortado ao longo de seu eixo longitudinal para extração de ovos. As mudas foram replantadas com as raízes restantes e mantidas vivas em casa de vegetação. As contagens de ovos foram feitas em três alíquotas de 1 mL/planta, e multiplicadas por dois para obtenção da população final (Pf. As Pf's de todas as alíquotas foram submetidas a ANOVA, a qual indicou diferenças significativas (p<0,01 entre acesssos e entre plantas de mesmo acesso. A classificação dos acessos quanto à resistência foi feita pelo fator de reprodução (FR=Pf/500. Todas as plantas do araçazeiro (P. cattleyanum (acessos 115 e 116 foram resistentes (FR<1 a M. enterolobii, enquanto que em outros araçás e goiabas houve um número variável de indivíduos com FR abaixo ou pouco acima de 1. Estas plantas serão multiplicadas vegetativamente e reavaliadas quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii.

  5. Nematicidal potential of aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens in the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita of some cowpea cultivars

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    S. A. Abolusoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted under field and screenhouse conditions to investigate the potentials of crude aqueous leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens in the management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita of three cowpea varieties (Sampea 9, 10 and 11. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used in the field while a completely randomized design was used for the screenhouse trials. Results showed that the treatment significantly (p < 0.05 improved the growth and yield of the three varieties and also reduced soil nematode population and root galls. It was also observed that all the three varieties were susceptible to the root-knot nematode infestation but Sampea 10 recorded higher yield that were significant in the pot trials. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids in the leaves of H. suaveolens. For higher yield of the evaluated cowpea varieties in a nematode endemic zone, aqueous leaf extract of H. suaveolens is being recommended for infested soil treatment.

  6. Characterization of microRNAs from Arabidopsis galls highlights a role for miR159 in the plant response to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Clémence; da Rocha, Martine; Magliano, Marc; Ratpopoulo, Alizée; Revel, Benoît; Marteu, Nathalie; Magnone, Virginie; Lebrigand, Kevin; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Millar, Anthony; Escobar, Carolina; Abad, Pierre; Favery, Bruno; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie

    2017-11-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKN) are root parasites that induce the genetic reprogramming of vascular cells into giant feeding cells and the development of root galls. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression during development and plant responses to various stresses. Disruption of post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis ago1 or ago2 mutants decrease the infection rate of RKN suggesting a role for this mechanism in the plant-nematode interaction. By sequencing small RNAs from uninfected Arabidopsis roots and from galls 7 and 14 d post infection with Meloidogyne incognita, we identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in gall as putative regulators of gall development. Moreover, strong activity within galls was detected for five miRNA promoters. Analyses of nematode development in an Arabidopsis miR159abc mutant had a lower susceptibility to RKN, suggesting a role for the miR159 family in the plant response to M. incognita. Localization of mature miR159 within the giant and surrounding cells suggested a role in giant cell and gall. Finally, overexpression of miR159 in galls at 14 d post inoculation was associated with the repression of the miR159 target MYB33 which expression is restricted to the early stages of infection. Overall, these results implicate the miR159 in plant responses to RKN. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

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    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  8. In vitro uptake of 140 kDa Bacillus thuringiensis nematicidal crystal proteins by the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne hapla.

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    Fengjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs are piercing/sucking pests, which cause severe damage to crops worldwide, and are difficult to control. The cyst and root-knot nematodes (RKN are sedentary endoparasites that develop specialized multinucleate feeding structures from the plant cells called syncytia or giant cells respectively. Within these structures the nematodes produce feeding tubes, which act as molecular sieves with exclusion limits. For example, Heterodera schachtii is reportedly unable to ingest proteins larger than 28 kDa. However, it is unknown yet what is the molecular exclusion limit of the Meloidogyne hapla. Several types of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins showed toxicity to M. hapla. To monitor the entry pathway of crystal proteins into M. hapla, second-stage juveniles (J2 were treated with NHS-rhodamine labeled nematicidal crystal proteins (Cry55Aa, Cry6Aa, and Cry5Ba. Confocal microscopic observation showed that these crystal proteins were initially detected in the stylet and esophageal lumen, and subsequently in the gut. Western blot analysis revealed that these crystal proteins were modified to different molecular sizes after being ingested. The uptake efficiency of the crystal proteins by the M. hapla J2 decreased with increasing of protein molecular mass, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Our discovery revealed 140 kDa nematicidal crystal proteins entered M. hapla J2 via the stylet, and it has important implications in designing a transgenic resistance approach to control RKN.

  9. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

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    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  10. Effect of plant resistance and BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251) on Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Root Decay on the Relationship between Meloidogyne spp. Gall Index and Egg Mass Number in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, S. Alan; Wehner, Todd C.; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if root necrosis had an effect on the relationship between root-knot nematode gall index and egg mass number. Thirty-four cultigens of Cucumis (14 accessions, 12 cultivars, and six breeding lines of C. sativus, and two accessions of C. metuliferus) were evaluated against four root-knot species (Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, M. incognita race 3, and M. javanica) measuring gall index, root necrosis, and egg mass number. Root necrosis affected the gall index-egg mass relationship. At lower root necrosis values, a stronger relationship existed between gall index and egg mass number than at higher root necrosis values. Root tissue was destroyed by root necrosis, and normal root-knot nematode reproduction would not occur, even though root galling was still observed. The races of M. incognita tested had a greater effect in predisposing C. sativus and C. metuliferus to root necrosis than did M. arenaria race 2 or M. javanica. This study showed that root necrosis had an adverse affect on the relationship between gall index and egg mass number in cucumber. PMID:19283049

  12. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Biodesinfección del suelo y uso de Pochonia chlamydosporia en el manejo de Meloidogyne arenaria en el cultivo de guayabo en el oriente de Michoacán.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres López, Japhet

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta de los árboles de guayabo al tratamiento con diferentes abonos orgánicos y la incorporación del hongo nematófago Pochonia chlamydosporia y el efecto en la reducción de juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne arenaria. Se tomaron muestras de suelo infestados con el nematodo en la región guayabera oriente del estado de Michoacán, México. Se obtuvieron dos aislamientos de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia provenientes de raíz y suelo. ...

  14. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgMO237, interacts with multiple host defence-related proteins to manipulate plant basal immunity and promote parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansong; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Huang, Kun; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

    2018-02-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we report a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which is exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third-/fourth-stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 showed an increased susceptibility to M. graminicola. In contrast, rice plants expressing RNA interference vectors targeting MgMO237 showed an increased resistance to M. graminicola. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that MgMO237 interacted specifically with three rice endogenous proteins, i.e. 1,3-β-glucan synthase component (OsGSC), cysteine-rich repeat secretory protein 55 (OsCRRSP55) and pathogenesis-related BetvI family protein (OsBetvI), which are all related to host defences. Moreover, MgMO237 can suppress host defence responses, including the expression of host defence-related genes, cell wall callose deposition and the burst of reactive oxygen species. These results demonstrate that the effector MgMO237 probably promotes the parasitism of M. graminicola by interacting with multiple host defence-related proteins and suppressing plant basal immunity in the later parasitic stages of nematodes. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood

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    Hari C. Meher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 μg mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 μg mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.

  16. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Xiao, Kun; Cui, Haiyang; Hu, Jianfang

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R) genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone. PMID:29163405

  17. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  18. Evaluación in vitro de hongos nematófagos en zonas arroceras de Costa Rica contra el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne javanica

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    Walter Peraza Padilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el parasitismo in vitro de 14 aislamientos de hongos nematófagos (6 Trichoderma sp., 4 Paecilomyces sp., 2 Fusarium oxysporum, y 2 Monacrosporium sp. contra juveniles y huevos del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne javanica. Los hongos, de 3 regiones productoras de arroz en Costa Rica, (Pacífico Central, Huetar Atlántica y Chorotega, se aislaron mediante el método de espolvoreado en placas, durante abril del 2008 a agosto de 2009. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con 10 repeticiones por hongo, en agar-agua (AA. Se inoculó una suspensión de 1 a 1,5x10 6 conidios (ufc.ml -1 por plato Petri, y al cuarto día se depositó en 0,5 ml una suspensión de 150 juveniles y 100 huevos de M. javanica previamente desinfectados, a temperatura ambiente (23-26°C y con luz natural. Transcurridas 96 h se contó en cada plato el número de nematodos vivos, muertos ó parasi- tados y de huevos parasitados o no parasitados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística (RL para las variables evaluadas, el cual mostró diferencias significativas (p<0,0001 en el desempeño de los hongos evaluados, presentando rangos de entre 10% a 56% en nematodos muertos, de 13% a 79% en nematodos parasitados y de 1% a 96% en huevos parasitados. En general, los hongos del género Trichoderma (Tri1, Tri2, Tri3 y Tri4 fueron los más eficientes en el parasitismo sobre juveniles y huevos de M. javanica.

  19. EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE HONGOS NEMATÓFAGOS EN ZONAS ARROCERAS DE COSTA RICA CONTRA EL NEMATODO AGALLADOR Meloidogyne javanica

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    Walter Peraza Padilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el parasitismo in vitro de 14 aislamientos de hongos nematófagos (6 Trichoderma sp., 4 Paecilomyces sp., 2 Fusarium oxysporum, y 2 Monacrosporium sp. contra juveniles y huevos del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne javanica. Los hongos, de 3 regiones productoras de arroz en Costa Rica, (Pacífico Central, Huetar Atlántica y Chorotega, se aislaron mediante el método de espolvoreado en placas, durante abril del 2008 a agosto de 2009. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con 10 repeticiones por hongo, en agar-agua (AA. Se inoculó una suspensión de 1 a 1,5x106 conidios (ufc.ml-1 por plato Petri, y al cuarto día se depositó en 0,5 ml una suspensión de 150 juveniles y 100 huevos de M. javanica previamente desinfectados, a temperatura ambiente (23-26°C y con luz natural. Transcurridas 96 h se contó en cada plato el número de nematodos vivos, muertos ó parasitados y de huevos parasitados o no parasitados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística (RL para las variables evaluadas, el cual mostró diferencias significativas (p<0,0001 en el desempeño de los hongos evaluados, presentando rangos de entre 10% a 56% en nematodos muertos, de 13% a 79% en nematodos parasitados y de 1% a 96% en huevos parasitados. En general, los hongos del género Trichoderma (Tri1, Tri2, Tri3 y Tri4 fueron los más eficientes en el parasitismo sobre juveniles y huevos de M. javanica.

  20. Identification for the First Time of Cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 as a Nematocide for Control of Meloidogyne incognita

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    Qaiser Jamal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1 to M. incognita significantly inhibited the hatching of eggs and caused the mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2, with these inhibitory effects depending on the length of incubation time and concentration of the treatment. The dipeptide cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu was identified in B. amyloliquefaciens culture for the first time using chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H, 13C, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC and recognized to have nematocidal activity. Various concentrations of cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu were investigated for their effect on the hatching of eggs and J2 mortality. Moreover, the in vivo nematocidal activity of the Y1 strain was investigated by conducting pot experiments in which tomato plants were inoculated with M. incognita. Each and every pot was amended 50 mL of fertilizer media (F, or Y1 culture, or nematicide (N (only once, or fertilizer media with N (FN at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after transplantation. The results of the pot experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effect of B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 against M. incognita as it significantly decreases the count of eggs and galls per root of the tomato plant as well as the population of J2 in the soil. Besides, the investigation into the growth parameters, such as the length of shoot, shoot fresh and dry weights of the tomato plants, showed that they were significantly higher in the Y1 strain Y1-treated plants compared to F-, FN- and N-treated plants. Therefore, the biocontrol repertoire of this bacterium opens a new insight into the applications in crop pest control.

  1. Identification for the First Time of Cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 as a Nematocide for Control of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Qaiser; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Moon, Jae-Hak; Munir, Shahzad; Anees, Muhammad; Kim, Kil Yong

    2017-10-27

    The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1 to M. incognita significantly inhibited the hatching of eggs and caused the mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2), with these inhibitory effects depending on the length of incubation time and concentration of the treatment. The dipeptide cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) was identified in B. amyloliquefaciens culture for the first time using chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ¹H, 13 C, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and recognized to have nematocidal activity. Various concentrations of cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) were investigated for their effect on the hatching of eggs and J2 mortality. Moreover, the in vivo nematocidal activity of the Y1 strain was investigated by conducting pot experiments in which tomato plants were inoculated with M. incognita. Each and every pot was amended 50 mL of fertilizer media (F), or Y1 culture, or nematicide (N) (only once), or fertilizer media with N (FN) at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after transplantation. The results of the pot experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effect of B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 against M. incognita as it significantly decreases the count of eggs and galls per root of the tomato plant as well as the population of J2 in the soil. Besides, the investigation into the growth parameters, such as the length of shoot, shoot fresh and dry weights of the tomato plants, showed that they were significantly higher in the Y1 strain Y1-treated plants compared to F-, FN- and N-treated plants. Therefore, the biocontrol repertoire of this bacterium opens a new insight into the applications in crop pest control.

  2. Process development of oxalic acid production in submerged culture of Aspergillus niger F22 and its biocontrol efficacy against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Il; Lee, Keon Jin; Chun, Ho Hyun; Ha, Sanghyun; Gwak, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ho Myeong; Lee, Jong-Hee; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Shin, Teak Soo; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Oxalic acid has potent nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, fermentation parameters for oxalic acid production in submerged culture of Aspergillus niger F22 at 23, 25, and 30 °C were optimized in 5-L jar fermenters. The viscosity of the culture broth increased with increasing temperature. There was a negative correlation between oxalic acid production and the apparent viscosity; high volumetric productivity of oxalic acid was obtained at low apparent viscosity (less than 1000 cP), with a productivity of more than 100 mg/L h. When the apparent viscosity was over 2500 cP, the volumetric productivity decreased below 50 mg/L h. In addition, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, K L a, positively correlated with volumetric productivity. When the K L a value increased from 0.0 to 0.017 /s, the volumetric productivity proportionally increased up to 176 mg/L h. When the temperature decreased, K L a increased due to the decrease in viscosity, leading to increased volumetric productivity. The highest productivity of 7453.3 mg/L was obtained at the lowest temperature, i.e., 23 °C. The nematicidal activity of culture filtrate was proportional to the content of oxalic acid. Based on a constant impeller tip speed, oxalic acid production was successfully scaled up to a 500-L pilot vessel, producing a final concentration comparable to that in the 5-L jar.

  3. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  4. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

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    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para

  5. Host Delivered RNAi of Two Cuticle Collagen Genes, Mi-col-1 and Lemmi-5 Hampers Structure and Fecundity in Meloidogyne incognita

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    Sagar Banerjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes have emerged as devastating parasites causing substantial losses to agricultural economy worldwide. Tomato is the most favored host for major species of root-knot nematodes. Control strategies like use of nematicides have proved to be harmful to the environment. Other control methods like development of resistant cultivars and crop rotation have serious limitations. This study deals with the application of host generated RNA interference toward development of resistance against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Two cuticle collagen genes viz. Mi-col-1 and Lemmi-5 involved in the synthesis and maintenance of the cuticle in M. incognita were targeted through host generated RNA interference. Expression of both Mi-col-1 and Lemmi-5 was found to be higher in adult females followed by egg masses and J2s. Tomato var. Pusa Ruby was transformed with the RNAi constructs of these genes to develop transgenic lines expressing the target dsRNAs. 30.80–35.00% reduction in the number of adult females, 50.06–65.73% reduction in the number of egg mass per plant and 76.47–82.59% reduction in the number of eggs per egg mass were observed for the T1 events expressing Mi-col-1 dsRNA. Similarly, 34.14–38.54% reduction in the number of adult females, 62.34–66.71% reduction in number of egg mass per plant and 67.13–79.76% reduction in the number of eggs per egg mass were observed for the T1 generation expressing Lemmi-5 dsRNA. The multiplication factor of M. incognita reduced significantly in both the cases and the structure of adult females isolated from transgenic plants were heavily distorted. This study demonstrates the role of the cuticle collagen genes Mi-col-1 and Lemmi-5 in the structure and development of M. incognita cuticle inside the host and reinforces the potential of host generated RNA interference for management of plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs.

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

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    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  7. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

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    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three <em>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FTem> Homologous Genes from Chinese <em>Cymbidium>

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    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The <em>FLOWERING LOCUS Tem> (<em>FT> gene plays crucial roles in regulating the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. To understand the molecular mechanism of reproduction, three homologous <em>FT> genes were isolated and characterized from <em>Cymbidium sinenseem> “Qi Jian Bai Mo”, <em>Cymbidium goeringiiem> and <em>Cymbidium ensifoliumem> “Jin Si Ma Wei”. The three genes<em> em>contained 618-bp nucleotides with a 531-bp open reading frame (ORF of encoding 176 amino acids (AAs. Alignment of the AA sequences revealed that CsFT, CgFT and CeFT contain a conserved domain, which is characteristic of the<em> em>PEBP-RKIP superfamily, and which share high identity with FT of other plants in GenBank: 94% with OnFT<em> em>from <em>Oncidium em>Gower Ramsey, 79% with Hd3a from <em>Oryza sativaem>, and 74% with FT from <em>Arabidopsis thalianaem>. qRT-PCR analysis showed a diurnal expression pattern of <em>CsFT>, <em>CgFT> and <em>CeFT> following both long day (LD, 16-h light/8-h dark and short day (SD, 8-h light/16-h dark treatment. While the transcripts of both <em>CsFT em>and <em>CeFT em>under LD were significantly higher than under SD, those of <em>CgFT em>were> em>higher under SD. Ectopic expression of <em>CgFT> in transgenic <em>Arabidopsis> plants resulted in early flowering compared to wild-type plants and significant up-regulation of <em>APETALA1em> (<em>AP1em> expression. Our data indicates that CgFT is a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene in <em>Cymbidium> that may regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition in flowers, similar to its <em>Arabidopsis> ortholog.

  9. Coupling of MIC-3 overexpression with the chromosomes 11 and 14 root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance QTLs provides insights into the regulation of the RKN resistance response in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne D

    2016-09-01

    Genetic analysis of MIC-3 transgene with RKN resistance QTLs provides insight into the resistance regulatory mechanism and provides a framework for testing additional hypotheses. Resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is mediated by two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosomes 11 and 14. The MIC-3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton3) protein accumulates specifically within the immature galls of RKN-resistant plants that possess these QTLs. Recently, we showed that MIC-3 overexpression in an RKN-susceptible cotton genotype suppressed RKN egg production but not RKN-induced root galling. In this study, the MIC-3 overexpression construct T-DNA in the single-copy transgenic line '14-7-1' was converted into a codominant molecular marker that allowed the marker assisted selection of F2:3 cotton lines, derived from a cross between 14-7-1 and M-240 RNR, having all possible combinations of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs with and without the MIC-3 overexpression construct. Root-knot nematode reproduction (eggs g(-1) root) and severity of RKN-induced root galling were assessed in these lines. We discovered that the addition of MIC-3 overexpression suppressed RKN reproduction in lines lacking both resistance QTLs and in lines having only the chromosome 14 QTL, suggesting an additive effect of the MIC-3 construct with this QTL. In contrast, MIC-3 overexpression did not improve resistance in lines having the single chromosome 11 QTL or in lines having both resistance QTLs, suggesting an epistatic interaction between the chromosome 11 QTL and the MIC-3 construct. Overexpression of MIC-3 did not affect the severity of RKN-induced root galling regardless of QTL genotype. These data provide new insights into the relative order of action of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs and their potential roles in regulating MIC-3 expression as part of the RKN resistance response.

  10. Exposure to double-stranded RNA mediated by tobacco rattle virus leads to transcription up-regulation of effector gene Mi-vap-2 from Meloidogyne incognita and promotion of pathogenicity in progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuankai; Wang, Xuan; Le, Xiuhu; Ju, Yuliang; Guan, Tinglong; Li, Hongmei

    2016-02-01

    Meloidogyne spp. are economically important plant parasites and cause enormous damage to agriculture world-wide. These nematodes use secreted effectors which modify host cells, allowing them to obtain the nutrients required for growth and development. A better understanding of the roles of effectors in nematode parasitism is critical for understanding the mechanisms of nematode-host interactions. In this study, Mi-vap-2 of Meloidogyne incognita, a gene encoding a venom allergen-like protein, was targeted by RNA interference mediated by the tobacco rattle virus. Unexpectedly, compared with a wild type line, a substantial up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 transcript was observed in juveniles collected at 7 days p.i. from Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltrated with TRV::vap-2. This up-regulation of the targeted transcript did not impact development of females or the production of galls, nor the number of females on the TRV::vap-2 line. In a positive control line, the transcript of Mi16D10 was knocked down in juveniles from the TRV::16D10 line at 7 days p.i., resulting in a significant inhibition of nematode development. The up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 triggered by TRV-RNAi was inherited by the progeny of the nematodes exposed to double-stranded RNA. Meanwhile, a substantial increase in Mi-VAP-2 expression in those juvenile progeny was revealed by ELISA. This caused an increase in the number of galls (71.2%) and females (84.6%) produced on seedlings of N. benthamiana compared with the numbers produced by control nematodes. Up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 and its encoded protein therefore enhanced pathogenicity of the nematodes, suggesting that Mi-vap-2 may be required for successful parasitism during the early parasitic stage of M. incognita. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

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    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  12. The significance of ecology in the development of Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological control agent against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Leij, de, F.A.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between nematode parasites and nematode pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on these interactions, is essential in the development of biological control agents for nematodes. The aim of this study was to develop a particular isolate of the nematophagous fungus <em>Verticillium chlamydosporiumem> as a biological control agent for root-knot nematodes. The work has gained insight into some of the ke...

  13. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

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    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  14. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

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    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both

  15. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  16. Macrofauna associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Echinodermata (6%, 1 sp.). However, the most dominant species was the polychaete Haplosyllis djibouitensis (Gravier, 1900) representing 71% of total number of specimens collected. The number of species and individuals and the diversity index values were positively, but the evenness index values were negatively ...

  17. Efeito da mucuna e amendoim em rotação com algodoeiro A study on crop rotation for cotton using velvet bean and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Ferraz

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da rotação de mucuna (Stizolobium atterrimum Piper & Tracy e amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. e de duas variedades comerciais de algodoeiro, IAC RM3 e IAC 12-2 (Gossypium hirsutum L. foi estudado nos anos agrícolas de 1967/68 a 1972/73. Foram instalados dois ensaios, um em Presidente Bernardes, com fusariose, em solo podzolizado de Lins e Marília var. Lins naturalmente infectado por Fusarium oxysporumf. vasinfectum e o nematóide causador de galhas Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood, e outro em Presidente Venceslau, sem fusariose, em latossolo vermelho-escuro f. arenosa não infectado. A variedade comercial IAC RM3 é resistente e a IAC 12-2 é suscetível à fusariose. Para a análise estatística dos dados adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições, tendo sido consideradas como parcelas as variedades de algodoeiro IAC RM3 e IAC 12-2, plantadas em 1968/69, 1970/71, 1971/72 e 1972/73, e como subparcelas as culturas em rotação, mucuna, amendoim e as variedades de algodoeiro IAC RM3 e IAC 12-2, plantadas nos anos-agrícolas de 1967/68 e 1969/70. Em solos com fusariose, em 1968/69, e em solos sem fusariose, no ano agrícola de 1970/71, destacou-se o efeito da rotação com mucuna, seguida da rotação com amendoim. Depois do plantio consecutivo de algodoeiro durante três anos (1970/71 a 1972/73, cessaram praticamente os efeitos da rotação para os dois casos. Houve aumento do teor de potássio após o primeiro ano de rotação, sendo maior para a mucuna.The effect of rotation of velvet bean (Stizolobium atterrimum Piper & Tracy, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. with two comercial varieties of cotton IAC RM3 and IAC 12-2 (Gossypium hirsutum L. was studied during 1967/68 to 1972/73. One experiment was conducted in a soil naturally infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen and by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood, (President Bernardes, State of São Paulo, in

  18. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  19. EFICIÊNCIA DE FLUENSULFONE NO CONTROLE POPULACIONAL DE M. javanica EM PIMENTA-DO-REINO APÓS TRANSPLANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Dutra de Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das doenças que mais afetam diversas culturas pelo mundo é a Meloidoginose, causada por nematoides do gênero Meloidogyne. O controle químico destaca-se como primeira opção no manejo dessa doença, embora cause riscos ao ambiente e toxicidadea organismos não alvo. Neste contexto, o estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência doFluensulfone no controle de M. javanica na cultura de  pimenta-do-reino(Piper nigrum. O experimento foi realizado no município de São Mateus–ES,, onde foram testadas diferentes doses de Fluensulfone. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 120 e 180 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. As três maiores doses (1500ml/ha, 2000 ml/ha e 2500ml/ha apresentaram eficiência relativa acima de 80% aos 120 dias e, aos 180 dias, apenas as de 2000 ml/ha e 2500ml/ha. A dose que demonstrou maior eficácia em todo o período experimental foi a de 2500ml/ha, mostrando-se promissor o uso desta nova molécula no manejo da Meloidoginose.

  20. Wheat bran soil inoculant of sumateran nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita on deli tobacco (nicotiana tabaccum l) cv. deli 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Sri Hastuti, Liana; Faull, Jane

    2018-03-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to test the effectiveness of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) isolated from Sumatera for controlling infection by the root-knot nematode (RKN) on Deli tobacco plant. Wheat bran soil containing 109 conidia of Arthrobotrys. oligospora, Candellabrella musiformis and Dactylella eudermata was added to the soil as a dry inoculum. Carbofuran was also applied as chemical agent and comparison treatment. Seedling tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Deli 4 was inoculated with root knot (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood.) seven days after the plant were transplanted to the pots. A. oligospora, C. musiformis and D. eudermata were found to be reliable as biocontrol agents, reducing the number of vermiform nematodes, swollen root, sausage shaped and galls in tobacco plant after 7, 15 and 30 days of infection with M. incognita. Treatment with NTF produced results that were comparable with Carbofuran® as a control agent in the reduction of the number of infections in tobacco plant caused by M. incognita in Nicotiana tabacum var. Deli 4. They also optimize the growth of the tobacco plants especially up to 15 days after infection.

  1. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes and the supernatants of the in vitro culture medium of their mutualistic bacteria for the control of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekci, Ilker; Hazir, Selcuk; Lewis, Edwin E

    2016-02-01

    The suppressive effects of various formulations of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species and the supernatants of their mutualistic bacteria on the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in tomato roots were evaluated. The EPNs Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were applied as either live infective juveniles (IJs) or infected insect cadavers. Spent medium from culturing the bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens kayaii with the cells removed was also applied without their nematode partners. The aqueous suspensions of IJs, infected cadaver applications of EPNs and especially treatments of X. bovienii supernatant suppressed the negative impact of RKNs on tomatoes. Specific responses to treatment were reduced RKN egg masses, increased plant height and increased fresh and dry weights compared with the control where only RKNs were applied. Among the treatments tested, the plant-dipping method of X. bovienii into bacterial culture fluid may be the most practical and effective method for M. incognita and M. arenaria control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome <em>B> sequence divergence among Spanish, Alpine and Abruzzo chamois (genus <em>Rupicapra>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mucci

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships of Alpine, Spanish and Abruzzo chamois (genus <em>Rupicapra> by sequencing a region of 330 nucleotides within the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome <em>b> gene (mtDNA cyt <em>b>. These sequences were aligned with additional homologous sequences of Caprinae: Japanese serow, Chinese goral, Canadian mountain goat, Mishmi takin, muskox, Sardinian mouflon and domestic goat. Results suggest that, using representatives of the Bovini as outgroups, the Caprinae constitute a monophyletic clade. However, inferred phylogenetic relationships among and within tribes of Caprinae were poorly defined and did not reflect current evolutionary and taxonomical views. In fact, the Asian Rupicaprini goral and serow constituted a strongly supported clade, which included the muskox, while the takin grouped with <em>Ovis>. Therefore, the monophyly of Ovibovini was not supported by cyt <em>b> sequences. Species of <em>Rupicapra> joined a strongly supported monophyletic clade, which was distantly related to the Asian rupicaprins and <em>Oreamnos>. Therefore, the monophyly of the Rupicaprini was not supported by these cyt <em>b> sequences. There were sister species relationships within <em>Rupicapra>, Spanish and Alpine chamois and the Abruzzo chamois (<em>Rupicapra pyrenaica ornataem> was strictly related to the Spanish chamois (<em>Rupicapra pyrenaica parvaem>, as previously suggested by allozyme data and biogeographic reconstructions.

  4. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  5. Genotoxicity of <em>Euphorbia hirtaem>: An <em>Allium cepaem> Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of <em>Euphorbia hirta em>which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using <em>Allium cepaem> assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of <em>A. cepaem>. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of <em>E. hirtaem> extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of <em>E. hirta em>exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  6. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  7. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the

  8. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  9. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  10. Nematóide de galha em rabanete: suscetibilidade de cultivares e patogenicidade Root-knot nematode: cultivars reaction and damage to radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rossi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se as reações de 11 cultivares de rabanete a Meloidogyne javanica e sua patogenicidade a uma dessas cultivares. No estudo de reações, os tratamentos/cultivares foram 'Comprido Branco', 'Crimson Gigante', 'Ponta Branca', 'Comprido Vermelho', 'Serrano', 'Gigante Wurzburgo', 'Saxa', 'Redondo Vermelho', 'Redondo Gigante', 'Cometo' e 'Akamaru Hatsuka'. Determinaram-se os índices de galhas (IG e de massas de ovos (IMO, o número de nematóides no sistema radicular (NSR e por grama de raiz (NGR e o fator de reprodução (FR 53 dias após a inoculação artificial com 2.000 ovos do parasito. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os efeitos de três densidades populacionais do nematóide [0, 500 (nível populacional baixo e 10.000 (nível populacional alto ovos/planta] sobre as massas frescas e secas de túberas e de parte aérea da cultivar 'Redondo Gigante', 39 dias após a inoculação. Os resultados mostraram que todas as cultivares permitiram a reprodução de M. javanica, sendo portanto consideradas suscetíveis. Valores de IG e IMO foram maiores ou iguais a 2,5 e os de FR, maiores do que 8,0 para todas as cultivares estudadas. O parasito causou diminuição significativa nas massas frescas e secas de túberas e de partes aéreas nos dois níveis populacionais estudados comparados com o controle não inoculado. As médias dos tratamentos contendo níveis populacionais baixo e alto do nematóide também diferiram estatisticamente entre si, comprovando-se, assim, a sua ação patogênica sobre a cultivar avaliada.Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to determine the reaction of eleven radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica and the pathogenicity of this nematode to a previously selected cultivar. The cultivars tested were 'Comprido Branco', 'Crimson Gigante', 'Ponta Branca', 'Comprido Vermelho', 'Serrano', 'Gigante Wurzburgo', 'Saxa', 'Redondo Vermelho', 'Redondo Gigante', 'Cometo' and 'Akamaru

  11. O ator em jogo

    OpenAIRE

    Daves Otani

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O Ator em Jogo é uma reflexão pessoal sobre aspectos do processo criativo em dois espetáculos teatrais encenados pelo grupo Boa Companhia: PRIMUS (adaptado do conto "Comunicado a uma Academia", de Franz Kafka) e MISTER K. E OS ARTISTAS DA FOME (adaptado do conto "O artista da fome", de Kafka). Utilizando a experiência prática da capoeira, que serviu como matriz criativa nessas duas montagens, em cada uma a seu modo específico, faço uma reflexão a partir de um diário que relata experiê...

  12. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover....

  13. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    . Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...

  14. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  15. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Sitophilus zeamaisem> of the Essential Oils Derived from <em>Artemisia giraldiiem> and <em>Artemisia subdigitataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils derived from flowering aerial parts of <em>Artemisia giraldii em>Pamp. and <em>A. subdigitataem> Mattf. (Family: Asteraceae against the maize weevil (<em>Sitophilus zeamaisem> Motsch.. Essential oils of aerial parts of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> were obtained from hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 48 and 33 components of the essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> were identified, respectively. The principal compounds in <em>A. giraldiiem> essential oil were β-pinene (13.18%, <em>iso>-elemicin (10.08%, germacrene D (5.68%, 4-terpineol (5.43% and (<em>Z>-β-ocimene (5.06%. 1,8-Cineole (12.26% and α-curcumene (10.77% were the two main components of the essential oil of <em>A. subdigitataem>, followed by β-pinene (7.38%, borneol (6.23% and eugenol (5.87%. The essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> possessed fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 6.29 and 17.01 mg/L air, respectively. The two essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> also exhibited contact toxicity against <em>S. zeamaisem> adults with LD50 values of 40.51 and 76.34 µg/adult, respectively. The results indicated that the two essential oils show potential in terms of fumigant and contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  17. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

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    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  18. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

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    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  19. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

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    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  20. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

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    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  1. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

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    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  2. Retratos em movimento.

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    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da relação do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma definição estética do que seria um retrato cinematográfico, sempre em tensão com os critérios formais e padrões estilísticos que historicamente constituíram o retrato pictórico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa questão com a importância que se deu à representação do close-up de rosto nas primeiras décadas do cinema, quando foi atribuído aos filmes um papel inédito no estudo da fisionomia e da expressão facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresentação põe em crise as noções de subjetividade e identidade em que a definição clássica do retrato se apoiava.

  3. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

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    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  4. Nietzsche em voga

    OpenAIRE

    Borromeu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:Texto publicado em 1941, na revista de orientação católica A Ordem, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu autor considera que Nietzsche teria negado a moral tradicional, concebendo em seu lugar outra, porém imoral e brutal. Acusa o filósofo, por fim, de ser responsável pela Guerra ora e curso na Europa. Abstract:Text published in 1941 in the Catholic orientation magazine, A Ordem, in Rio de Janeiro. The author believes that Nietzsche would have denied traditional morality, conceiving another in it...

  5. Primeiras frases em Libras

    OpenAIRE

    Comissão Editorial

    2017-01-01

    "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-...

  6. Identification and Determination of <em>Aconitum> Alkaloids in <em>Aconitum> Herbs and <em>Xiaohuoluo Pillem> Using UPLC-ESI-MS

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    Li Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS method to examine the chemical differences between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA, aconitine (AC, hypaconitine (HA, benzoylmesaconitine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA, were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC have been simultaneously determined in the <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem>. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C18 column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (<em>r> > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem> and other herbal preparations containing <em>Aconitum> roots.

  7. Espondiloptose em atleta

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    Ana Paula Luppino Assad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já apresentava deformidade lombar, postura antálgica e manobra de hiperextensão lombar em unipodálico positiva bilateralmente. Realizou-se investigação, que evidenciou espondiloptose, sendo, então, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Com base neste relato de caso, discutimos a abordagem diagnóstica de lombalgia em atletas jovens, uma vez que a queixa de lombalgia crônica pode ser marcador de uma lesão estrutural, a qual pode ser definitiva e trazer perda funcional irreversível.

  8. Accountability em listas abertas

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    Luis Felipe Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute criticamente a percepção, corrente em estudos sobre o sistema eleitoral brasileiro, de que a representação proporcional com listas abertas é um obstáculo à efetivação da accountability. Tal percepção está, em grande medida, baseada em visões equivocadas sobre a natureza do vínculo eleitoral no Brasil e o sentido da accountability, vista como uma relação entre o eleitor e seu candidato e não entre os constituintes e os representantes. O foco nas deficiências do sistema eleitoral, por outro lado, leva a ofuscar outros aspectos mais importantes para o aprimoramento da representação, relacionados à democratização da informação e ao fortalecimento da sociedade civil. Mesmo os problemas identificados nas listas abertas são melhor enfrentados com a ampliação do debate público e o fortalecimento da sociedade civil, que permitiria aos eleitores aproveitar de forma mais consistente as oportunidade de escolha que lhe são oferecidas, mais amplas do que em outros sistemas eleitorais.

  9. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

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    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  10. Iodo em alimentos consumidos em Portugal

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    Coelho, Inês; Delgado, Inês; Costa, Sofia; Castanheira, Isabel; Calhau, Maria Antónia

    2015-01-01

    O iodo é um elemento vestigial essencial na dieta humana e animal, com uma importância nutricional bem estabelecida. É indispensável para a síntese das hormonas da tiroide, tiroxina e triiodotirosina, cujo principal papel está relacionado com o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos órgãos, em particular do cérebro. A fonte natural de iodo são os alimentos. Contudo, de acordo com a OMS um terço da população mundial sofre de algum tipo de carência de iodo. A deficiência crônica de iodo pode levar a...

  11. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

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    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  12. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

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    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic

  13. Primeiras frases em Libras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-se mais um exercício enriquecedor para aquisição e prática da Língua de Sinais. Maiores informações sobre o material no site da Editora Arara Azul: www.editora-arara-azul.com. br

  14. Quedas em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Joana Gonçalves de

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho final do mestrado em medicina do desporto com vista à atribuição do Grau de Mestre (área científica de geriatria), apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra As quedas na população idosa constituem um grande problema de saúde pública, tendo em conta a sua dimensão física, psicológica, económica e social. Subjacente à ocorrência destes acontecimentos existe uma série de fatores de risco, como a idade, falta de equilíbrio, sedentarismo, doenças crónicas, a polime...

  15. Hipervitaminose D em animais

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    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura, são apresentados dados referentes ao metabolismo da vitamina D, bem como aos principais aspectos toxicológicos, clínicos, bioquímicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos, ultraestruturais, imuno-histoquímicos e radiográficos de animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente por essa vitamina, em diferentes espécies. Este estudo objetiva demonstrar a existência de muitas lacunas no conhecimento sobre mineralização fisiológica e patológica, em especial na mediação hormonal do fenômeno, bem como alertar para os riscos de ocorrência dessa intoxicação.

  16. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

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    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  17. O estresse em escolares

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    Marilda E. Novaes Lipp

    Full Text Available A presença de sintomas de estresse foi pesquisada em uma amostra de 255 escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade, oriundos de três tipos diferentes de escolas (municipal, particular e particular confessional filantrópica. Os dados foram analisados em termos de diferenças entre as escolas, sexo e série do ensino fundamental em que as crianças se encontravam. Constatou-se que o tipo de escola tinha uma forte associação com o nível de estresse dos alunos e que o número de meninas com estresse era significativamente maior do que o dos meninos. Verificou-se também que o estresse diminui nas séries mais elevadas e estava mais presente na primeira série. Pode-se concluir que as escolas têm um papel relevante no estresse infantil e que é possível dentro de uma escola apresentar níveis baixos de estresse, dependendo das características da mesma.

  18. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  19. Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar tests were carried out on inoculated plants treated with such ISR elicitors to search for possible enzyme activity changes as a result of resistance induction. Nematode infection did not cause any significant changes in GLUC activity, whilst PPO activity was enhanced in inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots.

  20. Solidariedade em Redes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Gomes Gomes Biondi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O discurso da comum humanidade que vinculava sofredor e espectador na base de uma moralidade piedosa caducou frente às solicitações de uma sociedade tecnológica, multicultural e pluralista. Ao repertório do protesto e da denúncia, como instrumentos privilegiados da modernidade, prevalecem agora novos apelos à chamada “sensibilidade humanitária” (CHOULIARAKI, 2013 posta diretamente a cada sujeito social conectado. Deste modo, uma profusão de causas individuais tem se amontoado nas redes sociais (não raro, multiplicadas pelos meios de comunicação tradicionais todos os dias. Causas que se declaram legítimas e justificáveis em tempos de uma precária e insuficiente participação do Estado e que se orientam para uma ação direta às vítimas e oprimidos. Contudo, as interações afetivas que subjazem estes apelos solidários se coadunam à lógica de um capitalismo flexível que toma a própria vida em sua vertente criativa, como núcleo de produção econômica, ou seja, como forma de capitalização da própria vida cotidiana. Neste texto buscamos desenvolver uma etapa descritiva destas convocações solidárias como uma prática baseada na lógica conexionista que tem vigorado em nossa sociedade. Alguns casos são trazidos para pensar o lugar da vítima enquanto instância privilegiada de sua própria enunciação, os mecanismos de visibilidade que são articulados na comunicação modulada pelas redes e em que medida é possível pensar tais práticas como uma espécie de atualização das ações solidárias baseadas em uma “política do conexionismo”, conforme indicam os estudos de Boltanski e Chiapello (2013.

  1. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  2. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  3. Deacidification of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> seed oil is proposed as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Different extraction methods were tested and compared to obtain crude oil from the seed of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis>, along with various deacidification measures of refined oil. The biodiesel was produced through catalysis of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH. The results showed that the acid value of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> oil was successfully reduced to 0.23 mg KOH/g when it was extracted using ethanol. Consequently, the biodiesel product gave a high yield beyond 96.0%. The transesterification catalysed by KOH was also more complete. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to monitor the transesterification reaction. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID certified that the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel mainly consisted of C18 fatty acid methyl esters (81.07% with a high percentage of methyl oleate. Furthermore, the measured fuel properties of the biodiesel met the required standards for fuel use. In conclusion, the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel is a qualified and feasible substitute for fossil diesel.

  4. On subspecific taxonomy of <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di <em>Microtus (Terricola saviiem>, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: <em>Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanusem>, dei Monti della Tolfa e <em>Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericusem>, del Gargano.

  5. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

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    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  6. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  7. Sade em Lacan

    OpenAIRE

    Riaviz, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Esta dissertação analisa o lugar do Marquês de Sade no ensino de Lacan. Começamos por reconstruir a recepção de Sade pela vanguarda francesa, particularmente no movimento surrealista e nos seus dissidentes. Em seguida, acompanhamos as modificações do lugar de Sade na obra de Lacan. Para isto nos orientamos nos seis paradigmas do gozo através dos quais J.-A. Miller ordena a doutrina lacaniana...

  8. Branqueamento em dentes endodonciados

    OpenAIRE

    Melício, Joianne Sandrine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Uma vez que a procura pela estética dentária vem aumentando significativamente, houve necessidade de procurar alternativas para a recuperação da coloração natural dos dentes quando esta é perdida por inúmeros fatores. O Branqueamento dentário, entre outras técnicas, tornou-se uma possibilidade para restaurar a perda da cor e tonalida...

  9. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida; Sheila de Melo Borges

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são freq...

  10. Flashes em Circuito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão sobre o papel da narrativa urbana no tratamento do tema da exclusão social, tendo como ponto de partida uma leitura do livro Passaporte, de Fernando Bonassi, que envolve a discussão do próprio gênero, a partir, sobretudo, da teoria do conto de Ricardo Piglia e de sua retomada das Seis propostas para o próximo milênio, de Ítalo Calvino, em artigo recente.

  11. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  12. Identification and Characterization of a <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem> (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae Thermotolerance-Related Gene: <em>Bx-HSP90em>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlei Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures directly influence the distribution and intensity of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem>. To date, however, little is known about the causation and mechanism of this influence. The molecular chaperone HSP90 is a key component that contributes to survival in the abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem> and the functionality of the HSP90 gene<em>.> <em>Bx-HSP90 em>was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. <em>In situem> mRNA hybridization showed that <em>Bx-HSP90em> was constitutively expressed in response to all of the temperatures tested, and RT-PCR indicated that all of the temperatures could induce <em>Bx-HSP90 em>transcription, with the highest transcript level detected at 30 °C. The suppression of the <em>Bx-HSP90em> transcript by RNA interference led to a 25% reduction in the number of nematodes at 30 °C after 44 h. Sharp declines in the survival of the RNAi-treated nematodes were observed after 8 days at 25 °C, 48 h at 30 °C and 24 h at 35 °C. Both heat shock and the knockdown of <em>Bx-HSP90 em>hindered the growth of the <em>B. xylophilusem> populations. The results indicate that <em>Bx-HSP90em> is essential for the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem>, confirming the thermoregulatory function of the gene, and delineate the timeframe and temperature range within which the gene function occurs.

  13. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of the Essential Oils and Crude Extracts of<em> Euphorbiaem>> macrorrhizaem>

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    Haji Akber Aisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from <em>Euphorbia macrorrhizaem> collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of <em>E. macrorrhizaem> are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%, (+-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%, 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%, copaene (7.37% and 6.29%, l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65% and β-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%, respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, γ-terpinene, thymecamphor, α-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, β-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (−-α-muurolene, cuparene, γ-cadinene, (<em>Z>-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, γ-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oil against <em>Staphyloccocus aureusem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Canidia Albicansem> and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on <em>Staphyloccocus aureus em>(MIC = 2.8 μg/mL and Caco-2 cell (IC50 = 11.86 μg/mL, whereas no effect on <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida em>albicans>. The data of this study suggested that the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers.

  14. Interaction between root-knot nematodes and Solanum spp. : variation in pathogenicity, cytology, proteins and DNA = [De interactie tussen wortelknobbelnematoden en Solanum spp. : variatie in ziekteverwekkend vermogen, cytologie, eiwitten en DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der J.G.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis describes genetic variation in the root-knot nematodes <em>Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodiem> and <em>M. fallax,em> particularly with respect to their pathogenicity on <em>Solanum> spp. Significant differences in virulence and

  15. Further Insights on the Carotenoid Profile of the Echinoderm <em>Marthasteria>s glacialisem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natércia Teixeira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the carotenoid profile of the echinoderm <em>Marthasterias glacialisem> L. was established using HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS equipped with a C30 column. This approach rendered the identification of 20 compounds, eight of them reported for the first time in this marine organism. Differentiation of carotenoid isomers was also achieved.

  16. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  17. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  18. Mulheres em movimento

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    Carneiro Sueli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ESSE artigo busca demarcar a trajetória de luta das mulheres negras brasileiras no interior do movimento feminista nacional. Trata-se de colocar em questão a perspectiva feminista clássica fundada numa concepção universalista de mulher, que tem o seu paradigma na mulher branca ocidental, o que obscurece a percepção das múltiplas contradições intragênero e entre gêneros que a racialidade aporta. Dessas contradições, impõem-se para as mulheres negras a sua afirmação como um novo sujeito político, portador de uma nova agenda, esta resultante de uma identidade específica na qual se articulam as variáveis de gênero, raça e classe, colocando novos e mais complexos desafios para realização da eqüidade de gênero e raça em nossa sociedade.

  19. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  20. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  1. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  2. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  3. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são frequentes nessa população, mostrando, assim, um risco importante para quedas futuras. Palavras-chave: Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado; Acidentes por quedas; Fatores de risco.

  4. INDICADORES EM SANEAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Samuel Alves Barbi; Côrtes, Larissa Silveira; Coelho Netto, Taiana; Freitas Junior, Moacyr Moreira de

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se propõe a analisar a evolução dos prestadores de serviços de saneamento do estado de MinasGerais entre os anos de 2005 e 2010 com base nos indicadores do Sistema Nacional de Informações em Saneamento(SNIS). Foram definidos parâmetros técnicos para a análise dos indicadores, classificados os resultados como satisfatórios(verdes) ou insatisfatórios (vermelhos). Esta categorização atende a concepção da Regulação Sunshine, trazendo à tona omonitoramento do progresso das ações no set...

  5. O humano em Womanity

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dâmaris de Oliveira Batista da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia. A cultura da comunicação transforma e cria uma nova forma urbana, a comunicação urbana que produzida é para nos capturar e envolver com maior intensidade nessa sociedade do consumo. Há na comunicação publicitária uma proposta ideológica, pois cada signo é dirigido a alguém e o diálogo é constituído pelo poder. Nossa inserção no mundo define e é d...

  6. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  7. Imagem digital em movimento

    OpenAIRE

    Travisani, Tatiana Giovannone [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho reúne análises sobre as imagens digitais com questões estruturais e poéticas do movimento, fazendo um levantamento histórico e artístico desde os primeiros experimentos em cronofotografia, até as manifestações atuais, do universo digital, que incorporam o movimento como temática. A imagem digital tratada não é de cunho sintético, mas sim que passou por algum processo de captura analógica, por meio de câmeras, e após isso, foi digitalizada. A partir daí, a pesquisa reflete as tra...

  8. INFLUÊNCIA ESTOICA NA CONCEPÇÃO DE <em>STATUS> E <em>DICTUM> COMO <em> QUASI RES EM> (ὡσανεì τινά EM ABERLARDO STOIC INFLUENCE IN ABELARD'S CONCEPTION OF <em>STATUS> AND <em>DICTUM> AS <em>QUASI RESem> (ὡσανεì τινά.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hamelin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na sua obra, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142 destaca duas noções metafísicas que fundamentam sua teoria lógica: o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">statusem> e o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">dictum propositionisem>, ao causar, respectivamente, a imposição (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">impositioem> dos termos universais e o valor de verdade das proposições. Trata-se de expressões que se referem a naturezas ontológicas peculiares, na medida em que não são consideradas coisas (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">resem>, mesmo que constituem causas. Todavia, também não são nada. Abelardo as chama de ‘quase coisas’ (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">quasi resem>. No presente artigo, explicamos, primeiro, essas duas noções essenciais da lógica abelardiana, antes de tentar, em seguida, encontrar a fonte dessa metafísica particular. Em oposição a comentadores importantes da lógica de Abelardo, que estimam que haja uma forte influência platônica sobre essa concepção específica, defendemos antes, com apoio de textos significativos e de acordo com o nominalismo abelardiano, que a maior ascendência sobre a metafísica do nosso autor é a do estoicismo, sobretudo, antigo.In his work, Peter Abelard (1079-1142 highlights two metaphysical notions, which sustain his logical theory: the <em>status> and the <em>dictum propositionisem>, causing respectively both the imposition (<em>impositio> of universal terms and the thuth-value of propositions. Both expressions refer to peculiar ontological natures, in so far as they are not considered things (<em>res>, even if they constitute causes. Nevertheless, neither are they ‘nothing’. Abelard calls them ‘quasi-things’ (<em>quasi resem>. In the present article, we expound first these two essential notions of Abelardian logic before then trying to find the source of this particular metaphysics. Contrary to some important

  9. The resistance of insects to plant proteinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis describes the induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis in solanaceous plants (tobacco and tomato), when lepidopteran larvae <em>(Manduca sextaem> and <em>Spodoptera exigua)> are feeding on leaves. It is shown that the

  10. Aggiornamento sulla distribuzione di <em>Talpa europaeaem> in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L?Umbria, in ragione della sua posizione centrale nella Penisola, appare particolarmente interessante dal punto di vista biogeografico. Per quanto riguarda le talpe, ad esempio, sono presenti tutti i <em>taxa> italiani ma, essendo ancora scarse e frammentarie le informazioni sulla loro distribuzione regionale, viene intanto aggiornato lo status di <em>T. europaeaem> con la sintesi di alcuni dati inediti raccolti nella provincia di Perugia: <em>Zoccolanti>, Città di Castello, 300 m as pa, 13-IV-2001; <em>Monte Maggioreem>, Città di Castello, 605 m bc pa vu, 13-VI-2003; <em>San Secondoem>, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 3-VI-1995 / 9-V-2001; <em>Lugnano>, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 25-XI-1992; <em>Niccone>, Umbertide, 250 m ce pb vf 14-VI-2003; <em>Pietralunga>, 505 m as pa, 19-IV-2002; <em>Monte Cuccoem>, Sigillo, 1050 m bc bm vu, 5-V-2003 <em>Castiglione>, Gubbio, 840 m bc pa, 30-V-1999; <em>Schifanoia>, Valfabbrica, 350 m bc pa, 30-V-2000; <em>Oscano>, Perugia, 470 m bc pa, 2002; <em>Monte Melinoem>, Magione, 225 m ci ps vt, 19-I-2001; <em>Sant?Arcangelo>, Magione; 260 m zu ps vt, IV-2002; <em>Città della Pieveem>, 500 m as pa, 29-VI-2001 (bc bosco di caducifoglie, ce colture estensive, ci colture intensive, as area suburbana, zu zona umida, pa piano bioclimatico altocollinare, pb piano bioclimatico bassocollinare, bm piano bioclimatico bassomontano, ps piano bioclimatico collinare submediterraneo, vu variante umida, vf variante fredda, vt variante temperata. In letteratura la specie viene segnalata anche nel Comune di Assisi. In due località dell?Umbria nord-orientale ? Pietralunga e Monte Cucco - <em>T. europaeaem> è risultata in parapatria con <em>T. caecaem> mentre, da recentissima bibliografia, entrerebbe in contatto con <em>T. romanaem> nella fascia centrale della regione. Contemporaneamente si è creduto opportuno riportare notizie relative ad individui marchigiani

  11. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  12. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  13. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and <em>in Vitroem> Antifungal Evaluation on <em>Candida> Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir G. Wanderley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1<em>H>-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylpropan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or <em>click chemistryem>. Next the<em> in vitroem> antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different <em>Candida> species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1<em>H>-(1,2,3triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  14. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  15. Molluscicidal Activity of Methomyl and Cardenolide Extracts from <em>Calotropis proceraem> and <em>Adenium> <em>arabicum> Against the Land Snail <em>Monacha cantianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Bayoumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from <em>Adenium arabicumem> Balf f. [the benzene (B and methanol (M extracts], one cardenolide extract from <em>Calotropis proceraem> (Aiton W.T. Aiton (extract C, and methomyl against the harmful land snail <em>Monacha cantianaem> (Montagu. The contact LD50 values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg−1 of body weight, respectively, while the LD50 for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg−1, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  16. Conjuntivite em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Mariana Inês Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A conjuntivite é a doença ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada em Medicina Veterinária, tanto em cães como em gatos. O facto de a conjuntiva ser uma membrana mucosa tão exposta a agentes externos faz com que esteja bastante suscetível a sofrer lesões, com consequente inflamação. Nesta dissertação abordam-se os diferentes tipos de conjuntivite, que são classificados de acordo com a sua etiologia. No Hospita...

  17. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  18. CATETERES EM TERAPIA INTENSIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Deus Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com os objetivos de identificar falhas na administração de medicamentos por sondas e caracterizar a interrupção ou não da nutrição no caso de medicamentos que exigem jejum relativo. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, observacional, numa terapia intensiva, com amostra de 350 doses administradas por 56 técnicos de enfermagem. Resultados mostraram que não houve pausa entre a administração do medicamento e a infusão de dieta enteral em 116 (33,14% doses de medicamentos que necessitavam de jejum relativo, entre os quais captopril, varfarina sódica, levotiroxina sódica, digoxina e fenitoína sódica. A irrigação das sondas não ocorreu na maioria dos casos (94,28%. Conclui-se que é possível que os medicamentos citados tenham tido sua biodisponibilidade sérica reduzida, comprometendo sua eficácia terapêutica e que a falta da prática de irrigar sondas com água estéril, antes de administrar medicamentos, configura-se como a ausência de um cuidado específico fundamental para evitar a obstrução das mesmas.

  19. Hemoptises em jovens adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Peter Know

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A hemoptise é uma queixa médica frequente que pode requerer broncoscopia para o seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Não está completamente esclarecido quais são os doentes que beneficiam da broncoscopia como abordagem precoce. Está estabelecido que os jovens adultos com hemoptises são doentes de baixo risco, quando comparados com velhos; contudo, não há muitos trabalhos sobre o interesse da broncoscopia na abordagem deste grupo etário.Os autores resolveram avaliar, retrospectivamente, todos os doentes submetidos a broncoscopia por hemoptises, caracterizando a apresentação clínica e a avaliação diagnóstica dos jovens adultos (18 aos 40 anos, incluindo a utilidade diagnóstica da broncoscopia.Satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão 18 doentes. Na broncoscopia realizada nos doentes com hemoptises que apresentavam radiografia do tórax e T AC do tórax normal não foram identificadas quaisquer alterações endobrônquicas.Os autores, perante estes resultados preconizam que os doentes jovens adultos com hemoptises, com radiografias do tórax e TAC do tórax normais, não necessitam da avaliação broncoscópica inicial, devendo ser seguidos em follow-up clínico apertado.

  20. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  1. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  2. Imagens de um Sujeito em Devir: Autorretrato em Rede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leite Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se prope a discutir o fenmeno da circulao das fotografias pessoais em plataformas virtuais e o surgimento de uma possvel nova esttica do cotidiano e do efmero. Assim, iniciamos com um quadro conceitual sobre as possibilidades da fotografia digital referentes s imagens do cotidiano e apresentamos uma anlise sobre as particularidades estticas do autorretrato contemporneo, um processo de criao que envolve conceitos como fabulao, performance e o efmero, em um espao de interao com as ferramentas de comunicao na comunidade do Flickr.

  3. Alcaloides pirrolizidinicos em borboletas Ithomiinal : alguns aspectos em ecologia quimica

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Roberto Trigo

    1993-01-01

    Resumo: Alcalóides pirrolizidínicos (PAs) são ésteres de 1-metilhidroxilpirrolizidínas, sendo o aminoálcool chamado de base necina e a parte ácida de ácidos nécicos. Geralmente ocorrem em forma de monoésteres, diésteres abertos ou cíclicos, podendo apresentar uma insaturação no anel (PAs insaturados) ou não (PAs saturados). Estas substâncias apresentam mais de 200 estruturas isoladas de plantas, ocorrendo principalmente em Senecio, Eupatorium (Asteraceae), Crotalaria (Fabaceae) e Heliotropium...

  4. Consumo ecologicamente consciente em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Schoor, Maria Adelaide Oliveira van

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, ramo de Marketing e Publicidade Esta Dissertação de Mestrado faz uma análise ao consumo ecologicamente consciente em Portugal. Tento em conta as questões ambientais que tem vindo a ser debatidas nas últimas décadas, o desenvolvimento de estratégias de produção e promoção de produtos e serviços mais ecológicos tem vindo a aumentar significativamente. A...

  5. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  6. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma Emergency medical ... injuries treated in emergency departments? How can a rural EMS unit find funding for major equipment, such ...

  7. EM Mortar Technology Development for Indirect Fire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turman, B. N; Kaye, R. J; Crawford, M; Magnotti, P; Nguyen, D; van Reuth, E; Johnson, S. A; Poppe, R

    2006-01-01

    The DARPA Electromagnetic (EM) Mortar Laboratory Demonstration Program is a focused development and demonstration effort for an EM gun system for vehicle-based, non-line-of-sight, artillery applications...

  8. Trombo flutuante em veia femoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bertanha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O trombo venoso flutuante em veia femoral é um tipo de trombo com alto potencial de embolização pulmonar. Entretanto, ainda é controversa a conduta mais apropriada nesses casos. Tratamentos clínicos com anticoagulantes ou fibrinolíticos e trombectomias abertas ou por meio de dispositivos endovasculares vêm sendo empregados ainda sem um critério de indicação bem definido. Apresentamos três casos clínicos de trombos flutuantes em veia femoral, de etiologias distintas, cujos tratamentos e respectivas evoluções serão discutidos.

  9. Eletrons interagentes em bilhares magneticos

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gregorio G. de V. Dias da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Consideramos o problema de dois elétrons confinados em um Bilhar quadrado, interagindo por um potencial repulsivo de alcance finito do tipo Yukawa e sujeitos a um campo magnético ortogonal. Calculamos o espectro de energia do sistema para singletos e tripletos de spin em todas as classes de simetria como função da intensidade e alcance da interação e do campo magnético. Mostramos que a natureza de curto alcance da interação suprime a formação de estados fundamentais "Moléculas de Wign...

  10. Factores de risco em implantologia

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Inês Silveira e Luz Nunes de

    2015-01-01

    A Implantologia tem ganho popularidade na medicina dentária pelos resultados previsíveis em reabilitações de áreas edêntulas, permitindo minimizar as consequências funcionais, fonéticas e estéticas que advém da perda de dentes através de uma solução fixa que satizfaz os pacientes. Esta é uma revisão da literatura existente sobre factores de risco, fracassos e complicações inerentes ao tratamento com implantes dentários. Categorizam-se os factores de risco em implantologia co...

  11. Efeito da enxertia em mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Bomfim, Nayra Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Enxertos de duas espécies silvestres (M. glaziovii e M. fortalezensis) sobre M. esculenta, mandioca, foram estudados morfologicamente, anatomicamente e citogeneticamente e a fim de se avaliar possíveis efeitos devido à interação entre enxerto e porta-enxerto. Foram feitas análises anatômicas das raízes dos porta-enxertos UnB 201 e UnB 122 (variedades de M. esculenta), em comparação com as variedades não enxertadas. Analisou-se a meiose em enxerto da espécie M. glaziovii que apresentava morfol...

  12. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  13. EM Algorithm and Stochastic Control in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Steven; Peng, Xianhua; Xu, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Generalising the idea of the classical EM algorithm that is widely used for computing maximum likelihood estimates, we propose an EM-Control (EM-C) algorithm for solving multi-period finite time horizon stochastic control problems. The new algorithm sequentially updates the control policies in each time period using Monte Carlo simulation in a forward-backward manner; in other words, the algorithm goes forward in simulation and backward in optimization in each iteration. Similar to the EM alg...

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  15. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  16. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  17. Rodent hosts of <em>Maritrema> sp. (Digenea, Microphallidae in Sardinia Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve <em>Rattus rattusem> (L., 1758 and eight <em>Mus domesticusem> (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in <em>R. rattusem> the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus <em>Maritrema> (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea <em>Gammarus italicusem>, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of <em>Maritrema> sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (<em>Mus domesticusem> CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from <em>G. italicusem>. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that <em>Maritrema> sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in <em>Mus>. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.

  18. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of <em>Coriandrum sativumem> L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from <em>C. sativumem> L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the <em>Artemia salinaem> lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against <em>Microsporum canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for <em>M. canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for <em>M. canisem> strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for <em>Candida> spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. <em>C. sativumem> essential oil is active<em> in vitroem> against <em>M. canis em>and> Candidaem> spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  19. Bens virtuais em social games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Recuero Rebs

    Full Text Available O artigo foca a compreensão dos significados da aquisição de bens virtuais por usuários de social games. Conjuntamente, busca estimular a reflexão sobre os usos e as identificações que motivam os jogadores à compra destes bens. Com base em autores que trabalham com a produção e as simbologias de bens integrados às práticas de consumo da sociedade, o trabalho apresenta dados de uma observação participante por sete meses em dez social games e de questionários aplicados em 140 jogadores. Por fim, propõe-se uma classificação de bens virtuais em social games baseada nos dados adquiridos e na dinâmica social do jogo. Os resultados apontam para a circulação de significações atribuídas aos bens virtuais a partir de contextos pré-estabelecidos pelos social games e pelas origens culturais de seus jogadores, atuando possivelmente na edificação e/ou manifestação identitária dos sujeitos no ciberespaço.

  20. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  1. Trapping of root-knot nematodes by the adhesive hyphae-forming fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.

    1994-01-01

    The present study addresses the ecology of a particular isolate of <em>Arthrobotrys oligosporaem> (CBS 289.82) in relation to its efficacy in controlling the root-knot nematode, <em>Meloidogyne hapla.em>

    This isolate was selected because it differs from

  2. Population and molecular genetics of root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes studies of root-knot nematodes <em>Meloidogyne> spp. - an economically important pest in agriculture - using population and molecular genetics. Variability in virulence to <em>Mi> bearing tomato genotypes is shown for

  3. First sign of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> in the Po valley plain / Prima segnalazione in Pianura Padana di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Nieder

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber, 1790 populations is reported in the Po valley, formerly considered outside the distribution area of the species. An initial series of captures was made in the high-water area of the Po near S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC following with research was extended along the river's banks in Emilia both upstream and downstream. The search for this species was carried out by analysing food pellets relating to <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, thought to be among the most common predators of these intensive herbaceous and arboreal agricultural biocoenosis. The information we gathered was integrated with other Authors' unpublished and bibliographical data. The presence of <em>C. glareolusem> was noted in habitats quite different from the expected ones. Many of the problems raised by the presence of this species in "islands" along the main body of the Po river and its tributaries, and by its presumed absence from particulary suitable environments such as the Carrega woods, the Ticino park and Mesola wood must still be resolved. Riassunto Viene segnalata la presenza di popolazioni di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber 1790 nella pianura Padana precedentemente considerata al di fuori dell'areale della specie. A partire da una prima serie di catture nell'area golenale del Po presso S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC, si è successivamente proceduto ad allargare l'area di ricerca lungo l'argine emiliano del Po, sia a monte sia a valle. La ricerca di questa specie è avvenuta tramite l'analisi di boli alimentari relativi a <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, ritenuti tra i più comuni predatori di queste biocenosi agricole intensive erbacee ed arboree. I dati da noi raccolti sono stati integrati con quelli bibliografici e inediti di altri Autori. È stata riscontrata la presenza

  4. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  5. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  6. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  7. Enfermagem em cardiologia baseada em evidência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Rejane Rabelo da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos, dentro do cenário cardiovascular, estudos recentes do nosso grupo. Buscando melhores evidências de enfermagem investigamos por meio de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR estratégias de educação e acompanhamento destes pacientes (pctes. O primeiro ECR avaliou o impacto da educação individual e da orientação em grupo no conhecimento sobre doença e autocuidado em pctes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. No grupo intervenção, houve uma melhora do conhecimento dos cuidados essenciais (controle de sal e da ingesta hídrica, peso diário, realização de atividade física P=0,008, demonstrando que o atendimento em grupo é semelhante ao individual. No ambiente hospitalar, segundo ECR, comparamos o efeito da educação de enfermagem e seguimento telefônico após alta versus educação sem a monitorização por telefone. Demonstramos que intervenção educativa durante a internação melhora o conhecimento da doença, autocuidado e qualidade de vida (P

  8. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  9. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  10. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  11. Virtude e felicidade em Sêneca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Viver feliz é o que todos almejam, mas o caminho para a felicidade não parece estar claro para todos. Os ensinamentos de Sêneca nos apontam alguns caminhos, ainda que para o nosso tempo, são caminhos considerados de acesso difícil, pois Sêneca nos diz que, para sermos felizes, devemos dirigir nossos olhares sempre para as virtudes e nunca para o gozo dos prazeres, estes nos escravizam, enquanto aquelas nos libertam. Portanto, o propósito deste texto é refletir, ainda que seja em termos introdutórios, sobre a felicidade em Sêneca que pode ser entendido a partir de uma relação com a virtude; ou seja, para ele, não é possível ser feliz se deixarmos de buscar ou viver nas virtudes.

  12. Governo e Poder em Foucault

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    Monica Loyola Stival

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente artigo mostra que o conceito de "governo" de Michel Foucault ocupa o espaço aberto por sua crítica ao poder moderno. Foucault passa aos poucos do conceito de poder à noção de governo em suas análises. Porém, não se trata de substituição de conceitos equivalentes, mas de um refinamento conceitual que ilumina a dimensão da atividade dos sujeitos como base das relações sociais e políticas modernas. Assim, este texto tem dois momentos distintos e complementares: mostra a possibilidade de passar do conceito de poder ao conceito de governo, pelo menos como elemento central da análise social e política, e discute o alcance do conceito de governo, que se instala em uma dimensão diferente daquela do poder.

  13. Sinais em neurorradiologia: parte 1

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    Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sinais ou analogias na interpretação de imagens na radiologia médica é prática comum e antiga entre os radiologistas. Comparação entre achados de imagem com animais, alimentos ou objetos se faz de modo natural. Muitos sinais são bastante específicos e em alguns casos patognomônicos. Independentemente do grau de especificidade, sinais auxiliam a prática radiológica. Vários sinais já foram descritos em neurorradiologia. Neste artigo os autores demonstrarão 15 sinais neurorradiológicos. Serão abordados as principais características de cada um, a sua importância na prática clínica e os seus achados de imagem.

  14. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki,Elise M.; Brito,Marilene F.; Mota,Rinaldo A.; McIntosh,Douglas; Tokarnia,Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE). Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública...

  15. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

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    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  16. Bacharelado em psicopedagogia = Psycopedagogy Course

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    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área

  17. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

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    Carvalho-Filho Eurico T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  18. COMPETÊNCIA EM MEDICINA

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    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Competência no exercício da medicina depende de um processo evolutivo ao longo da vida do profissional, processo este fundamentado em eficiência, experiência e em princípios éticos. A eficiência depende da cultura médica, de habilidades técnicas e relacionamento interpessoal com o paciente. A experiência ao longo da vida vai refinando o médico, favorecendo o evolver do conhecimento e da sabedoria vivencial. Finalmente, a ética médica se fundamenta na justiça, compaixão e amor ao próximo. Didaticamente, distinguimos 3 fases da evolução profissional do médico: a infância profissional ou visão linear: o médico se restringe em geral ao atendimento da doença, negligenciando o doente. É quase exclusivamente técnico e tem percepção acanhada da medicina-arte. b Maturidade profissional ou visão humanística: resultado de evolução da personalidade, da cultura e da experiência do médico, agora voltado para o doente com sua doença. c Excelência profissional ou visão holística: estágio máximo que se pode alcançar, quando o médico vislumbra a si e ao seu cliente em todas suas dimensões integradas e atua como mestre, procurando despertar no paciente condições próprias de cura, oriundas de sua essência. Conclui-se que exercer medicina com competência significa desempenhar adequadamente a ciência e a arte médica.

  19. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

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    Eurico T. Carvalho-Filho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  20. Complaints against an EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  1. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

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    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  2. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  3. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M. Yamasaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE. Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  5. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  6. Bioactive Compounds from a Gorgonian Coral <em>Echinomuricea> sp. (Plexauridae

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    Jih-Jung Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new labdane-type diterpenoid, echinolabdane A (1, and a new sterol, 6-<em>epi>-yonarasterol B (2, were isolated from a gorgonian coral identified as <em>Echinomuricea> sp. The structures of metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinolabdane A (1 possesses a novel tetracyclic skeleton with an oxepane ring jointed to an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring by a hemiketal moiety, and this compound is the first labdane-type diterpenoid to be obtained from marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. 6-<em>epi>-Yonarasterol B (2 is the first steroid derivative to be isolated from gorgonian coral belonging to the genus <em>Echinomuricea>, and this compound displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  7. Bioactivities of the Genus <em>Combretum> (Combretaceae: A Review

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    Josean Fechine Tavares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Combretaceae is a large family of herbs, shrubs and trees, comprising about 20 genera and 600 species with tropical distribution around the globe and centers of diversity in Africa and Asia. Some <em>Combretum> species are extensively used in traditional medicine against inflammation, infections, diabetes, malaria, bleeding, diarrhea and digestive disorders and others as a diuretic. The present work is a literature survey of <em>Combretum> species that have been evaluated for their ability to exert biological activities. A total number of 36 <em>Combretum> species are discussed with regard to plant parts used, component tested and bioassay models. This review is of fundamental importance to promoting studies on <em>Combretum> species, thereby contributing to the development of new therapeutic alternatives that may improve the health of people suffering from various health problems.

  8. Alkaloids Isolated from the Lateral Root of <em>Aconitum carmichaeliiem>

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    Qin-Mei Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1 and aconicaramide (5, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of <em>Aconitum carmichaeliiem>, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2, neoline (3, <em>N>-ethylhokbusine B (4, 5-hydroxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (6, and oleracein E (7. Their structures were elucidated by physical and NMR analysis. Pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from <em>A. carmichaeliiem> for the first time. In the <em>in vitroem> assays, compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against pentobarbital sodium-induced cardiomyocytes damage by obviously recovering beating rhythm and increasing the cell viability, while compounds 5 and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity.

  9. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pygmaeusem> Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem>, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (<em>P. pipistrellusem> and soprano pipistrelle (<em>P. pygmaeusem>. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between <em>P. pipistrellusem> and <em>P. pygmaeusem> in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (<em>Pipistrellus pygmeausem>, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem> e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (<em>P. pipistrellusem> e pipistrello pigmeo (<em>P. pygmaeusem>, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  10. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  11. Crecimiento foliar y radical en plantas de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> bajo estrés por encharcamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En regiones tropicales y subtropicales se producen pérdidas en las plantas cultivadas como consecuencia de lluvias estacionales prolongadas. El exceso de agua produce condiciones de anoxia en el suelo en pocas horas. Las raíces sufren hipoxia o anoxia, lo cual tiene como resultado una crisis energética que afecta el crecimiento de la planta. El presente estudio se orientó hacia la determinación de crecimiento foliar y radical en dos especies de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> cultivadas en encharcamiento en campo abierto en Tunja, Colombia. Las plantas se desarrollaron a partir de bulbilos, en bolsas plásticas con 3 kg de suelo. Las plantas control se regaron cada 4 días. Las bolsas de las plantas encharcadas se cubrieron con una bolsa plástica adicional para limitar el drenaje y se regaron hasta mantener el agua 1 cm por encima de la superficie del suelo. En ambas especies la materia seca total de la planta, el peso específico de las hojas y el área foliar se redujeron con el encharcamiento, mientras que la longitud total radical se incrementó. La relación raíz:vástago se redujo en <em>F. macrophyllaem> pero se incrementó en <em>Furcraea castillaem>. A pesar de que ambas especies fueron fuertemente afectadas por el encharcamiento, <em>F. macrophyllaem> mostró mejor adaptación a este factor de estrés que <em> F. castillaem>.

  12. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

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    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  13. Consumo de fibra em detergente neutro por bovinos em confinamento

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    Detmann Edenio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN por bovinos em confinamento e os principais fatores que influenciam esta variável, correlacionado-a ao consumo de matéria seca (MS total. Foram avaliados dados publicados na Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia e Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, no período de 1991 e 2000, totalizando 45 trabalhos científicos e 181 médias de tratamentos. O nível de nutrientes digestíveis totais mostrou-se negativamente correlacionado ao nível de FDN nas dietas (r = -0,6006; P0,10. A descrição da relação entre consumo de MS e nível de FDN na dieta foi realizada de forma bifásica, buscando similaridade às curvas propostas por um modelo estático de predição do consumo. A interseção das curvas projetou consumo de FDN (CFDN de 11,93 g/kg PV. No entanto, a avaliação dos CFDN estimados durante a fase atribuída aos controladores físicos do consumo mostrou inconstância, gerando divergência entre os pontos de consumo máximo de MS e FDN, indicando ser a transição entre os mecanismos físicos e fisiológicos, possivelmente, determinada por um intervalo com interação entre mecanismos. A avaliação do CFDN em função do nível de volumosos nas dietas mostrou perfis estáveis em concentrações superiores a 60%, sendo de 13,53 g/kg PV no intervalo de 80 a 100%. Possíveis interações com a fração indigestível da FDN podem ditar a plasticidade do limite diário de CFDN.

  14. COLABORAÇÃO EM MASSA OU AMADORISMO EM MASSA?

    OpenAIRE

    Resende da Silva, Paulo; Rodrigues, Fernando Nifrário

    2013-01-01

    O alfa e o ómega deste estudo é a tentativa de provar a credibilidade da colaboração em massa enquanto pedra angular do modelo de negócio comummente denominado por open source. Para o demonstrar, realizou-se um estudo comparativo entre a qualidade dos artigos da Wikipédia e da Enciclopédia Britânica, tendo sido dado particular relevo à metodologia utilizada de modo a que os resultados obtidos fossem os mais fidedignos e abrangentes possíveis. É utilizada uma amostra aleatória representativ...

  15. Lectin from <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> <em>in Vitroem>

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    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of <em>Canavalia ensiformisem> (ConA and <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to <em>R. tropiciem> cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  16. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

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    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  17. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  18. Funcionalidade familiar em longevos residentes em domicílio

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    Ivania Vera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à funcionalidade familiar de longevos não institucionalizados residentes em Goiânia (GO, Brasil. Método: tratou-se de um estudo epidemiológico, de base populacional, com delineamento transversal. Foram aplicadas escalas de avaliação da capacidade funcional e cognitiva. A dinâmica familiar foi mensurada utilizando o Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve (APGAR por meio de entrevista domiciliar com 131 longevos. Resultados: houve prevalência do sexo feminino, média de idade de 83,87 anos, condição de viuvez, residindo em família extensa, escolaridade primária e autopercepção de saúde regular. Grande parcela despontou independência para autocuidado e dependência parcial para Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária. A funcionalidade familiar prevaleceu com média do escore de 9,06 pontos. Conclusão: concluiu-se que a funcionalidade familiar nos longevos está associada à autopercepção de saúde ruim/péssima, osteoporose e queda. Os resultados permitiram caracterizar a funcionalidade familiar de longevos, com vistas à valorização e à priorização da família como cuidadora.

  19. Brasil em obras, peões em luta, sindicatos surpreendidos

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    Roberto Véras

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda as revoltas e greves ocorridas em março de 2011 em canteiros de obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC, do Governo Federal, que alcançou grande repercussão nacional. Tem como foco os conflitos e as negociações, envolvendo trabalhadores, sindicatos, empresários, Governo, Justiça, Ministério Público do Trabalho, entre outros atores, estabelecidos durante a construção das Usinas Hidroelétricas de Jirau e Santo Antônio, situadas no Norte do país. Visou identificar as posições dos referidos atores e, sob uma perspectiva sociológica, propor reflexões sobre as potencialidades e os limites da atividade sindical. Que questões trouxeram tais acontecimentos ao sindicalismo, quanto às relações deste, de um lado, com suas próprias bases e, de outro, com o atual projeto governamental?

  20. Conceito de liberdade em Vigotski

    OpenAIRE

    Toassa, Gisele

    2004-01-01

    Este texto sintetiza os fundamentos do conceito de liberdade vigotskiano, procurando elucidar suas conexões a partir das investigações do autor sobre linguagem, vontade, funções psíquicas superiores, pensamento e imaginação. Discutem-se, ainda, os antecedentes filosóficos presentes no seu conceito de liberdade e se esboça uma análise das condições concretas necessárias para a livre-escolha em tempos de alienação. This text summarises the fundamental points of Vygotsky´s freedom concept, wi...

  1. Conceito de liberdade em Vigotski

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    Gisele Toassa

    Full Text Available Este texto sintetiza os fundamentos do conceito de liberdade vigotskiano, procurando elucidar suas conexões a partir das investigações do autor sobre linguagem, vontade, funções psíquicas superiores, pensamento e imaginação. Discutem-se, ainda, os antecedentes filosóficos presentes no seu conceito de liberdade e se esboça uma análise das condições concretas necessárias para a livre-escolha em tempos de alienação.

  2. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  3. A Favela posta em Cena

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    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    As publicações do Observatório das Favelas nos instigam na construção de um espaço transgressor Possível como necessidade de uma ação urgente, contudo a perspectiva do Impossível como projeto nos promove a revelar os limites, as normas e as ideologias que perpassam as ações internas ao Estado, já que este se constitui agente fundamental da engrenagem da produção de desigualdades e em sua força legitimadora realiza a ideologia mais eficiente.

  4. O humor em cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Cláudia Joana Alves

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Cuidados Paliativos apresentada na Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo O ser humano diferencia-se dos outros seres vivos pela capacidade que possui de sorrir. Esta característica ajuda-o a enfrentar os problemas que se lhe afiguram no quotidiano da vida, sejam eles de índole pessoal, profissional, familiar ou relacional. Assim o humor, presente desde sempre, emerge como uma necessidade para o crescimento individual, e ...

  5. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

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    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  6. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

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    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do ECRO grupal sobre a tarefa proposta pelo pesquisador; e, a elaboração do projeto grupal a partir da aceitação ativa dos sujeitos sociais participantes da investigação.

  7. Fatores antinutricionais em plantas forrageiras

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    Natanael de Souza Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As análises bromatológicas definem a qualidade nutricional das forragens: degradabilidade ruminal, digestibilidade e composição química. No entanto, existem compostos denominados de antinutricionais (limitam a ingestão e a digestão das forragens que não são determinados pelas análises convencionais. Os fatores antinutricionais são de natureza química ou estrutural. Os principais fatores químicos limitantes das forragens são os alcalóides, compostos fenólicos e substâncias terpênicas, enquanto que os estruturais são a arquitetura tissular, as células lignificadas e a sílica. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetiva-se apresentar os principais fatores antinutricionais em plantas forrageiras relatados na literatura. Futuras pesquisas envolvendo a avaliação de plantas forrageiras devem levar em conta uma série de características, dentre estas: seus aspectos agronômicos e bromatológicos, sua natureza estrutural, presença de matabólitos secundários e desempenho animal, visando com isso, avaliar o seu real potencial nutritivo.

  8. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

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    Anne Fausto-Sterling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  9. A agricultura paulista em 1905

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    Francisco Vidal Luna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo revelou a importância da cafeicultura e que a grande produção cafeeira coexistia com milhares de pequenos e médios produtores também dedicados à cafeicultura. Mostrou também a existência de ampla produção agrícola voltada ao mercado interno, cultivos em grande parte feitos em unidades produtoras de café. A Mogiana era a região agrícola mais importante e o Vale do Paraíba havia perdido importância na agricultura paulista. O estudo também demonstra a alta produtividade das áreas novas. A ampla rede ferroviária existente permitia expandir a agricultura mantendo ou mesmo ampliando a produtividade da agricultura. Com disponibilidade de terras e com uma intensa imigração europeia, apenas o mercado poderia evitar a expansão da cafeicultura. Merece realce a baixa tecnologia adotada. Poucos agricultores, mesmo nas regiões mais dinâmicas, utilizavam arados e outros equipamentos similares ou se serviam de adubos químicos.

  10. Metodologia de minienxertia em maracujazeiros

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    Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a metodologia de enxertia pela modalidade garfagem no topo hipocotiledonar em fenda cheia, utilizando miniestacas adultas de segmentos apicais de P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis, P. alata, P. mucronata e P. foetida e internodais de P. mucronata. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação equipada com sistema de irrigação com nebulização intermitente, do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo (CEUNES, da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES. Os índices de pegamento nas combinações de P. edulis f. flavicarpa/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. alata/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. mucronata/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. foetida/P. edulis f. flavicarpa foram de 90; 90; 68; 80 e 90, respectivamente. A metodologia empregada é uma nova opção de enxertia para essas espécies do gênero Passiflora.

  11. Ser marrano em Minas Colonial

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    Anita Novinsky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em 57 Processos inéditos de marranos (cristãos-novos, conversos presos em Minas Gerais no século XVIII, este artigo procura mostrar seu papel na Idade de Ouro do Brasil. 64% deles eram mercadores e 23% eram mineiros. Pertenciam à classe média e raros eram os magnatas. Nenhum dele esteve envolvido no tráfico negreiro. Acusados do crime de judaísmo e de pertencerem a sociedades secretas, representaram 42% dos brasileiros condenados à morte. Ser marrano entre os portugueses no Brasil mais um sentimento e uma visão de mundo do que uma prática religiosa.Based on 57 unknown trials of marranos (new christians, conversos arrested by the Inquisition in Minas Gerais in the XVIII the century, this article shows their role in shapping the history of Minas Gerais. 64% of them were merchants na 23% were miners. Most of them belonged to a middle class and rare were those whit great fortunes. No one of them were engaged in slave trade. Acused of judaism and of participating in secret society the marranos of Minas represented 42% of the Brazilian burned at the stake. Being a marrano in Minas Gerais was not always being a crypto-new. Marranism in Brasil was a feeling and a approach to life.

  12. PEG Enhancement for EM1 and EM2+ Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), is currently being designed. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm. Due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions. In order to accommodate mission design for EM-2 and beyond, PEG has been significantly improved since its use on the Space Shuttle program. The current version of PEG has the ability to switch to different targets during Core Stage (CS) or EUS flight, and can automatically reconfigure for a single Engine Out (EO) scenario, loss of communication with the Launch Abort System (LAS), and Inertial Navigation System (INS) failure. The Thrust Factor (TF) algorithm uses measured state information in addition to a priori parameters, providing PEG with an improved estimate of propulsion information. This provides robustness against unknown or undetected engine failures. A loft parameter input allows LAS jettison while maximizing payload mass. The current PEG algorithm is now able to handle various classes of missions with burn arcs much longer than were seen in the shuttle program. These missions include targeting a circular LEO orbit with a low-thrust, long-burn-duration upper stage, targeting a highly eccentric Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) orbit, targeting a disposal orbit using the low-thrust Reaction Control System (RCS), and targeting a hyperbolic orbit. This paper will describe the design and implementation of the TF algorithm, the strategy to handle EO in various flight regimes, algorithms to cover off-nominal conditions, and other enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm. This paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle, and results show that the improved PEG

  13. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

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    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  14. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

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    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  15. OCCURENCE OF Salmonella IN CHICKEN CARCASSES AND CUTS COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO OCORRÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM CARCAÇAS E CORTES DE FRANGOS COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA-GO

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    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  16. Species Differentiation of Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> (Aphididae: Greenideinae Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement

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    Gexia Qiao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. <em>Mollitrichosiphum> is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI and Cytochrome b (Cytb genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>. The divergence time of <em>Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus em>(c>. 11.0 mya (million years ago, <em>Mollitrichosiphum nandiiem> and<em> Mollitrichosiphum montanumem> (<em>c>. 10.6 mya was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>.

  17. Fatores associados ao fumo em gestantes avaliadas em cidades brasileiras

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    Kroeff Locimara Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação dos fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida com o hábito de fumar em gestantes atendidas em hospitais. MÉTODOS: O delineamento foi o de um estudo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 5.539 gestantes atendidas em ambulatórios de pré-natal em hospitais públicos credenciados nas cidades de Manaus, Fortaleza, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Porto Alegre, entre 1991 e 1995. A seleção foi consecutiva para todas as gestantes com 20 anos ou mais de idade, excetuando-se aquelas com diabetes prévia à gestação. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e entrevistas entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas da gravidez. Por meio de um questionário padronizado, considerou-se como fumante quem informou fumar um ou mais cigarros por dia, como ex-fumante quem informou ter fumado mais de um cigarro por dia e ter cessado, e não fumantes quem informou nunca ter fumado um ou mais cigarros por dia. RESULTADOS: O hábito de fumar na gestação associou-se à baixa escolaridade (RC=2,13; IC 95%: 1,76-2,57 e paridade (RC=1,84; IC 95%: 1,53-2,21. Para o aumento da idade da gestante e uso de bebidas alcóolicas também foram observadas associações positivas com o fumo na gestação. Não foi observada nenhuma associação significativa entre cor da pele e situação ocupacional com fumo na gestação. Um efeito protetor foi observado para mulheres casadas ou com companheiro (RC=0,55; IC 95%: 0,42-0,72. Entre as cidades, tomando Manaus como referência, Porto Alegre apresentou o maior risco para fumo na gestação (RC=5,00; IC 95%: 3,35-7,38, seguida de São Paulo (RC=3,42; IC 95%: 2,25-5,20, Rio de Janeiro (RC=2,53; IC 95%: 1,65-3,88 e Fortaleza (RC=2,56; IC95%: 1,74-3,78. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados são semelhantes àqueles descritos na literatura com relação à escolaridade, paridade e situação conjugal. Entretanto, nenhuma associação com a cor da pele foi observada na análise multivariada. As ex-fumantes mostraram

  18. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  19. Do Surrealismo em David Lynch

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    Mirian Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O surrealismo, como a arte do seu tempo, propõe uma nova estética, capaz de extrair o belo do absurdo e de instaurar o desvio para que daí surja, de fato, o real. Através da análise de algumas obras de David Lynch e dos livros Les champs magnétiques de Breton e Philippe Soupault e Poisson soluble, de Breton, irei mostrar a pertinência da designação surrealista para a obra do cineasta norte-americano. Lynch, como os surrealistas, constrói uma operação dialética entre o racional/irracional. Ao mesmo tempo em que opera no campo artístico em direção à irracionalidade absoluta, Lynch não nega a sua inserção na sociedade. Acredito que o realizador, como os surrealistas, tenha conseguido encontrar um equilíbrio entre as duas formas de se estar no mundo, racional/irracional, jogando com suas antíteses. O prazer do jogo surrealista consiste em ir até as profundezas do inconsciente e retornar com matéria suficiente para fazer uma obra de arte.Surrealism, as the art of its time, proposes a new aesthetics, one that is able to extract the beautiful from the absurd and to establish the swerve from the standard, from which, in fact, the real comes through. Through the analysis of some works by David Lynch, of Breton and Soupault's Les champs magnétiques, and of Breton's Poisson soluble, I will attempt to show the relevance of the surrealist designation for the work of the American filmmaker. Lynch, like the surrealists, builds a dialectic operation between the rational and the irrational. While operating in the artistic field towards absolute irrationality, Lynch does not deny its role in society. It is my belief that the director, as the surrealists, has managed to find a balance between the two ways of being in the world: rational and irrational; by playing with their antitheses. The pleasure of the surrealist game is to go to the depths of the unconscious and return with sufficient material to make a work of art out of it.

  20. <em>luxS> Mutant Regulation: Quorum Sensing Impairment or Methylation Disorder?

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    Zhengwei Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AI-2–mediated quorum sensing has been identified in various bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species, and numerous phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by this mechanism, using the <em>luxS>-mutant strain. But the AI-2 production process confused this regulatory function; some considered this regulation as the result of a metabolic change, which refers to an important metabolic cycle named activated methyl cycle (AMC, caused by<em> luxSem>-mutant simultaneously with the defect of AI-2. Herein we hypothesized that the quorum sensing system—not the metabolic aspect—is responsible for such a regulatory function. In this study, we constructed plasmids infused with<em> sahHem> and induced protein expression in the <em>luxS>-mutant strain to make the quorum-sensing system and metabolic system independent. The biofilm-related genes were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing completed strain restored the gene expression of the defective strain, but the metabolically completed one did not. This evidence supported our hypothesis that the autoinducer-2-mediated, quorum-sensing system, not the AMC, was responsible for <em>luxS> mutant regulation.

  1. <em>Emaravirus>: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

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    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (<em>Sorbus aucupariaem> L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (<em>Cajanus cajanem> and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of <em>European mountain ash ringspot-associated virusem> (EMARaV, <em>Fig mosaic virusem> (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus <em>Emaravirus> was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  2. Registro periodontal simplificado em gestantes

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    Fernanda L. Rosell

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar através do PSR (Registro Periodontal Simplificado a prevalência, severidade e necessidades básicas de tratamento da doença periodontal em gestantes que freqüentaram a Clínica de Prevenção da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara ­ UNESP. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 41 gestantes com idades que variaram de 16 a 37 anos. O PSR foi aplicado com auxílio de uma sonda especialmente recomendada para este exame (sonda Trinity - tipo 621 OMS, indicando os códigos 0 a 4 cujos critérios identificam de saúde gengival, sangramento, cálculo, bolsa periodontal rasa e profunda. Estes foram atribuídos a cada sextante, podendo ou não estarem associados a um asterisco (* diante da presença de recessão gengival, invasão de furca, mobilidade ou alterações muco-gengivais. RESULTADOS: Demonstraram que 100% das gestantes apresentaram alguma alteração gengival, sendo os códigos 2 (56,1% e o * (19,5% os mais prevalentes. Os grupos etários de 15-19 e 20-24 anos, apresentaram o código 2 como maior escore e ausência de sextante excluído (X. A partir do grupo de 25-29 anos, além da maior prevalência ainda ser do código 2 (54,5%, ocorreram os códigos 3 e 4 (bolsa periodontal. Os códigos * e sextante excluído (X tenderam a aumentar com a idade no grupo de 30-37 anos. De modo geral, os códigos 1 e 2, prevaleceram em relação ao percentual de sextantes afetados, correspondendo a 41,6% e 39,8%, respectivamente e afetando 2,49 e 2,39 sextantes, em média, por gestante. Em relação às necessidades de tratamento, 90,2% das gestantes necessitaram tratamentos adicionais aos preventivos, ou seja, 61,0% das gestantes necessitaram de raspagem e alisamento radicular e/ou eliminar margens de restaurações defeituosas e 29,2% de tratamento complexo. CONCLUSÃO: O atendimento às necessidades de tratamento na gravidez deve receber especial atenção com o intuito de se promover saúde bucal e motivação, e conseqüentemente, contribuir

  3. Registro periodontal simplificado em gestantes

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    Rosell Fernanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar através do PSR (Registro Periodontal Simplificado a prevalência, severidade e necessidades básicas de tratamento da doença periodontal em gestantes que freqüentaram a Clínica de Prevenção da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara ­ UNESP. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 41 gestantes com idades que variaram de 16 a 37 anos. O PSR foi aplicado com auxílio de uma sonda especialmente recomendada para este exame (sonda Trinity - tipo 621 OMS, indicando os códigos 0 a 4 cujos critérios identificam de saúde gengival, sangramento, cálculo, bolsa periodontal rasa e profunda. Estes foram atribuídos a cada sextante, podendo ou não estarem associados a um asterisco (* diante da presença de recessão gengival, invasão de furca, mobilidade ou alterações muco-gengivais. RESULTADOS: Demonstraram que 100% das gestantes apresentaram alguma alteração gengival, sendo os códigos 2 (56,1% e o * (19,5% os mais prevalentes. Os grupos etários de 15-19 e 20-24 anos, apresentaram o código 2 como maior escore e ausência de sextante excluído (X. A partir do grupo de 25-29 anos, além da maior prevalência ainda ser do código 2 (54,5%, ocorreram os códigos 3 e 4 (bolsa periodontal. Os códigos * e sextante excluído (X tenderam a aumentar com a idade no grupo de 30-37 anos. De modo geral, os códigos 1 e 2, prevaleceram em relação ao percentual de sextantes afetados, correspondendo a 41,6% e 39,8%, respectivamente e afetando 2,49 e 2,39 sextantes, em média, por gestante. Em relação às necessidades de tratamento, 90,2% das gestantes necessitaram tratamentos adicionais aos preventivos, ou seja, 61,0% das gestantes necessitaram de raspagem e alisamento radicular e/ou eliminar margens de restaurações defeituosas e 29,2% de tratamento complexo. CONCLUSÃO: O atendimento às necessidades de tratamento na gravidez deve receber especial atenção com o intuito de se promover saúde bucal e motivação, e conseqüentemente, contribuir

  4. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  5. Novas perspectivas em vacinas virais

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    Schatzmayr Hermann G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas pesquisas moleculares sobre o genoma e proteínas, novas vacinas virais deverão ser utilizadas de forma rotineira nas próximas décadas. Por outro lado, espera-se que cada vez mais sejam associados diferentes antígenos imunizantes em uma mesma dose, visando a reduzir o número de aplicações de vacinas nas populações a serem imunizadas. Pela importância de sua estrutura científica e tecnológica, o Brasil deve aumentar a participação nos processos de desenvolvimento de novas vacinas e na avaliação de sua eficácia, envolvendo maior número de pesquisadores e tecnologistas, com o incremento de investimento nessas atividades.

  6. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Atzel Candido; Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza da; Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; Pinheiro-Júnior, José Wilton; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão rela...

  7. Qualidade de Vida em Cardiologia

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    Eliane Roseli Winkelmann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A busca de qualidade de vida vem assumindo um papel importante dentro da área da saúde e é uma das metas dentro da cardiologia preventiva e terapêutica. Este artigo teve como propósito realizar uma revisão da literatura na qualidade de vida em cardiologia, enfocando as principais concepções, métodos de mensuração e mudanças clínicas significativas. Observa-se a neces-sidade de mais pesquisas dentro desta área através de mensurações cuidadosamente selecionadas, sendo de grande relevância para o paciente e para o profissional responsável pela saúde do mesmo.

  8. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

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    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  9. decidual em itaara, RS, Brasil

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    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na fazenda da Brigada Militar no município de Itaara, RS, Brasil, e teve como principal objetivo avaliar a devolução de serapilheira em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 25 m x 17 m cada, alocadas no interior da floresta. Em cada parcela, foram distribuídos cinco coletores, totalizando 30 coletores, constituídos por uma moldura de ferro de forma circular, com 50 cm de diâmetro. As coletas de serapilheira foram realizadas mensalmente, durante um período de 2 anos. No laboratório, o material foi separado nas frações folhas, galhos finos (< 1 cm e miscelânea (flores, frutos, sementes e restos vegetais não-identificáveis. Nos dois anos de coleta, houve grande devolução de serapilheira no início do inverno e principalmente na primavera, aumentando nos meses de setembro e novembro, no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, apesar da menor devolução mensal, essa tendência manteve-se mais ou menos constante, indicando um padrão sazonal nessa floresta. A devolução média anual de serapilheira foi de 7436,0 kg ha-1, com uma distribuição relativa de 71,7% de folhas, 16,5% de galhos finos e 11,8% de miscelânea. Não foi verificada uma correlação significativa entre as variáveis climáticas precipitação e temperatura e a devolução de serapilheira.

  10. PODER DA VOZ EM MEDEIA

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    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  11. Poder da voz em MEDEIA

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    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  12. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  13. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  14. Qualidade do ar em ambientes internos hospitalares

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Marina Eller

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Ambiental. A qualidade de vida das pessoas é grandemente influenciada pela qualidade do ar que respiram. Em centros urbanos, mais de 80% do tempo é passado em ambientes internos. No caso específico de unidades de saúde, a qualidade do ar pode exercer influência direta no tempo de recuperação dos pacientes e na ocorrência de infecções hospitalares. O objetivo deste tr...

  15. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  16. ESPECIFICANDO FORMALMENTE TOPOLOGIAS PARA REDES EM CHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eliselma Vieira dos; Ramos, Karla Darlene Nepomuceno

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo trata da utilização de métodos formais na especificação de topologias para redes em chip. As redes em chip apresentam similaridades com as redes tradicionais, entretanto, por estarem inseridas em sistemas embarcados apresentam características mais restritivas do ponto de vista de espaço, consumo de energia e latência. A topologia descreve o fluxo de dados através da rede e a estrutura física de como os dispositivos estão conectados, bem como, pode determinar o grau de escalabilid...

  17. Supercondutividade em materiais a base de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Borges Merlo

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Evidências experimentais e teóricas recentes de que a supercondutividade nas várias formas alotrópicas do carbono pode ocorrer em temperaturas próximas ou até acima da temperatura ambiente, desencadearam um grande interesse científico. Resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram a ocorrência de supercondutividade em compósitos de carbono vítreo-enxofre (CV-S) a T = 3 K. Nossas medidas revelaram que a supercondutividade ocorre em uma pequena fração da amostra, e que a grafitização do ...

  18. Caracteristicas das leucemias agudas em Teresina

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Fortes Napoleão do Rego

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Variações na distribuição da idade, sexo e tipos FAB têm sido descrita em vários países. Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características clínicas e resposta ao tratamento da LMA e LLA de Teresina entre 1989 e 2000 e comparamos esses resultados com outros descritos no Brasil e em outros países. Dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 345 pacientes (230 com LLA e 115 com LMA) foram revisados. LMA ocorreu predominantemente em adultos (77%). A mediana de idade foi de 34 anos, semelhante ao que s...

  19. Ondas de spin em redes decoradas

    OpenAIRE

    WanÃssa FaÃanha da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Sistema de baixa dimensionalidade tÃm atraÃdo uma grande atenÃÃo ultimamente devido a sistemas como grafeno e nanotubos de carbono. Tais sistemas tÃm grandes possibilidades de aplicaÃÃes tecnolÃgicas, em particular na criaÃÃo de dispositivos eletrÃnicos, devido Ãs suas propriedades eletrÃnicas especÃficas. Nesse sentido, o estudos de outros sistemas em baixa dimensÃo se torna urgente. Mais especificamente, o estudo de propriedades magnÃticas de materiais de materiais em baixa dimensionalidade...

  20. Religiosidade em alunos e professores portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Mendes dos Santos Veríssimo

    2005-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências da Educação na especialidade de Educação Intercultural apresentada à Universidade Aberta Esta tese pretende analisar a religiosidade em alunos e professores, sendo a religiosidade entendida como o grau de ligação ou aceitação que cada indivíduo tem face à instituição religiosa (Alston, 1875) e à forma como põe em prática as crenças e os rituais (Shafranske e Malony, 1990). Para medir a religiosidade foram utilizados diversos instrumentos – a escala de Atitu...

  1. Candomblé - discurso em transe

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando como objeto de análise o discurso, numa perspectiva baseada em Foucault, Bakhtin, Fairclough e outros, este estudo busca entender como o transe se contstitui ritualmente e como a sua produção é formadora da vivencia religiosa no candomblé e também formadora do que as pessoas entendem como candomblé e do que o candomblé é em si mesmo. Questionando a leigos sobre o que mais se espera ver em um terreiro de candomblé, a resposta quase unanime é "a possessão". Como mais de uma re...

  2. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Rodolfo de M.; Mota,Rinaldo Aparecido; Costa,Mateus M. da

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em capr...

  3. ANION GAP NO SANGUE VENOSO EM EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Ribeiro Fan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A influência do sangue venoso na determinação do anion gap foi estudada em 50 equinos adultos clinicamente sadios no município de Santa Maria, RS. Os resultados obtidos em mEq/1 foram: sódio 140 ± 2,0; potássio 4,2 ± 0,5; cloreto 102 ± 12 e bicarbonato 26,9 ± 2,0. Conclui-se que o sangue venoso pode substituir o arterial na determinação do anion gap em equinos.

  4. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... County personnel properly trained in the current methods of processing EM loan applications and EM loan... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive...

  5. Metabolic Profiling of <em>Lactococcus lactisem> Under Different Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Mohd Noor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS were used to study metabolites produced by <em>Lactococcus lactisem> subsp. <em>cremoris> MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that <em>L. lactisem> produced more organic acids under agitation. Primary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polyols were identified as the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatives, whereas amino acids and organic acids, including fatty acids, were detected through methyl chloroformate derivatization. HS analysis indicated that branched-chain methyl aldehydes, including 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal are degdradation products of isoleucine, leucine or valine. Multivariate analysis (MVA using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA revealed the major differences between treatments were due to changes of amino acids and fermentation products.

  6. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  7. Comparação de custos entre os processos construtivos em concreto armado e em alvenaria estrutural em blocos cerâmico e de concreto

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alisson Hoffmann da

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Questiona-se a viabilidade econômica do processo construtivo em alvenaria estrutural em relação ao processo construtivo em concreto armado. Entre as obras em alvenaria estrutural, a indagação ocorre sobre qual tipo de unidade, de cerâmica ou de concreto, produz resultados mais efetivos em termos de custos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de comparar o custo de ...

  8. Influência da adubação e da fumigação do solo, na incidência de nematôides em tubérculos de batatinha Influence of fertilizers and soil fumigation on the nematode incidence of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas que podem levar ao fracasso a cultura da batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L. no Brasil, sobressaem as devidas aos nematóides causadores de galhas ou pipoca Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoide & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949. Os tubérculos, quando atacados, tornam-se impróprios ao plantio e ao consumo apodrecendo rapidamente. Em vista dêsse fato vêm sendo realizadas, no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, experiências visando ao combate àquela praga. Os resultados obtidos ultimamente, quando se procurou constatar a influência sôbre a redução da infestação exercida pelas adubações e pelas fumigações do solo com dibrometo de etileno, forneceram os seguintes esclarecimentos: a adubação não exerceu nenhuma influência sôbre o aumento ou diminuição das infestações dos tubérculos pelos nematóides; o dibrometo de etileno mostrou-se eficiente na redução da infestação, na dose de 276 litros por hectare, não devendo, todavia, ser aplicado no terreno no ato do plantio da batatinha mas sim com antecedência de oito ou mais dias; o melhor espaçamento entre aplicações foi o de 20x20 cm; a produção de tubérculos aumentou satisfatoriamente com a fumigação, principalmente quando o nematocida foi aplicado duas vezes no mesmo terreno, isto é, antes de cada uma das culturas ("da sêca" e "das águas".The most important losses caused by root nematodes to the potato crop in the State of Silo Paulo and other parts of Brazil are due to the species Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoide & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 and Pralylenchus steineri Lordello, Zamith & Boock, 1954. The former is quite widespread and measures aiming at its control were studied under field conditions. The present paper reports the results on the influence of fertilizer and soil fumigation with ethilene dibromide at 10%, cither separately or combined, on the nematode infestation of the potato yield. The results of the tests showed that the fertilizer application

  9. A Favela posta em Cena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade de urbanização calcada no aprofundamento dos processos de expropriação e espoliações se consolida o fenômeno da produção de uma morfologia intitulada Favela, que continua a representar um desafio teórico e prático para pesquisadores. Este desafio é enfrentado de várias formas sendo uma delas desenhada no âmbito de duas publicações do Observatório das Favelas (Rio de Janeiro assentadas na busca conceitual do termo favela e objetivando a efetivação de políticas públicas. Esta meta remonta a trajetória deste Observatório que criado em 2001 pensa a inserção da Favela no âmbito das políticas de Estado. A primeira publicação intitulada “Favela: alegria e dor na cidade” (2005 se compõem de quatro capítulos que expõem um movimento da história de formação das favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as formas de intervenção do Estado, a prática cotidiana dos moradores como manifestação das transgressões diante as opressões e finaliza com as propostas de caminhos possíveis de superação das desigualdades e ampliação da democracia. O argumento central dos autores se direciona para o questionamento das visões de homogeneidade, ausência, carência e apartamento das favelas diante da cidade apontando a urgência de construção de um projeto de cidade democrático e fraterno.Ao longo do texto os autores vão descrevendo os exemplos destas visões e analisa o resultado delas por meio de como a população residente vive, pois são ora invisíveis, ora criminalizados, ora caracterizados enquanto um problema social estabelecendo, portanto, uma lógica autoritária que legitimará no decorrer da história das favelas, as intervenções estatais. Este movimento molda uma linha argumentativa que tenta explicitar o negativo diante a produção possível para o “morar’, que calcado na impossibilidade do acesso à terra pelo imperativo da propriedade privada empurra grandes contingentes populacionais

  10. Complete BWR--EM LOCA analysis using the WRAP--EM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Gregory, M.V.; Buckner, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package, Evaluation Model (WRAP--EM), provides a complete analysis of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light--water nuclear power reactors. The system is being developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor, evaluation model (EM) analyses. The initial version of the WRAP--EM system for analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR's) is operational. To demonstrate the complete capability of the WRAP--BWR--EM system, a LOCA analysis has been performed for the Hope Creek Plant

  11. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação em diferentes sistemas forrageiros

    OpenAIRE

    Olivo,Clair Jorge; Ziech,Magnos Fernando; Meinerz,Gilmar Roberto; Both,José Francisco; Agnolin,Carlos Alberto; Vendrame,Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Estudou-se o comportamento alimentar de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação mantidas em pastagem de misturas de espécies de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e outras de crescimento espontâneo. Como diferencial destas pastagens, introduziu-se trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.) ou amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Greg.). Nos meses de julho, agosto e outubro de 2005, foram feitas avaliações em pastejo utilizando-se em cada uma seis v...

  12. Two New Aryltetralin Lignans from the Roots of <em>Dolomiaea soulieiem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new aryltetralin-type lignans, dolomiaeasin A (1 and dolomiaeasin B (2, were isolated from the roots of <em>Dolomiaea soulieiem>. Their structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicities of 1 and 2 were tested by the MTT method, and both compounds showed no significant cytotoxic activities against the A549 and A2780 human cancer cell lines. This is the first time that aryltetralin-type lignans were isolated from the genus <em>Dolomiaea>.

  13. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  14. Probióticos em avicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil de los Santos João Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos anos, o incremento de toxinfecções alimentares em humanos pela ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados com bactérias, sugeriu que produtos oriundos de aves portadoras dessas bactérias podem veiculá-las ao consumidor, provocando doenças entéricas em humanos. Essas observações e a restrição, por parte do mercado consumidor, ao uso de antimicrobianos na produção animal, aumentaram o interesse mundial pelos probióticos e, conseqüentemente, o número de pesquisas realizadas. Esta revisão mostra os avanços e a situação em que se encontram os probióticos em relação à indústria avícola.

  15. More on EM for ML Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald B.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors respond to a criticism of their earlier article concerning the use of the EM algorithm in maximum likelihood factor analysis. Also included are the comments made by the reviewers of this article. (JKS)

  16. Qualidade de vida em saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Zilda

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar uma provável contribuição da terapia floral, como prática complementar em saúde, na promoção de uma melhor qualidade de vida em pacientes com doenças crônicas. Como modelo metodológico foi escolhido o estudo de casos retrospectivo com abordagem qualitativa, baseado em registros de prontuários clínicos....

  17. Osteocondromatose em gato: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Winter

    Full Text Available RESUMO A osteocondromatose é caracterizada por nódulos únicos ou múltiplos decorrentes de um crescimento ósseo excessivo benigno. É encontrada em cães, gatos, equinos e humanos. Em felinos, tem maior incidência dos dois aos quatro anos de idade. A etiologia em gatos está relacionada ao vírus da leucemia felina, e também já foi encontrada relação com o fibrossarcoma. A manifestação clínica depende do local acometido e do tamanho da lesão. O diagnóstico definitivo é por meio de histopatologia e o prognóstico é desfavorável, pois ocorrem muitas recidivas. Este relato de caso objetiva descrever a apresentação dessa enfermidade em um felino jovem.

  18. Metadiscurso em entrevista televisiva: um enfoque interacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Cândida Abreu Spinardi Jubran

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo destaca a presença, em entrevista televisiva, de uma modalidade de procedimento metadiscursivo: a menção a atividades linguageiras prototípicas desse evento comunicativo. Fundamentando-se em uma concepção pragmática de linguagem como ação verbal entre os participantes envolvidos em um ato comunicativo, centra-se em uma perspectiva interacional, com base na qual a referência às atividades linguageiras processadas durante a entrevista será vista como recurso indiciador das relações interpessoais estabelecidas entre entrevistador eentrevistado. Será focalizada especificamente a incidência do estatuto sócio-institucional dos entrevistados no processo interativo desencadeado ao longo da entrevista.

  19. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  20. O sevofluorano em cadelas gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Lídia Mitsuko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este experimento, objetivou-se avaliar como a anestesia geral inalatória, com o sevofluorano, interfere nos parâmetros fisiológicos de cadelas gestantes. Nove cadelas sem raça definida, adultas, com idade média de três anos, foram submetidas ao mesmo procedimento anestésico em dois períodos distintos, sendo o primeiro na condição não gestante e o segundo aos 45 dias de gestação. Todas receberam acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 pela via intravenosa como medicação pré-anestésica, propofol (5mg kg-1 pela mesma via e sevofluorano diluído em oxigênio. As variáveis estudadas foram freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, média e diastólica, temperatura retal, pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração, saturação de oxigênio nas hemoglobinas, pH sangüíneo, pressão parcial arterial de oxigênio, pressão parcial arterial de CO2, bicarbonato e excesso de base. Os parâmetros foram avaliados antes da medicação pré-anestésica (M0 e 15 minutos após (M1, 15 minutos após a estabilização da anestesia inalatória (M2 e, depois, a cada 15 minutos durante 60 minutos (M3, M4, M5 e M6, com exceção das variáveis hemogasométricas que foram avaliadas em M0, M2 e M6. A análise estatística foi realizada com Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey, sendo considerado o nível de significância de 5%. A freqüência cardíaca elevou-se na paciente gestante no momento basal e 15 minutos após a medicação pré-anestésica, sendo observado ainda diminuição da pressão arterial e da temperatura retal nas gestantes. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o protocolo anestésico não alterou as variáveis mensuradas neste experimento, podendo ser utilizado com segurança para as cadelas, se houver a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica e/ou anestésica aos 45 dias de sua gestação.