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Sample records for melipona scutellaris latreille

  1. Estudo Comparativo das Sensilas Antenais de Operárias de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Diferentes Altitudes

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    Marcília Aparecida Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensilas são estruturas sensoriais presentes nas antenas dos insetos e são responsáveis pela higro- quimio-, termo- e mecanorrecepção. No presente trabalho, as sensilas presentes nos três flagelômeros (F mais distais de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenopera: Apidae coletadas em diferentes altitudes (200 e acima de 900m foram avaliadas qualitativamente e quantitativamente. A identificação, contagem e medição das sensilas foram feitas a partir de imagens da superfície dorsal das antenas que foram obtidas com o auxílio de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram observadas as sensilas placoide, basicônica, celocônica, ampulácea, campaniforme e tricoide reta e curvada. Comparativamente, o grupo localizado a 200m de altitude possui sensilas tricoides retas em maior quantidade nos três flagelômeros, enquanto que o grupo de altitudes acima de 900m apresentou maior quantidade de sensilas tricoides curvadas no F9, sendo as mesmas maiores para o F10. Essas diferenças foram discutidas em função da localização geográfica dos diferentes grupos aqui estudados. Os resultados da investigação da estrutura antenal de M. scutellaris contribuem para um melhor entendimento da biologia dessa espécie.

  2. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  3. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério M.O. Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.A abelha Melipona scutellaris é considerada a espécie criada de meliponíneo com maior distribuição no norte e nordeste do Brasil, com ocorrência registradas desde o Estado do Grande do Norte até o Estado da Bahia. Considerando a importância desta espécie na geração de renda para agricultura familiar e na manutenção de áreas com vegetação natural, este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a distribuição de colônias naturais de M. scutellaris no Estado da Bahia. Informações de literatura, entrevistas com meliponicultores e expedições foram realizadas para confirmar a ocorrência natural da espécie. Um total de 102 municípios apresentou registro de M. scutellaris, cuja ocorrência foi observada em áreas desde o nível do mar até 1.200 metros de altitude. A

  4. Determination of fipronil LD50 for the brazilian bee Melipona scutellaris

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    Lourenço, Clara T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera L., 1758 in toxicology studies of insecticides to bees, the aim of this study was to determine the LD50 of fipronil by topical application on the stingless bees Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811. Foraging bees were collected at the nest entrance and in laboratory anesthetized with CO2 for applying 1.0 μL of fipronil solution on the pronotum. Each group of treatments was made with thirteen bees divided in three cages, while in the control treatments the bees received only acetone. During the assay, the behavior and the number of dead bees were registered. The results showed that the insecticide fipronil applied topically was harmful to M. scutellaris and for A. mellifera, where the LD50 for 48 hours was 0.41 ng a.i./bee or 4.1 ng a.i./ g of bee. Comparing the LD50 values here obtained with the stingless bee M. scutellaris and those of A. mellifera in literature, we can conclude that the native bees are more sensitive to fipronil than the allochtonous bee, suggesting that further studies should be accomplished to determine the real hazard of pesticides to natives bees.

  5. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

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    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  6. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris

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    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 μM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 μM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris. PMID:26544117

  7. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

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    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-06-30

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators.

  8. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

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    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  9. Apolar Bioactive Fraction Of Melipona Scutellaris Geopropolis On Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm.

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    Marcos Guilherme da Cunha; Marcelo Franchin; Lívia Câmara de Carvalho Galvão; Bruno Bueno-Silva; Masaharu Ikegaki; Severino Matias de Alencar; Pedro Luiz Rosalen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop a...

  10. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

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    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information.

  11. Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

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    Marcelo Franchin; Marcos Guilherme da Cunha; Carina Denny; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; Thiago Mattar Cunha; Bruno Bueno-Silva; Severino Matias de Alencar; Masaharu Ikegaki; Pedro Luiz Rosalen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion) with endothelial...

  12. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

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    Marcos Guilherme da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. HF at 250 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P0.05. In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.

  13. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

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    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood.

  14. Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

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    Marcelo Franchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion with endothelial cells. The levels of chemokines CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 were not altered after treatment with EEGP and the aqueous fraction. It was found that the injection of NO pathway antagonists abolished the EEGP and the aqueous fraction inhibitory activity on the neutrophil migration. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1 was reduced, and nitrite levels increased after treatment with EEGP and aqueous fraction. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, EEGP and the aqueous fraction showed antiedema activity. No pattern of flavonoid and phenolic acid commonly found in propolis samples of Apis mellifera could be detected in the aqueous fraction samples. These data indicate that the aqueous fraction found has promising bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

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    Franchin, Marcelo; da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Denny, Carina; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Matias de Alencar, Severino; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Luiz Rosalen, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion) with endothelial cells. The levels of chemokines CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 were not altered after treatment with EEGP and the aqueous fraction. It was found that the injection of NO pathway antagonists abolished the EEGP and the aqueous fraction inhibitory activity on the neutrophil migration. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1) was reduced, and nitrite levels increased after treatment with EEGP and aqueous fraction. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, EEGP and the aqueous fraction showed antiedema activity. No pattern of flavonoid and phenolic acid commonly found in propolis samples of Apis mellifera could be detected in the aqueous fraction samples. These data indicate that the aqueous fraction found has promising bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23737853

  16. Análise físico-química dos méis das abelhas Apis mellifera e Melipona scutellaris produzidos em regiões distintas no Estado da Paraíba Physical-Chemical analysis of honeybee Apis mellifera and Melipona scutellaris on two regions at Paraiba State, Brazil

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    Adriana Evangelista-Rodrigues

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O mel de abelhas é um produto muito apreciado, no entanto, de fácil adulteração com açúcares ou xaropes. Desta forma, é necessário que haja algumas análises para a determinação da sua qualidade para que seja comercializado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer a análise físico-química dos méis de abelha Apis mellifera. e Melipona scutellaris para a comparação entre as espécies e entre as localidades do Brejo e do Cariri (regiões do Estado da Paraíba. Observou-se que o mel de abelha nativa apresenta um maior teor de água (umidade de 25,25% quando comparado com o mel de abelha africanizada (18,76%, dificultando o seu armazenamento, pois o alto teor de água do produto diminui a sua vida útil de prateleira. Para as análises de hidroximetilfurfural, o valor mais alto foi para o mel produzido na região do Cariri, quando comparado com o mel produzido na região do Brejo, o que pode ser explicado pela diferença de temperatura, sendo mais alta no Cariri. Para os valores de pH, obteve-se diferença significativa entre os méis, com o mel do Cariri apresentando valor mais baixo (3,8. Para Acidez Total, o mel de abelha africanizada do Brejo Paraibano apresentou 41,6 meq/kg de mel, enquanto o mel de abelha nativa apresentou 28,3 meq/kg de mel. Para os demais parâmetros estudados, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que os méis produzidos pelas abelhas africanizadas (A. mellifera e pela abelha nativa Melipona scutellaris na Estação Experimental do Cariri e da Chã-de-Jardim pertencentes ao CCA/UFPB apresentam valores diferentes dos padrões da Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para alguns parâmetros, o que pode dificultar o seu armazenamento por um longo período.The honeybee is a product very appreciated, however, of easy adulteration with sugars or boiled musts. Then, it is necessary that it has some analyses for the

  17. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

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    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  18. Estudos moleculares e morfológico em abelhas do gênero Melipona (Hymenoptera)

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    Nascimento, Marcilia Aparecida do

    2012-01-01

    O gênero Melipona é representado por 65 espécies reconhecidas de abelhas sem ferrão distribuídas nas regiões neotropical. Dentre estas espécies encontra-se M. scutellaris, abelha nativa, típica de regiões com clima e altitude diferentes do nordeste brasileiro, sendo, no estado da Bahia, encontrada em altitudes entre 36 e 1200 metros. Um dos objetivos deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da altitude na diversidade genética e morfológica de populações de M. scutellaris coletadas em diferen...

  19. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

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    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  20. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

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    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  1. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

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    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  2. Condensação cromatinica e metilação de DNA investigadas em abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata e Melipona rufiventris (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

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    Andre Roberto Mampumbu

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O gênero Melipona (abelhas sem ferrão) tem sido dividido em dois grupos, com base no seu conteúdo em heterocromatina revelada com a técnica de banda-C em cromossomos mitóticos. Melipona quadrifasciata e Melipona rufiventris apresentam, respectivamente, níveis baixos e altos de heterocromatina. Na suposição de que cromatina condensada possa ser rica em seqüências de DNA metiladas, M. quadrifasciata e M. rufiventris poderiam então apresentar diferenças em conteúdo de seqüências CpG met...

  3. Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.

  4. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.

  5. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  6. Cytogenetic characterization of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier 1836 and Melipona mondury Smith 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae by C banding and fluorochromes staining

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    Denilce Meneses Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury were analyzed cytogenetically by conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes CMA3/DA/DAPI. Both species presented 2n = 18 and n = 9, except for one colony of M. rufiventris, in which some individuals had 2n = 19 due to the presence of a B chromosome. After Giemsa staining and C-banding the chromosomes appeared very condensed and presented a high heterochromatic content, making it difficult to localize the centromere and therefore to visualize the chromosomes morphology. The constitutive heterochromatin was located in interstitial chromosome regions covering most of the chromosomes extension and consisted mainly of AT, as shown by DAPI staining. The euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome extremities and was GC-rich, as evidenced by CMA3 staining. The B chromosome was CMA3-negative and DAPI-positive, a heterochromatic constitution similar to that of the A genome chromosomes.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae reveals different chromosome number for the genus

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae, by conventional Giemsa staining and C-banding, revealed a different chromosome number for Melipona: 2n = 22 for females and diploid drones while the haploid drones present n = 11. There is no evidence of B chromosomes. This result contrasts with previous studies, in which the chromosome number of 19 Melipona species was determined as 2n = 18 for females and n = 9 for haploid males. Based on cytogenetic information available for other Melipona species, we propose that M. s. merrillae has a more derived diploid number. This indicates that chromosome number is not a conservative characteristic within the genus as previously thought. Cytogenetic data for stingless bees are scarce, especially in Amazon region. Additional studies will be very important in order to promote Melipona karyoevolution discussion and consequently a taxonomy review.

  8. Host specificity assessment and potential impact of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Pontederiales: Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The delphacid Megamelus scutellaris Berg was evaluated for host specificity and potential impact as part of a biological control program targeting E. crassipes. Survival and development of adults and nymphs were used as metrics with no-choice, choice, nymph transfer, and sustainability tests conduc...

  9. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    2002-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or res

  10. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  11. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  12. Antibacterial action of geopropolis of Melipona quadrifaciata in cultivation of secretion of otitis in dogs

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    Raísa Dias C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the present paper was to test the in vitro antibacterial activity of the Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifaciata bee’s geopropolis. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out with secretion samples collected from animals with ear diseases evaluated at Unifeso’s Clinic School of Veterinary Medicine, where in vitro tests took place, antibiograns with alcoholic extract of geopropolis were made 10 test tubes (two tubes for each concentration of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%. Results. Were not identified microorganisms at concentrations of 70, 80 and 90%. Conclusions. The geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata showed antibacterial activity in vitro against microorganisms from ear secretion of dogs with otitis externa.

  13. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii...

  14. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  15. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    L. W. LIMA-VERDE

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  16. INHIBITION OF PATHOGENS BY SPOROGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HONEY OF Melipona sp. (APIDAE: APINAE: MELIPONINI

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    KELY DAMIANA NOVAES DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate sporogenic bacteria from the honey of stingless bees Melipona sp., in dry forest, and to evaluate their antagonistic potential for medicinal employment purposes and animal production. The honey samples were collected in Serra Talhada - PE, where honey was taken from four different hives (in triplicate, totaling 12 samples. The samples were diluted and subjected to 80 ºC for 20 minutes to eliminate vegetative cells. The dilutions were plated onto nutrient agar and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 hours. Then the colony forming units (CFU were quantified. The samples were also plated onto malt agar and Sabouraud agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 14 days for the growth of yeast and molds. Total and fecal coliforms were quantified by the most probable number method (MPN. Seven isolates (I of sporogenic bacteria ( Bacillus were obtained, however only four showed probiotic potential. Isolate I - 5 showed the greatest probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus . The growth of the Sarcina sp. was not inhibited by any isolate. No yeast, molds or coliforms were found. The Melipona sp. honey is a source of spore - forming bacteria and is antagonistic to microorganisms that contaminate honey. It has good microbiological quality.

  17. A new species of Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 (Araneae, Agelenidae from Turkey

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    Rahşen Kaya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 is described, based on newly collected specimens from Turkey. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnosis and figures of the copulatory organs of both sexes are presented. Finally, a checklist and distribution maps for Turkish Tegenaria species are provided.

  18. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly with r...

  19. Revision of the West Palaearctic species of the genus Agathis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolotti, G.; Achterberg, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The West Palaearctic species of the genus Agathis Latreille, 1804 (Braconidae: Agathidinae) are revised and keyed. Forty-six species of Agathis are treated as valid, of which 29 occur in Europe; three species of the former Agathis mediator group (Bassus brevicaudus (Reinhard, 1867) comb. nov., B.

  20. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly...

  1. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra Bees

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    Silvana Alves de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1 and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3, 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4, 7,4′-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5, 4′-O-methyl kaempferol (6, 3-O-methyl quercetin (7, 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8, and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9. The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1 was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests.

  2. "Poliginia e monoginia em Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): do coletivo para o individual"

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Cap. 2 Com a finalidade de detectar possíveis diferenças na eficiência do processo de aprovisionamento e postura nas células de cria (POP), comparamos uma colônia monogínica e uma políginica em Melipona bicolor. Ao início das observações na colônia políginica, esta tinha três rainhas das quais uma deixou de ovipositar na metade do período de observações. Por isso separamos em duas partes a base de dados da colônia poligínica de acordo com o número de rainhas poedeiras, três ou duas. Observ...

  3. Estudio de microsatélites en las abejas sin aguijón Melipona colimana y M. Beecheii de mesoamérica

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hurtado Burillo; Martinez, J.; W. de J. May Itzá; J.J.G. Quezada Euán; P. de la Rúa

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio, se ha analizado por primera vez la variabilidad de los loci de microsatélites en la especie silvestre de abejas sin aguijón Melipona colimana. Los datos obtenidos se han comparado con los de una población insular de la especie domesticada M. beecheii. Los resultados del genotipado de los individuos de M. colimana, indican que la secuencia de los loci de microsatélites está conservada dentro del género Melipona. Los parámetros poblacionales estudiados (número de alelos y valor...

  4. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

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    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  5. Biopesticide-induced behavioral and morphological alterations in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wagner F; Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Bernardes, Rodrigo C; Siqueira, Maria Augusta L; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-09-01

    Because of their natural origin, biopesticides are assumed to be less harmful to beneficial insects, including bees, and therefore their use has been widely encouraged for crop protection. There is little evidence, however, to support this ingrained notion of biopesticide safety to pollinators. Because larval exposure is still largely unexplored in ecotoxicology and risk assessment on bees, an investigation was performed on the lethal and sublethal effects of a diet treated with 2 bioinsecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, which is one of the most important pollinators in the Neotropics. Survival of stingless bee larvae was significantly compromised at doses above 210 ng a.i./bee for azadirachtin and 114 ng a.i./bee for spinosad. No sublethal effect was observed on larvae developmental time, but doses of both compounds negatively affected pupal body mass. Azadirachtin produced deformed pupae and adults as a result of its insect growth regulator properties, but spinosad was more harmful and produced greater numbers of deformed individuals. Only spinosad compromised walking activity of the adult workers at doses as low as 2.29 ng a.i./bee, which is 1/5000 of the maximum field recommended rate. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that bioinsecticides can pose significant risks to native pollinators with lethal and sublethal effects; future investigations are needed on the likelihood of such effects under field conditions. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L M; Hart, A G; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-05-19

    Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M. beecheii colonies, workers took 2-9 days to remove 100% of the dead brood (4.4 +/- 2.0 days, mean +/- SD), while S. pectoralis removed all dead brood in less than 3 days (2.3 +/- 0.6 days, mean +/- SD). We conclude that hygienic behavior is not unique to A. mellifera, and is not solely an adaptation for the reuse of brood cells as occurs in honey bees but not stingless bees. Although stingless bees do not reuse brood cells, space is limited. The removal of dead brood may be necessary to allow new cells to be constructed in the same place.

  7. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    Villa Lopera Antonio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  8. A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille, 1829 are taxonomically revised. Four new species, P. scitus sp. n. (misidentified with P. quadrimaculatus), P. labyrinthicus sp. n., P. boreas sp. n. and P. omotoensis sp. n. are described. Psammoecus bipunctatus (Fabricius, 1792), P. trimaculatus Motschulsky, 1858 (misidentified with P. triguttatus), P. simoni Grouvelle, 1892, P. fasciatus Reitter, 1874 and P. triguttatus are redescribed. Another described species whose distribution in Japan is questionable. P. quadrimaculatus is also redescribed. Lectotype and paralectotype of P. fasciatus and P. triguttatus are designated.

  9. Acute toxicity of fipronil to the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Soares, Hellen Maria; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-01-01

    Fipronil is an insecticide widely used to control a great number of pests, thus the aim of this study was to determine the lethal dose and lethal concentration (LD(50) and LC(50)) of this insecticide to the stingless bees Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The LD(50) and LC(50) values obtained after 24 h of exposition were of 0.54 ng a.i./bee and 0.24 ng a.i./μL diet, respectively. These values were considered highly toxic to stingless bees.

  10. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  11. Re-evaluation of the Cancridae Latreille, 1802 (Decapoda: Brachyura) including three new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, Carrie E.; Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2000-01-01

    New fossils referable to the Cancridae Latreille, 1802 extend the known stratigraphic range of the family into the middle Eocene and the geographic range into South America. Each genus within the family has been reevaluated within the context of the new material. A suite of diagnostic characters for

  12. Foraging behavior of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Apinae; Meliponini in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    AO. Fidalgo

    Full Text Available This study describes how the foraging activity of Melipona rufiventris is influenced by the environment and/or by the state of a colony. Two colonies were studied in Ubatuba, SP (44° 48’ W and 23° 22’ S from July/2000 to June/2001. These colonies were classified as strong (Colony 1 and intermediate (Colony 2 according to their general conditions: population and brood comb size and number of food pots. The bees were active from dawn to dusk. The number of pollen loads presented a positive correlation with relative humidity (r s = 0.401; p <0.01 and was highest between 70 and 90%. However, it was negatively correlated with temperature (r s = -0.228; p <0.01 showing a peak between 18 and 23 °C. The number of nectar loads presented a positive correlation with temperature (r s = 0.244; p <0.01 and light intensity (r s = 0.414; p <0.01; it was greater between 50 and 90% of relative humidity and 20 and 30 °C of temperature. They collected more nectar than pollen throughout the day, and were more active between 6 and 9 hours. Workers from Colony 1 (strong collected nectar in greater amounts and earlier than those from Colony 2 (intermediate. The number of pollen, nectar and resin loads varied considerably between the study days. Peaks of pollen collection occurred earlier in months with longer days and in a hotter and more humid climate. The foraging behavior of M. rufiventris is probably affected by the state of the colony and by environmental conditions, notably temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and length of the day.

  13. On the Amazonian species of the genus Scytodes Latreille (Arachnida, Araneae, Scytodidae

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    Cristina A. Rheims

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Scytodes Latreille, 1804 are newly described: Scytodes iara sp. nov. and S. caure sp. nov. from Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. from Amazonas and Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. from Amazonas and Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. from Roraima; and S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. and S. caipora sp. nov. from Acre. In addition, the female of S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 is described and new records are presented for S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 and S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.Oito novas espécies de Scytodes Latreille, 1804 são descritas: Scytodes iara sp. nov. e S. caure sp. nov. do Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. de Roraima; e S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. e S. caipora sp. nov. do Acre. A fêmea de S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 é descrita e novos registros são apresentados para S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 e S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.

  14. Selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón Melipona beecheii Bennett en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas Foraging selectivity of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii Bennett at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas

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    Leydi Fonte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar la selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón (Melipona beecheii Bennett, mediante el análisis palinológico de muestras de miel y polen. Previamente se realizó un inventario florístico del área, alrededor del emplazamiento del meliponario, basado en el radio de vuelo de las abejas. En las silvopasturas se utilizó el método de la escalera, y en el caso de los cercados vivos se contaron los árboles cada 10 m y se reflejaron en el croquis del área muestreada. En las arboledas y los traspatios de las viviendas se contaron y clasificaron todos los árboles existentes, y en el estrato herbáceo se aplicó el método de los pasos. En ambos tipos de muestra predominaron los granos de polen de guayaba (Psidium guajava y almácigo (Bursera simaruba, seguidos por los de dormidera (Mimosa pudica, sensitiva (Mimosa pigra, y naranjo y limonero (Citrus spp.. Se concluye que las abejas meliponas presentaron una marcada selectividad de pecoreo por las floraciones del almácigo y la guayaba, y que la Estación cuenta con el potencial melífero suficiente para que puedan desarrollarse favorablemente, sobre una base alimentaria sustentable.The work was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" to determine the foraging selectivity of stingless bees (Melipona beecheii Bennett through the analysis of honey and pollen samples. A floristic inventory of the area had been previously made around the apiary location, taking into consideration the bees' flight radius. The stair method was used in the silvopastures, and in the case of the living fences the trees were counted every 10 meters and this was shown in the sketch of the sampled area. In the groves and yards all trees where counted and classified, and in the herbaceous stratum the step method was applied. The pollen grains of guava (Psidium guajava and mastic tree (Bursera simaruba predominated in both kinds of samples

  15. Polimorfismo enzimático em populações de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Enzymatic polymorphism in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier populations (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Them aim scope of this study is to characterize the enzymatic polymorphism found in the Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1936 populations from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo and Espírito Santo, Brazil and its hybrids. Samples from each colony (about 52 were prepared for starch gel electrophoresis in order to investigate the genetic variation of the following enzimes: esterase (EST, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, malic enzyme (ME, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, superoxide desmutase (SOD, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (αPGD, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, hexokinase (HK and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI. The analysis showed that LAP and HK did not show enzymatic activity and EST showed two alleles(est-sand and est-f while all the others were shown to be monomorphic. The allele EST-S showed a frequency of 82,6%.

  16. Avaliação farmacognóstica de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith da Baixada maranhense, Brasil Pharmacognostic evaluation of geopropolis of Melipona fasciculata Smith from Baixada maranhense, Brazil

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    Richard Pereira Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Melipona fasciculata Smith é uma abelha nativa, social e sem ferrão que produz cera, mel e geoprópolis. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar, do ponto de vista farmacognóstico, o geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata, coletado em meliponários nos municípios de Arari, São Bento e São João Batista, da Baixada maranhense, no Estado do Maranhão, visando estabelecer dados para o controle de qualidade e padronização do produto. A metodologia utilizada constou de análises sensoriais, abordagem química, perfis cromatográficos e determinação dos teores de flavonóides. Os resultados demonstram que o geoprópolis apresenta características sensoriais similares às encontradas para própolis de Apis mellifera, presença de compostos fenólicos em maior concentração, além de substâncias da classe dos terpenos e saponinas e ausência de alcalóides. Os perfis cromatográficos indicaram que a composição e concentração das substâncias químicas são diferentes entre as amostras. Os teores de flavonóides variaram de 0,17 - 2,6%, os quais para a maioria das amostras apresentaram valores acima do mínimo exigido pela legislação brasileira para própolis de Apis mellifera. Os dados encontrados sugerem que as variações qualitativa e quantitativa de flavonóides e outros constituintes químicos no geoprópolis são fortemente afetados pela flora visitada pelas abelhas, região geográfica e fatores ambientais.Melipona fasciculata Smith is a native, social, stingless bee species that produces wax, honey and geopropolis. This work aimed to do a pharmacological evaluation of Melipona fasciculata geopropolis, collected in beehives in the municipal districts of Arari, São Bento and São João Batista, in Baixada maranhense, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, seeking to obtain basis for the quality control and standardization of the product. The methodology used included the accomplishment of sensorial analyses, chemical approach

  17. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2015-01-01

    with reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful application in biological control programs. We conducted field and screen house experiments during two......Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly...... mating seasons to determine whether the mating occur prior to the dispersal flight. We examined winged O. longinoda queens on the nest surface before taking flight, immediately after leaving the nest, up to twelve hours (12h) after leaving the nest and after settling naturally following the dispersal...

  18. Effects Of Chemical Pesticides On The Gravid Females And Stadia Of The Woodlouse, Porcellio Scaber (Latreille) (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, G. Achuthan [ج. أكيوثان نير; Mohamed, Abdalla I.; Bhuyan, K C

    1991-01-01

    Studies were made on the mortality rates of the gravid females, and on the survival and growth rates of the stadia of the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Latreille) exposed for a period of 21 days to sub-lethal concentrations of five different pesticides viz: abate, sumithion, pesguard (insecticides), benlate (fungicide) and gramaxon (herbicide). The survival of gravid females was severely affected when they were exposed to gramaxon or sumithion, but only marginally so following exposure to th...

  19. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  20. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae Physico-chemical characteristics of honey samples of stingless bee Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia provenientes do município de São Gabriel, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Umidade (%; Hidroximetilfurfural (mg.kg-1; Açúcares Redutores (%; Sacarose (%; Viscosidade (mPa. s; Condutividade Elétrica (µS; pH; Acidez (meq.kg-1; Índice de Formol (mL.kg-1; e Cor. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores médios adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que requer uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter maiores cuidados com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento, evitando a sua contaminação por microrganismos que causam a depreciação do produto.Honey samples of the Melipona mandacaia stingless bee collected in the São Gabriel county, semi-arid region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed with the objective of contributing for the knowledge of the characteristics physico-chemical of that product. The parameters analyzed were: Moisture (%; Hydroxymethylfurfural (mg.kg-1; Reducing Sugars (%; Sucrose (%; Viscosity (mPa.s; Electrical Conductivity (µS; pH; Acidity (meq.kg-1; Formol Index (mL.kg-1; and Color. Most of the physico-chemical parameters showed values adequated for the human consumption, facilitating the exploration of the product by rural communities of the semi-arid area of Bahia. However, the high moisture content is an aspect that deserves a greater attention by the part of producers, who should have concern with hygiene cares when manipulating the honey during the collection and the storage processes, avoiding its contamination with microorganisms that may cause depreciation of the

  1. [Host-parasite interactions in Coccus hesperidum L. (Hom. Coccidae) and its parasite Coccophagus scutellaris Dalman (hum. Aphelinidae). III. Effect of the number of hosts and their sanitary conditions on the oviposition of the parasite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, A

    1981-01-01

    Intensity of egg laying of Coccophagus scutellaris depends on the number of hosts available. It is found to be more important when the female has several hosts. Furthermore a better distribution of eggs is observed in that case. When parasited and parasiteless hosts are available, the female of Coccophagus deposits more eggs on the latter. This discriminating ability in relation to number and kinds of hosts available is discussed.

  2. Review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of Central Asia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrin, Alexey V

    2015-06-19

    A taxonomic review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of the Central Asia is presented. The type material of the following species was revised: L. bucharica Fauvel, 1900, L. fasciata Luze, 1903, L. nova Bernhauer, 1902, L. transcaspica Bernhauer, 1935 and L. turkestanica Luze, 1904. Lectotypes for L. bucharica and L. turkestanica, a lectotype and paralectotype for L. transcaspica are designated. One species is described as new: L. (s.str.) schuelkei sp. n. (Tajikistan, NW Pamir: Peter-I Mts. and Hissar Mts.). Three synonyms are proposed: L. (s.str.) fasciata=L. (s.str.) turkestanica, syn n.=L. (s.str.) transcaspica, syn. n., L. nova=L. (s.str.) aculeata Shavrin, 2010, syn. n. Three species are redescribed: L. (s.str.) bucharica, L. (s.str.) fasciata and L. (s.str.) nova. All species are illustrated and their distribution mapped. A key to species known from Central Asia, as well as new provincial records for L. (s.str.) barsevskisi Shavrin, 2010, L. (s.str.) bucharica and L. (s.str.) fasciata are provided.

  3. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  4. Morphometric differences and fluctuating asymmetry in Melipona subnitida Ducke 1910 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in different types of housing

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    C. B. S. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke. For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks, indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01 between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.

  5. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Toxic Activities of Propolis from Two Native Bees in Brazil: Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamigo, Thaliny; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural mixture of compounds produced by various bee species, including stingless bees. This compound has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the chemical constituents as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of ethanol extracts of propolis obtained from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, which are found in Brazil. Phytosterols, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol were identified in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEPs) in different concentrations. The compounds stigmasterol, taraxasterol, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were found only in EEP-M. The EEPs were able to scavenge the free radicals 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and protected human erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, with the latter effect being demonstrated by their antihemolytic activity and inhibition of malondialdehyde formation. The EEPs showed cytotoxic activity against erythroleukemic cells and necrosis was the main mechanism of death observed. In addition, the concentrations at which the EEPs were cytotoxic were not toxic against Caenorhabditis elegans. In this context, it is concluded that EEP-S and EEP-M show antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and are promising bioactive mixtures for the control of diseases associated with oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation.

  6. Vitellogenin content in fat body and ovary homogenates of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides during vitellogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagner Tadeu Paes de Oliveira; Bruno Berger; Carminda da Cruz-Landim; Zilá Luz PaulinoSim(o)es

    2012-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg yolk protein that is produced primarily in the fat body of most female insects.In the advanced social structure of eusocial honeybees,the presence of the queen inhibits egg maturation in the workers' ovaries.However in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata,the workers always develop ovaries and lay a certain amount of eggs while provisioning the brood cells with larval food during what is known as the worker nurse phase.The present work is a comparative study of the presence of Vg in homogenates of the fat bodies and ovaries of the nurse workers,and the virgin and physogastric queens ofM.quadrifasciata.The presence of Vg was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using Apis mellifera anti-egg antibody.Vg was not detected in the fat bodies or ovaries of the workers,but it was found in the ovaries of virgin and physogastric queens and in the fat body ofphysogastric queens.The results are discussed,taking into account the reproductive state of the individuals and the other possible roles of Vg,such as a storage protein for metoabolism of other organs.

  7. Reproductive cycle of the swimming crab Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.

  8. Interações agressivas em abelhas sem ferrão: Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier invadindo ninho de Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Abstract. This record describes the occurrence of conflicts between stingless bees of an active colony of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier and individuals of Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier, and discusses possible hypotheses that motivated the attack. Behaviors were observed in an active colony of S. bipunctata. The active nest guards detained individuals of M. quadrifasciata who invaded the colony. The chances of misidentification of the colony entrance and error in the species possible aggregation were discarded, however, the hypothesis of the real invasion recorded in this study demonstrates a behavioral strategy by M. quadrifasciata suggests that there is an energy savings if successful in looting.

  9. Sensilas antenais de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): estudo comparado entre machos e fêmeas e entre diferentes castas

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga

    2012-01-01

    A abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides é conhecida popularmente como mandaçaia e pertence à tribo Meliponini que inclui importantes insetos eusociais polinizadores de espécies de plantas tropicais e subtropicais. Em um ninho típico de abelhas sociais há indivíduos de diferentes sexos e castas. Esses são compostos pelos zangões e pelas castas femininas que incluem as operárias e a(s) rainha(s). Entretanto, quando o hormônio juvenil (HJ) é aplicado topicamente em larvas de m...

  10. Espécies nectaríferas e poliníferas utilizadas pela abelha Melipona compressipes fasciculata (MELIPONINAE, APIDAE), no Maranhão

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Souza,Antônio Carlos Marques

    1986-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta 79 espécies de plantas que fornecem néctar e/ou pólen para operárias de Melipona compressipes fasciculata, que é a abelha mais comum do Maranhão. A maioria dessas plantas são também visitadas por Apis mellifera. Sugere-se, com isso, o plantio de algumas espécies em estradas, cercas, ruas, avenidas e praças, a fim de melhorar a pasto apícola.

  11. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  12. Workers make the queens in melipona bees: identification of geraniol as a caste determining compound from labial glands of nurse bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; van Veen, Johan W; Twele, Robert; Reichle, Christian; Gonzales, Eduardo Herrera; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive division of labor in advanced eusocial honey bees and stingless bees is based on the ability of totipotent female larvae to develop into either workers or queens. In nearly all species, caste is determined by larval nutrition. However, the mechanism that triggers queen development in Melipona bees is still unresolved. Several hypotheses have been proposed, ranging from the proximate (a genetic determination of caste development) to the ultimate (a model in which larvae have complete control over their own caste fate). Here, we showed that the addition of geraniol, the main compound in labial gland secretions of nurse workers, to the larval food significantly increases the number of larvae that develop into queens. Interestingly, the proportion of queens in treated brood exactly matched the value (25%) predicted by the two-locus, two-allele model of genetic queen determination, in which only females that are heterozygous at both loci are capable of developing into queens. We conclude that labial gland secretions, added to the food of some cells by nurse bees, trigger queen development, provided that the larvae are genetically predisposed towards this developmental pathway. In Melipona beecheii, geraniol acts as a primer pheromone representing the first caste determination substance identified to date.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  14. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

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    Hudson Vaner V Tomé

    Full Text Available Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i./bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators

  15. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  16. Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela

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    Tania M.S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6"O-E-p-coumaroylβ-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3% being Scopariadulcis (L. (Scrophulariaceae and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae. This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.As abelhas sem ferrão são espécies indígenas encontradas em todo o Brasil. Seu pólen é utilizado devido ao seu valor nutricional na dieta humana. É produzido a partir de pólen floral misturado com néctar e líquidos secretados pelas abelhas. Visando avaliar a composição química, a atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e a origem botânica foi estudado o pólencoletado pela abelha sem ferrão Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela. Do extrato acetato de etila foram isolados os compostos: ácido phidroxicinâmico, dihidroquercetina, isoramnetina, 3O(6

  17. Utilização da serologia na identificação de Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae = Using the serological technique to identify Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae

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    Fabiano de Mello Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo obter antissoro específico para Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 com a finalidade de identificar seus predadores. Para a obtenção do antissoro, um coelho foi imunizado, via linfonódulo, com uma injeção de antígeno obtido pela maceração de lagartas do 4o e 5o instares de A. monuste orseis. Reações serológicas homólogas, realizadas por meio do método de dupla difusão em ágar, foram positivas após 21 dias da 1a inoculação do antígeno. Ovos, lagartas do 1o, 2o e 3o instares, pupas e adultos de A. monuste orseis também reagiram positivamente ao antissoro obtido.This study aimed to obtain specific antiserum for Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819, with the aim of identifying the predators associated with this insect. The preparation of specific antiserum was performed by immunizing a rabbit via a lymph nodule injection containing antigen obtained from the maceration of 4th and 5th instars of A. monuste orseis caterpillars. Serological homologous tests performed using double diffusion in agar gel were positive 21 days after the first antigen inoculation. Eggs, 1th, 2th and 3th instar caterpillars, pupae and adults of A. monuste orseis also reacted positively to the obtained antiserum.

  18. Comportamento migratório da lagosta Panulirus argus (Latreille, em frente ao Estado do Ceará, Brasil

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    Antonio Adauto Fonteles-Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Tagging experiments have been used to study the migratory behaviour of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, off Ceará State, Brazil. An analysis based on vectorial theory has provided the calculation of the coefficient of directional dispersion ( V, the coefficient of randon disperson (a² and the centre of density, by quarters of the year. The lobsters were found to engage in breeding migration in the second quarter, when there is a low random dispersion and in feeding migration in the third and fourth quarters, when there is high randon dispersion. The spawning areas are located in offshore regions and the lobsters reach them by moving seawardly, from positions occupied nearer the cost, in the fourth quarter.

  19. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae de España

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    Lucientes, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on arthropods of genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae has increased considerably in Spain in recent decades. This is due to the role these insects play as vectors of arboviruses that cause disease in animals, but also in humans. This work undertakes an updated catalogue of the species of this genus in our country, through a critical review of the literature, clarifying chronological aspects of these publications carried out for over a century of research. This update shows a total of 81 species of Culicoides in Spain, among which are some to be considered as directly related to the transmission of diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness.El número de estudios acerca de los artrópodos del género Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España ha experimentado un elevado incremento en las últimas décadas. Principalmente ello es debido al papel que estos dípteros juegan como vectores de arbovirus causantes de enfermedades en los animales, aunque también en humanos. Este trabajo acomete una actualización del catálogo de las especies que conforman este género en nuestro país, mediante una revisión crítica de la literatura existente, clarificando aspectos cronológicos sobre estas publicaciones llevadas a cabo durante más de un siglo de investigación. Esta actualización muestra un total de 81 especies de Culicoides para España, entre las que se encuentran algunas a tener en cuenta por estar directamente relacionadas con la trasmisión de enfermedades como la Lengua Azul o la Peste Equina Africana.

  20. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

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    Sabrina E Vinzón

    Full Text Available Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5 could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  1. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  2. THE ROLE OF COCCOPHAGUS SCUTELLARIS (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE) IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SOFT SCALE INSECTS (HOMOPTERA:COCCIDAE) IN EGYPT%埃及黄盾食蚧蚜小蜂在生物防治蚧壳虫中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2002-01-01

    在埃及,黄盾食蚧蚜小蜂Coccophagus scutellaris(Dalman)是一种有效防治蚧壳虫的寄生蜂.研究中分别用6种蚧壳虫Ceroplastes flridensis Comstock,Coccus hesperidum L.,Pulvinaria floccifera(Westwood),P.psidii Maskell,Saissetia coffeae(Walker)以及S.oleae(Oliver)来饲养黄盾食蚧蚜小蜂.1999-2000年间,在埃及的Beni-Suef,Cai-ro,Giza,Gharbiya和北海岸等5个地方,C.scutellaris大规模的发生在7-11月间.C.scutellaris对S.coffeae和S.oleae的最高寄生率分别是发生在1999年11月和8月的26%和22%,因此可以认为,黄盾食蚧蚜小蜂是对这两种蚧壳虫有效的寄生蜂.%Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) is one of the specific parasitoids that attack soft scale insects inEgypt. In the present study, C. scutellaris was reared from 6 species of soft scale insects. These are Ceroplastesflori-densis Comstock, Coccus hesperidum L., Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood), P. psidii Maskell, Saissetia coffeae(Walker) and S. oleae (Oliver) .The abundance of C. scutellaris was monitored from July to Nov. 1999 - 2000 in fivelocalities in Egypt, the Beni-Suef, Cairo, Giza, Gharbiya and the Northern coast. C. scutellaris is considered an ef-fective parasitoid of S. coffeae and S. oleae with maximum parasitism rates reaching 26% and 22% in Nov. and Aug.1999, respectively.

  3. The freshwater crab, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae), as perceived by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater crabs are key elements of the aquatic biota of streams, rivers, lakes, and dams because of their ecological and economic importance. Considering that Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828) is an important source of food for the human settlements that inhabit the places of its occurrence, this article records, for the first time, an ethnocarcinological study carried out with the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, Bahia State. Data were obtained from February to June 2005 by m...

  4. Aspectos reprodutivos de Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive aspects of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae at the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Zilanda de Souza Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to get some knowledge about the reproductive aspects of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, concerning through sex ratio, morphological sexual maturity, reproductive period, fecundity and eggs size. The crabs were collected monthly in Itacuruçá's Mangroves from November, 1997 to November, 1998. Four hundred and seven crabs were caught and they were 47% males, 36% females and 17% ovigerous females. The sex ratio was 1:1.13 (male:female (X²= 1.54, p > 0.05. The relation of abdomen width (AW and carapace width (CW in females showed a positive allometric grow (b = 1.36, it suggests the size onset of maturity occur from 26.0 a 29.0 mm (CW in females. The ovigerous females occured during all the research period, except for the winter months (June to August. The size of these ovigerous females varied from 26.0 to 48.8 mm with mean size 35.1 + 5.2 mm. Individual fecundity varied from 29,975 to 142,050 eggs and mean fecundity was 74,751 ± 27 eggs. The mean diameter of the eggs was 300 ± 20 µm.

  5. Determinação das castas em Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: diferenciação do ovário Caste determination in Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: the ovarian differentiation

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    Thaís da Cruz Alves dos Santos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Both castes of Scaptotrigolia postica (Latreille, 1804 possess four ovarioles in each ovary. Queen and workers have the same ovarian development during the larvallife, but in lhe late larval stage the queen ovary beco me larger. During pupation a higher rate of cell division is observed in queen ovarioles and a higher rale of cell death in workers. Newly emerged workers have short ovarioles with differenriatcd germarium and vitellarium while queens have very long ovarioles with only germarium. Caste deterrnination in rhis species of bee is trophic, but lhe food does not differ in quality, only in quantiry. The food differences only beco me effecri ve by the end of larval stage when the queen larvae have lhe opportunity of eat more. In this way lhe ovary differentiation, between workers and queens. In this species, only occurs frorn lhe end of larval stage, mainly during pupation. Although the ovaries of workers are smaller, they are precocious in relation to queens, since nurse workers, 5 10 20 days, old may lay eggs. The eggs laid by the workers may be trophic or functional. These eggs may be distinguished by lhe aspect ofthe yolk. Older forager workers have degenerated ovaries.

  6. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and Xylocopa inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with Xylocopa inconstans. Males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa. PMID:28331398

  7. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Jonathan R. Mawdsley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of X. inconstans include X. abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym, X. inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and X. inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with X. inconstans. Males and females of X. (X. inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of X. (X. inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa.

  8. Adaptação e comportamento de pastejo da abelha jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke em ambiente protegido - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777 Adaptation and foraging behavior of the stingless bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in a caged environment - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777

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    Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A influência do ambiente protegido no comportamento de pastejo da abelha sem ferrão jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke foi estudada no Estado do Ceará, região Nordeste do Brasil. Foram investigados aspectos como comportamento, adaptação das abelhas à casa de vegetação e o padrão diário de forrageamento destas na cultura do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., cultivada em ambiente protegido. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio de análise de variância, com médias comparadas a posteriori, pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que M. subnitida Ducke adapta-se bem ao uso em casa de vegetação e realiza vôos de forrageamento durante todo o dia, podendo ser utilizada para polinização de culturas agrícolas, sob cultivo protegido.The effect of caged environment on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke was studied in the state of Ceará, NE Brazil. Species adaptation to enclosures, foraging behavioral aspects and daily foraging pattern were investigated in a greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crop. Data were analyzed by Anova and means were compared a posteriori using Tukey test. The results showed that M. subnitida Ducke adapts well to greenhouses and forages throughout the day. It may be concluded that this bee species can be used for crop pollination in protected environments.

  9. Primeiro registro da quenquém cisco-da-Amazônia Acromyrmex hystrix Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae para o estado do Maranhão, Brasil

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    Wesley Dáttilo

    2010-12-01

    Abstract. It is recorded, for the first time, using pitfall traps, four workers of ant “quenquém-cisco-da-Amazônia”, Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae in a cave at state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. However, we could not imply any additional information about the abundance of this species in the region once that this record was accidental. The region where the individuals were found is placed at border of state of Maranhão and state of Tocantins suggesting that this species also occurs in this state.

  10. Avaliação de diferentes modelos de colméias para abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 Evaluation of different types of stingless bees hives (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811

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    Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de colônias de abelhas jataís, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, alojadas nos seguintes modelos de colméia: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto e Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF. O experimento foi realizado no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com 20 colônias. Mensalmente, as colméias foram pesadas e obtendo-se o peso da colônia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando o mês como co-variável e o teste de Scheffe para comparação das médias. As colônias alojadas em colméias dos modelos Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram um melhor desenvolvimento diferindo (p = 0,0004 das colônias alojadas nos modelos Fritzen e ACF. O peso médio das colônias foi de 387,3 ± 92,2g, 375,8 ± 72,6g, 241,2 ± 137,1g e 230,9 ± 55,3g, respectivamente, para as alojadas nos modelos Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, ACF e Fritzen. Os meses críticos foram março e maio de 2000, nos quais ocorreram oito mortes e oito abandonos. Pode-se verificar que as colônias mantidas nas colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram uma maior uniformidade no peso. Portanto, pode-se concluir que os modelos de colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto seriam os mais recomendados para a região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of stingless bees' colonies, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae, in Maringá region in the south of Brazil. Twenty colonies were settled in the following types of hives: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, and Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF, with five replications each type. The experimental season was from December, 1999 to December 2000. Monthly, the hives were weighed in order to get the colony weight. Data were analyzed statistically using the month as co variable and Scheffes’s test to compare the means. The colonies settled in

  11. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees.

  12. Insights into the role of age and social interactions on the sexual attractiveness of queens in an eusocial bee, Melipona flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Jamille Costa; Menezes, Cristiano; Contrera, Felipe Andrés León

    2017-04-01

    The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes. We used the number of males that tried to mate with a focal gyne as a representative variable of its sexual attractiveness. During the essays, each gyne was individually presented to 10 sexually mature males, and during 3 min, we counted the number of males that everted their genitalia in response to the presence of a gyne. Here, we show that M. flavolineata gynes are capable to (i) maintain their sexual attractiveness for long periods through adult life, (ii) they need a minimum social interaction to trigger the development of sexual attractiveness, and (iii) that gynes express this trait only within a social context. We conclude that the effective occurrence of matings is conditional on potential social interactions that gynes experienced before taking the nuptial flight, when they are still in the nest. These findings bring insights into the factors determining reproductive success in social insects.

  13. CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE PARÂMETROS BIOMÉTRICOS E PRODUTIVOS EM COLÔNIAS DE Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE

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    Patricia Faquinello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In meliponini colonies, biometric characteristics may be associated with production traits, thus the study of correlations is extremely useful as a tool for colony selection process. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations between biometric and productive parameters of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. We analyzed 128 colonies, from 60 parental and two generations, F1 and F2. The following parameters were evaluated: queen and colony weight; number, length and width of brood disks; number, width, depth and volume of honey pots; number, width and depth of pollen pots; glossa size, and estimate of the population and honey production. The queen weight was correlated with the number of brood disks (0.23 and population (0.23, as well as the characteristic number of pollen pots is related to the length and width of brood disks and population (0.88, 0.54 and 0.52, respectively. The characteristic honey production is related to the number (0.93, width (0.50 and volume (0.47 of honey pots. The results showed that honey production is directly correlated with number, volume, width and depth of honey pots. On the other side, the population size was correlated with the number of brood disks and pollen pots.

  14. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  15. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

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    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  16. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

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    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  17. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  18. [Indicators of infestation, colonization and infection of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Campeche, México].

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    Hernández, Jorge L; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Infante, Francisco; Morón, Alejandro; Castillo, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is considered to be one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease in Southern Mexico and Central America. The objective of the present study was to obtain ecological information on T. dimidiata in two rural communities of Campeche, Mexico, where the vector is poorly studied. Our work consisted of monthly samplings carried out during one-year time at three levels: sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic, in order to estimate the population abundance of this species and its rate of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Triatoma dimidiata was the unique vector of this disease collected in San Juan Bautista Sakcabchen (SJBS) and Crucero San Luis (CSL). The total of 145 individuals were captured in SJBS; from these, 26.9%, 20% and 53.1% were collected in the sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic area, respectively. In CSL captures yielded 108 individuals: 40.7% in the sylvatic area, 20.4% peridomestic and 38.9% intradomestic. We found no correlation between climatic variables and population abundance of T. dimidiata. Dataset obtained suggests that individuals from the sylvatic area exhibit a high rate of natural infection by T. cruzi, with monthly percentages up to 61.5% for SJBS and 50% for CSL. At the peri and intradomestic level, the reservoirs apparently play an important role in the transmission, as the seroprevalence in dogs was 61.5% y 65.4%, for SJBS y CSL, respectively. Based on these findings, it was concluded that inhabitants of both communities are at a high risk of Chagas disease infection.

  19. Population biology and color patterns of the blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille 1828) (Crustacea: Gecarcinidae) in the Northeastern Brazil.

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    Silva, C C; Schwamborn, R; Lins Oliveira, J E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the population biology and color patterns of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 in a mangrove area in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Crabs were collected monthly between February 2010 and January 2012 and totaled 1,837 individuals. Sex ratios were similar between males and females in the first year and differed in the second. Sex ratios by size class differed statistically in the extremes of the distribution, with an abundance of males in the large size classes. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in carapace width between males and females in the first year, but in the second year, males were larger than females (p = 0.003), showing the importance of considering interannual variation in such studies. Both sexes presented a unimodal distribution. The size of first maturing of the females was 6.00 cm. Asymptotic carapace width for males was 9.4 cm and females for 9.2 cm, using the Wetherall method. There was no defined modal progression, which made the determination of the Von Bertalanffy growth parameter K impossible. Juveniles were found throughout all months of the year, demonstrating that there was no defined period of recruiting, although slightly fewer juveniles were found in the dry season. Four color patterns were observed, the three first patterns were the same for both sexes, while the fourth pattern was observed in females only. The four color patterns identified could be clearly related to the stage of development (size) and sexual maturity of the animal.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme, PSLTro01, from a medicinal animal Porcellio scaber Latreille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhou; Li, Bo; Guo, Liwei; Wu, Mianhua; Fu, Tingming; Cheng, Haibo; Zhu, Huaxu

    2015-09-01

    A novel protease, named PSLTro01, with fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activity was isolated from Porcellio scaber Latreille and was purified by a combination of hollow fibre membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PSLTro01 is a single-chain protein with a molecular mass of 38,497 Da as estimated by non-reduced SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry, and its N-terminal 15 amino acid sequence was determined as DINGGGATLPQPLYQ. PSLTro01 is stable in the range of 20-40 °C and pH 6.0-10.0, with a maximum fibrinolytic activity at 40 °C and pH 7.0. The PSLTro01-induced fibrinolytic activity was not influenced by K(+) or Na(+) but was slightly increased by Mg(2+) and completely inhibited by aprotinin and pepstatin A. Fibrin plate assays revealed that PSLTro01 could not directly degrade fibrin but was a plasminogen activator. PSLTro01 exhibited high specificity for the substrate S-2251 for plasmin, followed by S-2238 for thrombin and S-2444 for urokinase. Moreover, the fibrinogenolysis pattern of PSLTro01 was Aα-chains>Bβ-chains>γ-chain. Tail-thrombus of the enzyme treated group was significantly shorter than the physiological saline treated group and the thrombus decrement was correlated with the enzyme dose. PSLTro01 prolongs both thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). These results indicate that PSLTro01 may have potential applications in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis.

  1. Environmental management for the control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Costa Rica: a pilot project

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological control method, using environmental management operations, based on biological and behavioral characteristics of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, was implemented as a pilot project in an area of Costa Rica where the bug is prevalent. The sample was represented by 20 houses with peridomestic colonies (two also had indoor infestation, divided in two equivalent groups of 10 each. In one group we intervened the houses, i.e. all objects or materials that were serving as artificial ecotopes for the bugs were removed, and the second group was used as control houses. After a year of periodic follow up, it became evident that in those houses with a modified environment the number of insects had decreased notoriously even after the first visits and this was more evident after a period of 12.5 to 13.5 months in which no insects were detected in eight of the houses. It also became clear that in this group of houses, recolonization by wild bugs from the surrounding areas, became more difficult, probably due to the absence of protection from bug predators. In the control houses, with the exception of three in which the inhabitants decided to intervene on their own, and another house with a peculiar situation, the insect populations remained the same or even showed a tendency to increase, as confirmed at the end of the experiment. We believe that the method is feasible, low costing and non contaminating. It could be used successfully in other places where T. dimidiata is common and also in countries where other species colonize peridomestic areas of homes. Environmental management of this kind should seek the participation of the members of the communities, in order to make it a more permanent control measure.

  2. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  3. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  4. Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia

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    Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
    humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
    De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
    diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
    síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

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    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  6. Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on two species of Trichodactylus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae from southern Brazil Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre duas espécies de Trichodactylus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae da região sul do Brasil

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    José F. R. Amato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli, 1913, ectosymbiont on brachyuran freshwater crabs of the genus Trichodactylus Latreille, 1828 is recorded for the first time in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Two hundred and seventy-nine crabs of two species were examined: 211 Trichodactylus panoplus (von Martens, 1869 and 68 Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 of which 51 (24.17% and 28 (41.17% were positive for T. lutzi, respectively. Crabs of both species carried eggs fixed, exclusively, on the floor of the branchial chambers and/or on the lower side of the gills. Adult as well as young specimens were found inside and outside the branchial chambers. The temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, although they kept the red eye pigment undiluted in specimens fixed by formalin. The cirrus of T. lutzi showed the typical shape for the species, while the dorsolateral, post tentacular 'excretory' syncytial plates, demonstrated by two special techniques (silver nitrate staining and SEM, appeared with an elliptical shape and a central nephridiopore.Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli, 1913, ectosimbionte sobre caranguejos braquiúros de água doce do gênero Trichodactylus Latreille, 1828, é assinalada pela primeira vez no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil. Duzentos e setenta e nove caranguejos foram examinados: 211 de Trichodactylus panoplus (von Martens, 1869 e 68 de Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828, dos quais 51 (24,17% e 28 (41,17% estavam positivos para T. lutzi, respectivamente. Caranguejos das duas espécies apresentaram posturas de T. lutzi com os ovos fixados, exclusivamente, no interior das câmaras branquiais, sobre o assoalho e/ou na face interna das brânquias. Espécimes juvenis e adultos foram encontrados dentro e fora das câmaras branquiais. Os temnocefalídeos sempre se apresentaram sem pigmento corporal, embora o pigmento vermelho dos olhos tenha sido preservado nos espécimes fixados em

  7. Growth and mortalities of the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1970 and F. paulensis Pérez-Farfante 1967 in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, N O; Petrere, M

    2006-05-01

    From July, 1999 until July, 2001 data from the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1970 and F. paulensis Pérez-Farfante, 1967 fishery were collected from trawling by the fishing fleet based in Santos/Guarujá-SP. Growth and mortalities of these species were studied. F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis have longevity of 2 years and growth estimates of L Infinity = 29.0 cm and k = 1.24 year-1 for F. brasiliensis and L Infinity = 27.5 cm and k = 1.34 year-1 for F. paulensis. Females reach bigger lengths than males in both species. Natural mortalities (M) were 1.80 and 1.90 year-1 and fishing mortalities (F) were 4.7 and 6.8 year-1 for F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. Survival rates are S = 0.15% and 0.02% for F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively, which are usually low values for shrimps.

  8. External factors determining breeding season in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae on the São Paulo State northern coast, Brazil

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    Cobo Valter José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the water and air temperatures, pluviosity and photoperiod on the breeding season of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, in Ubatuba littoral, southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly collections were conducted out from January/95 to December/96 in an estuarine area from 23º29'10"-23º29'45"S to 45º09'10"-45º10'00"W. Water and air temperature variation showed the highest correlation coefficient with the frequency of ovigerous females, r² = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively. However, an analysis of the set of environmental variables, revealed the photoperiod as the factor of highest association with the ovigerous frequency (r² = 0.68. This degree of association allow us to suggest that the breeding season duration of G. cruentata might have some variations over different latitudes, and such results could be quite diverse in populations from different latitudes.

  9. The freshwater crab, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae, as perceived by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brazil

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    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are key elements of the aquatic biota of streams, rivers, lakes, and dams because of their ecological and economic importance. Considering that Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 is an important source of food for the human settlements that inhabit the places of its occurrence, this article records, for the first time, an ethnocarcinological study carried out with the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, Bahia State. Data were obtained from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews using the usual techniques of ethnographical survey. Sixteen women and eleven men were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 25 to 86 years old. The results showed that the ethnocarcinological knowledge about T. fluviatilis is relatively consistent with academic knowledge. Ethnozoological studies that stress the cultural significance of freshwater crustaceans are very important, since they would represent a great contribution to the debate on biodiversity conservation in the environments these animals inhabit.

  10. Sobre a variação intra-específica em Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille e Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A observação de oito exemplares de Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 de procedência diversas, com vistas a procurar caracterizar as estruturas da genitália externa dos machos (processo do endosoma, suporte do falosoma, falosoma e visica levou-nos a constatar a mesma variabilidade que a espécie demonstra em relação aos seus caracteres externos de colorido e relações da cabeça e do rosto. Por associação de idéias, ampliamos um estudo anterior sobre a genitália masculina de Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, também espécie de larga distribuição geográfica, porém com caracteres externos estáveis. Encontramos assim mesmo, embora em percentagem pequena, que os espinhos do processo do endosoma, habitualmente em número reduzido, podiam não existir. Desta espécie observamos quinze exemplares, de procedências diversas.The analysis of eight speciemens of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 of diverse origins, in order to characterize the structure of the male external genitalia (endosoma process, struts, phallosoma, vesica led us to point out that the same variability is demonstrate by the species in relation to its external colour characters and the relation between the head and rostrum. Triatoma dimidiata is a vector of Chagas' disease in several American countries, from Mexico (extreme north of its distribution to the north of South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. Similarly we have carried out a large scale study on male genitalia of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 which also has a wide geographic distribution, but with stable external characters. The spines of the endosoma process which generally are few in number, might not exist in a small percentage of cases. We analysed fifteen specimens of diverse origins.

  11. Las Stenoria Mulsant, 1857 del grupo de S. apicalis (Latreille, 1802 de la Península Ibérica (Coleoptera, Meloidae

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    Ruiz, José Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Stenoria antoinei Pardo Alcaide, 1953 is recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula and Europe. Its specific validity is confirmed and the main diagnostics traits are exposed, especially those related to the aedeagus. Likewise, a comparative study is made between the two species that constitute the S. apicalis (Latreille, 1802 group (S. apicalis and S. antoinei in the Iberian Peninsula. Discriminating morphological traits between both species (principally on head, antennae, elitra and external male genitalia and their respective geographic distributions are discussed, showing the morphologic variability, with special emphasis on the characters provided by the aedeagus. Also, distinctive traits among the iberian species of genus Stenoria Mulsant, 1857 (S. apicalis, S. antoinei and S. analis Schaum, 1859 are presented in a diagnostic key.En este trabajo se registra por vez primera Stenoria antoinei Pardo Alcaide, 1953 en la Península Ibérica y Europa, se ratifica su validez específica y se exponen sus principales rasgos diagnósticos, especialmente los relativos al edeago. Asimismo, se efectúa un estudio comparativo entre las dos especies que constituyen el grupo de Stenoria apicalis (Latreille, 1802 en la Península Ibérica: S. antoinei y S. apicalis. Se discuten los caracteres morfológicos discriminantes entre ambas especies (principalmente a nivel de la cabeza, antenas, élitros y genitalia externa masculina y sus respectivas distribuciones geográficas, ilustrándose la variabilidad morfológica observada, con especial énfasis en los caracteres aportados por el edeago. Por último, se ofrece una clave de determinación de las especies ibéricas del género Stenoria Mulsant, 1857 (S. apicalis, S. antoinei y S. analis Schaum, 1859.

  12. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

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    Yoder, Matthew J; Valerio, Alejandro A; Polaszek, Andrew; van Noort, Simon; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2014-01-01

    Yoder, sp. n., S. retifrons Yoder, sp. n., S. ructo Yoder, sp. n., S. scomma Yoder, sp. n., S. simoni Yoder, sp. n., S. simonolus Yoder, sp. n., S. somaliensis Yoder, sp. n., S. susurro Yoder, sp. n., S. tono Yoder, sp. n., S. transtrum Yoder, sp. n., S. tritus Yoder, sp. n., S. ululo Yoder, sp. n., S. vannoorti Valerio & Yoder, sp. n. The following species are redescribed: S. afer Kieffer, S. chapmani Nixon, S. howardi Crawford, S. ipomeae Risbec, stat. n., S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. philippinensis Ashmead, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. striatus Priesner,S. taylori Nixon, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. The genus Lepidoscelio Kieffer is treated as a junior synonym of Scelio Latreille, syn. n.; its type species, Lepidoscelio fuscipennis Kieffer, 1905 is transferred to Scelio, renamed Scelio obscuripennis Johnson, nom. n. (preoccupied by Scelio fuscipennis Ashmead, 1887), and redescribed. The following additional species are transferred from Lepidoscelio to Scelio: S. cayennensis (Risbec), comb. n., S. insularis Ashmead, rev. comb., S. luteus (Cameron), comb. n., S. thoracicus Ashmead, rev. comb. Lectotypes are designated for S. africanus Risbec, S. ipomeae Risbec, S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. sudanensis Ferrière, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. Scelio gaudens Nixon is a junior synonym of Scelio striatus Priesner, syn. n.; Scelio africanus Risbec and Scelio clarus Fouts are both junior synonyms of Scelio afer Kieffer, syn. n.; Scelio sudanensis Ferrière and Scelio cheops Nixon are both junior synonyms of Scelio zolotarevskyi Ferrière, syn. n.; Scelio cahirensis Priesner is a junior synonym of Scelio mauritanicus Risbec, syn. n. The name Scelio chapmanni Nixon is an incorrect original spelling, requiring an emendation to S. chapmani. Digital versions of the identification keys are available at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm.

  13. Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e biométricas em abelha Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER

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    K.N. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar componentes de variância genética aditiva, fenotípica e residual e a herdabilidade para características relacionadas com a produção de mel e com a estrutura do ninho de abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Sessenta colônias de diferentes regiões da Bahia foram transladadas para caixas padronizadas modelo INPA e divididas, originando as gerações parentais G1 e G2. Foram medidas as características: estimativa da produção de mel; número, largura, volume e altura dos potes de mel; número, altura e diâmetro dos potes de pólen; peso; número, largura e diâmetro dos discos de cria e estimativa da população da colônia. As medidas foram corrigidas para o efeito fixo de mês de mensuração. Os componentes de variância e herdabilidade foram estimados por meio do método de semelhança entre parentes, utilizando-se abordagem Bayesiana. As médias e os desvios padrão variaram de 2,01±0,70cm para diâmetro de potes de pólen a 2.333,0±384,1kg para o peso das caixas. Houve indicação de convergência para todas as cadeias obtidas. As estimativas de variância genética aditiva variaram de 0,02cm para as características largura dos potes de mel a 38.587,72kg para o peso. Para as estimativas de variâncias fenotípicas, os valores variaram de 0,05 para a altura dos potes de pólen a 95.136,43kg para o peso; e para as variâncias residuais, os valores encontrados variaram de 0,02 para a variável largura dos potes de mel a 56.548,71kg para o peso. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. Os resultados demonstraram que as características avaliadas possuem variação genética aditiva que garante boa resposta à seleção.

  14. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae)

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    Yoder, Matthew J.; Valerio, Alejandro A.; Polaszek, Andrew; van Noort, Simon; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2014-01-01

    . quasiclypeatus Yoder, sp. n., S. retifrons Yoder, sp. n., S. ructo Yoder, sp. n., S. scomma Yoder, sp. n., S. simoni Yoder, sp. n., S. simonolus Yoder, sp. n., S. somaliensis Yoder, sp. n., S. susurro Yoder, sp. n., S. tono Yoder, sp. n., S. transtrum Yoder, sp. n., S. tritus Yoder, sp. n., S. ululo Yoder, sp. n., S. vannoorti Valerio & Yoder, sp. n. The following species are redescribed: S. afer Kieffer, S. chapmani Nixon, S. howardi Crawford, S. ipomeae Risbec, stat. n., S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. philippinensis Ashmead, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. striatus Priesner,S. taylori Nixon, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. The genus Lepidoscelio Kieffer is treated as a junior synonym of Scelio Latreille, syn. n.; its type species, Lepidoscelio fuscipennis Kieffer, 1905 is transferred to Scelio, renamed Scelio obscuripennis Johnson, nom. n. (preoccupied by Scelio fuscipennis Ashmead, 1887), and redescribed. The following additional species are transferred from Lepidoscelio to Scelio: S. cayennensis (Risbec), comb. n., S. insularis Ashmead, rev. comb., S. luteus (Cameron), comb. n., S. thoracicus Ashmead, rev. comb. Lectotypes are designated for S. africanus Risbec, S. ipomeae Risbec, S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. sudanensis Ferrière, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. Scelio gaudens Nixon is a junior synonym of Scelio striatus Priesner, syn. n.; Scelio africanus Risbec and Scelio clarus Fouts are both junior synonyms of Scelio afer Kieffer, syn. n.; Scelio sudanensis Ferrière and Scelio cheops Nixon are both junior synonyms of Scelio zolotarevskyi Ferrière, syn. n.; Scelio cahirensis Priesner is a junior synonym of Scelio mauritanicus Risbec, syn. n. The name Scelio chapmanni Nixon is an incorrect original spelling, requiring an emendation to S. chapmani. Digital versions of the identification keys are available at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm PMID:24624012

  15. Aspectos bioecológicos do camarão-rosa Penaeus Brasiliensis latreille (natantia, penaeidae da Lagoa da Conceiçao, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Bioecological aspects of the pink-siirimp Penaeus Brasiliensis latreille (natantia, penaeidae of the Conceição Lake, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the time period between May/92 to Abril/93, 602 (267 males and 335 females specimens oi P. brasiliensis Latreille, 1817 were collected. The shrimps were captured by night using a hand net in áreas between 30 to 150 cm deep. The amplitude of length ranged from 1,3 to 13,7 cm, the highest frequencies of capture were registered during the Fali between the classes of 7,0 and 10,0 cm. The males present isometric growth and the females negative allometric one. The size of the pre-adult ranged from 8,8 cm for the females and 9,2 cm for the males. The recruiting occurs chiefly in the Summer with intense growth during the Fall-Winter period, reaching a climax with the migration of pre-adults to the ocean in midwinter.

  16. Utilização da serologia na identificação de Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.515 Using the serological technique to identify Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.515

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    Carlos Roberto Sousa-Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo obter antissoro específico paraAscia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 com a finalidade de identificar seus predadores. Para a obtenção do antissoro, um coelho foi imunizado, via linfonódulo, com uma injeção de antígeno obtido pela maceração de lagartas do 4o e 5o instares de A. monuste orseis. Reações serológicas homólogas, realizadas por meio do método de dupla difusão em ágar, foram positivas após 21 dias da 1a inoculação do antígeno. Ovos, lagartas do 1o, 2o e 3o instares, pupas e adultos de A. monuste orseis também reagiram positivamente ao antissoro obtido.This study aimed to obtain specific antiserum for Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819, with the aim of identifying the predators associated with this insect. The preparation of specific antiserum was performed by immunizing a rabbit via a lymph nodule injection containing antigen obtained from the maceration of 4th and 5th instars of A. monuste orseis caterpillars. Serological homologous tests performed using double diffusion in agar gel were positive 21 days after the first antigen inoculation. Eggs, 1th, 2th and 3th instar caterpillars, pupae and adults of A. monuste orseis also reacted positively to the obtained antiserum.

  17. Diferenciação e envelhecimento do músculo do vôo em operárias de Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae Differentiation and aging of the flight muscle in Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae workers

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    Camila Marques Adade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata diferenças verificadas no desenvolvimento da musculatura do voo de S.postica Latreille, 1807, uma abelha sem ferrão nativa no Brasil. Tratando-se de uma espécie eussocial avançada, as operárias desta abelha apresentam complexas adaptações comportmentais que as habilitam a realizar as tarefas necessárias à manutenção da colônia, entre elas o forrageamento. Esta última tarefa requer uma musculatura do vôo funcional. Mensurações dos diâmetros e estudos ultra-estruturais das fibras musculares, mostraram diferenças morfológicas e de tamanho relacionadas à idade e função das operárias na colônia. A ultra-estrutura mostrou modificação na apresentação das mitocondrias, miofilamentos, núcleos e quantidade de glicogênio armazenado das fibras musculares, conforme a operárias envelhece ou muda de função.The present paper deals with the differences verified in the flight muscle development of S. postica Latreille, 1807, a Brazilian stingless bee. As an advanced eusocial species, the workers of this bee have complex behavioral adaptations that turn them able to performe all tasks necessary to colony maintenance, among them the foragement. This last work requires a well functioning flight musculature. Measurements of the fiber diameters in histological slides and ultrastructural studies, showed differences in the fiber size and morphology related to the worker age and function in the colony. The ultrastructural features, also showed modifications in the fibers mitochondria, miofilaments, nuclei and amount of glycogen stored, as the worker ages or change functions.

  18. Capacidade de resistência a altas e baixas temperaturas em operárias de Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae durante os períodos de verão e inverno Capacity of resistance to high and low temperatures in workers of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae during periods of summer and winter

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    Oilton José Dias Macieira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas sem ferrão são consideradas por muitos autores de grande importância para o ecossistema devido a sua eficiência como polinizadoras. O presente trabalho estudou a tolerância de operárias de Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 à mudanças de temperatura, com o objetivo de determinar os limites térmicos letais (TL - temperatura letal para altas e baixas temperaturas durante o verão e inverno. Os resultados mostraram um intervalo de tolerância entre -3,5ºC e 40ºC no verão e de -4,0 até 39,5ºC no inverno a 50% de sobrevivência de uma população (LT50. Os limites a 100% de mortalidade (LT100 foram entre -5ºC e 41ºC no verão e -5ºC e 40,5ºC no inverno.Stingless bees are considered of great importance for the ecosystem by many authors because of their efficiency as pollinators. The present work studied the tolerance of workers of Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 to temperature changes in order to determine the lethal thermal limits for high and low temperatures (LT - lethal temperature during summer and winter. The results showed a tolerance interval between -3,5ºC and 40ºC in summer and of 4ºC up to 39,5ºC in winter for 50% of mortality (LT50. The thermal limits at 100% of mortality (LT100 was between 5ºC and 41ºC in summer and between 5ºC and 40,5ºC in winter.

  19. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando F; D'alessandro, Walmirton B; Freitas, Edméia P S

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n > 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, RH > 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48 h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC50) and 9991 ppm (LC99) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome.

  20. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D' Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica. Lab. de Artropodologia Medica e Veterinaria]. E-mail: fernandesff@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2008-03-15

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n {>=} 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27{+-}1 deg C, RH {>=} 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC{sub 50}) and 9991 ppm (LC{sub 99}) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  1. Culicoides latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in brazilian amazon. V: efficiency of traps and baits and vertical stratification in the forest reserve adolpho ducke

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    Rosana S. Veras

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly catches were carried out during five days/month in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas, from February 1990 to January 1991 in order to assess the sandfly fauna of that region, evaluate the atractivity of these insects with regard to different kinds of traps and baits and to know vertical stratification of these insects. The traps and baits used in catches were: Disney traps with baits: Didelphis sp., Gallus sp. and Mesocricetus sp.; CDC light traps at three vertical levels (1m, 5m and 10m; Suspended trap (5m and Malaise trap (1m and catches on bases of tree-trunks. The most efficient type was the CDC. Malaise and Suspended did not collect specimens of Culicoides Latreille, 1809. The Disney traps with baits only attracted specimens of C. fusipalpis Wirth & Blanton, 1973. In vertical stratification, the CDC trap placed at 1m caught 898 specimens of nine species; at 5m 895 specimens were collected which belonged to 13 species; and at 10m 224 specimens of 14 species were collected. Two thousand and forty-six specimens of Culicoides were captured, being about 5,66% males and 94,34% females, which belonged to 17 different species; the most frequent were C. fusipalpis (43,05%, followed by C. pseudodiabolicus Fox, 1946 (32,79%, C. hylas Macfie, 1940 (12,31% and C. foxi Ortiz, 1950 (3,71%. The other 13 species totalized 8,15%.

  2. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  3. Distribution pattern of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 on the southeastern Brazilian coast

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    Rogério Caetano da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 in the Ubatuba region (SP was investigated. Sampling was performed in the bays of Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. A total of 2,018 F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis were collected. The largest catch of juveniles of both species occurred in UBA (N = 867, followed by UBM (N = 729 and MV (N= 422. The bottom sediment in MV had the highest silt and clay content, which explains the negative correlation of the substrate with the abundance of both species. Temperature was positively correlated with the abundance of both species. Juveniles were highly abundant in shallower areas in the summer of 1998. The high rainfall in this El Niño period may have lowered the salinity in estuarine waters and led the shrimps to move to coastal areas in search of higher salinities such as in bays. With this unusually early reduction in salinity, individuals migrated to the bay before the closed season began and thus became more exposed to fishing. We confirmed that monitoring environmental variations, especially in El Niño years, is essential for understanding the distribution patterns of juveniles of both species.

  4. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae da região Sul do Brasil

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    José F. R. Amato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sixty-eight crabs were examined, of which 61 (89.7 % were positive for this species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Eggs, as well as adult and young specimens, were found on the pleural areas of the carapace, in the orbital cavities, and, usually, on the fourth pair of pereiopods. The temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, although they kept the red eye pigment, undiluted in specimens fixed by hot (90ºC phosphate buffered 10% formalin. The most distinctive characters of the new species are: 1 the shape and size of the cirrus and the characteristics of its introvert section; 2 the trapezoidal shape of the dorsolateral post-tentacular 'excretory' epidermal syncytial plates, with the nephridiopore in the lower inner corner of the plate; and 3 the number, size, and distribution of the rhabdite producing glands, as observed in very young specimens.Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil. Sessenta e oito caranguejos foram examinados, sendo que 61 (89,7 % estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Posturas estavam localizadas, sobre as pleuras da carapaça, nas cavidades orbitais e no quarto par de pereiópodos, locais onde também foram encontrados espécimes jovens e adultos. Os temnocefalídeos sempre se apresentaram sem pigmento corporal, embora o pigmento vermelho dos olhos tenha sido preservado nos espécimes fixados em formalina 10% fosfato tamponada (90ºC. Os caracteres mais distintos da nova espécie são: 1 a forma e o tamanho do cirro e as características do 'introvert', 2 as placas sinciciais 'excretoras' trapeziformes, com o nefridióporo sempre deslocado para o canto inferior interno de

  5. Ritmo circadiano da taxa respiratória de Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, T. a. angustula (Latreille e Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Circadian rhythm of the respiratory rate of Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, T. a. angustula (Latreille and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Edson Aparecido Proni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado em operárias isoladas de Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, 1938, T. a. angustula (Latreille, 1807 e Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 o ritmo circadiano das taxas respiratórias médias (VO2 em condições de ciclo normal (dia/claro e noite/escuro, durante a primavera. O consumo de oxigênio foi determinado a 30ºC usando um respirômetro de Warburg. A análise estatística dos resultados revelou interações significativas entre intervalos de tempo e entre as espécies. Foram comparadas as taxas respiratórias usando o teste do Tukey. Um padrão definido de ritmo circadiano metabólico foi observado para ambas as espécies, apresentando um maior consumo de oxigênio durante o dia, com um pico entre 10:00 e 15:00. À noite o consumo diminuiu, alcançando os níveis mínimos entre 2:00 e 3:00. Tetragonisca angustula angustula e T. a. fiebrigi não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si, mas diferiram de T. spinipes, que apresentou taxas respiratórias maiores.The circadian rhythm of the mean respiratory rates (VO2 was determined on isolated workers of Tetragonisca angustula fiebrigi (Schwarz, 1938, T. a. angustula (Latreille, 1807 and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 in normal cycle (day/light and night/dark conditions, during springtime. Oxygen consumption was determined at 30ºC by using a Warburg respirometer. The statistical analysis of the results revealed significant interactions among time intervals and between the species. Breathing rates were compared using the Tukey's test. A clear circadian pattern of the metabolic rhythm was observed for both species. It showed a larger consumption of oxygen during the day, with a peak between 10:00 and 15:00. At night the consumption decreased, reaching the minimum levels between 2:00 and 3:00. Tetragonisca angustula angustula and T. a. fiebrigi did not show significant differences between them but they did differed from T. spinipes, which showed larger respiratory

  6. Influência do comportamento gregário nos processos de muda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (acari: ixodidae, em condições laboratoriais Influence of aggregation on the molting process of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, (Latreille, 1806 (acari: ixodidae under laboratory conditions

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    Paulo Henrique D. Cançado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o experimento verificar a influência de diferentes agregações sobre os parâmetros relacionados ao processo de ecdise ninfal e de adulto de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Foram utilizados como hospedeiros 10 coelhos domésticos (Oryctolagus cuniculus primos-infestados. Foram analisados os períodos de pré-ecdise, de ecdise e de muda, o percentual e o ritmo de ecdise para todos os estágios estudados. Durante toda a fase não-parasitária, os carrapatos foram mantidos em condições controladas de umidade (80±5% e temperatura (27±1ºC. Um total de 1560 larvas ingurgitadas e de 1560 ninfas ingurgitadas foi utilizado. Os carrapatos foram divididos em seis grupos contendo um, cinco, dez, 20, 40 e 80 espécimes cada. Para cada um desses grupos foram realizadas dez repetições. Os processos de ecdise ninfal e de adulto foram acompanhados diariamente. Após a análise dos resultados, verificou-se que não houve relação entre as diferentes agregações e o percentual de ecdise em nenhuma etapa experimental. Em todos os outros parâmetros biológicos estudados, verificaram-se diferenças significativas (pThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of different aggregations on the molting process of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Tick-naïve domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used as experimental hosts for the parasitic phase. A total of 10 rabbits were used on the experiment. All tick free-living phases were kept in incubator at 27±1ºC, 80±5% relative humidity and scotophase. The periods of pre-molt, molt, percentage of ecdisis and molt rhythm of larvae and nymphs were studied. A total of 1560 engorged larvae and 1560 nymphs of R. sanguineus were divided in six groups of aggregations: 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ticks with ten repetitions each one. The ecdises of nymphs and adults were daily observed. The percentage of ecdysis was the only parameter with no aggregations effects

  7. Estrutura populacional de Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population structure of Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Portunidae in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819 is one abundant Portunidae speeies whieh are eaught by sea-bob-shrimps artisanal fishery in Armaçãodo Itapoeoroy,Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aiming to analyze its population strueture, a total of 995 males and 1925 fernaleswere eollected by means of overtrawl frorn January to Decernber 1995, between the depthsof 610 10meters,in lhe periodsof morning,afternoonand evening. The width variation of lhe carapaee ranged írom 3.0 to 14.0 em in the males and 3.0 to 11.0emin females. The species presents growth isometric and the males reach width and weight assintoticand bigger that lhe females.The estirnatedfirst maturation width was between 6.8 and 7.6 em, reached with lhe approxirnated age of 15 months. The artisanal fishery in Armação do lrapocoroy is acting with a higher intensity over the juveniles stock.

  8. Catálogo de los Halictini Halictus Latreille, 1804 y Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae de la Península Ibérica y de las islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornosa, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is a catalogue of the Halictini genera Halictus Latreille, 1804 and Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. It includes the taxa, their synonymies, discussion, when necessary, and their geographic distribution as well (Tables 1, 2, 3 y 4. Some recent records of several species have been included too. The results (Table 1 indicate that this fauna is composed of 143 species and 161 subspecies: 126 appear in the Iberian Peninsula and 17 in the Canary Islands, where 6 of them and 17 subspecies are endemic, out of a total of 29 subespecies; 9 of the Canary species are present in both territories.En este catálogo se presenta un inventario actualizado de las especies de Halictini de los géneros Halictus Latreille, 1804 y Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 de la Península Ibérica y de las Islas Canarias. Contiene 143 especies y 161 subespecies: 126 de las especies se conocen en la fauna ibérica y 17 en las Islas Canarias y, de estas, 6 especies y 17 subespecies son endémicas, de un total de 29 subespecies presentes en las islas; 9 de las especies canarias, son comunes a ambos territorios. De todos los taxones, además de la correspondiente discusión, si procede, se incluye su lista sinonímica y su distribución geográfica (Tablas 1, 2, 3 y 4. En algunas especies, se han incluido registros recientes que pueden resultar de interés.

  9. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Leiodes Latreille, 1797 de la península ibérica (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Leiodinae

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    Fresneda, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new Iberian species of Leiodes Latreille, 1797 from Cabeza la Vaca (Sierra de Tudía, Badajoz, Extremadura is described. Leiodes tudiensis n. sp. shares with some species of the genus the low mesoventral keel, elytral surface with grooves, last antennal article clearly narrower than the penultimate and conus-shaped metatarsi. Palearctic species of Leiodes with these characters are Leiodes brandisi (Holdhaus, 1902, L. ganglbaueri (Holdhaus, 1902, L. piliferus (Reitter, 1885, L. rugosa Stephens, 1829, L. skalitzkyi (Ganglbauer, 1899 and L. taurica (Breit, 1917. However, the structure of the aedeagus only shows similarity to L. taurica, although it is clearly different. The morphology of the aedeagus, together with the color pattern and other morphological details make the new species highly characteristic.Se describe una nueva especie de Leiodes Latreille, 1797 de la península ibérica. Los especímenes de la serie tipo proceden de Cabeza la Vaca (Sierra de Tudía, Badajoz, Extremadura. Leiodes tudiensis n. sp. pertenece al grupo de especies que presentan la quilla mesoventral baja y estriolas transversas en la superficie elitral, además de tener los metatarsómeros cónicos y el último artejo antenar claramente más estrecho que el penúltimo. Estos caracteres hacen que en el ámbito paleártico se aproxime a Leiodes brandisi (Holdhaus, 1902, L. ganglbaueri (Holdhaus, 1902, L. piliferus (Reitter, 1885, L. rugosa Stephens, 1829, L. skalitzkyi (Ganglbauer, 1899 y L. taurica (Breit, 1917. Sin embargo, la peculiar estructura general del edeago muestra semejanza únicamente con L. taurica; no obstante, hay diferencias fácilmente observables, lo cual sumado a diversos detalles adicionales de su morfología, permite separar las dos especies sin dificultad.

  10. Asidini marroquíes VI. Descripción de tres nuevas especies pertenecientes al género Alphasida Escalera, 1905 y de una subespecie nueva del género Asida Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Pérez-Vera, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa belonging to the Moroccan fauna are described in this paper, on the basis of specimens found in the collections of Coleoptera Tenebrionidae from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN, Madrid and from the Muséum National d´Histoire Naturelle (MNHN, Paris. The original labels of identification of the MNCN, in three cases represent a nomen in litteris, and one an erroneous identification. The specimens preserved in the MNHN were unidentified. Three of the new taxa are new species of the genus Alphasida Escalera, 1905, subgenus Glabrasida Escalera, 1910: Alphasida (Glabrasida cobosi n. sp., Alphasida (Glabrasida dendriticosta n. sp. and Alphasida (Glabrasida sefrouensis n. sp. The remaining taxon belongs to the genus Asida Latreille, 1802 and is related to Asida (Planasida bereai Escalera, 1907, but differs from the nominal form and from the other known subspecies in several characters; it is described as Asida (Planasida bereai espagnoli n. subsp.Se describen cuatro taxones nuevos, pertenecientes a la fauna de Marruecos, que han sido estudiados en las colecciones de Tenebriónidos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid (MNCN y del Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN de París. De los ejemplares examinados en el MNCN, tres de ellos portaban etiquetas de identificación correspondientes a un nomen in litteris y en una ocasión a una denominación errónea. Los ejemplares del MNHN estaban sin identificar. Entre los taxones descritos, tres son de categoría específica y forman parte del género Alphasida Escalera, 1905 y del subgénero Glabrasida Escalera, 1910. Se trata de Alphasida (Glabrasida cobosi n. sp., Alphasida (Glabrasida dendriticosta n. sp. y Alphasida (Glabrasida sefrouensis n. sp. El taxón restante pertenece al género Asida Latreille, 1802 y es una Planasida Escalera, 1907 próxima de Asida (Planasida bereai Escalera, 1907, que por presentar diferencias con la forma nominal y con sus

  11. Physiological maturity and relationships of growth and reproduction in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Brachyura, Grapsidae on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil Maturidade fisiológica e as relações entre o crescimento e a reprodução do caranguejo de manguezal Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Brachyura, Grapsidae no litoral de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Valter José Cobo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation provided information on the physiological sexual maturity and relationships of growth and reproduction in Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. Collections were made monthly from January 1995 through December 1996, on the northeastern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The crabs were grouped into juvenile males; adult males; juvenile females, and adult females, including ovigerous ones. For each specimen the carapace width (CW was measured, and molt condition and macroscopic developmental stage of the gonad tissue were recorded. CWs of physiologically mature crabs were between 21.4 and 23.7 mm for both sexes. This population showed molt activity in all size groups throughout the study period, which suggests continuous growth and the absence of terminal anecdysis. This may be associated with the ability of these animals to copulate during the intermolt, supplying a high proportion of mature individuals over time and ensuring continuity of reproduction year-round.Este trabalho fornece informações sobre as relações entre a maturidade sexual e o crescimento do caranguejo Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. Durante o período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1996 foram realizadas coletas mensais na região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Os animais capturados foram reunidos em quatro grupos de interesse: macho jovem, macho adulto, fêmea jovem e fêmea adulta, em que estão incluídas as ovígeras. Para cada animal foi mensurada a largura da carapaça (LC e anotadas a condição de muda e o estágio do desenvolvimento gonadal. A maturidade fisiológica foi observada entre 21.4 e 23.7mmLC para ambos os sexos. A população amostrada apresentou atividade de muda em todas as classes de tamanho durante todo o período estudado, o que sugere o estabelecimento de um padrão de crescimento contínuo e ausência de anecdise terminal para essa espécie. Esse fato pode estar associado com a habilidade desses animais

  12. Crescimento e fator de condição na fase juvenil de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille e F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em uma lagoa costeira tropical do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Growth and condition factor in the juvenile phase of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in a tropical coastal lagoon of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Edélti Faria Albertoni

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth relations of the shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 were evaluated at Imboassica lagoon, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, between June 1995 and September 1997, in four periods after events of sandbar opening. This sandbar separated the lagoon from the Atlantic Ocean. Through the evaluation of the weight/length relationships for the two species, significant differences in each interval after the sandbar openings were observed, as much among males and females as among all individuals of the same species. The results indicated that both species presented negative allometric growth in most of the studied occasions. The frequency and abundance of the two species in the lagoon is linked to many factors, among them the season of the sandbar opening, the span of time in which the sandbar remains opened, and the presence of a reproductive stock of adults close to the area when the sandbar is open. Through the analysis of the relative condition factor (Kr, it was verified that usually the conditions inside the lagoon are favorable to the development of both species, with the exception of the occasions when the sandbar opening events happen quickly and close to each other, allowing to conclude that the sandbar openings have an influence on the growth rates and in the general status of the organisms.

  13. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  14. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis

  15. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  16. Neutral Sterols of Cephalic Glands of Stingless Bees and Their Correlation with Sterols from Pollen

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    Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman

    2012-01-01

    de novo and, thus, all phytophagous insects depend on an exogenous source of sterols for growth, development, and reproduction. The sterol requirements of social bees are not fully known due to the fact that there is no well-defined diet available throughout the year with regard to floral resources. Our study aimed to characterize the sterols present in pollen stored in Melipona marginata and Melipona scutellaris colonies, as well as evaluating their presence in the mandibular, hypopharyngeal, and cephalic salivary gland secretions. We analyzed the chemical composition of pollen stored in the colonies and the composition of the cephalic glands of workers in three adult functional phases (newly emerged, nurses, and foragers by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that the pollen analyzed contained campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, isofucosterol, lanosterol, and small amounts of cholesterol. The glands showed the same compounds found in the pollen analyzed, except lanosterol that was not found in M. scutellaris glands. Surprisingly, cholesterol was found in some glands with relative ratios greater than those found in pollen.

  17. Alelle number and heterozigosity for microsatellite loci in different stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Flávio de O; Brito, Rute M; Arias, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we compare genetic characteristics (allele diversity and observed heterozygosity) of microsatellite loci, from three stingless bee species (Plebeia remota Holmberg, Partamona mulata Moure In Camargo and Partamona helleri Friese), amplified by using heterospecific primers originally designed for Melipona bicolor Lepeletier and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille. We analyzed 360 individuals of P. remota from 72 nests, 58 individuals of R. mulata from 58 nests, and 47 individuals of P. helleri from 47 nests. The three species studied showed low level of polymorphism for the loci amplified with primers derived from M. bicolor. However, for the loci amplified with primers derived from S. postica, only P. remota presented low level of polymorphism.

  18. Two new species and a key to species of the genus Eumenes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae)from southwestern China%中国蜾蠃属两新种及西南地区种类检索表(膜翅目:胡蜂科:蜾蠃亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫; 陈斌; 李廷景

    2012-01-01

    Two new species,Eumenes ferrugiantennus sp.nov.from Yunnan and E.nigriscutatus sp.nov.from Chongqing and Sichuan,China,are described.A key to the species in this genus from southwestern China is provided.Types of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology and Molecular Biology,Chongqing Normal University.%记述中国蜾蠃属Eumenes Latreille 2新种:锈触蜾蠃E.ferrugiantennus sp.nov.和黑盾蜾蠃E.nigriscutatus sp.nov..锈触蜾蠃E.ferrugiantennus与E.placens Nurse,1903近似,但前者体覆锈红色斑点及大的刻点,腹部第2节背板中部有1条黑色斑纹,雌性整个触角锈红色.黑盾蜾蠃E.nigriscutatus与分布于台湾的E.tosawae tosawae Soika,1941近似,但前者覆有彩色斑纹,头胸腹均覆有较大的刻点,腹部第2节背板前端部有1较深的凹陷以形成1明显的翘状结构.文中还提供了西南地区种类检索表.新种模式标本保存于重庆师范大学昆虫与分子生物学研究所.

  19. The polygyny of Melipona bicolor: scramble competition among queens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velthuis, HHW; de Vries, H; Imperatriz-Fonseca, VL

    2006-01-01

    ...) a queen may be either alone or together with one or two other queens. If together, each queen has on average the same chance to lay the egg, indicating that there is no dominance mechanism involved...

  20. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS HrCLEUS LATREILLE (COLEOPTERA,MELOIDAE) FROM CHINA, WITH DESCRIPTION OF ONE NEW SPECIES%中国沟芫菁属分类研究及一新种记述(鞘翅目,芫菁科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘昭; 任国栋; 王新谱

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hycleus from China is reviewed and a new species, H. dorsetiferus sp. nov. is described and illustrated. A new combination, Hycleus hirtus (Tan, 1992) comb. nov. is proposed from Mylabris.A key to the Chinese species of Hycleus is given. The type specimens of the new species are preserved in the Museum of Hebei University (MHBU).Hycleus dorsetiferus sp. nov. (Figs 6, 21 )This new species is similar to H. phaleratus phaleratus (Pallas, 1781) and H. hirtus (Tan, 1992),but differs with H. phaleratus phaleratus (Pallas, 1781)in the following characters: pronotum with a elliptical depressed in center; dense yellow hair and sparse black setae on the axillary spots of elytra; metasternum acute angulate at apex; spiculum gastrale V-shaped between arms; dorsal surface of parameres with short black setae; aedeagus with a tiny process between the two dorsal hooks.The new species differs from H. hirtus (Tan,1992) in the following characters: two apical spurs of protibia; protarsus black, insidae face with short black setae, setae of outside slightly longer than inside.Body length. 24. 8 - 34. 3 mm. Width. 7.3 -10. 2 mm.Type material. Holotype male, China, Xiazayu,Zayi (28.4°N, 97°E), Xizang, 10 Oct. 2007, SHI Fu-Ming coll. Paratypes: 3 females, China, Jinggu,Yunnan, 3-6 Aug. 2006, MAO Ben-Yong and LANG Jun-Tong coll.; 2 males and 2 females, China,Jingdong, Yunnan, 7Aug. 2006, MAO Ben-Yong and LANGJun-Tong coll.; I female, China, Banpo,Lüchun, Yunnan, 24 July 2009, XU Ji-Shan coll.; 7 males, 5 females, same data as holotype; 1 female,Xiazayu, Zayu, Xizang, 23 July 2009, REN Guo-Dong coll. (holotype and all paratypes in MHBU).Etymology. The specific name is derived from Latin “dors-" and “setifera", referring to dorsal surface of parameres with short black setae.Distribution. China (Yunnan, Xizang).%总结中国沟芫菁属Hycleus Latreille,1817并记述1新种:毛背沟芫菁Hyclews dorsetifeus sp.nov.及1新组合:多毛沟芫菁Hycleus hirtua(Tan,1992) comb

  1. 湿法超微粉碎和水煎煮提取法对鼠妇蛋白溶栓抗凝活性的影响及机制初探%Comparison of Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Activities of Proteins of Porcellio scaber Latreille Extracted by Wet Superfine Grinding Technology and Water Decoction and Exploration of Their Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田周; 李博; 郭立玮; 吴勉华; 程海波; 朱华旭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the active thrombolytic and anticoagulant proteins of Porcellio scaber Latreille extracted by wet superfine grinding technology and water decoction,and to study their thrombolytic and anticoagulant mechanisms. Methods We compared the difference of the yield of extract and the protein content extracted by wet superfine grinding technology and water decoction. Fractional precipitation method with ammonium sulfate was applied to purify the active proteins. The fibrinolysis activity and the mode of fibrinolyctia action of the active proteins were measured by agarose-fibrin plate. Moreover,prothrombin time(PT),thrombin time(TT),activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT)were measured by the automatic blood agglutination instrument. The effect of temperature on the obtained active proteins was also investigated. Results There were great differences in the yield of extract and the protein content extracted by water decoction and ultra-fine pulverization in wet processing. The extract obtained by water decoction had no thrombolytic activity,but the extract obtained by ultra-fine pulverization in wet processing could stimulate the secretion of plasminogen activator and dissolve fibrin. Besides,at the range of saturation from 60%to 80%,the active proteins extract obtained by wet ultra-fine pulverization had the higher thrombolytic activity;they could also delay APTT and TT,but had no effect on PT. However, the protein extracted by water decoction had no effect on TT, PT, and APTT. Conclusion The wet superfine grinding technology can maintain maximally the active components of Porcellio scaber Latreille,and the active proteins have obvious thrombolytic activity and anticoagulant function. However,the proteins obtained by water decoction have no thrombolytic and anticoagulant activities.%目的:比较湿法超微粉碎及水煎煮提取法对鼠妇溶栓抗凝活性蛋白的影响,并探究其溶栓抗凝活性的机理。方法比较两种不同提

  2. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a processos de conservação Sensorial profile and acceptability of stingless bee honey submitted to conservation processes

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    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a dois processos de conservação, objetivando obter maior vida de prateleira. Foram utilizadas amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata, coletadas no Estado da Bahia entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006. As amostras foram submetidas aos processos de pasteurização e desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliação sensorial. O perfil sensorial foi determinado no Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, Estado da Bahia. Os atributos analisados foram: fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de conservação utilizados não interferem no perfil sensorial e na aceitabilidade do produto.The present work was conducted to evaluate the sensorial profile and the acceptability of the honey of stingless bees submitted to two conservation processes seeking to obtain longer shelf life. The samples of Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey were collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, between December 2005 and January 2006. The samples were first submitted to pasteurization and dehumidification processes and then to sensorial evaluation. The sensorial profile was determined in the Laboratory of Entomology in the Center for Agrarian, Biological, and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Recôncavo Bahiano, in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia. The analyzed attributes were: fluidity, color, scent, crystallization, flavour, and acceptability. The results show that the conservation processes used do not interfere with the sensorial profile and the product acceptability.

  3. BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION OF Citrus sinensis VARIETY ‘PERA RIO’

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    GENEROSA SOUSA RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspects related to the floral biology of Citrus sinensis ‘Pera Rio’ variety were studied in the present work aiming to obtain information about the pollination ecology in the local agriculture. Studies of flowering, anthesis, pollen / ovule ratio, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, nectar characterization and floral visitors were carried out. From the data studied, the following information was obtained: C. sinensis variety ‘Pera Rio’ flourishes in two annual periods (dry and rainy, the anthesis occurs from 9:00 AM with duration of 24 hours, during which period stigma receptivity, pollen viability and nectar secretion are highly significant, demonstrating that the species also possesses characteristics of allogenic plants. Apis mellifera was a floral visitor, with a greater number of individuals with a Relative Frequency (RF of 51.1%. Melipona scutellaris obtained second place in visits with RR = 23.6%; Followed by Trigona spinipes with FR = 17.7%. The two seasons (dry and rainy presented high similarity (Morisita index = 0.64. C. sinensis has floral biology favorable to cross pollination and bees A. mellifera and M. scutellaris are potential pollinators of this fruit in the conditions in the region of the Recôncavo Baiano. The reproductive system of C. sinensis is mixed, being favorable to entomophilic pollination.

  4. A new species of Megachile Latreille subgenus Megachiloides (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Sheffield

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of leafcutter bee, Megachile (Megachiloides chomskyi, is described from Texas, United States. Megachile chomskyi is one of the four known species of the oenotherae species group of Megachiloides, all members sharing the long tongue, and is most similar to M. (Megachiloides amica Cresson. Like other members of the oenotherae species group, this species probably shows oligolecty with Onagraceae (Evening-Primrose Family. A diagnosis, full description of both sexes and a key to the species of the oenotherae species group are provided.

  5. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides...... species were recorded, of which 30 were new to Sweden. The species recorded, and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites are detailed. Species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus were predominant. (Texte intégral)...

  6. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  7. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  8. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  9. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  10. Spinosad in the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata: regrettable non-target toxicity of a bioinsecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Barbosa, Wagner F; Martins, Gustavo F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-04-01

    The risks imposed by novel insecticides, mainly bioinsecticides, are largely unknown despite their increased use and their perceived environmental safety, which is based on their natural origin. Furthermore, unlike honeybees, native pollinator species have received little attention. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the bioinsecticide spinosad were assessed in the stingless bee species Meliponaquadrifasciata, an important native pollinator in the Neotropical region. The adult stingless bee workers exhibited high oral insecticide susceptibility, with LD50s of 23.54 and 12.07 ng a.i./bee for imidacloprid and spinosad, respectively. Imidacloprid also impaired worker respiration and overall group activity and flight, while spinosad significantly impaired only worker flight despite exhibiting higher oral toxicity to adult workers than imidacloprid. These findings indicate the hazardous nature not only of imidacloprid but also the bioinsecticide spinosad to adult workers of the native pollinator M. quadrifasciata. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment analysis due to their lethal and sublethal components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Larvicidal potencial of Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Fernandes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal potential of the crude ethanolic extracts (CEE of the stem peel of Sapindus saponaria was evaluated against Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Lethal concentrations (LC, were calculated by preparing CEE solutions at different concentrations in distilled water. Larvae fasted for 14-21 days were utilized in the bioassays, after incubation of engorged females collected from infested environments frequented by dogs in several neighborhoods of Goiânia, GO. Bioassays were performed in a specially constructed biological chamber for testing botanical acaricides, acclimatized to 27±1ºC, RH>80%. The larvae were counted on filter paper envelopes impregnated with the solutions or distilled water and larval mortality observed after 48h. S. saponaria showed good larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC99 of 1994 and 3922ppm, respectively and the results demonstrated its potential as a botanical acaricide and an alternative control measure for R. sanguineus.Avaliou-se a potencialidade larvicida do extrato-bruto etanólico (EBE da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Para o cálculo das concentrações letais (CL foram preparadas soluções com diferentes concentrações do EBE dissolvido em água destilada. Foram utilizadas larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas em ambientes infestados, freqüentados por cães de vários bairros de Goiânia. Os bioensaios foram realizados em uma câmara biológica para testes com acaricidas botânicos, climatizada a 27±1ºC e UR>80%. As larvas foram contidas em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com as soluções (grupo teste ou com água destilada (grupo-controle e a mortalidade larval foi observada após 48h. S. saponaria demonstrou atividade larvicida satisfatória (CL50 e CL99 respectivamente de 1994 e 3922ppm e os resultados demonstraram seu potencial como acaricida botânico e medida alternativa para o controle de R. sanguineus.

  12. Rearing and Release of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Water hyacinth in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Y. Liang. 2012. Comparing SPAD and atLEAF values for chlorophyll assessment in crop species. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92:645–648...F. A. Dray Jr. 2010. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects? Journal of Applied Ecology 47:329...Neochetina eichhorniae on waterhyacinth in Southern Louisiana. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22:57–61. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-40 June 2017 11

  13. The Use of Megamelus scutellaris Berg in the Southern United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Louisiana during the International Cotton Exposition (Center 2004) in 1884. Since its primary introduction, the adventive range of waterhyacinth has...a series of Reed Model SD-947 four-channel digital thermometers ( Reed Instruments, Inc., Texas). Temperatures were recorded at 5-minute intervals

  14. Systematical studies on the species of the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latreille) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, N P; Aytekin, A M

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the 12 species which belong to the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) by identifying, collating and testing the applicability of geometrics morphometrics for distinguishing the species. This was carried out on 133 females and 42 males which were collected from various localities in Turkey. After digitizing landmarks on the right fore wings, 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinates were calculated and by Procrustes analysis the coordinates were standardized and superimposed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) were performed to show the distribution of all species. Then, deformations which appeared in thin-plate splines were observed. Mean values of all the specimens were calculated and Sequential, Agglomerative, Hierarchical, and Nesting clustering method (SAHN) was performed with these data to obtain the dissimilarity trees. It can be concluded that all species were found to have consistently different wing shapes from each other. In females, the species B. armeniacus, B. mesomelas and B. pomorum which resemble each other, were also found to be similar based on their wing morphometry. Both in females and males, the subspecies B. sylvarum citrinofasciatus and B. sylvarum daghestanicus and the species B. humilis and B. laesus exposed high similarity in wing morphometry. In males, results showed that the species B. armeniacus and B. mesomelas and the species B. humilis and B. zonatus have very similar wing shape.

  15. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Length weight relationship of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille, 1804) and Zenodon niger (Ruppell, 1835)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahayak, S.

    The relationship between total length and total weight in balistids is not significantly different in males and females. The common equation for both the sexes in Sufflamen fraenatus is Log W= -9.0429+2.7296 log L or W=0.000000000905 L sup(2...

  17. Trypsin isozymes in the lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804): from molecules to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Trypsin enzymes have been studied in a wide variety of animal taxa due to their central role in protein digestion as well as in other important physiological and biotechnological processes. Crustacean trypsins exhibit a high number of isoforms. However, while differences in properties of isoenzymes are known to play important roles in regulating different physiological processes, there is little information on this aspect for decapod trypsins. The aim of this review is to integrate recent findings at the molecular level on trypsin enzymes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus, into higher levels of organization (biochemical, organism) and to interpret those findings in relation to the feeding ecology of these crustaceans. Trypsin in lobster is a polymorphic enzyme, showing isoforms that differ in their biochemical features and catalytic efficiencies. Molecular studies suggest that polymorphism in lobster trypsins may be non-neutral. Trypsin isoenzymes are differentially regulated by dietary proteins, and it seems that some isoenzymes have undergone adaptive evolution coupled with a divergence in expression rate to increase fitness. This review highlights important but poorly studied issues in crustaceans in general, such as the relation among trypsin polymorphism, phenotypic (digestive) flexibility, digestion efficiency, and feeding ecology.

  18. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): from taxonomy to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-04-15

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is a three-host tick that feeds primarily on dogs and occasionally on other hosts, including humans. R. sanguineus ticks are widely distributed around the world and they are known vectors of pathogens, such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia conorii. The increasing number of cases of human parasitism by R. sanguineus ticks reported in the literature indicates that the interaction between humans and R. sanguineus ticks may be more common than it is actually recognized. The indiscriminate use of acaricides is an emerging problem worldwide and has led to the selection of acaricide resistant tick strains. In this article, the medical and veterinary importance, taxonomy, biology, and ecology of R. sanguineus ticks around the world are reviewed. It also discusses the current strategies for the control of R. sanguineus, highlighting the potential risks associated to the improper use of acaricides, such as environmental pollution and toxicity to humans and other non-target organisms (e.g., tick predators).

  19. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. RESULTS...... and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. METHODS: Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female...... biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify...

  20. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . Their choice of host for blood feeding is sparsely described. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for the identification of bloodmeal hosts and determine the identity and diversity of bloodmeals of vertebrate hosts from wild-caught biting midges near livestock farms. The study includes some...... of the most common and abundant species of biting midges in Denmark: Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus. We collected 8,378 biting midges including nine species of Culicoides of which blood-fed specimens were found from six species. We identified 251 blood...... engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  1. A protocol to assess insect resistance to heat waves, applied to bumblebees (Bombus Latreille, 1802).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Baptiste; Lecocq, Thomas; Smet, Jérémy; Rasmont, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Insect decline results from numerous interacting factors including climate change. One of the major phenomena related to climate change is the increase of the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves. Since heat waves are suspected to dramatically increase insect mortality, there is an urgent need to assess their potential impact. Here, we determined and compared the resistance to heat waves of insects under hyperthermic stress through their time before heat stupor (THS) when they are exposed to an extreme temperature (40°C). For this, we used a new experimental standardised device available in the field or in locations close to the field collecting sites. We applied this approach on different Arctic, Boreo-Alpine and Widespread bumblebee species in order to predict consequences of heat waves. Our results show a heat resistance gradient: the heat stress resistance of species with a centred arctic distribution is weaker than the heat resistance of the Boreo-Alpine species with a larger distribution which is itself lower than the heat stress resistance of the ubiquitous species.

  2. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  3. On the family- and genus-series nomina in Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (Coleoptera, Adephaga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2013-10-29

    All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851.

  4. Evidence of colonization of man-made ecotopes by Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata adults have been frequently found, during the last five years, in a dog kennel and a chicken coop, in the back yard of a well-built house, 15 km from San José, the capital of Costa Rica. In the chicken coop nymphs were also found. Two of the 11 dogs from the kennel were serologically positive for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The inhabitants of the house, three adults and two children, were negative. This type of colonization by the insect, which is attracted to lights, is becoming common in old and new settlements, with different degrees of success, a fact with epidemiological implications and great relevance in the control strategies that can be applied.

  5. Ecological control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811: five years after a Costa Rican pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An ecological pilot project for the control of Triatoma dimidiata allowed a new evaluation four and five years after environmental modifications in the peridomestic areas of 20 households. It was verified that the two groups of houses, 10 case-houses and 10 control-houses, were free of insects after those periods of time. In the first group, the owners started a chicken coop in the backyard and a colony of bugs was found there without infesting the house. In the second group, the inhabitants of one house once again facilitated the conditions for the bugs to thrive in the same store room, reaffirming that man-made ecotopes facilitates colonization. This ecological control method was revealed to be reliable and sustainable and it is recommended to be applied to those situations where the vectors of Chagas disease can colonize houses and are frequent in wild ecotopes.

  6. CURRENT STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE OF SPHINGIDAE LATREILLE, 1802 (LEPIDOPTERA: BOMBYCOIDEA) IN COLOMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Carmona, Yenny; Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H; Echeverri, Marta Isabel Wolff

    2015-07-22

    A list of species and a photographic catalog of moths of the family Sphingidae reported for Colombia is presented. Following examination of 1463 specimens deposited in major entomological collections of Colombia, and a review of the literature, 188 species are reported for the country, of which 19 species and Phryxus genus are reported for the first time for Colombia. The genus Xylophanes has the most species recorded and also the most geographical records. The Andean region has the highest number of records. A diagnosis of each subfamily and genus, comments on the biology of many of the reported species and dichotomous keys are also presented.

  7. Morphology of the male gonads of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda (Latreille, 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valêsca Pinto de Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study represented a contribution to the knowledge of the cytological and histological aspects of decapods' reproductive system, describing male germ cells of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda. Seventy-one specimens of different sizes were caught off Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil. Their testes were removed and fixed in Bouin solution, then, after 24 hours, dehydrated, cleared and embedded in the paraffin. Sections (4 µm thick were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The testes appeared macroscopically as a pair of long and highly convoluted tubes joined by a transversal commissure giving the organ an H-like shape. Microscopically, supporting cells and germ cells (spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa were seen in the testicular acini. Some of the acini showed signs of the spermotocytes and the spermatogonia degeneration. The spermatozoa were small cells with the peripheral nuclei and a lightly basophilic cytoplasm. They were nonmotile gametes and are characterized by the absence of a flagellum, but they had spikes radiating from the body. Three stages of follicular development in the mature individuals were observed: (a predominance of spermatogonia I and II; (b increasing numbers of spermatocytes I and II; and (c spermatocytes I and II were prevalent. All the three stages of the spermatozoa were observed in the follicular lumen. These observations agreed with the published descriptions of other palinurid and homarid lobsters. A histochemical analysis of the testes showed that the main component of the tunic was collagenous fibers, that the seminal fluid contained plenty of glycoproteins and carboxyl-glycoconjugates and that the spherical bodies and spermatozoa contained glycoproteins and mucoproteins.O presente trabalho tem como objetivo ampliar os conhecimentos na área de histologia e citologia do sistema reprodutivo dos Decapoda, descrevendo as células germinativas do macho da lagosta Panulirus laevicauda. Animais com tamanhos variados foram coletados em diferentes épocas do ano no litoral de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará - Brasil, totalizando 71 machos. Os testículos foram retirados e fixados em bouin e processados. Cortes de 5µm foram corados em hematoxilina - eosina. Seguindo observações macroscópicas, os testículos são longos tubos pares altamente convolutos unidos por uma comissura transversal na porção mediana, apresentando uma forma de H. As análises microscópicas dos folículos testiculares mostraram células sustentaculares e germinativas (espermatogônias I e II, espermatócitos I e II, espermatócitos I em degeneração, espermátides e espermatozóides. Os espermatozóides são células pequenas com núcleo periférico e citoplasma levemente basofílico. Três estágios foliculares para indivíduos maduros foram identificados: tipo a, onde predominam espermatogônias I e II; tipo b com maior incidência de espermatócitos I e II e no tipo c foi observado principalmente espermátides e espermatócitos I em degeneração. Espermatozóides podem ser encontrados no lúmen dos folículos nos três estágios de desenvolvimento. Os resultados obtidos seguem o padrão encontrado na bibliografia especializada em outras espécies de lagostas palinurídeas e homarídeas. Testes histoquímicos realizados em alguns componentes dos testículos mostraram que a túnica é rica em fibras colágenas, o fluido seminal é formado por glicoproteinas e glicosaminoglicanas, os corpos esféricos e espermatozóides são compostos de glicoproteinas e mucoproteinas.

  8. Toxicity of Imidacloprid to the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hellen Maria; Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-06-01

    The stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica is an important pollinator of native and cultivated plants in Brazil. Among the factors affecting the survival of these insects is the indiscriminate use of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. This work determined the toxicity of imidacloprid as the topical median lethal dose (LD50) and the oral median lethal concentration (LC50) as tools for assessing the effects of this insecticide. The 24 and 48 h LD50 values were 25.2 and 24.5 ng of active ingredient (a.i.)/bee, respectively. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values were 42.5 and 14.3 ng a.i./µL of diet, respectively. Ours results show the hazard of imidacloprid and the vulnerability of stingless bees to it, providing relevant toxicological data that can used in mitigation programs to ensure the conservation of this species.

  9. Fecundity of the Indian Horse-shoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Fecundity in the horse-shoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda ranges from 4217 to 10,982 with an average of 7438. The ova diameter varies between 1.5-2.3 mm with a model value of 1.7 mm. Number of ova per mm carapace length, per g body weight...

  10. Immunity ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille in crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus and mongrel dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Rossetti Ferreira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Many parasite-host relationships are characterized by the development of resistance by the host, thus limiting the number of parasites. However, in the domestic dog X Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick relationship, this does not occur. The hypothesis that the domestic dog has lost this faculty, following the process of its domestication, was investigated by comparing the mongrel dog’s and the crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous's capacity of acquiring immunity to R. sanguineus ticks in two situations: after, 3 successive infestations with adult ticks, and immunisation with an unfed whole tick R. sanguineus extract, followed by a challenge infestation with the same tick species. Evaluation of resistance acquisition, in both experimental conditions, was based on nutricional and reproductive performaces of the female ticks during and after infestations. The results showed a small, significant difference between the domestic dog and the crab-eating-fox. Nevertheless, these differences were not considered relevant enough to characterize an effective immunity.

  11. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim;

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  12. An alien in the group: eusocial male bees sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, C F; Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection predicts that individuals competing for access to sexual partners should maximize their chances of mating by looking for sites where the chances of finding partners are more likely to occur. However, males of stingless bees have been observed sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase of individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odors common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are candidate odors of interest because their nonvolatile pheromone nature allows them to play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether any phylogenetic patterns exist among male stingless bees that aggregate with closely or distantly related species. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of Neotropical stingless bee species (Plebeia sp. Schwarz, Trigona spinipes (F.), Tetragona clavipes (F.), Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), and Melipona subnitida (Ducke) to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odors. We found males of 21 stingless bee species involved in interspecific interactions mainly from Neotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions. Alien males did not necessarily visit host aggregations of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles of different studied species were very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. It is unclear yet why this apparently nonadaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males.

  13. An Alien in the Group: Eusocial Male Bees Sharing Nonspecific Reproductive Aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C. F.; Ferreira-Caliman, M. J.; Nascimento, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection predicts that individuals competing for access to sexual partners should maximize their chances of mating by looking for sites where the chances of finding partners are more likely to occur. However, males of stingless bees have been observed sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase of individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odors common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are candidate odors of interest because their nonvolatile pheromone nature allows them to play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether any phylogenetic patterns exist among male stingless bees that aggregate with closely or distantly related species. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of Neotropical stingless bee species (Plebeia sp. Schwarz, Trigona spinipes (F.), Tetragona clavipes (F.), Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), and Melipona subnitida (Ducke) to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odors. We found males of 21 stingless bee species involved in interspecific interactions mainly from Neotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions. Alien males did not necessarily visit host aggregations of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles of different studied species were very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. It is unclear yet why this apparently nonadaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males. PMID:26518220

  14. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    in Malaysia and in fallen abaca leaf and leaf axils in the Philippines. The immature stages have been collected associated with malayensis in...coconut husks, coconut fronds and bamboo stumps in the Philippines. It has also been found in a tree hole, a hole in a log and in a fallen abaca

  15. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    island in the shade of a large mango tree ( Mangifera indica Linnaeus) at an agriculture farm. It was 0.9 m in diameter and 3. 7 m down to the clear... indica ( Mangifera ) 27 Insecta 19t, 42t, 56t, 57t, 58 kesseli (Aedes) 1, 3, 6, 7k, 8k, 9k, 13, 16, 22, 23-34, 36, 37, 38, 47, 48, 60, 61, Map VIII, (4

  16. Ocupação diferencial do habitat por vespas do gênero Trypoxylon (Trypargilum Latreille (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae Differential occupation of the habitat by Trypoxylon (Trypargilum Latreille wasps (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marchi Santoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespas do gênero Trypoxylon apresentam comportamento solitário e aprovisionam seus ninhos de forma massiva com aranhas paralisadas. Algumas espécies utilizam cavidades preexistentes para nidificação, o que facilita sua amostragem e estudo. Neste trabalho, dados sobre a biologia de nidificação de quatro espécies de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum - T. rogenhoferi, T. lactitarse, T. aurifrons e T. nitidum - são apresentados. As espécies foram amostradas por meio de ninhos-armadilha durante três anos em Araras e dois anos em Rifaina e São Carlos (São Paulo. As localidades de estudo foram subdivididas em sítios de amostragem. Foram obtidos 2.698 ninhos de himenópteros solitários, dos quais 2.268 foram fundados por espécies de Trypoxylon. Intensa atividade de nidificação foi observada principalmente na estação quente e chuvosa (outubro-março. Os ninhos-armadilha utilizados para nidificação pelas diferentes espécies apresentaram dimensões significativamente diferentes. A família de aranhas mais utilizada para aprovisionamento foi Araneidae; no entanto, as espécies de vespas diferiram quanto às espécies forrageadas. O principal parasitóide das quatro espécies foi Melittobia, mas indivíduos das famílias Chrysididae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae e Sarcophagidae também foram verificados. Observou-se que as espécies de Trypoxylon coexistem temporalmente e que nas três localidades cada espécie nidificou com maior freqüência em um sítio particular, sugerindo uma ocupação diferencial do habitat. A partição do habitat aparentemente homogêneo pode ser resultado de "competição aparente" mediada por inimigos naturais comuns.Wasps of the genus Trypoxylon are solitary and females mass-provision their nests with paralyzed spiders. Some species use successfully trap-nests for nesting foundation, making easier their sampling and study. This paper reports data about nesting biology of four species of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum - T. rogenhoferi, T. lactitarse, T. aurifrons and T. nitidum. These species were sampled by trap-nests during three years in Araras and two years in São Carlos and Rifaina (São Paulo. These areas were subdivided into sampling sites. A total of 2,698 nests of solitary hymenopterans were collected and most of them (2,268 were founded by Trypoxylon species. Nesting activity was higher in the warm, rainy season (October-March. The trap-nests used by the different species showed significantly different dimensions. Araneidae was the spider family mainly used for provision, but a species-specific provisioning was observed. The most important parasitoid of the four species was Melittobia, but adult chrysidids, ichneumonids, chalcidids and sarcophagids also attacked their nests. In the three areas, the different species of Trypoxylon coexist temporally but each of them built their nests frequently in a specific site. This result may suggest differential occupation of the habitat. This habitat partition of an apparently homogeneous area may be a result of an "apparent competition" shaped by shared natural enemies.

  17. Composição de amostras de mel de abelha Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula latreille, 1811 Composition of the honey of samples originated from Jataí bees (Tetragonisca angustula latreille, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Almeida Anacleto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As características físico-químicas do mel produzido pelas abelhas sem ferrão ainda são pouco conhecidas, principalmente devido à elevada diversidade da flora apícola e à baixa produção que é inerente a estas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características físico-químicas de 20 amostras de mel de Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, do município de Piracicaba, estado de São Paulo, contribuindo para o estabelecimento de um padrão de qualidade do mel das abelhas sem ferrão brasileiras, possibilitando o controle da fraude deste produto. Desta maneira, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, hidroximetilfurfural, proteínas, cinzas, pH, acidez, índice de formol, condutividade elétrica, cor, atividade diastásica e atividade de água. Os resultados demonstram que a legislação atual, referente ao mel de Apis mellifera, não é adequada para todos os caracteres analisados, reforçando a necessidade de um padrão próprio para os méis de meliponíneos.The knowledge regarding the physicochemical characteristics of the honey produced by stingless bees is still limited, mainly due to the high diversity of the floral resources and the low production that is inherent to these species. This research deals with the physicochemical characteristics of 20 samples of Tetragonisca angustula honey, from the municipality of Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil, contributing to the establishment of a quality standard for the honey produced by Brazilian stingless bees making possible the control of this product. Thus, the following parameters were determined: total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture content, hydroxymethylfurfural, proteins, ashes, pH, acidity, formol index, electrical conductivity, color, diastase activity, and water activity. The results indicated that the Brazilian standard rules, referring to the Apis mellifera honey, are not adequate to all parameters analyzed reinforcing the need of a establishment of a proper standard for the honey from meliponids.

  18. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind. fueron colectadas durante el cuarto creciente lunar, los restante puerulos (880 ind. se obtuvieron en luna nueva. Estos resultados, en general, son consistentes con los encontrados para P. argus en el mar Caribe. Basados en estos resultados, se recomienda la introducción de un programa de monitoreo a nivel local o regional, estudiar los patrones de migración y distribución de la langosta espinosa, y evaluar la introducción de refugios artificiales para P. argus.

  19. Growth and reproduction of the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R.G. Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Goniopsis cruentata is a common semi-terrestrial crab in Brazilian mangroves and an important fishery resource for traditional communities in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge about the species, this study evaluated the carapace width and weight growth curves, the relative growth of weight versus carapace width, and the temporal variation of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices for the species. A total of 524 crabs were collected in a mangrove area of Ubatuba municipality, state of São Paulo. The growth-curves parameters and longevity (tmax were estimated for males (CW∞=50.6 mm, WE=56.4 g, k=2.24, t0=0.003631502 year-1, tmax=1.3 years and females (CW∞=50.7 mm, WE∞=58.8 g, k=2.50, t0=0.003247209 year-1, tmax=1.2 years. The age at onset of sexual maturity was 0.23 years for both genders. The weight-growth model was isometric for the immature developmental stages and allometric negative for adults. The species exhibited a continuous reproduction, with breeding peaks in spring and summer months. The weight dynamics of gonads and hepatopancreas were not clearly related. The growth and reproductive patterns indicated that Goniopsis cruentata has a life-history that prioritizes reproduction instead of survival. The species exhibited some of the highest growth rates and lowest longevity estimates reported for brachyuran species in Brazil.

  20. Five new species of Culicoides Latreille described from Colombia, yielding a new species list and country records (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The following five new species of Culicoides from Colombia are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group: Culicoides antioquiensis, Culicoides gabrieli, Culicoides inermis, Culicoides micayensis and Culicoides nigrifemur. C. gabrieli is also known from Peru. When possible, their position in previously published keys is indicated and their features discussed in light of the most recent revisions. A list of 180 Culicoides species known (114 or suspected of being in Colombia (66 is given in a Table. Of these, 12 including the new species are recorded from Colombia for the first time.

  1. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well.

  2. Two species of genus Ypsolopha Latreille (Lepidoptera: Ypsolophidae from Korea, with first description of female of Ypsolopha fujimotoi Moriuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol-Moon Na

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Japanese species, Ypsolopha fujimotoi Moriuti, 1964 is reported from Korea for the first time. Additionally, the female of Ypsolopha fujimotoi Moriuti is newly described. Illustrations of adults and photographs of genitalia, diagnosis, distribution, and host plants are provided, as well as a discussion of Y. fujimotoi Moriuti and Ypsolopha longa Moriuti.

  3. A new species of Xorides Latreille (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Xoridinae parasitizing Pterolophia alternata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Robinia pseudoacacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Ling Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described, Xorides benxicus Sheng, sp. n., reared from the cerambycid twig-boring pest of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Pterolophia alternata Gressitt 1938, in Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China. A key is given to the species similar to Xorides benxicus Sheng, namely X. asiasius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009, X. cinnabarius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009 and X. sapporensis (Uchida 1928.

  4. Diversity of the genus Dolichopus Latreille in three different habitats of East Azerbaijan Province, with new records for Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazerani, F.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a survey of species diversity of the genus Dolichopus in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. The species were collected using a standard entomological net from three habitats –forest, grassland and wetland areas– in north-west Iran in 2013. Based on the data collected, the forest area with the highest diversity indices (H‘ = 2.53, 14 species, and H‘ = 2.19, 10 species, in Chichakli and Keleybar regions respectively had the most diverse and abundant species, followed by grassland and wetland areas. The dominant species in the study areas were Dolichopus longitarsis and D. simplex. Besides, three species (D. siculus, D. kiritshenkoiand D. plumipes were recorded from Iran for the first time. Diagnostic characters and geographical distribution of the species occurring in the studied areas with supplementary figures are provided.

  5. Impact of African weaver ant nests [Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)] on Mango [Mangifera indica L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)] leaves

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are appreciated for their control of pests in plantation crops. However, the ants´ nest building may have negative impacts on trees. In this study we tested the effect of ant densities and nest building on the leaf performance of mango trees. Trees were divided into three groups: trees without ants, trees with low and trees with high ant densities. Subsequently, the total number of leaves, the proportion of leaves used for nest construction, and tree growth was compared betwee...

  6. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-02-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  7. Abd-B expression in Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda: Crustacea): conserved pattern versus novel roles in development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, C; Liu, P Z; Minelli, A; Kaufman, T C

    2005-01-01

    The Hox genes are intimately involved in patterning the animal body during development and are considered to have had a pivotal role in the evolution of different body plans among the metazoans. From this perspective, crustaceans, a group that has evolved an extreme diversity of body structures, represent a choice group in which to study the evolution of these genes and their expression. The expression of one of these genes, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), has only been studied in two distantly related crustaceans, Artemia and Sacculina, where it shows dissimilar patterns, highly differentiated from the one described in other arthropods. Moreover, we have no information for the Malacostraca. Thus, we cloned the gene Abd-B and followed its expression through development by in situ hybridization in the isopod Porcellio scaber. We found a highly dynamic expression pattern of PsAbd-B during embryonic development. In early stages, it is expressed in the posterior-most part of the germ band, in a domain common to several arthropods studied to date, and later it is expressed in the developing limb buds of the pleon and still later in the endopodites of the third to fifth pleopodites. This raises the interesting possibility of the involvement of this gene in the later respiratory specialization of these appendages. In association with the above expression domain, Abd-B appears to be expressed in later stages also in the ventral ectoderm, raising the further suggestion of its possible involvement in patterning the developing nervous system. Moreover, we show that the first pleopod and the endopodite of the second pleopod, whereas present as limb buds in early embryonic stages, are later reduced and actually absent in the first postembryonic stage, although they reappear again in adults. These appendages thus represent an example of Lazarus appendages. Our data show strong plasticity in the use of a key developmental gene and point out the necessity of further research that may end with a revision of the current understanding of its role in animal evolution.

  8. Calidad ambiental en zonas de pesquerias de langosta Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Una de las causas que puede haber incidido de forma negativa en las poblaciones de langosta en el Golfo de Batabanó, son los cambios en la calidad ambiental del medio. Por tal motivo, se estudia el comportamiento de un conjunto de variables abióticas y bióticas y se compara con la información histórica existente que se remonta a la década de los años ’60. El estudio abarca dos matrices, aguas y sedimentos de fondo, en las especialidades de química, microbiología y fitoplancton. La salinidad m...

  9. Cellular responses in the Malpighian tubules of Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807) exposed to low doses of fipronil and boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafael Alexandre Costa; Silva Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar; Bueno, Odair Correa; Tomotake, Maria Eliza Miyoko; Pereira, Andrigo Monroe

    2013-03-01

    Studies of sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues on stingless bees are scarce and morphological analysis of organs would add information to toxicological analysis in order to clarify the continuous exposure of Scaptotrigona postica to insecticides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology and histochemistry of the Malpighian tubules (excretory organ) of S. postica exposed to fipronil or boric acid to detect cellular responses that indicate toxicity or adaptative mechanisms to stress induced by exposure of worker bees to low doses of these chemical compounds. Newly emerged bees were submitted to toxicological bioassays and morphological analyses by optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as histochemical methods, were performed to detect proteins and glycoconjugates. Additionally, immunohistochemical detection of DNA fragmentation and HSP70 (70-kDa Heat shock protein) were performed to detect cell death and stress response, respectively. Statistical analysis, for the bioassays conducted with ingestion of contaminated diet with boric acid at 0.75% (w/w) or with fipronil at 0.1μg/kg of food, showed that the survival of bees that ingested the contaminated diets were significantly different to the survival rate presented by the control group (P<0.0001). Although some characteristics indicative of initiation of cell death were observed, the cells remained metabolically active in the processes of excretion and inactivation of chemical compounds. The data from this study reinforce the importance of research on sublethal effects of low doses of pesticides on bees in an attempt to assess a possible realistic dose and evaluate the risk assessment of stingless bee S. postica foraging in the vicinity of cultivated fields and/or in green urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 三种巢蛾的识别及防治%dentification and Control of Yponomeuta Latreille

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐秀玲

    2010-01-01

    苹果巢蛾Yponomeuta padella Linnaeus、稠李巢蛾Yponomenuta evonymellus (Linnaeus)、卫矛巢蛾Yponomeuta polystigmellus Felder是常见的三种巢蛾,近几年由次要害虫转为灌木林及果园的主要害虫,文章对三种害虫识别特征进行了比较,并提出防治措施.

  11. Observations on an unusual behaviour in the Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans (Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Punekar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans is a known pollen and nectar feeder. However, at Anshi National Park of Karnataka (India, the bee happens to be switching over to facultative carnivorous habit as they are found to feed on Red Tree Ants Oecophylla smaragdina. Such a kind of carnivorous feeding habit must have existed which is yet to be reported.

  12. Nuptial flights behavior of the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and weather factors triggering flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2016-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are intensively studied in basic and applied contexts. Yet, little is known about their mating behavior. Knowledge on their reproductive strategy is a prerequisite to the basic understanding of their life history and may provide valuable information facilitating thei...

  13. The genus Cixius Latreille, 1804 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) in Lebanon with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciau, Luca; Hoch, Hannelore; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Alma, Alberto

    2016-03-20

    A first list of Cixius fauna of Lebanon is here provided with the description of two new species: one within the subgenus Acanthocixius, Cixius bifidispinus sp. nov. and one within the subgenus Ceratocixius Cixius superremotus sp. nov. The standard morphological description is supplemented by sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene fragment. Some notes on their distribution and economic importance are also reported.

  14. Morphology of the midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) adult ticks in different feeding stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Sampieri, B R; Vendramini, M C R; Souza, N M; Anholeto, L A; Denardo, T A G B; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells of ticks are fundamental for their full feeding and reproductive success, besides being considered important sites for the development of pathogens. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are known for their great medical and veterinary importance, and for this reason, the knowledge of their intestinal morphology may provide relevant subsidies for the control of these animals, either by direct acaricidal action over these cells or by the production of vaccines. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the midgut morphology of male and female R. sanguineus ticks in different feeding stages, by means of histological analysis. Significant differences were observed between the genders, and such alterations may refer mainly to the distinct demands for nutrients, much higher in females, which need to develop and carry out the egg-laying process. In general, the midgut is coated by a thin muscle layer and presents a pseudostratified epithelium, in which two basic types of cells can be observed, connected to a basal membrane-generative or stem and digestive cells. The latter was classified as follows: residual, deriving from the phase anterior to ecdysis; pinocytic, with vesicles containing liquid or pre-digested components of blood; phagocytic, with entire cells or remnants of nuclear material inside cytoplasmic vesicles; and mature, free in the lumen. Digestion is presumably intracellular and asynchronous and corresponds to a process which starts with the differentiation of generative cells into pinocytic digestive cells, which subsequently start to phagocytize intact blood cells and finally detach from the epithelium, being eliminated with feces.

  15. Nuptial flights behavior of the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and weather factors triggering flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2016-01-01

    compared to days without flights. Also, flights mainly took place around full moons. However, this correlation was based on a total of only five full moon phases and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. The results also showed that flights were only significantly correlated with weather...... parameters during the early part of the mating season, the trend changed thereafter probably due to depletion of sexuals in the nests as the season progressed. This information improves our understanding of ant nuptial flights and offers a tool to improve forecasts of O. longinoda flights, enabling easier...

  16. Immunogenic potential of the recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus aquaporin protein against the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 in domestic dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaporins regulate water transport through the highly hydrophobic lipid bilayer of cell membranes. As ticks ingest large volumes of host blood in relation to their size, they are required to concentrate blood components and have efficient water transport mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the...

  17. Histology and ultrastructure of pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in workers and queens of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana Beani; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica an eusocial Brazilian stingless bee. Light and electron microscopy was used in a comparative study on workers and queens of different ages, exerting different functions in the colony. The pericardial cells are found only in the pericardial sinus, mainly in groups around the dorsal vessel. Each cell is enclosed by the basal membrane and its peripheral region is characterized by folds of the plasma membrane, which form canals and loops. The points where the plasma membrane folds is frequently closed by diaphragms, that along with the basal lamina form a barrier to substances from hemolymph. Along the membrane limiting the canals and loops, an intense endocytic activity through coated vesicles takes place indicating a selective absorption of hemolymph components. In older individuals, workers or queens, the cells exhibit larger quantities of cytoplasm inclusions, heterogeneous vacuoles containing the final products of intracellular digestion, and autophagic vacuoles with concentric membranous structures. The pericardial cells general morphology is in accordance with the role in processing metabolites captured from hemolymph and storage of indigested residues.

  18. Antibacterial synergic effect of honey from two stingless bees: Scaptotrigona bipunctata Lepeletier, 1836, and S. postica Latreille, 1807

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, E. K.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Oliveira, A. G.; Andrade, C. G. T. J.; Proni, E. A.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Nakazato, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have tested antimicrobial activity of combinations of honey and various substances. In this study, we tested a combination of two stingless bee honeys against various bacterial strains. In particular: the antibacterial activity of honeys produced by Scaptotrigona bipunctata (SB) and Scaptotrigona postica (SP) was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by agar well diffusion assays, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment, construction of growth and viability curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interaction of the two honeys was also evaluated by the checkerboard assay. Inhibition zones ranged from 8 to 22 mm. The MIC values of the individual honeys ranged from 0.62 to 10% (v v-1) and decreased to 1/4 to 1/32 when the honeys were combined. SEM images showed division inhibition and cell wall disruption for the SB and SP honeys, respectively, and these alterations were observed in same field when the SB and SP honeys were combined. This study demonstrated that the natural honeys possess in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. Combination of the SB and SP honeys could lead to the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobials that have the potential to prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains.

  19. Thoracic vibrations in stingless bees (Melipona seminigra): resonances of the thorax influence vibrations associated with flight but not those associated with sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Michael; Gravel, Anne-Isabelle; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Schmidt, Veronika M; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G

    2008-03-01

    Bees generate thoracic vibrations with their indirect flight muscles in various behavioural contexts. The main frequency component of non-flight vibrations, during which the wings are usually folded over the abdomen, is higher than that of thoracic vibrations that drive the wing movements for flight. So far, this has been concluded from an increase in natural frequency of the oscillating system in association with the wing adduction. In the present study, we measured the thoracic oscillations in stingless bees during stationary flight and during two types of non-flight behaviour, annoyance buzzing and forager communication, using laser vibrometry. As expected, the flight vibrations met all tested assumptions for resonant oscillations: slow build-up and decay of amplitude; increased frequency following reduction of the inertial load; and decreased frequency following an increase of the mass of the oscillating system. Resonances, however, do not play a significant role in the generation of non-flight vibrations. The strong decrease in main frequency at the end of the pulses indicates that these were driven at a frequency higher than the natural frequency of the system. Despite significant differences regarding the main frequency components and their oscillation amplitudes, the mechanism of generation is apparently similar in annoyance buzzing and forager vibrations. Both types of non-flight vibration induced oscillations of the wings and the legs in a similar way. Since these body parts transform thoracic oscillations into airborne sounds and substrate vibrations, annoyance buzzing can also be used to study mechanisms of signal generation and transmission potentially relevant in forager communication under controlled conditions.

  20. Estudos ecológicos dos crustáceos comestiveis Uça e Guaiamú, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille e Ucides cordatus (L. Gecarcinidae, Brachyura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1946-06-01

    Full Text Available As observações que fizemos nos mostraram que: Guaiamú (Cardisoma guanhumi As tocas tem água quase doce; entre 2 partes de água do mar para 998 de água doce e 20 partes de água do mar para 980 de água doce. Agua de composição pouco variavel, a pequena concentração de sais cae mais por ocasião das chuvas. Toca sempre fresca, no verão atinge 23º C. Sem grandes variações. Toda escavada em terra arenosa. Não é invadida pelas aguas da maré. A toca é proxima a manguesais possue enxames de mosquitos. As larvas de insetos crescem bem nesta água. Toca com cheiro das valas de água doce. Frepentemente o guaiamú sáe de seu buraco e vae para longe do manguesal. Ucá (Ucides cordatus As tocas apresentam água salobra, de regime polihalino, com salinidade média anual variando entre 30 e 25 por mil. os uças na natureza não toleram a água de clorinidade 5, saem das tocas e passeiam pelo brejo procurando um local mais salgado (vimos isto em 4 set. 1939 e 6 abr. 1944. A toca do uça apresenta duas variações de salinidade em cada 24 horas, é levada duas vezes por dia pelas águas da preamar. os estuários as variações de salinidade são mais bruscas que nas ilhas, mesmo pouco afastadas das fozes de rios como a Ilha do Pinheiro. Toca muitas vêzes expostas ao sol, é quente de dia e fria de noite. No verão encontramos 44.5°C. A toca é escavada na argila preta macia, molhada pelas aguas da maré enchente. Toca dentro do manguesal, sem nenhuma larva de inseto. Toca em geral de cheiro particular, parecendo ao da marezia misturada com gazes sulfídricos e metânicos. Via de regra o uça se afasta pouco de seu buraco.

  1. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-31

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Araújo, Andréa Mendez; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Vilegas, Wagner; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

    2012-12-17

    The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  3. Catalogue and Bibliography of the Hong Kong Carabidae Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera: Adephaga), with notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong as related to zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Paul

    2016-06-09

    A complete list of Carabidae species historically collected in Hong Kong combined with more recent records and notes on their biology is given. Notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong through the colonial period are given, as this is an important element relating to our understanding of the origins of historic zoological collections made in the region. Likewise a list of collectors in Hong Kong up to the outbreak of hostilities in the Second World War is given. A full bibliography of Hong Kong Carabidae is included.

  4. Caracterização morfológica e funcional de sensila gustativa da quelícera de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Sara Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus é um ectoparasita de cães domésticos, também encontrado em outros mamíferos, inclusive no homem. Tem elevada importância nas medicinas humana e veterinária, podendo transmitir agentes patogênicos causadores de doenças, como as febres botonosa e maculosa em humanos e a babesiose e a erliquiose em cães. Seu controle é feito com o uso de acaricidas químicos, o que, ao longo do tempo, selecionou populações deste carrapato resistentes a estes produtos. Para a elaboração de...

  5. A new species of Nebria Latreille, 1802 from the Montes de León, north-west Spain (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaballos, J. P.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebria leonensis sp. n. from the Sierras de la Cabrera Baja and del Teleno (southern Montes de León is described. This species, related to N. lafresnayei Serville, 1821, is characterised by its slender body, long and light brown extremities, the form of its pronotum, and evenly rounded elytra, which are conspicuously flattened on the discus. The differentiating characters and the habitat are described. A determination key to the species and subspecies of the group to which the new species belongs is presented.Se describe Nebria leonensis sp. n. de las sierras de la Cabrera Baja y del Teleno (sur de los Montes de León. Esta especie, relacionada con Nebria lafresnayei Serville, 1821, se caracteriza especialmente por su cuerpo delgado, largas extremidades de color marrón claro, forma del pronoto, y élitros uniformemente redondeados y claramente deprimidos en el disco. Además de describir los caracteres que la definen y el hábitat, se presentan unas breves notas sobre la historia faunística de los montes de León, y una clave de determinación de las especies y subespecies del grupo al que pertenece la nueva especie.

  6. A new species of Longitarsus Latreille, 1829 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae pupating inside stem aerenchyma of the hydrophyte host from the Oriental Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniyarikkal Prathapan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of subaquatic Longitarsus pupating inside the stem aerenchyma of its hydrophyte host plant is described. Eggs are laid on tender leaves and buds and the larvae are open feeders. This is the first report of an Oriental flea beetle pupating inside the stem of its hydrophyte host. A key to the species of southern Indian Longitarsus is provided.

  7. Function-related adaptations of ultrastructure, mineral phase distribution and mechanical properties in the incisive cuticle of mandibles of Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Julia; Fabritius, Helge-Otto; Griesshaber, Erika; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    In terrestrial isopods the mandibles consist of a corpus carrying strong muscle tissue, and a pars incisiva (PI) that cuts dry leaves into smaller ingestible pieces. We studied the cuticle of the PI of Porcellio scaber in order to understand region-dependent differences in its ultrastructure, composition, and the resulting mechanical properties, employing several microscopic and analytical techniques as well as nanoindentation experiments. The cuticle of the incisive tip is not mineralized and consists of an unusually thick epicuticle containing thin fibrils, two subjacent cuticular layers, and a central core containing fibrils of different orientation, either longitudinal or circumferential. A thick epicuticle of the middle region just behind the tip projects long epicuticular extensions into the subjacent endocuticle, likely to prevent delamination. A distinct exocuticular layer is lacking in the middle region. Most chitin-protein fibrils within the endocuticle are oriented in parallel pointing towards the tip. Surprisingly, the middle region is mineralized by amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) only. Near the base, ACP is successively replaced by amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite is restricted to a distal layer in the base. At the transition between middle and base, the epicuticle forms a hybrid material containing fibrils of the exocuticle. Nanoindentation experiments reveal an increase of the stiffness and hardness from the tip towards the base and significantly higher values on transversal in comparison to longitudinal planes. The results suggest that ultrastructure and composition are adapted for conveying high forces from a rather thin cutting edge to the stable base of the PI.

  8. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.;

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  9. Degenerative process and cell death in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged female exposed to the acaricide permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodari, Elen Fernanda; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; De Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-08-01

    Ticks are ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary importance around the world and synthetic chemicals such as permethrin have been used for their control. This study provides a cytochemistry analysis of both degenerative and cell death processes in salivary glands of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to 206, 1,031, and 2,062 ppm of permethrin. The results presented herein demonstrate that permethrin is a potent chemical acaricide that would act on the glandular tissue's morphophysiology in this tick species by eliciting severe changes in the acinus shape, intense vacuolation of the acinar cells' cytoplasm, marked glandular tissue disorganization, culminating in an advanced degenerative stage with consequent formation of many apoptotic bodies (cell death). In addition, permethrin induced major changes in the acinar cells' nucleus, such as a change both in its shape and size, chromatin marginalization, nuclear fragmentation, and appearance of picnotic nuclei, especially when the highest concentrations of the product were used. Thus, permethrin induced early degeneration of this tissue characterized by significant changes in the structure of acinar cells and production of enzymes related to the cell death process, in addition to interfering directly in the genetic material of these cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Kinetic Characterization of the Gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from the Semi-terrestrial Mangrove Crab Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825 (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Daniel L; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Mantelatto, Fernando L; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2017-08-24

    We provide a kinetic characterization of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a posterior gill microsomal fraction from the semi-terrestrial mangrove crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation reveals two distinct membrane fractions showing considerable (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, but also containing other microsomal ATPases. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase, notably immuno-localized to the apical region of the epithelial pillar cells, and throughout the pillar cell bodies, has an M r of around 110 kDa and hydrolyzes ATP with V M = 146.8 ± 6.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) and K M = 0.05 ± 0.003 mmol L(-1) obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. While stimulation by Na(+) (V M = 139.4 ± 6.9 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K M = 4.50 ± 0.22 mmol L(-1)) also follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity by MgATP (V M = 136.8 ± 6.5 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.27 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), K(+) (V M = 140.2 ± 7.0 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.17 ± 0.008 mmol L(-1)), and NH4(+) (V M = 149.1 ± 7.4 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.60 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)) shows cooperative kinetics. Ouabain (K I = 52.0 ± 2.6 µmol L(-1)) and orthovanadate (K I = 1.0 ± 0.05 µmol L(-1)) inhibit total ATPase activity by around 75%. At low Mg(2+) concentrations, ATP is an allosteric modulator of the enzyme. This is the first study to provide a kinetic characterization of the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase in C. guanhumi, and will be useful in better comprehending the biochemical underpinnings of osmoregulatory ability in a semi-terrestrial mangrove crab.

  11. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  12. TIPOS POLÍNICOS COLETADOS POR Tetragonisca angustula (LATREILLE, 1811 EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA ATLÂNTICA NO ESPÍRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação da dieta de abelhas é fundamental para o conhecimento da biologia e da ecologia destes insetos. Aqui apresentamos a identificação dos tipos polínicos coletados por Tetragonisca angustula em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica no Espírito Santo. As amostras de pólen foram coletadas durante 12 meses no Parque Estadual da Cachoeira da Fumaça (PECF. Os indivíduos estudados foram capturados com rede entomológica e as pelotas de pólen foram removidas de suas corbículas. Para identificação dos tipos polínicos, os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, montados em lâminas e analisados em microscopia de luz (ML. Foram identificados 32 tipos polínicos pertencentes a 16 famílias de angiospermas. Fabaceae e Myrtaceae apresentaram a maior riqueza de tipos polínicos, com cinco tipos cada. A maior diversidade de tipos polínicos foi encontrada nos meses de setembro e outubro. A diversidade de famílias botânicas visitadas por T. angustula confirma o hábito generalista desta espécie e permite verificar que o PECF é um importante refúgio para esta espécie de abelha nativa.   

  13. The dynamics of RNA participation in the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks Latreille 1806 (Acari:Ixodidae). I. Nucleoli or Cajal bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel; Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2010-10-01

    To understand the morphological and histological aspects of internal systems of ticks has become important matter since these arthropods have an impact in the areas of the economy and public health. In this context, this study has provided morphological data on female germinative cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, ectoparasites of dogs that maintain a close relationship with human on a daily basis. Oocytes of engorged females were analyzed, through the PAS reaction (detection of polysaccharides) counterstained by methyl green (detection of RNA) revealing information that allowed to infer for the first time the presence of Cajal bodies, in the germinal vesicles (nuclei) of developing oocytes, as well as showing how the RNA and the polysaccharides are involved in the dynamics of the vitellogenesis in this species.

  14. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politi Flávio Augusto Sanches

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS, using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  15. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la identificación, el cual utiliza las caracteristicas de sólo una parte del cuerpo (las alas de los ceratopogónidos del género Culicoides. El nivel de diferenciación es bueno (55.2% de las 58 especies presentes y abarca casi todas las especies implicadas en la transmisión de virus y otros agentes patógenos de animales en la Península Ibérica. El diagnóstico de una especie precisa un máximo de seis criterios. La única excepción importante la constituyen las cuatro especies del grupo Culicoides obsoletus, las hembras de las cuales muestran un diseño alar casi idéntico. La utilización de claves sencillas debería proporcionar una mejor estandarización de la identificación en todos los estudios, incluso los realizados por no sistemáticos. Estas claves pueden servir como el instrumento más importante para desarrollar sistemas informáticos de reconocimiento de géneros, familias y especies de insectos por medio de imágenes.

  16. Distribution of acid phosphatases in the hypopharyngeal glands from workers, queens and males of a Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille: an ultrastructural cytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; da Cruz-Landim, C

    2001-01-01

    The present study reports the localization of acid phosphatase in the hypopharyngeal gland cells from workers (newly-emerged, nurse and forager), queens (newly-emerged and laying) and males (newly-emerged and mature for mating) of the Brazilian stingless bee, Scaptotrigona postica. The phosphatase activity varied in intensity and localization depending on the individual class, physiological age and the substrate used. In newly-emerged workers, the phosphatase-positive sites suggest the involvement of the enzyme with cellular differentiation that occurs in the presecretory phase, in nurse workers with protein synthesis and in forager workers with changes in cellular activity or glandular regression. In males mature for mating and laying queens, the positive sites are related to secretory activity, showing that the gland maintains some activity in spite of the regressive aspect. Of the substrates used, beta-glycerophosphate gave the least specific localization.

  17. Comparative study of the ultrastructure and secretory dynamic of hypopharyngeal glands in queens, workers and males of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R A; Cruz-Landim, C

    2000-04-01

    The secretory cycle of hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) in Scaptotrigona postica resembles that of Apis mellifera: in newly emerged workers the HPGs are in prefunctional state, their maximum development happens in the nurse workers and in forager workers they show signs of reabsorption. In S. postica these glands are also present in queens and males where they are more developed in newly emerged individuals. The ultrastructural features of the HPG secretory cycle in workers of S. postica and A. mellifera are alike: granular endoplasmic reticulum well developed, large secretion masses around the intracellular canaliculus in nurse workers and extensive degenerative structures in forager workers. Then it is suggested that the HPG secrete similar substances in both species. A second secretory cycle seems to occur in early foragers, may be with production of enzymes. The role of the HPGs in queens and males remains unknown but one possibility is enzyme production.

  18. Effects of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil of Ricinus communis on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the effects of ricinoleic acid esters from Ricinus communis castor oil on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to hosts that were fed with commercial rabbit food containing these esters. The oocytes of ticks from the treatment group (TG) showed cytoplasmic changes that inhibited the development of oocytes I and II to the advanced stages (IV and V) in addition to preventing the maturation of oocytes V, resulting in small ones. In addition, sperm was not observed in ampoules. Our findings confirm the acaricide potential of ricinoleic acid esters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controle de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae no canil da Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae in the kennel of the UFMG Veterinary School, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Paz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como proposta controlar uma infestação natural de Rhipicephalus sanguineus em um canil pertencente à Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, com uma área de 72 m² e 25 cães de diversas raças. Um teste de sensibilidade a produtos acaricidas foi aplicado em uma amostra de carrapatos capturados no canil. Dos produtos testados: Amitraz 12,5% (Produto 1; uma associação de Alfametrina 2% e Dichlorvós 60% (produto 2; Deltametrina 5% (produto 3 e uma associação de Trichlorfon 77,6%, Coumaphós 1% e Cyfluthrin 1% (produto 4; somente os produtos 1 e 4 apresentaram 100% de eficácia. O Amitraz 12,5% foi utilizado no controle dos estádios de R. sanguineus presentes no ambiente do canil, com um esquema de 4 aplicações a cada 7 dias de intervalo. Para os estádios parasitários, um único tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on foi empregado em todos os animais. A inspeção e o monitoramento do ambiente e dos animais foram realizados durante um período de um ano. Estas medidas de controle reduziram significativamente a população de carrapatos dentro do canil. O canil não apresentou infestação pelo carrapato nos seis meses seguintes aos tratamentos. Uma infestação leve foi observada no 7º mês pós-tratamento, quando foi realizada uma nova aplicação de Amitraz 12,5% no ambiente do canil e um novo tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on nos animais, com resultados satisfatórios.The present work was aimed at proposing a control measure for Rhipicephalus sanguineus in a naturally infected kennel of 72 m² of the UFMG Veterinary School with 25 dogs of different breeds. A sensitivity test to acaricide products was applied in a sample of R. sanguineus. Out of the acaricide products tested: 12.5% Amitraz (product 1; 2% Alfamethrin and 60% Dichlorvos association (product 2; 5% Deltamethrin (product 3 and the association between 77.6% Trichlorfon, 1.0% Coumaphos and 1.0% Cyfluthrin (product 4; only 1 and 4 products showed 100% efficacy. Amitraz (12.5% was used for controlling R. sanguineus in the surrounding of the kennel, on which four treatments every seven days were carried out in the facilities. For parasitic R. sanguineus, a single topical treatment was used: Flumetrin 1.0% pour - on on all the 25 dogs. This control measure significantly reduced the population of R. sanguineus within the kennel. A slight infestation was observed in the seventh month after treatment. A new application of 12.5% Amitraz was done in the kennel as well as a new topical treatment with Flumetrin 1.0% pour - on on the dogs. The control procedure proposed in the present study was an emergency measure and its effectiveness was checked through environmental surveys throughout a one-year period.

  20. Aspectos da reprodução do caranguejo guaiamum, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille (Crustácea, Decapoda, Gecarcinidae da Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the "guaiamum" crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Gecarcinidae at the Sepetiba Bay mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to get knowledge about the "guaiamum" crabs reproduction. Two hundred and twenty four crabs were caught from August'96 to July'97. Their sex carapace color and morphometric data were obtained. The stages of gonadal development were macroscopically determined and the eggs diameter was measured. Three colors patters for the carapace for males, and four patters for females. Five stages of gonadal development were observed in female crabs, and two stages were observed for males. The first sexual maturity was estimated 53,0 mm carapace width for the females and 52,0 mm for the males. The ovigerous females occurred from March to May. The individual fecundity varied from 103.300 to 366.400 eggs. The eggs mean diameter was 0,39 mm.

  1. Estudio de factibilidad financiero para incrementar la producción de miel de abeja melipona en los cantones Portovelo, Zaruma y propuesta de comercialización en la ciudad de Guayaquil.

    OpenAIRE

    Arana Rodríguez, Luisana; Beltrán Apolo, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Con el desarrollo del presente estudio se logró demostrar que mediantes las herramientas del VAN y el TIR, la producción de miel de abeja especie Scaptotrigona aff. Postica es viable, así mismo con el cálculo PRI, el tiempo de recuperación de la inversión es de 2 años. Logrando así una Provincia emprendedora en rescatar producciones agrícolas y producciones de meliponicultura. With the development of the present study, it was able to demonstrate through the VAN and the TIR tools, that the...

  2. Utilization of an introduced weed biological control agent by a native parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A native parasitoid, Kalopolynema ema (Schauff and Grissell) (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), that usually parasitizes the eggs of Megamelus davisi VanDuzee (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has begun utilizing a new host, Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), the introduced biological control age...

  3. Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a big-eyed hoverfly from Peru and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N

    2016-03-15

    The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.

  4. Tres especies nuevas de Simulium Latreille de la región Neotropical: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. y sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae Três espécies novas de Simulium Latreille da região neotropical: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. e sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae Three new species of Simulium Latreille of the Neotropical region: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. and sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Coscarón

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Tres especies nuevas son descriptas: Simulium (Hemicnetha crisatalinum proveniente de Roraima, Brasil (hembra, macho, pupa y larva; pertenciente al el grupo brachycladum; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum de Junin, Perú (hembra, macho, pupa y larva; pertenciente al el grupo lahillei; (Grenieriella sumapazense proveniente de Cundinamarca, Colombia y descripta con base en la pupa y parte del macho.Três espécies novas são descritas: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum proveniente de Roraima, Brasil (fêmea, macho, pupa e larva; pertencente ao grupo brachycladum; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum de Junín, Perú (fêmea, macho, pupa e larva; pertencente ao grupo lahillei; sumapazense proveniente de Cundinamarca, Colombia e descrita com base na pupa e parte do macho.Three new species are described and illustrated: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum from Roraima, Brazil, (female, male, pupa and larva belonging to the brachycladum group; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum from Junín, Perú (female, male, pupa and larva belonging to the lahillei group and of the sumapazense from Cundinamarca, Colombia, the pupa, and part of the male are described.

  5. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    FARNESI, A. P.; AQUINO-FERREIRA, R.; de Jong, D.; Bastos,J. K.; Soares,A.E.E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better...

  6. Eficácia de diferentes formulações de acaricidas sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Melo Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p65 O parasitismo por ácaros sempre foi objeto de preocupações e perdas relacionadas à produção animal, assim como à transmissibilidade de agentes etiológicos de importantes doenças; e aproximadamente 95% das formas evolutivas dos carrapatos em fase não parasitária encontram-se no ambiente. Com base na importância de se controlar estágios larvares dos ixodídeos no ambiente, este estudo avaliou a eficácia de acaricidas in vitro sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Foram testadas: Cipermetrina 15% (T1; Deltametrina 25% (T2; associação de Cipermetrina 5% + Diclorvós 45% + Butóxido de piperolina 25% (T3; associação de Cipermetrina 15% + Clorpiriphos 25% + Citronela 1% (T4 e Amitraz 12,5% (T5. Para cada tratamento foram realizadas nove repetições contendo 20 larvas. As observações de motilidade foram realizadas: 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o tratamento (MPT; 1, 2, 6, 12 e 24 h após o tratamento (HPT; 5 dias após o tratamento (DPT. Os testes das larvas de R. (B. microplus e R. sanguineus com deltametrina 25% serviram de controle positivo e demonstraram perda de motilidade de 100% das larvas com duas HPT para ambas de ixodídeos. O R. (B. microplus apresentou maior sensibilidade aos desafios contendo a cipermetrina 15% e 5% associada ao diclorvós e butóxido de piperonila. Larvas de R. sanguineus apresentaram maior sensibilidade em menor tempo ao tratamento com amitraz a 12,5%. Contudo, apesar das diferenças no efeito acaricida observadas no decorrer dos tempos, obteve-se eficácia de 100% para todos os compostos inseticidas sobre os instares das duas espécies 12 HPT, demonstrando que, quando utilizados nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes, os produtos comerciais podem ser eficazes em estratégias de controle ambiental das larvas.

  7. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  8. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  9. Iridoid glucosides with insecticidal activity from Galium melanantherum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzakou, Olga; Mylonas, Philippos; Vagias, Constantinos; Petrakis, Panos V

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of the endemic species Galium melanantherum was evaluated against Crematogaster scutellaris ants and Kalotermes flavicollis termites. Iridoid glucosides 1-7 were isolated for the first time as metabolites of the investigated plant, along with the coumarin scopolin. The main components of the extract were found to be the non-acetylated iridoids: geniposidic acid (1), 10-hydroxyloganin (2), deacetyldaphylloside (3), monotropein (4), deacetylasperulosidic acid (5) and scandoside (6), while asperulosidic acid (7) was present only in minute quantities. All isolated metabolites were identified on the basis of their spectral data. Laboratory bioassays revealed significant levels of toxicity for 1-4 against Kalotermes flavicollis termites and Crematogaster scutellaris ants.

  10. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  11. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  12. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, A P; Aquino-Ferreira, R; De Jong, D; Bastos, J K; Soares, A E E

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better than green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We concluded that these resins have potential for human and veterinary medicine.

  13. Dynamic Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Radix Scutellariae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction(DMAE) of flavonoids from Radix Scutellarie was described in this article. A TM010 microwave resonant cavity was used as the energy coupler. Several parameters of DMAE, including concentration, flow rate, volume of the extraction solvent, and irradiation power, were optimized. The extraction was performed under the optimum conditions for the extraction of total flavonoids. The total flavonoids were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The main bioactive components, including baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were determined by HPLC. The extraction yields of the flavonoids obtained by DMAE were compared with those obtained by pressurized microwave assisted extraction( PMAE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE ), soxhlet extraction ( SE ), and reflux extraction( RE), and these results indicate that DMAE is a good alternative method for the extraction of flavonoids from Radix Scutellarie.

  14. Crustáceos decápodos da Ilha da Restinga

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    Maria da Conceição Quintino Farias

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the decapods crustaceans from Restinga island (Paraíba State, Brazil. A list of species collected from September 1977 to March 1978 and some ecological notes are given. Those following species were found in the island: Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann. Alpheus heterochaelis Say, Upogebia omissa Gomes-Corrêa, Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, Clibanarius vitatus (Bose, Clibanarius sclopetarius (Herbst, Callinectes danae Smith, Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, Callinectes bocourti. A.Milne Edwards, Callinectes sp., Panopeus herbstii. A. Milne Edwards, Cytoplax spinidentata (Benedict, Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, Aratus pisonii (Milme Eawards, Pachygrapsus gracilis (Saussure, Pachygrapsus transversus Gibbes, Sesarma rectum Randall, Sersama angustipes Dana, Cardisoma guanhunti Latreille, Uca leptodactyia Rathbun, Uca maracoani Latreille, Uca rapax (Smith, Uca panema Coelho, Uca thayeii Rathbun, Uca vocator Herbst, Uca cumulanta Crane, Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus e Calappa ocelata Holthuis.

  15. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Ultraspiracle Protein Gene from Apolygus lucorum%绿盲蝽超气门蛋白ALUSP的克隆、原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永安; 肖留斌; 孙洋; 赵静; 柏立新

    2014-01-01

    highly conserved, including two zinc fingers, a P-box, a D-box and a nuclear location signal that was constituted of eight amino acids. D domain included a T-box which could identify the DNA components and E domain, including a bag structure, was constituted of eightα-helix andβ-strand. The blast results showed that the amino acids sequence of ALUSP was the highest in similarity (57.82%) with Nezada viridula, and low in similarity with other insects, such as Melipona scutellaris (46.05%), Scaptotrigona depilis (45.94%), respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the USP genes from Hemiptera were more differentiation between Hymenoptera, which were located in different branches, ALUSP and N. viridula USP was the nearest in genetic evolution, which may be derived from common ancestors. The recombinant plasmid pEGX6P1-ALUSP was high-efficient expression in Rosetta gami B when induced by 37℃ and 1.0 mmol·L-1 IPTG. The 65 kD target protein from the strain containing ALUSP was obtained by the GST agarose affinity chromatography and the molecular sieve chromatography.[Conclusion]The full-length cDNA of ALUSP from A. lucorum was obtained and also got the recombinant protein. The protein had typical characteristics of insect ultraspiracle protein.

  16. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  17. A New Species Of Globicornis (Hadrotoma (Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Megatominae From Baltic Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Háva J.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The species Globicornis (Hadrotoma ingelehmannae sp. n. from Baltic amber is described, illustrated and compared with all known amber species of Globicornis Latreille, 1829. New species differs by the shape of antennae and black setation on dorsal and ventral surfaces.

  18. Survey of Predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata. PMID:20334592

  19. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  20. Nesten van de reuzenmier Camponotus ligniperda in het noordwesten van haar verspreidingsgebied (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierbergen, G.; Loon, van A.J.; Versluys, G.; Willems, N.H.W.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nests of the carpenter ant Camponotus ligniperda in the northwestern part of its range (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Camponotus ligniperda (Latreille, 1802) is a rare ant species restricted to the eastern part of the Netherlands. Most records relate to a low number of workers. In this paper the species

  1. New species of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon

    2008-01-01

    Four new species of Dolichopodidae are described from central Pennsylvania: Campsicnemus wilderae Runyon, Dolichopus dracula Runyon, Dolichopus hurleyi Runyon, and Dolichopus frosti Runyon. Keys to males of Campsicnemus Haliday and Dolichopus Latreille with lamellate aristae are provided for species from eastern North America.

  2. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) are used commercially to control pest insects and for protein production. In this respect fast colony growth is desirable for managed colonies. Transplantation of non-nestmate pupae to incipient colonies has been shown to boost colony growth. Our objec...

  3. Two new species and new records of the genus Spinolyprops Pic, 1917 from the Oriental Region (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Lupropini) (*).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Spinolyprops Pic, 1917 (Tenebrionidae, subfamily Lagriinae Latreille, 1825) are described from Thailand and China (Spinolyprops cribricollissp. n., Spinolyprops thailandicussp. n.). The species characters within the genus are discussed, photographs of all seven Oriental species are added, a species key for the Oriental species is compiled, and a map with the distributional patterns is provided.

  4. Revision of some Oriental Anthophorine Bees of the genus Amegilla Friese (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieftinck, M.A.

    1956-01-01

    Anticipating a revision of the genera and subgenera of the tribe Anthophorini, a number of south-east Asiatic species previously included in Anthophora Latreille, are transferred by the author to Amegilla Friese. The types were studied of Anthophora villosula F. Smith, and of 19 valid and 3 invalid

  5. Cooperation or Competition? The American and French Foreign Policies in Africa (Cooperation ou concurrence? La politique africaine de la France et des Etats-Unis en Afrique sub-saharienne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-26

    Christine. La Politique Etrang~re de la France : Acteurs et processus. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1999. Kwasi Fosu, Augustin , Saleh Nsouli, et Aristom...18-24 novembre 2004. Latreille, Thierry . o Etats-Unis - Afrique : qui b~n6ficie r6ellement de I’AGOA ? )>. Probl~mes 6conomiques, num 2.845, Paris

  6. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  7. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  8. Morphological alterations in Neotropical Ceratopogonidae (Diptera Alterações morfológicas em Ceratopogonidae (Diptera Neotropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Felippe-Bauer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological alterations in six different species of females Culicoides Latreille, 1809 and one of Monohelea Kieffer, 1917 from Brazil, Mexico, Panama and Peru are described. The correlation of the morphological changes with the taxonomy and behavior of the species is discussed.São descritas as alterações morfológicas em fêmeas de seis espécies de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 e uma de Monohelea Kieffer, 1917 provenientes do Brasil, México, Panamá e Peru. É discutida a correlação das alterações morfológicas com a taxonomia e as atividades das espécies.

  9. Contenido estomacal de langostas Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae en playa El Holandés, Sur de la Península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba - Stomach content of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in El Holandés beach, Southern of Peninsula of Guanahacabibes, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopeztegui Castillo, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de determinar la composición de la dieta natural de Panulirus argus (Latreille 1804, se realizó, durante los meses de julio-agosto del período 2004-2006, el análisis del contenido estomacal de ejemplares capturados in situ en el área protegida de playa El Holandés, al sur de La Península de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río.Abstract To determine the composition of the natural diet of Panulirus argus (Latreille 1804 lobsters, it was made, during the months of july-august (2004-2006, the analysis of the stomach content of lobsters captured in situ in the El Holandés beach, a protected beach in the south of Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Pinar del Río.

  10. Primary Analysis of Sexual Size Dimorphism in Three Species of Pilibug%三种鼠妇两性异型的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛; 万洪深; 刘缠民; 孙建梅; 冯照军

    2010-01-01

    球鼠妇(Armadillidium vulgare Latreille)、多霜腊鼠妇(Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt)和光滑鼠妇(Porcellio leavis Latreille)是等足目(Isopoda)动物中不同属的种类.试验分别测定了这三种鼠妇两性之间的体重、体长、体宽、体高、体长/体宽、体长/体高、体宽/体高的数值,统计分析了每种鼠妇两性之间的差异.结果表明,两性球鼠妇差异显著,两性多霜腊鼠妇有一定的差异,两性光滑鼠妇差异不显著.该结果提示等足类动物的两性异型存在多样性.

  11. 三种鼠妇形体特性的初步研究%Primary Study on the Shape Characters of Three Species of Pillbug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万洪深; 吴猛; 刘缠民; 孙建梅; 冯照军

    2010-01-01

    从等足类动物球鼠妇(Armadillidium vulgate Latreille)、多霜腊鼠妇(Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt)和光滑鼠妇(Porcellio leavis Latreille)的形体指标(体重、体长、体宽、体高等)及其相互间关系探讨了该类动物的形体特性.结果表明,种内性状之间呈乘幂函数关系,三种鼠妇均属于等速生长型;其中光滑鼠妇体长最大、球鼠妇的体高最大,虽然多霜腊鼠妇形体最小,但其运动速率最快.

  12. A revision of the genus Macrolygistopterus Pic, 1929 (Coleoptera, Lycidae, Calochromini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2016-04-21

    A taxonomic review of the Lycid genus Macrolygistopterus Pic, 1929 with illustrations of diagnostic characters, geographic distribution maps and an identification key to the species is presented. Also, a key to the world Calochromini is given. Of the 12 species of the genus, 9 were studied: M. succinctus (Latreille, 1811), M. quadricostatus (Buquet, 1842), M. caeruleus (Gorham, 1884), M. germaini Pic, 1930, M. grandjeani Pic, 1930, M. subparallelus Pic, 1930, M. testaceirostris Pic, 1930, M. simoni Pic, 1930 and M. kirschi Pic, 1931 were redescribed and their status as valid species is confirmed. The lectotypes and paralectotypes were designated for all those examined species. M. bilineatus (Pic, 1923), M. diversicornis Pic, 1930 and M. bipartitus Pic, 1933 remain as valid species since these specimens were not available for this study. M. succinctus var. scutelaris Pic, 1930 is proposed here as new junior synonym of M. succinctus (Latreille, 1811).

  13. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  14. Notes about morphological features of the Western Hemisphere subtribe Ardistomina, and revision of genus Semiardistomis Kult (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Clivinini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Comparisons of structural features (principally mouthparts, elytral-abdominal locking mechanism, and female genitalia) of the ardistomine genera (Aspidoglossa Putzeys, Ardistomis Putzeys, and Semiardistomis Kult) with those features of members of the subtribe Clivinina (Clivina Latreille, Oxydrepanus Putzeys, Schizogenius Putzeys,Ancus Putzeys, Nyctosyles Putzeys, and Obadius Burmeister) confirm the taxonomic validity of the subtribe Ardistomina. Based on morphological features, the ardistomine genera are postulated to be related as follows: [Aspidoglossa [Ardistomis + Semiardistomis

  15. Notes about morphological features of the Western Hemisphere subtribe Ardistomina, and revision of genus Semiardistomis Kult (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Clivinini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Valdes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of structural features (principally mouthparts, elytral-abdominal locking mechanism, and female genitalia of the ardistomine genera (Aspidoglossa Putzeys, Ardistomis Putzeys, and Semiardistomis Kult with those features of members of the subtribe Clivinina (Clivina Latreille, Oxydrepanus Putzeys, Schizogenius Putzeys, Ancus Putzeys, Nyctosyles Putzeys, and Obadius Burmeister confirm the taxonomic validity of the subtribe Ardistomina. Based on morphological features, the ardistomine genera are postulated to be related as follows: [Aspidoglossa [Ardistomis + Semiardistomis

  16. Cold tolerance of terrestrial isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Součková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The woodlice, Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804), is a terrestrial isopod. Its metabolic reserves and body size are important factors affecting the fitness attributes, such as survival at unfavourable conditions. The larger and heavier individuals did not survive longer than smaller individuals. Amount of glycogen and body weight (fresh and dry) appeared to be an inapplicable parameter in the observed differences among individuals during survival at low temperature. We compared three treatmen...

  17. Revisão de Elbella Evans e gêneros afins (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae) Revision of Elbella Evans and related genera (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke,Olaf H.H.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study of the genera Microceris Watson, 1893, Elbella Evans, 1951, Parelbella. gen.n. (type species: Hesperia polyzona [Latreille, 1824]), Pseudocroniades. gen.n. (type species: Ericides (sic) machaon Westwood, [1852]) and Protelbella, gen.n. (type species: Pyrrhopyga (sic) alburna Mabille, 1891), a natural group of the Pyrrhopyginae, here called "Elbella Complex", is presented. The following are spp.n. and sspp.n.: Elbella intersecta paraensis, Brazil: Pará; Elbella intersecta ru...

  18. Remarkable discovery in a cave of south west Morocco: Siagona taggadertensis n.sp. (Carabidae: Siagoninae)

    OpenAIRE

    Junger, Bernard; Faille, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Five species of the genus Siagona Latreille 1804 (Carabidae: Siagoninae) are known from Morocco. Siagona taggadertensis n. sp., a remarkable species of Carabidae from a Moroccan cave is described. This insect is spectacular by its large size (one of the largest species of the genus), its external morphology, which isolates it from all the north african representant of the genus, and for the conditions of its discovery: its only known from the remains of six specimens, all of them foun...

  19. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A; Melo, Gabriel A R; Engel, Michael S

    2011-05-11

    A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe.

  20. Survey of the Fruit Flies in Yunxian%云县地区实蝇类害虫的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 李德光

    2012-01-01

    2008年采用性诱剂诱捕法对云县地区实蝇类害虫进行了调查,并对实蝇优势种种群动态进行了分析.结果表明,实蝇种类共有8种,其中优势种为橘小实蝇、黑漆实蝇和南瓜实蝇;实蝇在云县地区为季节性发生,冬季诱捕不到实蝇;高峰期出现在7月或8月.%The fruits flies in Yunxian were surveyed in 2008 with the method of sex pheromone-baited traps, the dynamics of dominant populations were analyzed. As indicated by the results, there are totally eight species of fruit flies, the dominant species are Bactrocera scutellaris, Bac-trocera scutellaris and Bactrocera tau. Fruit flies in Yunxian did not occur all year round. There are no fruit flies in winter and the peak period is in July to August.

  1. Seasonal variation of Hemiptera community of a temple pond of Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study records seven families, 11 genera and 14 species of hemipteran insect community in different seasons in a temple pond near Silchar, Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India. The pond is very rich in macrophytes like Nelumbo nucifera (Water Lotus, Hygrorhiza aristata (Indian Lotus, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda Grass, Philotria sp. etc. The hemipteran families recorded in the system were Corixidae, Gerridae, Aphididae, Mesoveliidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae and Belostomatidae. The species were Micronecta haliploides, Micronecta (Basileonecta scutellaris scutellaris (Stål (Corixidae; Neogerris parvula (Stål, Limnogonus nitidus (Mayr, Tenagogerris sp., Rhagadotarsus sp. (Gerridae; Enithares ciliata (Fabricius, Anisops lundbladiana Landsbury, (Notonectidae; Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius and Diplonychus annulatus (Fabricius (Belostomatidae, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linnaeus (Aphididae, Ranatra elongata (Fabricius, Ranatra varipes varipes (Stål (Nepidae and Mesovelia vittigera Horváth (Mesoveliidae. The highest population of Hemiptera was recorded during the post-monsoon followed by the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. The lowest was recorded in the winter. Shannon Weiner diversity index (H/ and evenness index (J/ showed the highest diversity and evenness during the post monsoon period. Berger Parker index of dominance (d was found highest in winter. In winter both diversity and density were the lowest. The study revealed the presence of four dominant species and three sub-dominant species in the pond. Insect diversity did not show any significant relationship with the environmental variables.

  2. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de méis de cinco espécies de abelhas brasileiras sem ferrão Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dória Mercês

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de méis produzidos por Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula e Plebeia sp. foi investigada. O teste de difusão em poço demonstrou que todos os méis tem ação antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, mas somente as amostras produzidas por M. quadrifasciata anthidioides e F. doederleinei inibiram o crescimento de Escherichia coli. No ensaio de determinação da concentração inibitória mínima, os méis de M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei e T. angustula foram mais ativos que os de Plebeia sp. frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Os micro-organismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans foram resistentes a todos os méis em ambos ensaios. Os méis foram mais efetivos contra as bactérias do que frente a uma solução de açúcar, sugerindo que o mecanismo de inibição do crescimento bacteriano não está somente relacionado ao efeito osmótico. Os resultados obtidos podem explicar o uso medicinal desses méis em doenças bacterianas.The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition

  4. Taxa de polinização cruzada em cubiu Natural outcrossing in cocona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de hibridação natural em Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal foram avaliadas em Manaus, AM, duas cultivares que se diferenciavam pela presença ou ausência de pigmentação de antocianina nos ramos, pecíolos e nervuras das folha. A taxa de polinização cruzada foi avaliada em três épocas do florescimento das plantas e foi estimada em 31%. Durante o desenvolvimento da cultura, observou-se grande presença de abelhas dos gêneros (Apidae Paratrigona, Trigona e Melipona e coleópteros Crysomelidae.In order to evaluate the natural rates of outcrossing in cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, two cultivars, one with antocyanin presence and other without antocyanin, were planted in Manaus, AM, Brazil. The percentage of cross-polination was evaluated in three plant flowering periods and was estimated in 31%. During the period of cultivation, high presence of beas of Apidae genus Paratrigona, Trigona and Melipona and beetle Crysomelidae were observed.

  5. Abundância, Distribuição Espacial de Ninhos de Abelhas Sem Ferrão (Apidae: Meliponini e Espécies Vegetais Utilizadas para Nidificação em um Fragmento de Floresta Secundária em Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Silva Correia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. Was conducted a study of the abundance, distribution of bee nests stingless (Apidae: Meliponini and plant species used for nesting in a fragment of secondary forest in Rio Branco-Acre. The field surveys took place in August 2015 in a forest area measuring 137 ha. The nesting substrates (trees were identified and their location recorded by GPS, and also checked the CAP measures (circumference at breast height and height of entry of the nests from the ground. In total, we found 25 nests of stingless bees distributed in three genera, with Melipona eburnea Friese the most abundant species (n=14, followed by Scaptotrigona sp. (n=7, Melipona crinita Moure & Kerr (n=2 and Tetragona sp. (n=2. The botanical species most provided cavities for foundation of the nests were Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae with seven nests (28% in an only individual, followed by Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and Castilla ulei Warb. (Moraceae, both with three nests (12%. The density of nests was significantly lower (0.18/ha when compared to other studies in the Neotropics, which may be related to fragment size and the degree of disturbance since it is characterized by being in a forest regeneration process.

  6. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Maruthadurai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker and three species of syrphids, viz., Paragus serratus (Fabricius, Dideopsis aegrota (Fabricius and Ischidon scutellaris (Fabricius were found predating on A. odinae.  All the immature stages of predators were found predating on first, second, third and fourth instars of the aphid.  Among the coccinellids, the dominant species were S. castaneus (4.26 grubs/nut followed by C. sexmaculata (0.42 grubs/leaf and P. flaviceps (0.14 grubs/nut.  Of the syrphids, P. serratus 2.39 larvae/nut was the major predator. The species D. aegrota (1.2 larvae/leaf and I. scutellaris (0.5 larvae/nut were recorded as minor predators.  Seasonal abundance of predators was synchronized with the aphid with a maximum occurrence during February 2015.  The aphid population gradually reduced from April onwards due to the voracious feeding activity of the predators.  The study concluded that the aphidophagous predators, viz., coccinellids and syrphids play a  major role in managing the aphid A. odinae in cashew and could be encouraged for augmentation and conservation of these predators in a cashew based ecosystem.

  7. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  8. List of parasites' names of poultry and form animal in Yannan province%云南省家畜家禽寄生虫名录(五)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德生; 李绍珠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 节肢动物门Arthropoda 蛛形纲Arachnida 蜱螨目Acarina 70硬蜱科Ixodidae 70.1硬蜱属Ixodes Latreille,1795 70.1.1粒形硬蜱I.granulatus Supino,1897 宿主与寄生部位:黄牛.皮肤. 分布:勐腊、江城、潞西、盈江、陇川、思茅、耿马、昆明.

  9. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  10. Five new records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ahmed; Reyes-López, Joaquin L

    2015-01-01

    A recent catalogue of the rich ant fauna of Morocco included 214 species, with later studies adding an additional 12 species. Following recent fieldwork in the north of Morocco, we report five new records for the country (Plagiolepis pygmaea Latreille, 1798, Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, Strumigenys tenuipilis Emery, 1915, Temnothorax pardoi Tinaut, 1987, and Tetramorium parvioculum Guillem & Bensusan, 2009) and we present new data on the distribution and natural history of six additional species. This work brings the total number of ants known from Morocco to 233, taking into account two species which were omitted in the list of Cagniant. © Crown copyright 2015.

  11. A new species of Scytodes from Algeria (Araneae: Scytodidae), with a review of the species from the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keer, Johan Van; Bosmans, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Four spitting spider species in the genus Scytodes are recorded from the Maghreb: Scytodes annulipes Simon, 1907, stat. n. (elevated to species rank), S. major Simon, 1885, S. velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832 and Scytodes seppoi Bosmans & Van Keer, sp. n. The male and female of the latter are described and illustrated. No recent records of the commonly cited S. thoracica (Latreille, 1804) can be provided, so earlier citations are considered to be erroneous. Images, illustrations and new distribution data of the other three known species in the Maghreb are given.

  12. Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae): Yet another bee species from the Galápagos Archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Carrión, A.; Castro-Urgal, R.

    2012-01-01

    We here report the leaf-cutter bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) timberlakei Cockerell 1920 (Megachilidae) as a third bee species in the Gala´pagos. The species is currently known from the Hawaiian Islands and was collected during floral inventories on San Cristo´ bal. We provide floral records as well...... as a diagnosis and comparative comments that will assist bee researchers to easily recognize this species from other native and adventive Megachile Latreille to the Americas. We also discuss the possible routes to the Gala´pagos....

  13. An annotated checklist of click-beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-07-11

    The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.

  14. Sulawesi Onthophagus: seven new species in select groups (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J; Huijbregts, J

    2017-03-05

    Eleven species in five small operational groups of the scarab genus Onthophagus Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are treated, all from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi and nearby smaller islands. These groups are defined, and their species are keyed, described, and illustrated, including the following seven new species: Onthophagus bisscrutator (O. scrutator group); O. bongkudai (O. holosericus group); O. sopu (O. manguliensis group); O. hollowayi, O. seseba, and O. annulopunctatus (O. seseba group); and O. begoniophilus (O. deflexicollis group). Lectotypes are designated for Onthophagus scrutator Harold, 1877 and O. holosericus Harold, 1877.

  15. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae and their role as vectors of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hiwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname, the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811. The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  16. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  17. Evaluación de los cambios pre y postcosecha de la miel de especies de abejas sin aguijón

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio Tuso, Doris Jannet

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo permitió establecer que de las abejas sin aguijón, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811), por abundancia de nidos, volumen de miel, número de colmenas y adaptabilidad a diversos ambientes naturales en Colombia, es la especie con mayor potencial. Se caracterizaron cuatro tipos de potes según su estructura y las propiedades de la miel, evidenciando que este aspecto se debe tener en cuenta en el momento de la extracción. Se encontraron graves deficiencias en la calidad microbioló...

  18. The genus Alphitobius Stephens (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini in Africa and adjacent islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schawaller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802 from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796; Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953; Peltoides (Micropeltoides crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969, comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled.

  19. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15704-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 0.003 15 ( EU746614 ) Nasonia giraulti strain RV2 12S ribosomal RNA gen... 32 0.003 6 ( EK388939 ) 1095469...rum 3D7 chromosome 2 section 36... 32 0.006 6 ( EV420829 ) 210793339 NGP Nasonia giraulti cDNA clone 175O9 3... Melipona bicolor mitochondrial genome, partial se... 34 0.077 5 ( EV422791 ) 210806909 NGP Nasonia giraul...exua... 40 0.26 2 ( EV424049 ) 211355086 NGP Nasonia giraulti cDNA clone 238I5 3...... 32 0.26 4 ( ES519580 ) BIG_AF_25733 Brine Shrimp embryos, 15 hours after... 40 0.26 2 ( EV419868 ) 210785526 NGP Nasonia giraul

  1. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya la diversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  2. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  3. Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Gene

    2017-01-31

    Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.

  4. Levantamento da fauna de abelhas silvestres na "zona da mata" de Minas Gerais: III. Mata secundária na região de Viçosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea Survey of the wild bees of the "zona da mata" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: III. Secondary forest in Viçosa region (Hymenoptera, Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Cure

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a wild bee fauna survey in a secondary forest is reported. Sampling was carried out mainly on herbaceous and shrubby vegetation under and at the border of the forest. Results are compared with data collected with the same methodology from a previously surveyed grassland nearby. The secondary forest was richer in Anthophoridae and Apidae species, and less diverse in Megachilidae. Similarity between the two habitats was low. Several unidentified species of Ceratinula, Trichocerapis mirabilis and the stingless bees Melipona bicolor, M. quadrifasciata, M. marginata, Paratrigona subnuda, Scaptotrigona tubiba and S. xanthotricha, are among the species dependent on the forest environment to survive. Bee population densities in the forest understory are as large as the largest values found for open vegetation in Southeastern Brazil; species richness is also comparable to those of other areas in Southeastern Brazil. Sampling strategies are discussed.

  5. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for.

  6. Mujeres mayas, abejas mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Negrín Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    El cultivo de las abejas sin aguijón (meliponas) se ha practicado en la península de Yucatán (México) desde tiempos remotos como lo indican diversas evidencias arqueológicas y documentales. Llama la atención que en la gran mayoría de la vasta literatura histórica que aborda el tema, no se haga mención de la mujer como participante de esa práctica; acaso debido a que, al igual que otros trabajos del campo y de muchos otros ámbitos, ha estado reservado exclusivamente para el hombre. Es hasta ti...

  7. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge andidentify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.RESUMEN: Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya ladiversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  8. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-07-18

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia).

  9. Crustacea Decapoda captured through a passive collection in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro Teixeira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to carry out, through passive collection, a survey of Crustacea Decapoda species present in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil, during spring season of 2009. The collections were carried out in five sites, distributed over the final 10km of the river, using traps containing biological bait left underwater for 15h. To assess the abiotic variables, temperature, pH, and conductivity values were measured. A total of 135 individuals was registered, belonging to three species: the shrimps Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 and M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836, besides the crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828. In addition to these, two other crab species were collected: Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 and Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867. The highest values were registered in P4 (34.07% of individuals, P1 (23.70%, and P3 (22.96%. Temperature and pH presented a small variation throughout the analyses (respectively, 5.1-5.8 and 25.7-29.1°C. In turn, conductivity differed the estuary point (P5 from the other ones (respectively, 886mS and 41-48mS. No individual was registered in P2. The distribution of species was related to the type of microhabitat and the habit of each of them.

  10. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

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    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  11. New records of Muscidae (Diptera in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil Novos registros de dípteros muscóides em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil

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    Hera Luana Luiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic flies outstanding beside other flies due their relative abundance close to domestic animals and human population, to which they are able to cause myiasis or transmit pathogenic agents. As they're necrophagous they act as corpse decomposers and are useful in the forensic entomology in the post mortem interval determination. This study aimed to know flies diversity and abundance in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Captures were made weekly, utilizing three traps baited with decaying fish meat, from June of 2008 to May of 2009 in a remainder ciliary forest of the Embrapa's Cattle Beef Experimental Farm. The dipterans families that were considered and respectively number of collected specimens were: Calliphoridae (105,334; Muscidae (27,999; Sarcophagidae (21,083; Fanniidae (17,759 and Mesembrinellidae (305, totalizing 172,480 dipterous. To the local known species some Muscidae were increased as follows: Neomuscina atincticosta, Pseudoptilolepis elbida, Polietina orbitalis, Polietina flavithorax, Scutellomusca scutellaris, Graphomya analis and Morellia couriae.As moscas sinantrópicas se destacam pelo fato de serem relativamente abundantes junto à população humana e animais domésticos, podendo causar a estes miíases ou transmitir agentes patogênicos. Por serem necrófagas, atuam na decomposição de cadáveres e são úteis para a entomologia forense como indicadores na determinação do intervalo post mortem - IPM. Este trabalho visou conhecer a diversidade e a abundância das espécies em Campo Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. As capturas foram realizadas semanalmente, com três armadilhas, utilizando isca de peixe deteriorado, durante o período de junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 em mata ciliar remanescente na fazenda experimental da Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram consideradas as seguintes famílias de dípteros, seguidas pelo número de exemplares obtidos: Calliphoridae (105.334; Muscidae (27.999; Sarcophagidae (21

  12. Molecular detection of Bartonella species in ticks from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gonzales-Hidalgo, James; Luna-Caypo, Deysi; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2011-11-01

    A total of 103 ticks, collected from canines, horses, donkeys, and snakes from Peru, were screened for the presence of Bartonella DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in two ticks using Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region primers and in an additional two ticks using Bartonella NADH dehydrogenase gamma subunit gene (nuoG) primers. Bartonella rochalimae Eremeeva et al., B. quintana Schmincke, and B. elizabethae Daly et al. DNA was detected in a Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (Acari: Ixodidae) female tick removed from a dog and B. quintana DNA was present in a Dermacentor nitens Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) pool of five larvae, one nymph, and one adult male tick collected from donkeys. This is the first study to report the detection of B. rochalimae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae DNA in ticks from Peru. Further investigations must be performed to decipher the role ticks may play in the transmission of Bartonella species.

  13. Loyolanthidium gen. n. e três espécies novas neotropicais (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae Loyolanthidium gen. n. and three new neotropical species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Loyolanthidium gen. n. (type species: Anthidium apicale Cresson, 1878 is proposed to accommodate the western hemisphere species hitherto placed by the authors in Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904. Three new species are described: Loyolanthidium bolivianum sp. n. (from Bolívia, Loyolanthidium azteca sp. n. and Loyolanthidium xilitlense sp. n. (both from México. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: Loyolanthidium apicale (Cresson, 1878 comb. n. = Anthidium albopilosum Friese, 1910 syn. n. = Anthidium auricolle Friese, 1921 syn. n.; Loyolanthidium ehrhorni (Cockerell, 1900 comb, n.; Loyolanthidium gilense (Cockerell, 1897 comb, n.; Loyolanthidium notatum (Latreille, 1809 comb, n.; Loyolanthidium perplexum (Smith, 1854 comb, n.; Loyolanthidium robertsoni (Cockerell, 1904 comb. n. and Loyolanthidium toltecum (Cresson, 1878 comb. n.

  14. Global revision of the dulotic ant genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, Formicini).

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    Trager, James C

    2013-01-01

    The genus Polyergus is characterized, and all valid species reinstated and re-described, and five new species described, based on morphometric, ecological, host-association, and biogeographic characteristics. Polyergus contains 14 species: 3 Palaearctic, 11 Nearctic. The rufescens group comprises western Eurasian rufescens Latreille 1804 including its former eastern subspecies tianschanicus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky 1927 new synonymy, and the following American species, informally called the breviceps complex: breviceps Emery 1893 sensu stricto, revised status, bicolor Wasmann 1901 new status, mexicanus Forel 1899 new status, topoffi new species, and vinosus new species. The lucidus group comprises longicornis M. R. Smith 1947 new status, lucidus Mayr 1870 sensu stricto, revised status, montivagus Wheeler 1915 new status, oligergus new species, ruber new species, and sanwaldi new species. The samurai group comprises two blackish forms: the western Asian P. nigerrimus Marikovsky 1963 and eastern Asian P. samurai Yano 1911. Polyergus texana Buckley 1866 is excluded from Polyergus.

  15. Further observations on zooplankton of the Potengi Estuary (Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil with special reference to the larvae of Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    C Sankarankutty

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with data on zooplankton collected from the estuary of Potengi, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil covering a period of one year from October 1992 to October 1993. Three fixed stations within the estuary located at varying distances from the mouth of the river were sampled. Sampling was done monthly when the tide was lowest. Analysis of the samples has shown clear pattern of seasonal variations in abundance of the dominant zooplankton components which are composed of Copepoda, Appendicularia, larvae of Brachyura, larvae of Cirripedia and Chaetognalha. A detailed study of the larvae of Brachyura was also attempted which showed that seven species can be identified in the samples, of which those of Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille have already been described. Other five species are designated here numerically and description of various stages present in the samples are given.

  16. Molecular characterization of constitutive heterochromatin in three species of Trypoxylon (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, Trypoxylini by CMA3/DAPI staining

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    Rodolpho Menezes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cytogenetic analyses in Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796 have been basically restricted to C-banding. In the present study, base-specific CMA3 and DAPI fluorochrome staining were used to characterize the constitutive heterochromatin in three Trypoxylon species. The heterochromatin was GC-rich in all the species studied; however, in Trypoxylon nitidum F. Smith, 1856 the molecular composition of the heterochromatin was different among chromosome pairs. Conversely, the euchromatin was AT-rich in the three species. These results suggest high conservatism in the euchromatic regions as opposed to the heterochromatic regions that have a high rate of changes. In this study, we report the karyotype of Trypoxylon rugifrons F. Smith, 1873 which has the lowest chromosome number in the genus and other characteristics of the likely ancestral Trypoxylon karyotype.

  17. Molecular characterization of constitutive heterochromatin in three species of Trypoxylon (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae: Trypoxylini) by CMA3/DAPI staining.

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    Menezes, Rodolpho Santos Telles; Carvalho, Antonio Freire; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Costa, Marco Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Previous cytogenetic analyses in Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796 have been basically restricted to C-banding. In the present study, base-specific CMA3 and DAPI fluorochrome staining were used to characterize the constitutive heterochromatin in three Trypoxylon species. The heterochromatin was GC-rich in all the species studied; however, in Trypoxylon nitidum F. Smith, 1856the molecular composition of the heterochromatinwasdifferent among chromosome pairs. Conversely, the euchromatin was AT-rich in the three species. These results suggest high conservatism in the euchromatic regions as opposed to the heterochromatic regions that have a high rate of changes. In this study, we report the karyotype of Trypoxylon rugifrons F. Smith, 1873which has the lowest chromosome number in the genus and other characteristics of the likely ancestral Trypoxylon karyotype.

  18. An annotated catalogue of the type material of Elateroidea Leach, 1815 (Coleoptera) deposited in the Coleoptera collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza

    2015-03-25

    The Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo (MZSP) houses one of the most important Coleoptera collections of Brazil and Neotropical Region with nearly 900,000 adult mounted material and about 1,500,000 specimens to be mounted. The superfamily Elateroidea Leach, 1815 (including Cantharoidea) comprises about 24,077 described species in 17 families. The MZSP owns type material of Brachypsectridae LeConte & Horn, 1883, Cantharidae, 1856 (1815), Cerophytidae Latreille, 1834, Elateridae Leach 1815, Eucnemidae Eschscholtz, 1829, Lampyridae Rafinesque, 1815, Lycidae Laporte, 1836, Phengodidae LeConte, 1861 and Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988. This catalogue includes type material of 166 species distributed in 69 genera. Among 1,223 type specimens, are 86 holotypes, 1,133 paratypes, 2 allotypes, 1 lectotype and 1 paralectotype.

  19. Stock assessment of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus caught in the tropical southwestern Atlantic

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    Humber A Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stocks of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 in the Caribbean and in the Brazilian coast are of considerable economic importance. There are important genetic differences between the Brazilian and Caribbean populations, which support separated stock assessment. The present study provides an assessment of the Brazilian stock of P. argus using a biomass dynamic model based on a Bayesian approach. Assuming that the catch per unit effort is a valid index of relative abundance, the results of the analysis indicate that stocks have been heavily overexploited since the 1980s. The present-day scenario is pessimistic, and there is evidence that the stock may be close to collapse.

  20. Species of Euglossa of the analis group in the Atlantic forest (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 of the analis group inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic forest are revised and identification keys for males and females are provided. Five species are recognized in the Atlantic forest: Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970, Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, Euglossa roderici Nemésio, 2009 and two new species described here, Euglossa botocuda sp. nov. and Euglossa calycina sp. nov. These two new species have been misidentified by previous authors as Atlantic forest populations of, respectively, Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899. Relevant morphological features are illustrated and distribution maps are also provided. Notes on the analis group are included and an additional available name, Euglossa aureiventris Friese, 1899, is placed in this species group.

  1. Identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

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    Rounds, Megan A; Crowder, Christopher D; Matthews, Heather E; Philipson, Curtis A; Scoles, Glen A; Ecker, David J; Schutzer, Steven E; Eshoo, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    Many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. These intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. We used a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay designed to detect a wide range of vectorborne microorganisms to characterize endosymbiont genetic signatures from Amblyomma americanum (L.), Amblyomma maculatum Koch, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes ricinus (L.), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected at various sites and of different stages and both sexes. The assay combines the abilities to simultaneously detect pathogens and closely related endosymbionts and to identify tick species via characterization of their respective unique endosymbionts in a single test.

  2. Taxonomic Position of the Oriental Species of Mesosa (Mesosa (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Mesosini

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    Junsuke Yamasako

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve oriental mesosine species which had been belonged to the nominotypical subgenus of the genus Mesosa Latreille, 1829, are transferred to the subgenus Dissosira Pascoe, 1865 of the genus Agelasta Newman, 1842, as follows: A. (D. perplexa (Pascoe, 1858; A. (D. columba (Pascoe, 1859; A. (D. rufa (Breuning, 1935; A. (D. catenatoides Yamasako and N. Ohbayashi, nom. nov. [replacement name for A. (D. laosensis (Breuning, 1935 already occupied by Pic (1925]; A. (D. gardneri (Breuning, 1938; A. (D. nigropunctata (Breuning, 1938; A. (D. konoi (Hayashi, 1956; A. (D. yonaguni (Hayashi, 1962; A. (D. nigrostictica (Breuning, 1967; A. (D. siamana (Breuning, 1974; A. (D. praelongipes (Kusama and Irie, 1976; A. (D. kumei (Takakuwa, 1991.

  3. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

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    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  4. Review of the Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea) from the territory of the former Yugoslavia, with three newly reported species.

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    Zikić, Vladimir; Van Achterberg, Cornelis; Stanković, Saša S; Dubaić, Jovana Bila; Cetković, Aleksandar

    2014-05-02

    The results of more than 120 years of investigation of the fauna of Gasteruptiidae for the territory of former Yugoslavia (including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia) are summarized. Results from recently collected material and from unidentified specimens in collections are combined with those of published records. The total number of valid species of the genus Gasteruption Latreille for the area of former Yugoslavia is 22, which is more than in any country represented in Fauna Europaea database. One species is firstly recorded for the mainland Europe (G. syriacum Szépligeti), two more species are newly recorded for the investigated area and there are 23 first country-records for the involved countries (based on 17 species).

  5. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  6. The type specimen and generic placement of Tridactylus galla Saussure, 1895 (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Tridactylidae).

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    Heads, Sam W; Hollier, John

    2016-11-15

    Tridactylus galla was described by Henri de Saussure (1895) on the basis of a single adult female collected during Vittorio Bottego's first expedition to the Horn of Africa in 1892 and 1893. The species appears in lists compiled by Fenizia (1896), Lucas (1898) and Kirby (1906), but aside from a brief mention by Günther (1995), is entirely overlooked by subsequent authors and is absent from Otte's (1997) catalogue. During the course of compiling an annotated catalogue of the Orthoptera described by Saussure (Hollier and Heads, 2012) we were able to relocate the type of Tridactylus galla in the collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" in Genova, Italy. Our examination of the specimen confirmed Günther's (1995) assertion that its placement in Tridactylus Olivier, 1789 is erroneous, and the species is herein formally transferred to the genus Xya Latreille, 1809.

  7. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

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    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  8. Entomofauna visitante de Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC (Iridaceae durante o período de floração Flowering entomofauna Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae during flowering time

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the reproductive biology of B. chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae was realized comprising floral biology and breeding systems. The floral biology studies included analyses of nectar production, occurence of osmophores, corolla pigments, ultraviolet reflexion and absortion patterns, viability of pollen, pollinators and flower visitors. The breeding systems were studied taking into account the results of manual pollinators tests. B. chinensis is self-compatible bul cross-pollination is more frequent. The effective pollinators are Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1906 (45,7%, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (27,3%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (9,3%. Others insects visitors are considered nectar and pollen thieves. The flowering begins generally in January and February. The complete reproductive cicle, as here considered, begining with floral bud production ending with development of mature fruits, lasts January to June. Seed dispersion is ornitocoric.

  9. The presence of the ancestral insect telomeric motif in kissing bugs (Triatominae) rules out the hypothesis of its loss in evolutionarily advanced Heteroptera (Cimicomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Sebastián; Panzera, Francisco; Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data analysis on Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha, Reduviidae) revealed the presence of the ancestral insect (TTAGG)n telomeric motif in its genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirms that chromosomes bear this telomeric sequence in their chromosomal ends. Furthermore, motif amount estimation was about 0.03% of the total genome, so that the average telomere length in each chromosomal end is almost 18 kb long. We also detected the presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in other three species of Triatominae: Triatoma dimidiata Latreille, 1811, Dipetalogaster maxima Uhler, 1894, and Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl, 1859. This is the first report of the (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat in the infraorder Cimicomorpha, contradicting the currently accepted hypothesis that evolutionarily recent heteropterans lack this ancestral insect telomeric sequence.

  10. The presence of the ancestral insect telomeric motif in kissing bugs (Triatominae rules out the hypothesis of its loss in evolutionarily advanced Heteroptera (Cimicomorpha

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    Sebastián Pita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing data analysis on Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha, Reduviidae revealed the presence of the ancestral insect (TTAGGn telomeric motif in its genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirms that chromosomes bear this telomeric sequence in their chromosomal ends. Furthermore, motif amount estimation was about 0.03% of the total genome, so that the average telomere length in each chromosomal end is almost 18 kb long. We also detected the presence of (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in other three species of Triatominae: Triatoma dimidiata Latreille, 1811, Dipetalogaster maxima Uhler, 1894, and Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl, 1859. This is the first report of the (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in the infraorder Cimicomorpha, contradicting the currently accepted hypothesis that evolutionarily recent heteropterans lack this ancestral insect telomeric sequence.

  11. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

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    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  12. Detección de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos. Corrientes, Argentina Detection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in domiciliary and extra-domiciliary ecotopes. Corrientes, Argentina

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    Miryam Pieri Damborsky

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar los triatominos que predominan en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos de diferentes departamentos de la Provincia de Corrientes mediante muestreos llevados a cabo desde 1985 hasta 1995. En los ecótopos domiciliarios se detectaron Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811 y Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835. T. infestans y T. sordida se hallaron también en ambientes peridomésticos. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida y Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 se colectaron en biótopos silvestres. En los domicilios, se confirmó el predominio de T. infestans. Esta especie fue la única parasitada por tripanosomas cruziformes. Si bien T. sordida fue más frecuente en los ecótopos extradomésticos, se demostró su tendencia a colonizar los ambientes domésticos.In order to identify intra- and extra-domiciliary triatomines, a study in different counties of Corrientes Province, Argentina, was conducted from 1985 to 1995. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811, and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 were detected in domestic ecotopes. T. infestans and T. sordida were also found in the peridomicile. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida, and Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 were collected in sylvatic biotopes. T. infestans was confirmed as the predominant species in the domestic environment and was the only species infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites. T. sordida was most frequent in extra-domiciliary ecotopes, but could be considered capable of colonizing human dwellings.

  13. A review of the weevil fauna (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Araucariaceae in South Brazil

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    Roland Mecke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle superfamily Curculionoidea includes 43 species associated with Araucaria angustifolia trees in South Brazil. These weevil species belong to the families Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 and Curculionidae, the latter including the subfamilies Curculioninae (Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843, Cossoninae (Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964, Scolytinae (Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913 and Platypodinae (Cenocephalus Chapuis, 1865, Platypus Herbst, 1893, Tesserocerus Saunders, 1836. A checklist of all species including remarks on their life histories and taxonomic notes are presented. In addition, a key for the identification of adult Curculionoidea associated with Araucaria angustifolia to genus or species level is provided.A superfamília Curculionoidea compreende 43 espécies associadas à Araucaria angustifolia no sul do Brasil. As espécies destes gorgulhos pertencem às famílias Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 e Curculionidae, (Curculioninae: Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843; Cossoninae: Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964; Scolytinae: Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913; Platypodinae

  14. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  15. Ovos produzidos por rainhas e operárias de Scaptotrigona depilis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina: morfometria e aspectos relacionados Eggs produced by queens and workers of Scaptotrigona depilis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina: morphometry and related aspects

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    Lenira M. Lacerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização morfométrica de 785 ovos produzidos por rainhas e 193 (161 funcionais e 32 tróficos produzidos por operárias de Scaptotrigona depilis (Moure, 1942, mostrou que eles são similares, em tamanho e formato, aos de outras espécies de abelhas Meliponina. Numa mesma colônia, ovos de rainha sempre apresentaram menor comprimento que os de operárias (funcionais ou tróficos. Entre ovos produzidos por operárias, ovos funcionais foram, normalmente, mais curtos e estreitos que os tróficos. O estudo dos ovos produzidos por rainhas não mostrou, como esperado, a presença de dois grupos de ovos distinguíveis pelo comprimento, como observado em S. postica (Latreille, 1807.The morphometric characterization of 785 eggs laid by queens and 193 (161 functional and 32 trophic eggs laid by workers of Scaptotrigona depilis (Moure, 1942 has shown that they are similar in size and shape to the ones from other species of Meliponina. In the same colony, the queen's eggs always presented significant smaller size than the ones of the workers (functional or trophic. Among the workers' eggs, the functional eggs were, usually, shorter and narrower than the trophic eggs. The study of eggs laid by the queen has not shown, as expected, the presence of two groups of eggs with distinctive length, as observed in S. postica (Latreille, 1807.

  16. Review on the use of sexually dimorphic characters in the taxonomy of Diabroticites (Galerucinae, Luperini, Diabroticina

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    Laura Prado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism occurs frequently in Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 and is particularly variable in subfamily Galerucinae Latreille, 1802. This diversity has been early noted by authors a potential source of taxonomic characters. The section Diabroticites (Luperini Gistel, 1848 is one of the largest assemblies of chrysomelid genera with currently 823 valid species in 17 genera (12 based on dimorphic characteristics, being most diverse in the neotropical region. Apart from a revision work on the type specimens for the section, there are no general taxonomic studies for this group. The occurrence of sexually dimorphic characteristics in the section Diabroticites is revised and their practical taxonomic relevance evaluated. A total of 240 species was studied (145 species with males available, representing 15 out of the 17 genera included in Diabroticites. The analysis of characters was based on the study of specimens in south-american collections, literature and the aid of photos in online databases. Sexual dimorphism occurred in most species analyzed. Dimorphic features were divided in general (i. e., occur in higher taxa and special characters (those that support the definition of species and genera. Special dimorphism was observed in every tagma, and most modifications occur in antennae. Characters used as diagnostic of genera often do not correspond to the modifications present in species included in them. Many modifications were considered by earlier authors as a single character, probably due to vague definitions. Most generic definitions are, therefore, inaccurate. The study of morphology and the homology assessment of characters are needed to increase understanding of the genera in Diabroticites.

  17. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

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    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  18. North American Species of Cerambycid Beetles in the Genus Neoclytus Share a Common Hydroxyhexanone-Hexanediol Pheromone Structural Motif.

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    Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Barbour, James D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-08-01

    Many species of cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae are known to use male-produced pheromones composed of one or a few components such as 3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones and the related 2,3-alkanediols. Here, we show that this pheromone structure is characteristic of the cerambycine genus Neoclytus Thomson, based on laboratory and field studies of 10 species and subspecies. Males of seven taxa produced pheromones composed of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a single component, and the synthetic pheromone attracted adults of both sexes in field bioassays, including the eastern North American taxa Neoclytus caprea (Say), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.), and Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and the western taxa Neoclytus conjunctus (LeConte), Neoclytus irroratus (LeConte), and Neoclytus modestus modestus Fall. Males of the eastern Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (F.) and the western Neoclytus tenuiscriptus Fall produced (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Preliminary data also revealed that males of the western Neoclytus balteatus LeConte produced a blend of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol but also (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol as a minor component. The fact that the hydroxyketone-hexanediol structural motif is consistent among these North American species provides further evidence of the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures among species in the subfamily Cerambycinae.

  19. 耿马地区实蝇类害虫监测%Investigation on Fruit Fly in Gengma Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 艾薇

    2011-01-01

    The fruit flys in Gengma were investigated by the means of methleugenol-baited traps during the year of 2007 and 2008. Among the sixteen species of Bactrocera collected from field, Bactrocera scutellaris and Bactrocera tau were considered as the local dominant species of fruit flies. The analysis on population dynamics of this two species indicated that the fruit fly occurred all year round in Gengma; and the population size was low in winter,but increased steadily in summer and reached the peak in July or August.%连续2年采用性诱剂诱捕法对云南省耿马地区实蝇类害虫进行了监测调查,初步查明实蝇种类共有16种,其中优势种为橘小实蝇和南瓜实蝇.对两种实蝇优势种种群动态分析表明,实蝇在耿马全年发生,冬季种群数量较低,夏季种群数量大,高峰期出现在7月或8月.

  20. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

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    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  1. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

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    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  2. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  3. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

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    Pier Luigi Scaramozzino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 (Lepidoptera Tortricidae in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae. This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera. Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen, whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of L. botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael are uncertain.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression in Pichia pastoris of a hypoallergenic antigen 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Pirpignani, María L; Nowicki, Cristina; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2010-09-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order can cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Immunotherapy with venom extracts is the most extensively employed treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality, but purified and safer allergy vaccines are needed. Antigen 5 is an important allergen of vespid venoms. We previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) is likely to be a hypoallergenic variant. On the basis of such findings, this work deals with the recombinant expression and purification of Poly s 5 in Pichia pastoris. In order to overcome non-native glycosylation of the recombinant protein, it was necessary to delete a glycosylation site. On the other hand, different strategies were attempted to obtain a satisfactory yield of the protein; moreover, the influence of the methanol concentration in the expression medium was investigated and found to be crucial. Mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, and IgG-binding inhibition assays were performed. Results allowed us to confirm the immunological equivalence between the recombinant and the natural proteins. In conclusion, a novel protocol for the recombinant expression of Poly s 5 in P. pastoris was designed thus bringing about a high yield of the protein useful for clinical and scientific purposes.

  5. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  6. Abelhas-sem-ferrão amazônicas defendem meliponários contra saques de outras abelhas Amazonian stingless bees protect meliponaries against robber bees

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as abelhas eussociais, dois gêneros apresentam estratégia de vida cleptobiótica, obtendo recursos alimentares de ninhos de outras abelhas ao invés de coletá-los em flores. Entre as espécies atacadas existe um gradiente de suscetibilidade ao roubo variando desde espécies vulneráveis até altamente resistentes. Neste trabalho nós descrevemos um ataque de Lestrimelitta rufipes a um ninho de Scaptotrigona sp. em um meliponário na Amazônia central (Amazonas, Brazil. O ninho atacado foi transferido para um meliponário com espécies resistentes (Duckeola ghilianii e Melipona fulva e as interações foram descritas. As abelhas resistentes contra-atacaram e afugentaram as ladras protegendo o ninho de Scaptotrigona sp.. A presença de comportamento defensivo em gêneros não proximamente relacionados sugere que ele tenha evoluído mais de uma vez entre os Meliponini. Considerando o comportamento descrito, sugerimos a criação de espécies nativas resistentes em meliponários de regiões onde elas forem nativas, devido ao potencial que elas tem na proteção.Among eusocial bees, two genera evolved a cleptobiotic life strategy, stealing food resources from other bee nest instead of collecting it from flowers. Under natural conditions there is a gradient of strategies against robbing, from more susceptible to highly resistant species. In this work, we describe one attack of the robber bee Lestrimelitta rufipes to a nest of Scaptotrigona sp. in the Amazon Rain Forest (Amazonas, Brazil. The attacked nest was introduced in a beekeeping area with bees already known to be resistant to cleptobiosis. The resident bees (Duckeola ghilianii and Melipona fulva counter-attacked the robber bees and successfully protect the Scaptotrigona sp. nest. The presence of the defensive behaviour in unrelated genera suggests it evolved many times in social bees. Based on the protective behaviour described here, we suggest that in order to reduce the damage caused

  7. How a Huottuja (Piaroa community perceives genuine and false honey from the Venezuelan Amazon, by free-choice profi le sensory method

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    Patricia Vit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pot honey is the most abundant honey in the forest, produced by many species of stingless bees (Meliponini of the Huottuja (Piaroa community in Paria Grande, Venezuela. However, the commercialization of this honey is low, and false honeys, which are sold in labelled bottles, are easily found in the market. This study has investigated the ability of an untrained panel of Piaroa assessors to differentiate the genuine from the false pot honey using the Free-choice profile. This sensory method allows consumers to use their own words to describe and to quantify sensory attributes of a product. The genuine honeys, light amber Melipona fuscopilosa "isabitto" and dark amber Tetragona clavipes "ajavitte", the false light and dark "angelita" honeys, and the amber Apis mellifera honey, were evaluated. Sensory attributes related to the appearance, color, odor, flavor and mouthfeel were elicited in a qualitative session and were quantified in 10-cm unstructured line scales using individual score sheets. The data were analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA. The bidimensional plot successfully separated genuine from false pot honeys. The first dimension (39.50% was represented by the low viscosity, fermented odor and sour taste, whereas the second dimension (24.69% was related to fruity and honey odor and flavor. Huottuja assessors differentiated the five honey types in terms of the perceived sensory characteristics.

  8. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses

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    ANDERSON FERNANDES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species. The distribution and amount of heterochromatin regions differed in the two species analyzed, where they were classified as “high” or “low” heterochromatin content, similarly to what has already been performed in social bee species of the genus Melipona. Banding patterns found in this study suggest that other mechanisms may have occurred in the karyotype evolution of this group, unlike those suggested for social bees and ants. Karyotype evolution of solitary bees appears to have occurred as an event separate from other hymenopterans and did not involve chromosome fissions and heterochromatin amplification.

  9. [Entomophilic pollination of squash, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna D V; Campos, Lucio A de O

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata, B. morio, A. mellifera, T. hyalinata or T. spinipes. Flowers prevented from receiving visits or visited only once by T. spinipes did not produce fruits. The remaining pollination systems led to fruitification, with open pollination or a single visit from either M. quadrifasciata or B. morio leading to most fruit production.

  10. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  11. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Núñez, Gustavo Rafael; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Ancona-Xiu, Patricia; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Carmona, Angelica; Ruiz Sanchez, Esaú

    2009-10-01

    Stingless bees are potential pollinators of commercial tropical crops and their use may increase in the short term. However, studies comparing the toxicity of pesticides to different individuals and species are lacking, making it difficult to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on colonies and populations of these insects. In this work, we tested the lethality of compounds from the main pesticide groups on stingless bees of the species Melipona beecheii Bennett, Trigona nigra Provancher, and Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson. The LDo (in micrograms per bee) for each pesticide was calculated for callow workers and foragers of the three species as well as for gynes and drones of M. beecheii. The results showed that all species were highly susceptible to the evaluated compounds. Nicotinoid pesticides were the most toxic, followed in descending order by permethrin, diazinon, and methomyl. We found evidence of a relationship between the body weight of the species and their LD50 for permethrin and methomyl (r = 0.91 and 0.90, respectively) but not for diazinon (r = -0.089). An analysis of contingency tables showed that within each species, callow workers had higher mortalities than foragers (P agriculture of Mexico and Latin America

  12. Properties of honey from ten species of Peruvian stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Rasmussen, Claus; Gutiérrez, María G; Gil, Florimar; Nieves, Beatriz; Vit, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Honey produced by ten stingless bee species (Melipona crinita, M. eburnea, M. grandis, M. illota, Nannotrigona melanocera, Partamona epiphytophila, Ptilotrigona lurida, Scaptotrigona polystica, Scaura latitarsis, and Tetragonisca angustula) from Peru has been characterized according to traditional physicochemical standards (color and moisture), biochemical components (flavonoids, polyphenols, nitrites, proteins), and bioactive properties (antibacterial activity, antioxidant capacity). Analytical data are also provided for a sample of Apis mellifera and an artificial honey control. For stingless bees, honey color varied between 26 and 150 mm Pfund. M. illota produced the lightest honey, while N. melanocera and T. angustula were the darkest. Moisture varied between 20.8 and 45.8 g water/100 g, confirming higher moisture for stingless bee honey than the A. mellifera honey standard of 20 g water/100 g. Flavonoids varied from 2.6 to 31.0 mg quercetin equivalents/100g, nitrites from 0.30 to 2.88 micromoles nitrites/100 g, polyphenols from 99.7 to 464.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, proteins from 0.75 to 2.86 g/100 g, and the antioxidant capacity from 93.8 to 569.6 micromoles Trolox equivalents/100 g. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was slightly lower against Staphylococcus aureus (12.5 -50 g/100 mL) than Escherichia coli (50 g/100 mL).

  13. Gender identification of five genera of stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) based on wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoy, T M; Silva, R A O; Nunes-Silva, P; Menezes, C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-02-25

    Currently, the identification of pollinators is a critical necessity of conservation programs. After it was found that features extracted from patterns of wing venation are sufficient to discriminate among insect species, various studies have focused on this structure. We examined wing venation patterns of males and workers of five stingless bee species in order to determine if there are differences between sexes and if these differences are greater within than between species. Geometric morphometric analyses were made of the forewings of males and workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, Melipona quadrifasciata, Frieseomelitta varia, and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis and Plebeia remota. The patterns of males and workers from the same species were more similar than the patterns of individuals of the same sex from different species, and the patterns of both males and workers, when analyzed alone, were sufficiently different to distinguish among these five species. This demonstrates that we can use this kind of analysis for the identification of stingless bee species and that the sex of the individual does not impede identification. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of bee wing images can be a useful tool for biodiversity studies and conservation programs.

  14. Odor discrimination in classical conditioning of proboscis extension in two stingless bee species in comparison to Africanized honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Cabe, S I; Hartfelder, K; Santana, W C; Farina, W M

    2007-11-01

    Learning in insects has been extensively studied using different experimental approaches. One of them, the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm, is particularly well suited for quantitative studies of cognitive abilities of honeybees under controlled conditions. The goal of this study was to analyze the capability of three eusocial bee species to be olfactory conditioned in the PER paradigm. We worked with two Brazilian stingless bees species, Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, and with the invasive Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera. These three species present very different recruitment strategies, which could be related with different odor-learning abilities. We evaluated their gustatory responsiveness and learning capability to discriminate floral odors. Gustatory responsiveness was similar for the three species, although S. aff. depilis workers showed fluctuations along the experimental period. Results for the learning assays revealed that M. quadrifasciata workers can be conditioned to discriminate floral odors in a classical differential conditioning protocol and that this discrimination is maintained 15 min after training. During conditioning, Africanized honeybees presented the highest discrimination, for M. quadrifasciata it was intermediate, and S. aff. depilis bees presented no discrimination. The differences found are discussed considering the putative different learning abilities and procedure effect for each species.

  15. Revisão de Elbella Evans e gêneros afins (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae Revision of Elbella Evans and related genera (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae

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    Olaf H. H Mielke

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the genera Microceris Watson, 1893, Elbella Evans, 1951, Parelbella. gen.n. (type species: Hesperia polyzona [Latreille, 1824], Pseudocroniades. gen.n. (type species: Ericides (sic machaon Westwood, [1852] and Protelbella, gen.n. (type species: Pyrrhopyga (sic alburna Mabille, 1891, a natural group of the Pyrrhopyginae, here called "Elbella Complex", is presented. The following are spp.n. and sspp.n.: Elbella intersecta paraensis, Brazil: Pará; Elbella intersecta rufitegula, Brazil: Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro State; Elbella viriditas boliviana, Bolivia: La Paz; Elbella lampra albociliata, Brazil: São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina: Elbella azeta giffordi, Brazil: Distrito Federal and São Paulo; Elbella patrobas mexicana, Mexico: Chiapas and Quintana Roo; Elbella patrobas evansi, Colombia: Cauca, Caldas and Boyaca; Elbella patrobas tingo, Brazil: Rondonia and Peru: Huanuco and Madre de Dios; Elbella patrobas amazonica, Brazil: Amazonas; Parelbella peruana, Peru: Junin; Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro State; Protelbella alburna brasiliensis, Brazil: Amazonas, Rondonia and Mato Grosso, and French Guiana: Montagne aux Cheveaux. The following genus is a syn.n.: Hegesippe Evans, 1951 of Elbella Evans, 1951. The following species and subspecies are syn.n.: Pyrrhopyga (sic semidentata Mabille, 1877 and Elbella intersecta ilona Evans, 1951 of Elbella intersecta intersecta (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869: Pyrrhopyge carriae Bell, 1931 of Elbella viriditas viriditas (Skinner, 1920; Pyrrhopyga (sic menecrates Mabille, 1878 and Pyrrhopyge margimmiscus Hayward, 1935 of Elbella lampra lampra (Hopffer, 1874; Elbella etna moda Evans, 1951 of Elbella etna Evans, 1951; Jemadia umbrata Mabille & Boullet, 1908 of Elbella patroclus patroclus (Plötz, 1879; Pyrrhopyga (sic jamina Butler, 1870 and Pyrrhopyga (sic zimra Hewitson, 1871 of Parelbella ahira ahira (Hewitson, 1857; Elbella

  16. A SURVEY OF THE SPECIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF AEDES AT SEAPORTS AND AIRPORTS OF IRIAN JAYA

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    Sumengen Sumengen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Walaupun penyakit demam berdarah terdapat dimana-mana didaerah Asia Tenggara termasuk Indonesia, namun demikian belum pernah dilaporkan adanya di propinsi Irian Jaya. Vector utama penyakit tersebut adalah A. (Stegomya aegypti meskipun A. (S albopictus juga dapat menjadi vectornya. Penyakit lain yang terpenting dapat ditularkan oleh A. aegypti ialah yellow fever, dimana virusnya hanya terdapat di Afrika dan Amerika. Mengingat letak geografis yang sangat dekat dan kommunikasi yang regular baik melalui laut dan udara dengan negara-negara seperti Philipana, Thailand, Singapura, Vietnam, India, Ceylon dan Indonesia, maka setiap saat kedua penyakit tersebut kemungkinan dapat menginfeksi penduduk Irian Jaya. Untuk membantu mempelajari apakah infeksi dapat terjadi maka dari bulan September sampai dengan Desember 1968 telah dilakukan survey pendahuluan untuk mengetahui species Aedes yang ada dan distribusinya di pelabuhan-pelabuhan laut maupun udara terpenting di Irian Jaya. Survey ini dilakukan dengan cara mengadakan penangkapan serta pemeriksaan nyamuk dan larva yang terdapat pada setiap bangunan didaerah pelabuhan laut maupun udara. Berdasarkan hasil survey yang dilakukan ternyata ditemukan adanya 7 species Aedes yaitu, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, A. (S scutellaris, A. (Finlaya koehi, A. (Ochlerotatus vigilax, A. (S alboleneatus, dan A. (F novalbitarsis. Walaupun Van Den Assem & Bonne Wepster (1964 menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar di wilayah Irian Jaya masih belum ditemukan adanya A. aegypti tetapi pada penelitian ini ternyata dari 11 pelabuhan laut dan udara, 9 diantaranya ditemukan A. aegypti. Timbulnya A. aegypti pada beberapa kota diwilayah Irian Jaya pada tahun 1968 mungkin disebabkan karena pemindahan vector tersebut dari daerah-daerah lain melalui kapal laut maupun udara yang merupakan alat pengangkut dari satu daerah kedaerah lain.

  17. Monopolization of resources by ground-nesting ants foraging on trees in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jean-Jacques Itzhak

    2015-05-01

    Ant communities are generally structured by territoriality, dominance and resource monopolization, but in Mediterranean hot grassland thermal tolerance plays a more important role. The main purposes of the present research were to investigate the hypothesis that in cooler Mediterranean forests resource monopolization structures the generalist ground-nesting ant community while foraging on trees, and to learn if tree heterogeneity plays any role in this structure. In Mediterranean forests in Israel, I visually recorded and trapped ants on the forest floor and those climbing on trees of five species. Ants of 27 species were detected, while the Chao2 index indicated an asymptotic richness estimation of 31 ± 8.1 species (mean ± S.D.). The numerically dominant species were Crematogaster lorteti and Tapinoma simrothi followed by Tapinoma israele and Crematogaster scutellaris. In more than 80% of the cases, specimens of only one ant species climbed at the same time on any individual tree, and no tree was occupied by more than three species. The C-score of climbing ants was statistically higher than simulated indexes when resources were individual trees, indicating that the ants strongly monopolized each tree. No difference was detected between observed and simulated C-scores when resources were tree species. The observed index of Pianka's niche overlap indicated no species specific interaction between trees and ants. In conclusion, this study confirms that ant mosaic structure may be formed by ground-nesting ants while foraging on trees. Tree species heterogeneity did not have a selective impact on the ants nor a central role in the ant community structure.

  18. Atividades relacionadas à construção e aprovisionamento de ninhos de Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de restinga na Bahia, Brasil Activities related to construction and provioning of nests of Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of sandbank in Bahia, Brazil

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    Miriam Gimenes

    Full Text Available As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 são comuns em ecossistemas de restingas em acelerada fase de degradação e são importantes polinizadores deste ecossistema. Elas nidificam especialmente em madeira morta ou apodrecida. As atividades relacionadas à construção e estrutura dos ninhos de Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 na restinga do litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil, foram observadas em 43 ninhos ativos de X. subcyanea, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, em dois troncos apodrecidos. A fase de fundação ou reuso no primeiro tronco foi em agosto e a fase de provisionamento das células nos ninhos, em ambos troncos, em janeiro. As principais atividades foram escavações no tronco, entrada e saída dos ninhos, permanência na entrada do ninho, entrada com pólen e desidratação de néctar. Foi observado horário preferencial ao longo do dia para as atividades de entrada e saída dos ninhos, sendo estas influenciadas pelos horários do nascer e pôr do sol. Ninhos abandonados foram reusados por X. subcyanea e Centris tarsata SMITH, 1874. Os ninhos ativos eram ocupados por quatro diferentes abelhas adultas. Geralmente, uma abelha ficava na entrada do ninho. A estrutura do ninho foi descrita.Bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 are frequent in sandbank ecosystems under accelerated degradation. They nest especially in dead or rotted wood. The nest construction and nest structure of Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 were studied in a sandbank from Bahia's north littoral, Brazil. We observed 43 active nests, under different stages of development, in two dead logs. The main activities were excavation of the logs, entering and leaving nest, permanence in the nest entrance, entering with pollen, and nectar dehydration. Preferential times along the day were observed for entering and leaving nest, showing influence of sunrise and sunset times. Abandoned nests were reused by X. subcyanea and Centris tarsata

  19. Suscetibilidade de operárias e larvas de abelhas sociais em relação à ricinina Susceptibility of workers and larvae of social bees in relation to ricinine

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    Débora C. Rother

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitas substâncias de origem vegetal podem ser tóxicas ou apresentar potencial inseticida. Com o objetivo de diminuir a problemática da poluição ambiental alguns estudos vêm tentando substituir os inseticidas artificiais pelos inseticidas botânicos. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae apresenta uma grande variedade de substâncias sendo a ricinina o principal componente tóxico. Considerando que as abelhas são insetos benéficos por atuarem como agentes polinizadores das plantas, este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito tóxico da ricinina para as operárias e larvas de Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1907 (Hymenoptera, Meliponini. Para isso, foram realizados testes de ingestão em operárias confinadas recebendo ricinina incorporada à dieta e testes de aplicação tópica com a substância solubilizada em metanol e aplicada no pronoto das abelhas com auxílio de uma microseringa. Para as larvas foram realizados testes de ingestão e calculada sua taxa de mortalidade. Os resultados mostram atividade tóxica significativa (p Many substances of vegetal origin can be toxic or present an insecticidal potential. With the aim of decreasing the environment pollution problem, a few studies are trying to substitute synthetic insecticides with botanical ones. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae presents a great variety of substances, being the ricinine the main toxic component. Considering that bees are useful as pollinator agents of plants, this study evaluates toxicity potential of ricinine on workers and larvae of Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1907 (Hymenoptera, Meliponini. In order to determine ricinine toxicity, ingestion tests were carried out with isolated workers bees that received ricinine on its diet. Furthermore, for topic tests, solutions of ricinine in methanol were applied on pronotum of worker bees with an "Agla" brand

  20. Comunidad de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae en dos bosques del Chaco Oriental Húmedo, Argentina Copro-necrophagous beetle community (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in two forests from Eastern Humid Chaco, Argentina

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    Miryam P. Damborsky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó y comparó la estructura de la comunidad de Scarabaeinae en dos ambientes con distinto grado de conservación. Se efectuaron muestreos en un bosque nativo del Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio y en un fragmento de bosque del establecimiento ganadero Los Alisos. Los ejemplares se capturaron con coprotrampas y necrotrampas que permanecieron activas durante 72 horas, en los meses de octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 2006. Se colectaron 769 individuos adultos pertenecientes a seis tribus, 11 géneros y 26 especies. En Los Alisos Ontherus sulcatus Fabricius y Onthophagus hirculus Mannerheim resultaron dominantes. Trichillum sp., Canthon podagricus Harold, Malagoniella sp., Gromphas lacordairei Brullé, y dos especies de Dichotomius Hope fueron exclusivas de este establecimiento. Canthon septemmaculatus Latreille y Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier sólo se colectaron en Pampa del Indio. El número de individuos y la diversidad alcanzaron valores significativamente superiores en Pampa del Indio. En Los Alisos, se constató igual proporción de coprófagos y necrófagos, y una mayoría de especies con hábitos endocópridos y paracópridos. En Pampa del Indio, se encontraron más especies de hábitos necrófagos y rodadores. La presente contribución constituye el primer estudio sobre la biodiversidad de Scarabaeinae en el ambiente de bosque de la provincia del Chaco.Scarabaeinae community structure was compared in two habitats with different degrees of conservation: a native forest at Pampa del Indio Provincial Park, and a forest fragment at Los Alisos cattle farm. Pitfall traps baited with carrion and cattle dung were left open for 72-hour periods in October, November and December 2006. 769 adults belonging to six tribes, 11 genera and 26 species were captured in all. At Los Alisos, Ontherus sulcatus Fabricius and Onthophagus hirculus Mannerheim were the dominant species. Trichillum sp., Canthon podagricus Harold, Malagoniella sp., Gromphas

  1. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  2. Primeros resultados de la caracterización botánica de mieles producidas por Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae en Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina First results of botanical characterization of honeys produced by Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae in Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina

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    F. F Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis melisopalinológico de diez muestras de miel de Tetragonisca angustula Latreille criadas en la localidad Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; O 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. Se reconoció un total de 49 tipos polínicos. En las mieles monoflorales, los tipos dominantes correspondieron a: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., Myrtaceae nativas y un tipo indeterminado (tipo 6. Las restantes muestras fueron multiflorales. El 62 % de los tipos polínicos corresponde a representantes de la Selva Montana de Yungas; tipos como Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, tipo Myrsine y un conjunto de Myrtaceae nativas que constituyen la primera cita como plantas nectaríferas para T. angustula. También se identificó polen proveniente de plantas típicas de ambientes antropizados como Carica papaya, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Leonurus sibiricus, entre otros. Estos resultados constituyen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de la flora utilizada por T. angustula y al origen geográfico de sus mieles, estableciendo el primer registro para Selva Montana de Yungas.The melissopalynological analysis was performed on ten honeys samples of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille breeding in the locality Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; W 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. We found a whole of 49 pollen types. In the honey monofloral, the dominant types corresponded to: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., native Myrtaceae and a type undetermined (type 6. The remaining samples were multifloral. 62% of pollen types corresponding to representatives of the Yungas mountain forest; types like Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, type Myrsine and a set of native Myrtaceae, which constitute the first appointment as nectar sources for T. angustula. Also identified pollen

  3. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Australia and Asia

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    Sarah Crews

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is

  4. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

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    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  5. Ectoparasitos de cães e gatos da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Ectoparasites on cats and dogs from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Cutrim Moreira de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados da coleta de ectoparasitos em cães e gatos entre agosto de 2001 e maio de 2002 em diferentes bairros da cidade Manaus. No cão foram encontrados: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. No gato foi coletado C. f. felis. A prevalência de ectoparasitos foi de 80,8% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para a pulga C. f. felis foi de 28,7% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para o piolho H. spiniger foi de 12,3% para cães. Para o piolho T. canis foi de 0,1% para cães e para o carrapato R. sanguineus foi de 63% para cães. A média de infestaçãode pulga foi de 1,26 para cães e 1,27 para gatos. A proporção sexual fêmea/macho foi de 1,96:1 no cão e de 3,66:1 no gato. A pulga C. canis (Curtis, 1826, registrada em 1922, não foi coletada.Ectoparasites from different neighborhood of Manaus were collected from august 2001 to May 2002. On dogs it was found: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodetes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. On cats: C. f. felis. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 80.8% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the flea C. f. felis was 28.7% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the lice H. spiniger was 12.3% for dogs. For the lice T. canis was 0.1% for dogs and for the tick R. sanguineus was 63% for dogs. The infestation index for fleas was 1.26 to dogs and 1.27 to cats. The sexual ratio obtained was 1.96:1 to dogs and 3.66:1 to cats. The flea C. canis (Curtis, 1826 registered in 1922 was not found.

  6. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  7. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

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    Tereza C Giannini

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata, a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC. We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use

  8. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

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    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  9. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera:Meliponini UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

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    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  10. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes. Overall

  11. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C.; Tambosi, Leandro R.; Acosta, André L.; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee’s flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes

  12. FLORESCIMENTO INDUZIDO DA JUREMA PRETA PARA FORNECER PÓLEN À ABELHA MELÍFERA NA ESTIAGEM DA CAATINGA

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    ALINE DOS SANTOS SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing pollen supply to honey bees (Apis mellifera during the dry season in Caatinga (shrub vegetation of NE Brazil by inducing Mimosa tenui-flora to bloom. The work was carried out from August to December 2012 in Altamira Apícola Apiaries, situat-ed at Limoeiro do Norte – Ceará, Brazil. The experiment comprised three phases: Phase 1 – the amount of wa-ter needed to induce the blooming of Mimosa tenuiflora (T0L, T250L, T500L, T750L and T1000L; Phase 2 – Floral biology and flower visitors; Phase 3 – pollen harvested by the colonies and percentage of M. tenuiflora in the honey bee diet by sampling and comparing pollen loads from colonies placed 20m with those more than 3km away from the induced plants. Results of the Phase 1 showed that the treatments 3, 4 and 5 induced blooming, and T1000L produced a greater number of inflorescences (p <0.05. Blooming reached its peak eight days after induction. Hymenoptera represented more than 95% of floral visitors with Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and Melipona subnitida as the most frequent bee species. Palynological analyses carried out in phase 3 showed a significant (p<0,05 increment in pollen collection and the participation of M. tenuiflora pollen in the diet of colonies situated 20 meters from the induced plants. Induction of flowering Mimosa tenuiflora increased the supply and collection of pollen by bees in the critical period of the year, minimizing the effect of drought on the colonies.

  13. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

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    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  14. Behavioral suites mediate group-level foraging dynamics in communities of tropical stingless bees.

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    Lichtenberg, E M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Nieh, J C

    2010-02-01

    Competition for floral resources is a key force shaping pollinator communities, particularly among social bees. The ability of social bees to recruit nestmates for group foraging is hypothesized to be a major factor in their ability to dominate rich resources such as mass-flowering trees. We tested the role of group foraging in attaining dominance by stingless bees, eusocial tropical pollinators that exhibit high diversity in foraging strategies. We provide the first experimental evidence that meliponine group foraging strategies, large colony sizes and aggressive behavior form a suite of traits that enable colonies to improve dominance of rich resources. Using a diverse assemblage of Brazilian stingless bee species and an array of artificial "flowers" that provided a sucrose reward, we compared species' dominance and visitation under unrestricted foraging conditions and with experimental removal of group-foraging species. Dominance does not vary with individual body size, but rather with foraging group size. Species that recruit larger numbers of nestmates (Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, Trigona hyalinata, Trigona spinipes) dominated both numerically (high local abundance) and behaviorally (controlling feeders). Removal of group-foraging species increased feeding opportunities for solitary foragers (Frieseomelitta varia, Melipona quadrifasciata and Nannotrigona testaceicornis). Trigona hyalinata always dominated under unrestricted conditions. When this species was removed, T. spinipes or S. aff. depilis controlled feeders and limited visitation by solitary-foraging species. Because bee foraging patterns determine plant pollination success, understanding the forces that shape these patterns is crucial to ensuring pollination of both crops and natural areas in the face of current pollinator declines. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00040-009-0055-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico.

  16. Skimming behaviour and spreading potential of Stenus species and Dianous coerulescens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Carolin; Seifert, Karlheinz; Dettner, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille and the genus Dianous Leach possess pygidial glands containing a multifunctional secretion of piperidine and pyridine-derived alkaloids as well as several terpenes. One important character of this secretion is the spreading potential of its different compounds, stenusine, norstenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, cicindeloine, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one. The individual secretion composition enables the beetles to skim rapidly and far over the water surface, even when just a small amount of secretion is emitted. Ethological investigations of several Stenus species revealed that the skimming ability, skimming velocity and the skimming behaviour differ between the Stenus species. These differences can be linked to varied habitat claims and secretion saving mechanisms. By means of tensiometer measurements using the pendant drop method, the spreading pressure of all secretion constituents as well as some naturally identical beetle secretions on the water surface could be established. The compound 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine excelled stenusine believed to date to be mainly responsible for skimming relating to its surface activity. The naturally identical secretions are not subject to synergistic effects of the single compounds concerning the spreading potential. Furthermore, evolutionary aspects of the Steninae's pygidial gland secretion are discussed.

  17. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  18. Computed tomography recovers data from historical amber: an example from huntsman spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Penney, David; Dalüge, Natalie; Jäger, Peter; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) methods were applied to a problematic fossil spider (Arachnida: Araneae) from the historical Berendt collection of Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. The original specimens of Ocypete crassipes Koch and Berendt 1854 are in dark, oxidised amber and the published descriptions lack detail. Despite this, they were subsequently assigned to the living Pantropical genus Heteropoda Latreille, 1804 and are ostensibly the oldest records of huntsman spiders (Sparassidae) in general. Given their normally large size, and presumptive ability to free themselves more easily from resin, it would be surprising to find a sparassid in amber and traditional (optical) methods of study would likely have left O. crassipes as an equivocal record—probably a nomen dubium. However, phase contrast enhanced X-ray CT revealed exquisite morphological detail and thus `saved' this historical name by revealing characters which confirm that it's a bona fide member both of Sparassidae and the subfamily Eusparassinae. We demonstrate here that CT studies facilitate taxonomic equivalence even between recent spiders and unpromising fossils described in older monographs. In our case, fine structural details such as eye arrangement, cheliceral dentition, and leg characters like a trilobate membrane, spination and claws, allow a precise referral of this fossil to an extant genus as Eusparassus crassipes (Koch and Berendt 1854) comb. nov.

  19. Review of terminology for the outline of dorsal scutum in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Adriano B; Medrano, Miguel

    2016-03-29

    In many Opiliones (notably the Laniatores) the five most anterior opisthosomal tergites are fused with the carapace forming the so called dorsal scutum (DS) (Latreille 1804; Simon 1879; Hadži 1942) with a highly variable shape arising from multiple factors, such as differential development of musculature (especially of coxa IV), internal organs and influence of appendages (Loman 1903; Winkler 1957). The different degrees of fusion of the tergites were first studied by Hadži (1942), who proposed a terminology for them. This terminology was adopted and enhanced by Kratochvíl (1958) and Martens (1978). A shield formed by the fusion of the carapace with abdominal tergites I to V is called scutum magnum (Hadži 1942). The shield formed by the fusion of carapace with abdominal tergites I to VII is called scutum complexum (Kratochvíl 1958) and occurs in the males of Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 (Kury 1994) and Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958 (Kratochvíl 1958). Finally, the scutum completum (Hadži 1942) is formed by the complete fusion of the carapace and abdominal scutum, formed by tergites I to VIII, and occurs in the Sandokanidae (Martens 1978). In this paper we focus on the different forms of the scutum magnum.

  20. Species Diversity and Faunaistic Characteristics of Butterflies in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province%湖南乌云界蝴蝶物种多样性及区系特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李密; 周红春; 谭济才; 刘国华

    2011-01-01

    2008-2010年,采用路线法对湖南省乌云界国家级自然保护区的蝶类物种多样性进行了为期近3年的调查,共记录蝴蝶147种,隶属于10科94属.蛱蝶科Nymphalidae Swainson,1827种类最多,弄蝶科Hesperiidae La-treille,1809的多样性指数最大.凤蝶属Papilio Linnaeus,1758对属多样性指数贡献值相对较大.记录国家保护种4种(宽尾凤蝶Agehana elwesi、中华虎风蝶Lehdorfia chinensis、箭环蝶Stichophthalma howqua、大伞弄蝶Bibasis mirac-ulata),其中中华虎凤蝶属于国家二级重点保护动物;湖南省新纪录种3种(金斑剑凤蝶Pazala alebion、报喜斑粉蝶Delias pasithoe和泰环蛱蝶Neptis thestias);宽边黄粉蝶Eurema hecabe采集数量最多(69头),是该保护区优势种群.蝶类昆虫区系主要以东洋成分为主,兼有古北和广布成分.

  1. Urine production rate and water balance in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis and Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R R

    1977-06-01

    1. The rate of urine production in the terrestrial crabs Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville) and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille maintained on s.w.-moist sand was measured by inulin clearance. 2. The inulin U/B ratios in both species rose to about unity after 48 h, and remained at this level. It was concluded that neither species withdrew water from the primary urine. 3. The relatively high rate of inulin clearance in G. lateralis (10-69% body wt day-1) was considerably reduced when animals were transferred to dry sand (2-15% body wt day-1). 4. The rate of water loss on dry sand was measured in G. lateralis and changes in the haemolymph and urine osmolality recorded. 5. The prevention of possible reabsorption of water from voided urine did not appear to affect significantly the rate of water loss in conditions of water deprivation. 6. The maintenance of urine production rates measured on s.w.-moist sand would double the water loss of G. lateralis in dry conditions.

  2. The biosynthesis, absorption, and origin of cholesterol and plant sterols in the Florida land crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, T S; Connor, W E; Lin, D S

    1981-08-01

    In order to study the biosynthesis, composition, and origin of sterols in the Florida land crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille), we fed 17 male crabs either a cholesterol-free or a high cholesterol diet for 2 to 7 weeks. The origin of sterols in these crabs, whether from biosynthesis or from the diet, was determined by tahree procedures: the incorporation of isotopic mevalonate into the cholesterol when the diet was cholesterol-free; the absorption of isotopic cholesterol and sitosterol from the diet; the cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations of hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle under conditions of cholesterol-free and high cholesterol diets. In addition, the interconversion of cholesterol and sitosterol was investigated. Dietary sterols of plant and animal sources were readily absorbed and provided the major source of sterols for this species of crab. The biosynthesis of cholesterol from mevalonate in this crab was minimal. However, cholesterol was synthesized from dietary sitosterol by dealkylation. Cholesterol and the three plant sterols (24 epsilon-methyl cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) were found in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crab. Plant sterols contributed from 9 to 37% of the total sterols in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crabs fed a cholesterol-free diet.

  3. Incomplete homogenization of chemical recognition labels between Formica sanguinea and Formica rufa ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) living in a mixed colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Formica sanguinea Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a slave-making species, i.e., it raids colonies of host species and pillages pupae, which are taken to develop into adult workers in a parasite colony. However, it has been unclear if the coexistence of F. sanguinea with slave workers requires uniformity of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), among which those other than n-alkanes are believed to be the principal nestmate recognition cues utilized by ants. In this study, a mixed colony (MC) of F. sanguinea and Formica rufa L. as a slave species was used to test the hypothesis that CHCs are exchanged between the species. Chemical analysis of hexane extracts from ants' body surfaces provided evidence for interspecific exchange of alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes. This result was confirmed by behavioral tests during which ants exhibited hostility toward conspecific individuals from the MC but not toward ones from homospecific colonies of their own species. However, it seems that species-specific differences in chemical recognition labels were not eliminated completely because ants from the MC were treated differently depending on whether they were con- or allospecific to the individuals whose behavioral reactions were tested. These findings are discussed in the context of mechanisms of colony's odor formation and effective integration of slaves into parasite colony. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. A revision of the Chinese Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea

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    Zhao Kexin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese fauna of the family Gasteruptiidae is revised, keyed and fully illustrated for the first time. Only one genus of this family, Gasteruption Latreille, 1796, is recorded from China. In total 28 valid species of the genus Gasteruption are recognized. Six species are new to science (Gasteruption angulatum sp. n., G. assectoides sp. n., G. coloratum sp. n., G. latitibia sp. n., G. sinepunctatum sp. n. and G. strigosum sp. n. and eight species are reported new for China (G. bimaculatum Pasteels, 1958, G. birmanense Pasteels, 1958, G. dimidiatum Semenov, 1892, G. formilis Alekseev, 1995, G. subhamatum Pasteels, 1958, G. tonkinense Pasteels, 1958, G. tournieri Schletterer, 1885, G. transversiceps Pasteels, 1958. Three new synonyms are proposed: G. curiosum Pasteels, 1958, of G. amoyense Pasteels, 1958; G. sinense var. minus Kieffer, 1924, with G. japonicum Cameron, 1888, and G. sinense Kieffer, 1924, of G. sinarum Kieffer, 1911. Lectotypes are designated for Gasteruption corniculigerum Enderlein, 1913, G. sinense Kieffer, 1924, and G. transversiceps Pasteels, 1958. Gasteruption bihamatum Kieffer, 1911, previously reported from South China, is a South American species.

  5. Sampling Buprestidae (Coleoptera in Washington state with Cerceris californica Cresson (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

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    Chris Looney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle-hunting habits of ground nesting wasps in the genus Cerceris Latreille have been recently exploited as a survey technique for exotic and native Buprestidae, particularly Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash-borer. While such methods have been developed for the wide-ranging eastern Cerceris fumipennis Say, the survey potential of western buprestid-hunting Cerceris spp. has not been explored. Cerceris californica Cresson is the most well-studied of the western buprestid feeders, and the only one known to occur in Washington state. Here we report the results of surveys conducted in Washington in 2012–2013 for C. californica colonies, and numbers of buprestid beetles collected from monitored colonies. Eight C. californica colonies were found through visual search of 228 baseball fields and sandy clearings, but only four were large enough to monitor. Fifty-four beetles were recovered from the four colonies, comprising five native species. Four of these are new prey records for C. californica, and one (Chrysobothris quadriimpressa Gory & Laporte is newly recorded from Washington. Cerceris californica colonies do not appear to be large or common enough in Washington to be a significant exotic buprestid survey strategy. However, even the limited monitoring resulted in more buprestid captures than nearby purple sticky traps, and monitoring C. californica nests may be a locally useful supplement for general buprestid surveys.

  6. Ultrastructural detection of lipids in the cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae workers

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    Silvana Beani Poiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Secretory cells of the cephalic salivary glands (CSGs of eusocial bees produce and accumulate lipid-like secretion in the lumens of their alveoli. Correspondingly, secretory cells present typical ultrastructural features of lipid-compound producers. Previous work on bees has revealed inter-specific differences in the chemical composition of secretion, and the production mechanisms and secretory cycle of secretory cells. In this work a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of lipid storage in the CSGs of Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 workers was carried out. The ultrastructural location of lipids was ascertained using imidazole-osmium (IO, using individuals in different stages of their life cycles. Lipid deposits were identified inside glandular cells and in the alveolar lumens in all individuals, but differences were observed between the species. The glandular cells of A. mellifera workers presented positive reactions to IO as droplets dispersed in the cytoplasm, as vesicles and in the channels formed by apical plasma membrane infolds. In S. postica , lipid compounds were detected inside the mitochondrial matrix and in smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. In both species, forager workers exhibited the largest amounts of lipids stored in the alveolar lumen. The differences between the species are discussed, taking into account specific behavioral differences.

  7. The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed and complete description of its embryonic development is still lacking. Therefore, the embryonic development of the woodlouse P. scaber is described in a series of discrete stages easily identified by examination of living animals and the widely used technique of nuclei staining on fixed specimens. It starts with the first cleavage of the zygote and ends with a hatched manca that eventually leaves the mother's brood pouch. Classical methods like normal light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy are used, in addition to confocal LCM and computer-aided 3D reconstruction in order to visualise important processes during ontogeny. The purpose of these studies is to offer an easy way to define the different degrees of development for future comparative analyses of embryonic development amongst crustaceans in particular, as well as between different arthropod groups. In addition, several aspects of Porcellio embryonic development, such as the mouth formation, limb differentiations and modifications or the formation of the digestive tract, make this species particularly interesting for future studies in evolutionary and developmental biology.

  8. Effects of starvation on body composition and cold tolerance in the collembolan Orchesella cincta and the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, H A.; Nedved, O; Lavy, D

    1997-10-01

    The effects of long-term starvation on the body composition of the isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille) and the collembolan Orchesella cincta (L.) were studied, by determining the body composition in starved and fed animals. A period under summer conditions (19 degrees C, 75% RH and L/D 16/8 photoperiod), was followed by a period under winter conditions (5 degrees C, 75% RH and LD 6/18 photoperiod). O. cincta was held under summer conditions for 3weeks, during which its protein and lipid content decreased, while its water content increased. In P. scaber, the same occurred during the 6weeks they were kept under summer conditions. During subsequent weeks under winter conditions, changes in cold tolerance of the animals were investigated. Cold tolerance and haemolymph osmolality were measured once a week. Starved animals had lower cold tolerance than fed ones. For P. scaber a decreased haemolymph osmolality was found in starved animals compared to fed ones. This is assumed to be caused by a combination of the consumption of carbohydrates out of the haemolymph and of protein reserves and the accumulation of body water. O. cincta appeared to be capable of osmoregulation, as haemolymph osmolality did not differ between starved and fed animals, despite differences in body water content. Decreased cold tolerance in starved animals of both species may be caused by increased water content or, more probably, by the decrease in reserves needed to produce cryoprotective substances.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. from the western Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Simões, R; Coimbra-Dores, M J; Rosa, F; Dias, D

    2017-06-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (1806) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is considered to be the most widely distributed tick and to have a vast range of habitats and hosts, including livestock, pets and wildlife. In addition to morphological differences, recent investigations using approaches based on molecular genetic markers have revealed the existence of different R. sanguineus lineages in different geographic regions. In this study, 475 ticks collected from dogs in the western Iberian peninsula were studied both morphologically and genetically, using 12S and 16S rDNA and COI gene markers in order to clarify the controversy over the systematic status of R. sanguineus sensu lato in Western Europe, and to compare the present data with those sourced from studies conducted in other regions of the world. Despite the high morphometric variability, particularly on spiracles in both genders and in female genitalia, data obtained with different genetic molecular markers show very low variability, suggesting the existence of a unique species. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis showed genetic uniformity, supporting the existence of a well-defined clade consisting of R. sanguineus s.l. specimens from Western Europe that are distinct from R. sanguineus s.l. from Africa. Furthermore, these data corroborate the existence of a polymorphic species in Western Europe, which requires to be consensually redescribed in view of its medical and veterinary importance in pathogen transmission. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Comunidad de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae en dos bosques del Chaco Oriental Húmedo, Argentina

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    Miryam P. DAMBORSKY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó y comparó la estructura de la comunidad de Scarabaeinae en dos ambientes con distinto grado de conservación. Se efectuaron muestreos en un bosque nativo del Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio y en un fragmento de bosque del establecimiento ganadero Los Alisos. Los ejemplares se capturaron con coprotrampas y necrotrampas que permanecieron activas durante 72 horas, en los meses de octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 2006. Se colectaron 769 individuos adultos pertenecientes a seis tribus, 11 géneros y 26 especies. En Los Alisos Ontherus sulcatus Fabricius y Onthophagus hirculus Mannerheim resultaron dominantes. Trichillum sp., Canthon podagricus Harold, Malagoniella sp., Gromphas lacordairei Brullé, y dos especies de Dichotomius Hope fueron exclusivas de este establecimiento. Canthon septemmaculatus Latreille y Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier sólo se colectaron en Pampa del Indio. El número de individuos y la diversidad alcanzaron valores significativamente superiores en Pampa del Indio. En Los Alisos, se constató igual proporción de coprófagos y necrófagos, y una mayoría de especies con hábitos endocópridos y paracóprido En Pampa del Indio, se encontraron más especies de hábitos necrófagos y rodadores. La presente contribución constituye el primer estudio sobre la biodiversidad de Scarabaeinae en el ambiente de bosque de la provincia del Chaco.

  11. Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) with low and high chromosome numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinina, Alisa O.; Anokhin, Boris A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric repeats are important parts of eukaryotic genome. However, little is known about their organization and localization in karyotypes of organisms with holocentric chromosomes. Here we present first cytogenetic study of these molecular structures in seven blue butterflies of the genus Polyommatus Latreille, 1804 with low and high chromosome numbers (from n=10 to n=ca.108) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe showed the presence of two different variants of the location of major rDNA clusters in Polyommatus species: with one or two rDNA-carrying chromosomes in haploid karyotype. We discuss evolutionary trends and possible mechanisms of changes in the number of ribosomal clusters. We also demonstrate that Polyommatus species have the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization. This chromosome end protection mechanism probably originated de novo in small chromosomes that evolved via fragmentations. PMID:26140159

  12. Environmental Determinants of the Distribution of Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Cardona, Ángela Segura

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Colombia and represents an important epidemiological risk mainly in the central and oriental regions of the country where it occupies sylvatic, peridomestic, and intradomestic ecotopes, and because of this complex distribution, its distribution and abundance could be conditioned by environmental factors. In this work, we explored the relationship between T. dimidiata distribution and environmental factors in the northwest, northeast, and central zones of Colombia and developed predictive models of infestation in the country. The associations between the presence of T. dimidiata and environmental variables were studied using logistic regression models and ecological niche modeling for a sample of villages in Colombia. The analysis was based on the information collected in field about the presence of T. dimidiata and the environmental data for each village extracted from remote sensing images. The presence of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) was found to be significantly associated with the maximum vegetation index, minimum land surface temperature (LST), and the digital elevation for the statistical model. Temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, and vegetation index were the variables that most influenced the ecological niche model of T. dimidiata distribution. The logistic regression model showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the Andean and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the known distribution of the species, but predicted suitable habitats in the Pacific and Orinoco regions proposing new areas of research. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management. PMID:26856910

  13. Determination of metabolic resistance mechanisms in pyrethroid-resistant and fipronil-tolerant brown dog ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, A L; Kaufman, P E; Oi, F M; Dark, M J; Bloomquist, J R; Miller, R J

    2017-09-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its' entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its' control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous studies have confirmed permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in R. sanguineus populations, commonly conferred by metabolic detoxification or target site mutations. Herein, five strains of permethrin-resistant and three strains of fipronil-tolerant ticks were evaluated for metabolic resistance using synergists to block metabolic enzymes. Synergist studies were completed with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) for esterase inhibition, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) for cytochrome P450 inhibition, and diethyl maleate (DEM) for glutathione-S-transferase inhibition. Additionally, increased esterase activity was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. The most important metabolic detoxification mechanism in permethrin-resistant ticks was increased esterase activity, followed by increased cytochrome P450 activity. The inhibition of metabolic enzymes did not have a marked impact on fipronil-tolerant tick strains. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Condition factor of Goniopsis cruentata (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae from Mundaú/Manguaba estuarine complex, Alagoas, Brazil

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    José J. P. R. Lira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition factor is a parameter which acts as a general indicator of the "well-being" of a species, and it can be obtained through the analysis of width vs. weight relationships. The present work aims to investigate size vs. weight relationship and the condition factor of the crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. The study area was the Mundaú/Manguaba estuarine complex, Maceió, state of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. Samplings were monthly accomplished from August 2007 to July 2008. A total of 626 individuals were analyzed, being 309 males and 317 females. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is expected in many brachyuran. The growth was positive allometric to both males (b = 3.42 and females (b = 3.30, not obeying the "cube law". The condition factor of female was higher than that of male crabs, probably due to the gonad weight of females. It also varied seasonally for both sexes, being higher in the autumn and winter in males, and in the autumn and spring in females, and related to the molt and period of spawning intensification.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the large carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera: apidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, R; Cooper, S J; Schwarz, M P

    2000-12-01

    Carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa Latreille, a group of bees found on all continents, are of particular interest to behavioral ecologists because of their utility for studies of the evolution of mating strategies and sociality. This paper presents phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b for 22 subgenera of Xylocopa. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. The analyses resulted in three resolved clades of subgenera: a South American group (including the subgenera Stenoxylocopa, Megaxylocopa, and Neoxylocopa), a group including the subgenera Xylocopa s.s. and Ctenoxylocopa, and an Ethiopean group (including the subgenera Afroxylocopa, Mesotrichia, Alloxylocopa, Platynopoda, Hoploxylocopa, and Koptortosoma). The relationships between the 11 other subgenera and the resolved clades are unclear. Within the Ethiopian group we found a clear separation of the African and the Oriental taxa and apparent polyphyly of the subgenus Koptortosoma. Using an evolutionary rate for ants, we investigated whether Gondwana vicariance or more recent dispersal events could best explain the present-day distribution of subgenera. Although some taxa show divergences that approach Gondwanan breakup times, most divergences between geographic groups are too recent to support a vicariance hypothesis.

  16. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.

  17. Crustacean parasites associated with hermit crabs from the western Mediterranean Sea, with first documentation of egg predation by the burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica: Trypetesidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason D; Gallardo, Alejandra; Murphy, Angela E

    2011-03-01

    Parasitic isopods (family Bopyridae) and burrowing barnacles (family Trypetesidae) infesting hermit crabs were investigated from shallow subtidal collections made along the southeastern coast of Spain in 2009. A total of 713 specimens of Clibanarius erythropus (Latreille, 1818) and 82 Calcinus tubularis (L., 1767) were examined. Gastropod shells and worm tubes inhabited by hermit crabs were collected by hand while snorkeling and were cracked to determine host species, size, sex and presence of eggs. Two species of bopyrid isopods were found on C. erythropus: the branchial parasite Bopyrissa fraiseii (Carayon, 1943) and the abdominal parasite Parathelges cardonae Codreanu and Codreanu in Codreanu, 1968. Among all C. erythropus examined, Bopyrissa fraiseii was found on 0.6% of hermit crabs and P. cardonae was found on 0.3%. A redescription of P. cardonae is provided and the species is documented with light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time. No Calcinus tubularis harbored parasitic isopods, but one specimen was parasitized by an unidentified rhizocephalan barnacle of the genus Septosaccus (1.2%). The burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Hancock, 1849) was found associated with both hermit crab species and evidence of predation on host eggs by this barnacle is shown for the first time. Trypetesa lampas was found in 4.2% of the shells collected. The present study expands our knowledge of the parasite fauna of hermit crabs from the Mediterranean Sea and indicates that additional research is needed to determine the impact of trypetesid egg predators on hermit crab populations.

  18. Abelhas Euglossini (Apidae de áreas de Mata Atlântica: abundância, riqueza e aspectos biológicos Euglossine bees (Apidae from Atlantic Forest sites: abundance, richness, and biological aspects

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    Rui Carlos Peruquetti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection data of Euglossinae males from Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD and Viçosa, both areas with remnants of Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica in Minas Gerais state, Brazil are presented. Comparisons made among three fragments with different sizes and states of disturbance from Viçosa showed differences in abundance of most common species and apparently, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletir, 1841 can be an useful indicator of disturbed sites. Some populations of euglossine bees seems to be restrict to a forest fragment, there being few or no flow of individuals or species of one fragment to another, even when they are only 1 km apart. 15 species of euglossines were sampled in PERD, and the most abundant was Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804. At Viçosa, 10 species were sampled, E. nigrita was the predominant one. Methyl salicylate attracted no males at both sites, in spite of large numbers of species and individuals sampled using this bait in other regions. The majority of species and individuals were collected in the rainy season. Only 0,58% of sampled males carried orchid pollinia (Catasetum Richard, Cycnoches Lindley and Coryanthes Hook on their bodies. Emergence data of four species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 reared from trap nests suggest that sex ratio in Euglossini is not a constant within the tribe. A list of 57 euglossine species now known to occur in Mata Atlântica are offered.

  19. Phantom spiders 2: More notes on dubious spider species from Europe

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    Breitling, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. In this second part of a series on this topic, we discuss about 100 of these cases, focusing mainly on species described in the early 20th century by Pelegrín Franganillo Balboa and Gabor von Kolosváry, as well as a number of jumping spiders and various miscellaneous species. In most cases, the species turned out to be unidentifiable nomina dubia, but for some of them new synonymies could be established as follows: Alopecosa accentuata auct., nec (Latreille, 1817 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa barbipes oreophila Simon, 1937 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa mariae orientalis (Kolosváry, 1934 = Alopecosa mariae (Dahl, 1908 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus afolius (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus atricolor Simon, 1929 = Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus castaneus (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus levifolius (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus niger (Franganillo, 1918 and Araneus angulatus nitidifolius (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus angulatus Clerck 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus pallidus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus crucinceptus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus fuscus (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus iberoi (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus circe strandi (Kolosváry, 1935 = Araneus circe (Audouin, 1826 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus nemorosus Simon, 1929 and Araneus diadematus soror (Simon, 1874 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus pyrenaeus (Simon, 1874 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus sericinus (Roewer, 1942 = Aculepeira armida

  20. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  1. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a vespidae predadores do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro

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    GUSMÃO MARCOS RAFAEL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em laboratório, a seletividade dos inseticidas clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, ethion, monocrotofós e permetrina às vespas predadoras Apoica pallens Fab., Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae em concentrações que correspondem a 50% e 100% da dosagem recomendada para o controle do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro, Perileucoptera coffeella Guérin-Meneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae. Deltametrina foi seletivo em favor de P. versicolor versicolor e A. pallens. O ethion foi medianamente seletivo a A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor, e seletivo em favor de B. lecheguana. Os demais inseticidas não foram seletivos às vespas predadoras. A ordem crescente de tolerância das vespas a deltametrina foi: P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens > B. lecheguana. Para o ethion esta ordem foi: B. lecheguana > P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens. O clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, monocrotofós e permetrina apresentaram semelhante toxicidade às vespas nas duas dosagens utilizadas. O ethion, por sua vez, reduziu seu impacto sobre A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor quando aplicado em subdosagem.

  2. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

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    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  3. Comparative analysis of storage conditions and homogenization methods for tick and flea species for identification by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, A; El Hamzaoui, B; Berenger, J-M; Bitam, I; Raoult, D; Almeras, L; Parola, P

    2017-07-19

    Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months. The MS spectra were then compared with those obtained from manual pestle grinding, the standard homogenization method. Both automated methods generated intense, reproducible MS spectra from fresh specimens. Frozen storage methods appeared to represent the best preservation mode, for up to 6 months, while storage in ethanol is also possible, with some caveats for tick specimens. Carnoy's buffer, however, was shown to be less compatible with MS analysis for the purpose of identifying ticks or fleas. These standard protocols for MALDI-TOF MS arthropod identification should be complemented by additional MS spectrum quality controls, to generalize their use in monitoring arthropods of medical interest. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Transmission of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) by ixodids (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S A; Mathew, J S; Panciera, R J

    2002-07-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) caused by Hepatozoon americanum Vincent-Johnson, Macintire, Lindsay, Lenz, Baneth, and Shkap is an emerging, often fatal, tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs in the United States of America. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting ticks that contain oocysts. To understand the invertebrate (definitive) host range of H. americanum, experiments were carried out using four ixodids, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Dermacentor variabilis Say, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and Amblyomma maculatum Koch. Laboratory-reared nymphal ticks were fed on dogs that were either naturally or experimentally infected with H. americanum; when these ticks molted to the adult stage they were either fed to susceptible dogs or were dissected and examined for the presence of oocysts. Mature H. americanum oocysts were found in >90% of A. maculatum (both males and females), whereas oocysts were not found in any of the other three species. These results confirm that A. maculatum is an excellent host and vector for H. americanum and also suggest that this apicomplexan may have a narrow invertebrate host range, at least among ixodid ticks that are likely candidate vectors in the United States.

  5. Influência da temperatura sobre os tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Carneiro M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se verificar a influência de três temperaturas (18, 27 e 32°C sobre os tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Seis tipos celulares básicos foram encontrados na hemolinfa: prohemócitos (PR, plasmatócitos (PL, granulócitos (GR, esferulócitos (ES, adipohemócitos (AD e oenocitóides (OE. Os ES foram divididos em dois subtipos (ES I e ES II, devido às variações morfológicas encontradas. O efeito da temperatura foi mais acentuado sobre o estádio de larva. Ocorreu queda acentuada de GR e aumento de ES II na temperatura de 18°C, enquanto que à 27 e 32°C, os valores foram semelhantes. GR foi o tipo celular mais abundante, indicando o seu envolvimento no metabolismo. Para ninfas este também foi o tipo celular mais abundante, porém não ocorreram variações acentuadas segundo a temperatura, indicando que cada estádio de desenvolvimento apresenta determinada necessidade metabólica que se expressa nos tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa.

  6. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats.

  7. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  8. Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.

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    Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

    2013-06-01

    Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30 AM to 05:00 PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil.

  9. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  10. Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran.

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    Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season.

  11. Spatial-temporal variation in orchid bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in remnants of arboreal Caatinga in the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, Brazil.

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    Andrade-Silva, A C R; Nemésio, A; de Oliveira, F F; Nascimento, F S

    2012-08-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of organisms is a fundamental aspect of biological communities. The present study focused on three remnants of arboreal Caatinga in northeastern Brazil between May, 2009 and April, 2010. A total of 627 euglossine males were captured in traps baited with artificial aromatic compounds. The specimens belonged to 14 species and four genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, Eufriesea Cockerell, and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (41.6), Euglossa carolina Nemésio (15.3%), Eulaema marcii Nemésio (13.6%), and Euglossa melanotricha Moure (12.8%) were the most common species sampled. The distribution of collected specimens per fragment was as follows: Braúna (280 ha)--259 individuals belonging to 14 species; Cambuí (179 ha)--161 individuals from eight species; and Pindoba (100 ha)--207 individuals represented by seven species. Braúna had the highest diversity (H' = 1.91) and estimated species richness. The largest fragment was the main source of the observed variation in species richness and abundance, indicating a non-random pattern of spatial distribution. The analysis of environmental factors indicated that seasonal variation in these factors was the principal determinant of species occurrence and abundance.

  12. First records of Croatian and Serbian Tetrigidae (Orthoptera: Caelifera) with description of a new subspecies of Tetrix transsylvanica (Bazyluk & Kis, 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejo, Josip; Rebrina, Fran; Buzzetti, Filippo Maria; Ivković, Slobodan; Rašić, Alan; Tvrtković, Nikola

    2014-08-25

    A review of the Croatian and Serbian Tetrigidae is given and first records of Tetrix undulata (Sowerby, 1806) for Croatia and Serbia as well as Tetrix tuerki (Krauss, 1876) and Tetrix transsylvanica (Bazyluk & Kis, 1960) comb. nov. for Croatia are presented. The status of the genus Uvarovitettix Bazyluk & Kis, 1960 and the taxonomic position of T. transsylvanica comb. nov. are discussed. The genus Uvarovitettix Bazyluk & Kis, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymised with the genus Tetrix Latreille, 1802. A new subspecies from Croatia and Slovenia, Tetrix transsylvanica hypsocorypha Skejo, 2014 subspecies nova, is described. Tetrix pseudodepressa (Ingrisch, 2006) comb. nov. and Tetrix depressa (Brisout de Barneville, 1848) comb. nov. are moved to the genus Tetrix and the genus Depressotetrix Karaman, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymised with the genus Tetrix. Tetrix gibberosa (Wang & Zheng, 1993) inc. sed. and T. nodulosa (Fieber, 1853) inc. sed. are now considered to be species of uncertain placement within the genus Tetrix. New combination is also given to Paratettix tuberculata (Zheng & Jiang, 1997), primarily placed within the genus Mishtshenkotetrix: Tetrix tuberculata (Zheng & Jiang, 1997) comb. nov., but its placement within the genus Tetrix is also uncertain. 

  13. Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector lxodes ovatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Jason; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Lehmann, Jens; Hoffmann, Rene; Fusseis, Florian; Ehlke, Moritz; Zachow, Stefan; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-10-10

    Background: Fossil ticks are extremely rare, whereby Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44–49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). Results: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil’s referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al., 1973 and its single living (and medically significant) species Ixodes ovatus Neumann, 1899. We redescribe the amber fossil here as Ixodes (Partipalpiger) succineus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ixodes ricinus is unlikely to be directly derived from Weidner’s amber species, but instead reveals that the Partipalpiger lineage was originally more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. The closeness of Ixodes (P.) succineus to a living vector of a wide range of pathogens offers the potential to correlate its spatial and temporal position (northern Europe, nearly 50 million years ago) with the estimated origination dates of various tick-borne diseases.

  14. Differential flight muscle development in workers, queens and males of the eusocial bees, Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fernandez, Fernanda; Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2010-01-01

    The flight capability of the adult eusocial bees, Apis mellifera L. and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae), is intrinsically linked to their colonial functions, such as the nuptial flight for mating in the case of queens and males, and the exploration of new habitats for nesting and food sources in the case of workers. Flight is achieved by the contraction of indirect flight muscles that produce changes in thoracic volume and, therefore, wing movement. The purpose of this work is to examine possible differences in muscle development that may be associated with the flying activity of individuals in a given life stage considering the behavioral and physiological differences among the stages and between the two species studied. Measurements of the muscle fibers obtained from light microscopy preparations of muscle were submitted to statistical analysis in order to detect the differences at a given time, or throughout the life of the individual. The results show that muscle morphology is similar in both species, but in A. mellifera the muscle fibers are thicker and more numerous than in S. postica. Differences in the fiber thickness according to life stage in all classes of individuals of both species were detected. These results are discussed in relation to the need for flying in each life stage.

  15. Protein requirements in larvae and adults of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae [correction of Apidia], Meliponinae): midgut proteolytic activity and pollen digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Zerbo, A; Silva de Moraes, R L; Brochetto-Braga, M R

    2001-05-01

    The number and degree of digestion of pollen grains in the midgut and rectum, the midgut proteolytic activity and the time of pollen grain passage through the digestive tract in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille) have been analyzed. The results show similar protein requirements among larvae, nurse bees and queens, as well as between forager bees and old males, but these requirements are higher in individuals from the former groups than in those from the latter. Although protein requirements have been demonstrated to vary according to a bee's activity in the colony, they are similar among bees from different castes or sexes. These changes in feeding behavior are related to the bee's function and to less competition for nourishment among individuals of the colony. It is also noted that pollen grains took between 6 and 28 h to pass through the digestive tract. Pollen grains are irregularly accumulated in the various regions of the midgut, which may reflect functional differentiation throughout the midgut.

  16. Changes in the size of cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae queens and workers in different life phases

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    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bee species of the Apinae, in addition to the thoracic salivary glands, possess a pair of cephalic glands originating as branches of the excretory duct that crosses the head. These glands are known as cephalic salivary or labial cephalic glands. The degree of development of these glands in newly emerged, nurse and forager workers and virgin and egg-laying queens of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 were evaluated by measuring the secretory alveolar units. The area of the secretory alveoli, measured in total gland preparations, was used to evaluate differences in size. In both species, gland size was found to increase progressively from newly emerged workers to foragers and from virgin to egg-laying queens. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the area of gland alveoli of workers in different life phases in both species, and between S. postica virgin and egg-laying queens, but not between A. mellifera queens. In the case of workers, this suggests cephalic salivary gland secretion has a function in forager activity and, in queens, a possible pheromonal function.

  17. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

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    Manuel Rincón-Rabanales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L. in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther. The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville and Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  18. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

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    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  19. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

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    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  20. Infestation by the epibiont Octolasmis lowei in a portunid crab assemblage from a subtropical coast

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    Lylian Marcia da Silva-Inácio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the infestation by Octolasmis lowei Darwin, 1851 in branchial chambers of the portunid Achelous spinimanus (Latreille, 1819, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, and Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863. We evaluated how infestation is related to host maturity, molt stage, carapace width and sex. The infestation probability increases with host carapace width, and infested crabs were more likely to be adults in intermolt stage. Infestation prevalence did not differ between sexes, except for C. ornatus, in which females had higher infestation than males. Infestation intensity was higher for males than females in A. cribrarius and A. spinimanus, while C. ornatus showed an opposite pattern. Association of O. lowei with portunid seems to be tightly related to the biological traits of its host. Some of these traits, such as host size, maturity and molt stage, are likely to affect infestation in a similar way for all host species, while the effect of other traits, such as sex identity, seems to vary among hosts. We suggest a deeper understanding of the factors driving host use by generalist epibionts such as O. lowei depends on investigating their occurrence on a variety of potential hosts, as well as performing manipulative studies to evaluate the factors driving host preferences by this epibiont.

  1. Dimensionamento e sobreposição de nichos dos portunídeos (Decapoda, Brachyura, na Enseada da Fortaleza, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil Breadth and overlap niches of the portunid crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura, in Fortaleza Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The niche breadth of the Portunidae and their overlap on the subtidal sediments of Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba (São Paulo was analyzed. Samples were made monthly from November/1988 to October/1989, inseven areas of the bay using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with two otter-trawls. Each area was characterized based on environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and granulometric composition of the sediment. The number of individuais of each species was registered to each area (resource. Levins's standardized measure (BA and niche percentage were calculated. Five species of swimming crabs were recorded in this study: Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and Portunus spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871. The widest ecological niche occurred to C. ornatus, present in all sampled areas (generalist species. Such fact can be related to high sediment tolerance when it is compared to P. spinimanus (especialist species which was limited to the areas with coarse granulometric fractions. Highest niche overlap was verified between C. danae and A. cribrarius may be due to greater salinity tolerance of these species. The low occurrence of P. spinicarpus and its reduced niche size in Fortaleza Bay are due to association of this species to cold water currents (ACAS more evidente in smaler depths during summer months. One future evaluation of the portunid diet can be useful to complement informations about this important aspect of the marine ecology.

  2. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

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    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758 on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 (Diptera, Calliphoridae (81.62%; Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae (16.35%; Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761 (Diptera, Muscidae (0.04%; Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Histeridae (1.48%; Necrobia rufipes (De Geer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Cleridae (0.45%; Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (0.02%; Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda, Porcellionidae (0.02% and Hadruroides lunatus (L. Koch, 1867 (Scorpionida, Iuridae (0.02%. Larvae accounted for 76%, pupae 14% and adults 10% of the total collected. The arthropods were into three: necrophages (98.01%, predators (1.95% and omnivorous (0.04%. C. macellaria were significantly higher during the decayed stage; by contrast D. maculatus was much higher in dry remains stage. The highest diversity with the Shannon-Weaver (H' and Pielou (J index were found during the advanced decayed stage. The absence of species of genus Chrysomyia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is discussed.

  3. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

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    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  4. Description of the immature stages and redescription of the female of Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 (Acari: Ixodidae), an endemic tick species of Brazil.

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    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Onofrio, Valeria C; Faccini, João L H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Arruda-Santos, Ana D; Giacomin, Flávia G

    2007-11-01

    Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 is a tick endemic to Brazil, where nine species of Ixodes Latreille, 1796 are currently known to occur. Larvae, nymphs and females of I. schulzei were obtained from a laboratory colony originating from an engorged female collected on a free-living water rat Nectomys squamipes from the Santa Branca municipality, São Paulo State. Only female ticks were obtained from engorged nymphs. Unfed immature and female adult specimens were measured and the descriptions were based on optical and scanning electron microscopy, as were drawings of some features of the larva. Both immature stages present the very long palpi and basis capituli, and the female has large, contiguous porose areas. However, the basis capituli is triangular, with a slight central elevation in the larva and nymph, whereas in the female this area is depressed. The I. schulzei types deposited at the FIOCRUZ (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz) were also examined, as was other material from collections, such as the IBSP (Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan), CNC-FMVZ/USP (Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da USP) and USNTC (United States National Tick Collection). In addition, the relationship between I. schulzei and other immature neotropical species of Ixodes is discussed.

  5. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

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    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  6. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

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    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae, Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae, Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833 (Aradidae or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811 (Anthocoridae.

  7. Sensitivity to tactile novelty in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber.

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    Anselme, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates have been studied at biochemical, ecological, and behavioural levels, but current knowledge about the impact that learning may have on behaviour is rather sparse. The present study aimed to examine the sensitivity of isolated rough woodlice (Porcellio scaber, Latreille, 1804) to the tactile novelty of their environment. A simple way to test this issue was to refer to the place preference paradigm, traditionally used in vertebrates. In Experiment 1, woodlice were placed in a compartment for 30 min in order to assess their ability to develop habituation in the absence of reward. In Experiment 2, woodlice were exposed to a compartment for 20 min (habituation phase) and were then given free choice between that compartment and a novel compartment for 2 min (preference phase). Depending on test conditions, rewards (humidity and/or shelter) were present or absent in the familiar compartment. The familiar and novel compartments differed with respect to the texture of the floor. In Experiment 3, the floor texture was the same in the two compartments in order to control for a novelty effect. The main results indicate that woodlice exhibited increased locomotion time, increased distance travelled, and increased speed in the novel compartment compared to the familiar compartment. There was no preference for either compartment when the floor textures of both were identical.

  8. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

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    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  9. Efeito da exclusão dos insetos polinizadores na produção do café Bourbon The effect of the exclusion of pollinating insects on the yield of the bourbon coffee

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    Paulo Nogueira - Neto

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio, realizado com a var. bourbon de Coffea arabica, além de dar informações sôbre a produção dos cafeeiros protegidos dos insetos polinizadores, permitiu também averiguar o comportamento de várias espécies de abelhas e obter outras informações correlatas. Constatou-se, assim, que o néctar da flor é ainda abundante mesmo 24 horas após a antese e que o teor de açúcar do néctar é elevado, da ordem de 38%, em média. Apis mellifera foi a espécie mais freqüentemente encontrada coletando o néctar e o pólen. Em dias chuvosos, muitas das abelhas dessa espécie apenas coletam o pólen. Das abelhas indígenas, somente Plebéia sp. e Nannotrigona (Na. testaceicomis e Melipona quadrifasciata foram encontradas colhendo o pólen. Com tempo bom, as abelhas visitam as flôres do café em grande número, tendo-se notado que A. mellifera ocorre com maior freqüência em horas próximas do meio dia, à temperatura de 30 a 32°C. As abelhas Plebeia sp. e N. (Na. testaceicomis iniciam o vôo mais tarde que a A. mellifera. Em observações realizadas no decurso de 24 horas verificou-se que uma abelha européia trabalhou num território de 13m x 6m, enquanto outras abelhas marcadas não foram vistas novamente. As observações feitas indicaram também que as abelhas grandes, como A. mellifera e Melipona quadrifasciata, são mais eficientes do que as pequenas como polinizadoras do cafeeiro. Em flores mais velhas, com a base da corola já desprendida, encontraram-se as abelhas menores, lambendo diretamente os nectários. As espécies de meliponíneos Plebeia sp., Tetragona (Tetragonisca jaty, N. (Na. testaceicomis e Trigona (Trigona ruficrus, foram vistas muitas vêzes alcançando os nectários através de cortes feitos na base das corolas por Trigona (Trigona hyalinata. Observações adicionais mostraram que as abelhas M. quadrifasciata e Cephalotrigona capitata, bem como A. mellifera, dão preferência as flôres de exemplares

  10. Biologia de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, e o comportamento de seus cleptoparasitas foram estudados em Monte Santo, Bahia, Brasil. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de solo e óleo, dentro de cavidades preexistentes na madeira de uma construção abandonada, assim como em gomos de bambu de 8 e 9 mm de diâmetro. Os ninhos completados tinham de uma a cinco células alongadas, arranjadas em uma série linear e orientadas horizontalmente. O tempo gasto para construir uma célula foi altamente variável, sendo em geral de 4,5 a 5,5 h. Após finalizar a construção da célula, as fêmeas fizeram uma ou duas viagens para coletar um líquido incolor, provavelmente óleo floral, usado para revestir as paredes internas da célula. Para aprovisionar uma célula foram realizadas de cinco a oito viagens de coleta para obtenção de pólen e néctar, e de quatro a seis viagens para coleta de óleo. Imediatamente após a oviposição, as fêmeas fecharam as células usando o solo que elas tinham coletado previamente. Três espécies cleptoparasitas pertencentes ao gênero Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 atacaram os ninhos. Entradas de cleptoparasitas dentro dos ninhos occorreram, na maioria dos casos, enquanto a fêmea hospedeira estava ausente do ninho. As fêmeas de C. (H. trigonoides apresentaram comportamentos defensivos para evitar parasitismo, tais como expulsar os parasitas e guardar os ninhos. Machos de C. (H. trigonoides usaram o local de nidificação como abrigo durante as horas mais quentes do dia, assim como para dormir. Eles deixavam as cavidades no dia seguinte entre 09:00 e 10:30 h. Isto sugere que machos e fêmeas têm padrões temporais de atividade distintos.The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, and the behavior of their cleptoparasites were studied at Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil. The females constructed their nests within preexisting holes in wood

  11. Diversidade e distribuição espacial de artrópodes associados ao solo em agroecossistemas Diversity and spatial distribution of ground arthropods in agroecosystems

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da diversidade e distribuição de artrópodes associados ao solo contribui para o desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. O presente estudo foi realizado em Jaboticabal (SP, durante o período de fevereiro a abril de 2004. O objetivo foi analisar a comunidade de Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Formicidae e Araneae através de índices faunísticos e determinar a distribuição espacial e a interação interespecífica de espécies predominantes em soja (Glycine max (L. Merr., milho (Zea mays L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Os artrópodes foram amostrados com armadilhas de solo distribuídas a cada 10 m em dois transectos de 210 m de comprimento, que atravessaram o seringal e avançaram 60 m no interior das culturas. A fauna foi caracterizada pelos índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, de equitabilidade e de similaridade de Morisita. As diferenças entre a ocorrência das espécies predominantes nos hábitats foram determinadas por análise de variância e a interação interespecífica por correlação de Pearson. A soja e o milho cultivados em sistema de plantio direto propiciaram comunidades de carabídeos, formigas e aranhas mais bem estruturadas que o seringal. Entre as 88 espécies capturadas, 20 espécies foram predominantes cuja distribuição espacial mostrou que Odontocheila nodicornis (Dejean, Glenus chrysis Gravenhorst, Castianeira sp. e oito espécies de formigas foram mais abundantes no seringal em comparação às culturas de soja e do milho. A abundância dos carabídeos Calosoma granulatum Perty e O. nodicornis diminuiu conforme aumentou a densidade dos formicídeos Pheidole sp.1 e Odontomachus chelifer Latreille respectivamente.The knowledge of the diversity and distribution of ground arthropods contributes for the development of sustainable agricultural systems. This work was carried out at the Paulista State University, Jaboticabal campus, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the

  12. Características populacionais de Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae no fital Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, em área recifal submetida à visitação humana, em João Pessoa, Paraíba Population characteristics of Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, on reef area submitted to human visitation, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Jefferson B. Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e comparar a estrutura e a dinâmica populacional de Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 no fital Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae coletado nas formações recifais de Picãozinho (submetida à visitação turística e São Gonçalo (área controle, na costa de João Pessoa (Nordeste do Brasil, sob influência de fatores ambientais e do número de visitantes. Nas duas áreas de estudo as populações analisadas estiveram compostas por fêmeas e machos maduros e imaturos com significativa predominância de machos e de animais imaturos, freqüência de tamanho e períodos reprodutivos similares. O tamanho máximo dos exemplares, a freqüência de distribuição de tamanho e a razão sexual diferiram dos resultados obtidos para a espécie em outras latitudes e habitats. Dados de razão sexual evidenciam que independentemente do estágio de maturação, os machos apresentam predominância significativa (RS>1,0, e que a proporção de fêmeas diminui com o amadurecimento sexual. Sem sofrer influência da biomassa da alga, e da salinidade e temperatura da água, variações populacionais significativas foram associadas ao aumento de juvenis durante períodos chuvosos. A baixa densidade populacional e a maior desproporção da relação macho: fêmea em subárea de Picãozinho com maior fluxo de pessoas sugerem que estas variações podem ter sido induzidas pelo pisoteio das algas.The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the population structure and dynamic of Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae collected on the reef areas of Picãozinho (visited by tourists and São Gonçalo (control area, in João Pessoa coast (Northeastern of Brazil, under the influence of environmental conditions and visitant numbers. In both study areas the populations analyzed were composed similarly of mature and immature males and females, with predominance of males and

  13. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a Vespidae predadores de Ascia monuste orseis Insecticide physiological selectivity to Vespidae predators of Ascia monuste orseis

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    André Luiz Barreto Crespo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a seletividade dos inseticidas carbaril, deltametrina, paratiom metílico, permetrina e triclorfom em relação a Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae e a seus predadores Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Por meio de curvas de concentração-mortalidade e das concentrações letais para 90% da população (CL90, calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial (ISD90, de toxicidade relativa, e de tolerância relativa (ITRe90. O paratiom metílico e triclorfom apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 2,83 e 1,75 e P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 2,95 e 3,59 em relação a A. monuste orseis. Deltametrina e permetrina apresentaram seletividade em favor de P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 1,98 e 2,70 em relação a A. monuste orseis, mas não apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 0,21 e 0,64. B. lecheguana foi menos tolerante a deltametrina, permetrina e triclorfom do que P. sylveirae (ITRe90 = 9,36, 4,23 e 2,05, e mais tolerante ao carbaril (ITRe90 = 0,14. Os predadores apresentaram tolerância semelhante ao paratiom metílico (ITRe90 = 1,04. As curvas de concentração-mortalidade do carbaril, permetrina e triclorfom em ambos os predadores, de deltametrina em B. lecheguana, e de paratiom metílico em P. sylveirae, apresentaram maiores inclinações do que as curvas em A. monuste orseis.This work aimed to study the selectivity of the insecticides carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl parathion, permethrin and trichlorfon in relation to Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae and to their predators Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille and Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Based on concentration-response curves and lethal concentrations for 90% of the population (LC90, the differential selectivity index (DSI90, relative toxicity index and relative tolerance index (ReTI90 were calculated

  14. Entomofauna asociada a flores de berenjena y su papel en la producción de los frutos Insects associated with eggplant flowers and their role in fruit production

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    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El papel de los insectos polinizadores despierta interés, principalmente, en la reproducción de plantas tales como la berenjena. Este trabajo de recolección de la entomofauna asociada a las flores de Solanum melongena tuvo como objetivos identificar posibles agentes polinizadores locales y analizar el beneficio de los insectos antófilos a esta planta. Las observaciones y la colecta de los insectos visitantes de las flores fueron realizadas en febrero de 2008, entre las 7:00 y 17:15 horas, cada 45 minutos y en un área de 27 m². El experimento para el análisis y la comparación entre autofecundación espontánea y polinización por medio de agentes bióticos fue realizado en el mismo sitio, de febrero a marzo de 2009. Fueron colectados 631 insectos que visitaban las flores de berenjena, se destacaron los coleópteros de los géneros Colaspis Fabricius, Astylus Laporte, Harmonia Mulsant, Epitrix Foudras y Diabrotica Chevrolat; y los himenópteros del género Bombus Latreille. El pico de visitación en Solanum melongena ocurrió entre las 9:00 y 11:00 horas y corresponde al 36% del muestreo. De las flores sometidas al test de autofecundación espontánea, el 39% formaron frutos, mientras que apenas el 11% de las flores emasculadas y expuestas al proceso de acción por medio de agentes bióticos fructificaron.The interest in the role of insect pollination is growing, mainly in the reproduction of plants of economic interest, such as the eggplant. This study about the entomofauna associated with flowers of Solanum melongena has as objectives to identify possible pollinators' agents and to analyze the benefit of the anthophile insects to this plant. The observations and the survey of the flower visitors' insects were made in February 2008, between 7:00 am and 5:15 pm, every 45 minutes, in an area of 27 m². The experiment for analysis and comparison between spontaneous self pollination and by biological agents was made at the same place, from

  15. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  16. Chemically based interactions and nutritional ecology of Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae in an agroecosystem adjacent to a gallery forest Interações de origem química e ecologia nutricional de Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae em um agroecossistema adjacente a uma mata de galeria

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    André F. M. Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available New World army ants species have an important role in structuring invertebrate communities. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 is a generalist top predator that can reduce pest densities in agroecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral attributes, diet composition and interspecific interactions of the ant L. praedator. We searched for army ant raids using standardized trail-walk surveys and plotted army ants raids positions on an aerial image. We photographed events at swarm raids of L. praedator and recorded its diet items in basal columns near bivouacs. Six species from four Ecitoninae genera - Labidus (Jurine, 1807, Nomamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1936, Neivamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1940 and Eciton (Latreille, 1804 - were recorded. Caterpillars dominated the composition of the diet of L. praedator. Flowers and diaspores of weeds and aril and flesh of fruits were also transported to bivouacs. One colony stopped foraging after intense rainfall and discrete groups of hundreds of L. praedator ants were separated under patches covered by shrubs. Groups of Crotophaginae birds, Sarcophaginae flies and Polistinae wasps followed L. praedator swarm raids. We discuss the importance of landscape structure for agroecosystem colonization by Ecitoninae and the existence of chemical opportunism between army ants species through the reuse of unoccupied trails.Algumas formigas neotropicais de correição têm um importante papel na estruturação da comunidade de invertebrados. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 como predador generalista de topo pode reduzir as densidades de pragas em agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever atributos comportamentais, composição de dieta e interações interespecíficas da formiga Labidus praedator. Nós buscamos as colunas das formigas de correição por meio de amostragens por caminhamento em trilhas padronizadas. Nós plotamos as posições das colunas sobre uma imagem aérea. Nós fotografamos eventos

  17. Comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica situados em áreas urbanizadas Ants' communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest situated in urban areas

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    Maria Santina de C. Morini

    Full Text Available As comunidades de formigas que vivem em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica rodeados por um ecossistema urbano bem desenvolvido, foram investigadas. Avaliou-se a riqueza, a freqüência de ocorrência das espécies bem como a similaridade entre três áreas da cidade de São Paulo: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO e Horto Oswaldo Cruz (HOC. Foram colocadas armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" em locais onde não ocorre visitação pública, durante uma semana, nos meses de março, junho, setembro e dezembro de 2001. Em todos os fragmentos foram coletadas 79 espécies de formigas, pertencentes a nove subfamílias e 32 gêneros. A subfamília Myrmicinae e os gêneros Pheidole e Hypoponera foram os mais ricos. No PP foram registradas 62 espécies, na CUASO 46 e no HOC 43, sendo que PP e CUASO são mais similares entre si. Tal similaridade possivelmente esteja relacionada ao tamanho de ambas as áreas e, também, a uma semelhança nos sítios de nidificação e de alimentação. No geral, a fauna de formigas é generalista, com a presença de alguns gêneros especialistas, como Discothyrea, Acanthognathus, Gnamptogenys, Oxyepoecus e Pyramica; ou de gêneros cujos hábitos alimentares ainda são desconhecidos (Heteroponera e Myrmelachista. A presença de espécies caracteristicamente de áreas domiciliares também foi constatada: Pheidole megacephala Fabricius, 1793, Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868, Wasmannia auropunctata Roger, 1863, Paratrechina fulva Mayr, 1862, P. longicornis Latreille, 1802 e Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793.In this paper were investigated the ants' communities that inhabit the Atlantic Rainforest fragments surrounded by an urban ecosystem well developed. The richness, the species frequency of occurrence, as well the similarity between the three areas of the city of São Paulo were investigated: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO and Horto

  18. MONITORAMENTO DAS PUBLICAÇÕES RELACIONADAS AO CAMARÃO SETE BARBAS Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862

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    Danilo Francisco Corrêa Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrante da ordem Decapoda (Latreille, 1802 subordem Dendrobranchiata (Bate, 1888 e família Penaeidae (Rafinesque, 1815 o camarão sete barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862, se distribui no Oceano Pacífico Oriental, desde a cidade de Sinaloa no México até a cidade de Paita no Peru e, no Atlântico Ocidental, desde a Virgínia (Estados Unidos até o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Diversos pesquisadores brasileiros e de outros países vem desenvolvendo trabalhos a respeito da dinâmica populacional, biologia reprodutiva, caracterização da pesca, distribuição espaço-temporal, morfometria, proporção sexual, genética e outras demais áreas de interesse desta espécie.  Monitorar toda produção literária voltada ao Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 presente no banco de publicações inseridos no site dos periódicos da CAPES e nas bases do Scopus e da Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo, a fim de contabilizar o número de publicações, os principais países que desenvolvem trabalhos, os idiomas, as principais revistas utilizadas pelos autores que desenvolvem pesquisas relacionadas a esta espécie. Espera-se que o desenvolvimento deste trabalho se torne um novo incentivo para os pesquisadores brasileiros, para desenvolver novos estudos direcionados ao camarão sete barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862.

  19. Investigation and control on diseases and insect pests of‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato under different planting densities%不同种植密度下‘威芋5号’病虫害种类调查及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 陈祖瑶; 郑元红; 牟东岭

    2014-01-01

    in this investigation 10 types of diseases and insect pests were found, such as Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acyrthosiphon solani (Kaltenbach), Chrysomelidae Latreille, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waks.et Henvici, PVY, Phytophthora infestans Mont, Erwinia carotovora subsp and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Incidence rates of diseases and pests increased with plant density. To realize the high yield and good quality cultivation of the‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato cultivars, it was very important to identify the diseases and insect pests correctly and to adopt the integrated control technology.%本次调查总共发现马铃薯病、虫害共10种。分别是马铃薯28星瓢虫(Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky)、茶黄螨(Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks)、茄无网蚜(Acyrthosiphon solani Kaltenbach)、叶甲(Chrysomelidae Latreil e)、金针虫(Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)、马铃薯疮痂病(Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waks.et Henvici),马铃薯病毒病(PVY)、马铃薯晚疫病(Phytophthora infestans Mont)、马铃薯软腐病(Erwinia carotovora subsp)和马铃薯早疫病(Alternaria solani Sorauer),病虫害的发生率随着种植密度增大而增加。为保证‘威芋5号’的高产、优产,准确识别病虫害的种类,采用综合防治技术是关键。

  20. Environmental Determinants of the Distribution of Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Cardona, Ángela Segura

    2016-04-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Colombia and represents an important epidemiological risk mainly in the central and oriental regions of the country where it occupies sylvatic, peridomestic, and intradomestic ecotopes, and because of this complex distribution, its distribution and abundance could be conditioned by environmental factors. In this work, we explored the relationship between T. dimidiata distribution and environmental factors in the northwest, northeast, and central zones of Colombia and developed predictive models of infestation in the country. The associations between the presence ofT. dimidiata and environmental variables were studied using logistic regression models and ecological niche modeling for a sample of villages in Colombia. The analysis was based on the information collected in field about the presence ofT. dimidiata and the environmental data for each village extracted from remote sensing images. The presence of Triatoma dimidiata(Latreille, 1811) was found to be significantly associated with the maximum vegetation index, minimum land surface temperature (LST), and the digital elevation for the statistical model. Temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, and vegetation index were the variables that most influenced the ecological niche model ofT. dimidiata distribution. The logistic regression model showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the Andean and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the known distribution of the species, but predicted suitable habitats in the Pacific and Orinoco regions proposing new areas of research. Improved models to predict suitable habitats forT. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management.

  1. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  2. An online photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

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    Elijah J. Talamas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea housed in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online at the image database at The Ohio State University (specimage.osu.edu. Following examination of this collection we enact the following taxonomic changes: Leptacis piniella MacGown syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Leptacis pinicola MacGown; Sacespalus indicus Mani is transferred to Platygaster Latreille; Platygaster indica Mukerjee is given the replacement name Platygaster chaos Talamas, n. n.; Synopeas rugiceps (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Leptacis Förster; Axea atriclava (Kieffer, comb. n. is transferred from Psilanteris Kieffer; Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma, comb. n. is transferred from Paridris Kieffer; Paridris dubeyi Sharma, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Chakra pachmarhica; Holoteleia indica (Mani is transferred to Opisthacantha Ashmead and given a replacement name, Opisthacantha nomados Talamas, n. n.; Psilanteris nigriclavata (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Anteris Förster; Probaryconus grenadensis (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Monoteleia Kieffer; Monoteleia syn.n. is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer; Paridris karnatakensis Sharma, syn. n is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat; Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Oxyteleia Kieffer; Triteleia bengalensis (Saraswat, comb. n. is transferred from Alloteleia Kieffer; Trimorus varius Fouts, syn. n. and Trimorus pulchricornis Fouts, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead; Neotypes are designated for Gryon leptocorisae (Howard, Idris seminiger (Ashmead, Telenomus graptae Howard, Telenomus persimilis Ashmead, and Telenomus rileyi Howard; lectotypes are designated for Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead, Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead, Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead and Probaryconus

  3. A Short History Regarding the Taxonomy and Systematic Researches of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera

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    O. A. Popovici

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the most important and best-known works that were the subject of taxonomy or systematics Platygastroidea superfamily. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part of the research surprised the early period can be placed throughout the XIXth century between Latreille and Dalla Torre. Before this period, references about platygastrids and scelionids were made by Linnaeus and Schrank, they are the ones who described the first platygastrid and scelionid respectively. In this the first period work entomologists as: Haliday, Westwood, Walker, Forster, Ashmead, Thomson, Howard, etc., the result of their work being the description of 699 scelionids species which are found quoted in Dalla Torre's catalogue. The second part of the paper is devoted to early 20th century. This vibrant work is marked by the work of two great entomologists: Kieffer and Dodd. In this period one publish the first and only global monograph of platygastrids and scelionids until now. In this monograph are twice the number of species than in Dalla Torre's catalogue which shows the magnitude of the systematic research of those moments. The third part of the paper refers to the late 20th and early 21st century. This period, which continues today, is the period of modern systematics and taxonomy research about platygastrids and scelionids. During this period these two families become a distinct Superfamily which differs by Proctotrupoidea Superfamily. A great contribution in taxonomic and systematic Platygastroidea Superfamily brought Masner and Kozlov, the presentation of their work occupying the largest space of this 3rd party.

  4. Effects of Tall Fescue and Its Fungal Endophyte on the Development and Survival of Tawny-Edged Skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L

    2016-02-01

    Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection.

  5. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Contamination of O/sub 2/ soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on Woodlouse survival. [Porcello scaber L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

    Samples of litter from the O2 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35 000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelter showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille) fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the O2 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to O2 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20 000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice. 22 references.

  7. Zinc, among a 'cocktail' of metal pollutants, is responsible for the absence of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from the vicinity of a primary smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, S P; Hames, C A

    1994-03-01

    : Porcellio scaber Latreille (Crustacea: Isopoda) of one month in age were reared for a year on leaf litter of field maple (Acer campestre) contaminated in the laboratory with a range of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead or zinc. The metals were applied topically to the leaves as nitrates. Growth and survival, numbers of live offspring produced by females that matured, and concentrations of metals in adult isopods at the end of the experiment were measured.'Critical concentrations' of metals in food at which all the isopods died before producing offspring were 100 μg Cd g(-1), 100 μg Cu g(-1), 2000 μg Pb g(-1) and 1000 μg Zn g(-1) (on a dry weight basis). The relative toxicities of the four metals in the laboratory were compared with concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in surface leaf litter in the vicinity of a primary smelting works at Avonmouth, South West England. The results support the hypothesis that the absence of Porcellio scaber from sites in the immediate vicinity of the factory is due to zinc poisoning. Although cadmium is approximately ten times more toxic to isopods than zinc in the laboratory, zinc is most likely to be killing isopods in the field because its concentration is always at least 30 times higher than cadmium in Avonmouth leaf litter, and more than 100 times higher at most sites.Populations of Porcellio scaber survive in field sites where surface leaf litter contains up to 5000 μg Zn g(-1). This is at least five times higher than the 'critical concentration' in laboratory experiments. Thus, the methodology for assessing metal toxicity described in this paper, exaggerates the potential effects of metals to isopods in the field. Such differences between laboratory and field toxicities of metals should be taken into account when environmental protection levels for metals are being proposed for soil invertebrates based on ecotoxicological tests conducted in the laboratory.

  8. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  9. Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

  10. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  11. First documentation of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-01-15

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The intensive use of synthetic acaricides for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure for brown dog ticks to become resistant to them. Here, we investigated claims from the field regarding treatment failure associated with the use of veterinary products containing ivermectin (IVM) to control brown dog ticks infesting dogs in Yucatan state, Mexico. Dogs in six state municipalities were inspected to sample 15 R. sanguineus s.l. Interviews were conducted with dog owners to gather information on the history of dog treatment with conventional acaricides and IVM. The larval immersion test was used on the progeny of adult female ticks infesting dogs to test for susceptibility to IVM. Dose-mortality regressions, lethal concentrations (LC), their confidence intervals, and slope were estimated by probit analysis. Ten tick populations (66.7%) were classified as resistant compared with the most susceptible population. A high inter-population variation in the phenotypic level of IVM resistance was evident (resistance ratio at LC50% and LC99% ranged from 1.0 to 30.5, and from 1.0 to 458.8, respectively). Tick populations classified as resistant were collected from dogs known to have been treated with IVM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IVM resistance in R. sanguineus s.l. worldwide. Veterinary and pet owner education on integrated tick management practices is required to avoid widespread resistance and increased treatment failure with products containing IVM and other macrocyclic lactones used to control endo- and ectoparasites affecting dogs. Integrated tick management will also help mitigate the burden of brown dog tick-borne diseases on human and animal populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Barcoding Chrysomelidae: a resource for taxonomy and biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Region is one of the world’s biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808

  13. Entomofauna asociada a flores de berenjena y su papel en la producción de los frutos

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    Julianne MILLÉO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El papel de los insectos polinizadores despierta interés, principalmente, en la reproducción de plantas tales como la berenjena. Este trabajo de recolección de la entomofauna asociada a las flores de Solanum melongena tuvo como objetivos identificar posibles agentes polinizadores locales y analizar el beneficio de los insectos antófilos a esta planta. Las observaciones y la colecta de los insectos visitantes de las flores fueron realizadas en febrero de 2008, entre las 7:00 y 17:15 horas, cada 45 minutos y en un área de 27 m2. El experimento para el análisis y la comparación entre autofecundación espontánea y polinización por medio de agentes bióticos fue realizado en el mismo sitio, de febrero a marzo de 2009. Fueron colectados 631 insectos que visitaban las flores de berenjena, se destacaron los coleópteros de los géneros Colaspis Fabricius, Astylus Laporte, Harmonia Mulsant, Epitrix Foudras y Diabrotica Chevrolat; y los himenópteros del género Bombus Latreille. El pico de visitación en Solanum melongena ocurrió entre las 9:00 y 11:00 horas y corresponde al 36% del muestreo. De las flores sometidas al test de autofecundación espontánea, el 39% formaron frutos, mientras que apenas el 11% de las flores emasculadas y expuestas al proceso de acción por medio de agentes bióticos fructificaron.

  14. Defensive chemicals of tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their toxicity to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rashid, Tahir; Feng, Guolei; Zhao, Liming; Oi, David; Drees, Bastiaan Bart M

    2013-12-15

    Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) has been reported as being able to displace Solenopsis invicta Buren, one of the most aggressive invasive ants in the world. Like S. invicta, N. fulva use chemical secretions in their defense/offense, which may contribute to their observed superior competition ability. In this study, the defensive chemicals of N. fulva workers and their toxicity against S. invicta workers were investigated. Like other formicine ants, N. fulva workers produce formic acid in their poison glands and 2-ketones and alkanes in Dufour glands. Of these, undecane and 2-tridecanone are two principal compounds in the Dufour gland. Topical LD50 values of 2-tridecanone and undecane against S. invicta workers ranged from 18.51 to 24.67 μg/ant and 40.39 to 84.82 μg/ant, respectively. Undecane and 2-tridecanone had significantly higher contact toxicity than formic acid, whereas formic acid had significantly higher fumigation toxicity than undecane and 2-tridecanone. The combination of 2-tridecanone as a contact toxin and formic acid as a fumigant significantly decreased KT50 values when compared to those of individual compounds. N. fulva does not seem unique in terms of the chemistry of its defensive secretion as compared to other formicine ants. However, this ant contained more than two orders of magnitude of formic acid (wt/wt) than other formicine ants and one order of magnitude of 2-tridecanone than the common crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille). The quantity, rather than quality, of the chemical secretion may contribute to the superior competition ability of N. fulva. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  16. Antagonistic Interactions between the African Weaver Ant Oecophylla longinoda and the Parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Potentially Limits Suppression of the Invasive Mealybug Rastrococcus iceryoides

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    Chrysantus M. Tanga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille forms a trophobiotic relationship with the invasive mealybug Rastrococus iceryoides Green and promotes the latter’s infestations to unacceptable levels in the presence of their natural enemies. In this regard, the antagonistic interactions between the ant and the parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Girault were assessed under laboratory conditions. The percentage of parasitism of R. iceryoides by A. pseudococci was significantly higher on “ant-excluded” treatments (86.6% ± 1.27% compared to “ant-tended” treatments (51.4% ± 4.13%. The low female-biased sex-ratio observed in the “ant-tended” treatment can be attributed to ants’ interference during the oviposition phase, which disrupted parasitoids’ ability to fertilize eggs. The mean foraging time, host handling time and number of successful oviposition in “ant-excluded” treatment were significantly higher compared to “ant-tended” treatments. When ant workers were allowed access to sterilized sand grains, mummified and unmummified R. iceryoides, they selectively removed the mummified mealybugs, indicating that they recognized the mummies as potential foods (1.2 ± 0.46 to 7.8 ± 1.17 mummies at 10 min intervals for 2 h. Percentage emergence from mummified R. iceryoides removed by the ants was significantly lower compared to emergence from mummies not exposed to ants. Although, host seeking parasitoids frequently evaded attacks, some were killed by the foraging ant workers (2.0 ± 0.38 to 6.0 ± 0.88 at 10 min intervals for 2 h. These results suggest for the first time that the presence of O. longinoda has a detrimental effect on the abundance, reproductive success and possibly oviposition strategy of female parasitoids, which might be a delimiting factor in field conditions if both natural enemies are to be recommended for use within the same agro-ecosystem.

  17. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  18. The energetics of reproduction and parental care in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardies, Marco A; Cotoras, Ivania S; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Parental care is a behavioral strategy that contributes to increased fitness of progeny. Among terrestrial arthropods, many isopods provide extensive parental care. Few studies have quantified the underlying cost of parental care in terms of energy. We used the terrestrial woodlouse Porcellio laevis (Latreille) as a study model to examine how energetic acquisition and expenditure in females is affected during the incubation period and how parental care affects energy balance in this species. We determined the basic reproductive biology (i.e. fecundity, reproductive output, egg volume, egg loss), energy expenditure (i.e. metabolic rate), and energy acquisition (i.e. food consumption, digestibility) of ovigerous females in different stages of embryonic development. Non-ovigerous females were used as the control group. Our results show that P. laevis displays variability in life-history traits compared with populations from other zones around the world. Ovigerous females exhibited a lower ingestion rate and lower digestibility than control females, thus indicating a lower capacity for energy acquisition. Furthermore, energy expenditure was higher in ovigerous females when compared to non-ovigerous females. In particular, females in early embryonic development stored 5.1-fold less daily energy than females without eggs. The results presented here show that the parental care provided by female P. laevis is energetically costly. Overall, our work brings us much closer to understanding the proximate mechanisms of the costs of parental care in terrestrial isopods. Both proximal mechanisms and consequences of providing care on future reproduction, should be considered in explaining the evolution of parental care.

  19. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  20. A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C

    2016-11-01

    A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.

  1. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control.

  2. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  3. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  4. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  5. Seasonal dynamics of ixodid ticks on wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (Leporidae) from Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Myxomatosis caused a decline in the rabbit population in the second half of the last century. Despite some recovery, the risk of vector-borne disease is present and thus the importance of controlling vector populations. In the current study, we describe the ixodid tick fauna in wild rabbit in a natural reserve in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) during the course of two 3-year periods (2007-2009 and 2012-2014). Of all the ticks collected on average 72.5 % were larvae, 24.4 % nymphs and 3.1 % adults, although the percentage varied monthly. Seven tick species were identified: Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch (Parasitic indicator [PI] = number of ticks per examined rabbit = 96.47), Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado (PI = 47.37), Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado (PI = 12.15), Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado (PI = 0.65), R. bursa Canestrini and Fanzago (PI = 0.18), R. sanguineus Latreille (PI = 0.11), Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer (PI = 0.01). In spring and summer, most abundant were larvae of H. lusitanicum, followed by immature stages of R. pusillus and Ha. hispanica. In autumn, the main tick species were nymphs of I. ventalloi whereas in winter adults of Ha. hispanica were more numerous. Rhipicephalus pusillus was present all year long, although not always in high percentage. PI of other species (R. bursa, R. sanguineus and D. marginatus) were too low to be representative. The seasonal dynamics of ticks on wild rabbit defined in this study could be useful to design species-specific control strategies.

  6. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  7. 黄斑蜂族的系统学研究:几何形态测量方法 (膜翅目:切叶蜂科)%Systematical studies on Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae):A geometric morphometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasemin G(U)LER; A. Murat AYTEK(I)N; Ne(s)e (C)AGATAY

    2006-01-01

    利用采集于土耳其安纳托利亚中部(Middle Anatolia)的切叶蜂科6个种92头标本,选取虫体上的30个特征点(1andmarks)(其中前翅16个,后翅6个,头部8个),利用UPGMA等数值分类方法对不同属和种的亲缘关系进行了探讨.据此对一些种的归属和一些属的划分提出了一些与传统分类观点相同或不同的见解,但各种分析方法的结果都支持切叶蜂族Megachilini起源的单系性.%The classificatory schema in some groups of Megachilidae reorganized by means of shape differences in terms of the inter- and intra-specific and inter- and intra-generic and subgeneric deformations. The relative warps,UPGMA trees and PCA graphs obtained from 30 landmarks were shown. Both Anthidium cingulatum Latreille and A.florentinum (Fabricius) should better classify in the same subgenus Anthidium s. str. In the other case under the results of shape variation our results supported the hypothesis that Paraanthidium as a subgenus of Anthidium Fabricius. On the other hand Icteranthidium Michener and Paraanthidiellum Michener showed enough dissimilarity to be kept as separate genera. Our analysis also supported the monophyletic origin of Megachilini which was clustered as a separate group by all methods used.

  8. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    Irenimus), C. spectabilis (Broun, 1914) (from Catoptes), C. spermophilus (Broun, 1895), revised status (from Irenimus), C. stolidus (Broun, 1886) (from Irenimus), C. tenebricus (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. vastator (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus). Numerous new synonyms with species of Chalepistes are also proposed: Brachyolus fuscipictus Broun, 1914 and Brachyolus terricola Broun, 1917 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes asperatus (Broun); Brachyolus cervalis Broun, 1903 and Brachyolus sylvaticus Broun, 1910 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes costifer (Broun); Inophloeus tricostatus Broun, 1915 is a junior subjective synonym of Chalepistes pensus (Broun); Catoptes pallidipes Broun, 1917, Catoptes flaviventris Broun, 1917 and Catoptes nigricans Broun, 1917 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes placidus (Broun); Inophloeus longicornis Broun, 1904, Inophloeus medius Broun, 1893, Inophloeus sulcicollis Broun, 1914 and Inophloeus suturalis Broun, 1893 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes rhesus (Pascoe); Inophloeus albonotata Broun, 1893, Catoptes asperellus Broun, 1893, Irenimus bicostatus Broun, 1886, Catoptes caliginosus Broun, 1893, Catoptes chalmeri Broun, 1893, Catoptes decorus Broun, 1893, Inophloeus discrepans Broun, 1904, Catoptes fumosus Broun, 1914, Catoptes furvus Broun, 1893, Catoptes humeralis Broun, 1893, Catoptes longulus Sharp, 1886, Inophloeus nigellus Broun, 1881, Irenimus pilosellus Broun, 1886 and Catoptes scutellaris Sharp, 1886 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes rubidus (Broun); Catoptes subnitidus Broun, 1914 and Catoptes curvatus Broun, 1914 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes spermophilus (Broun); Catoptes brevicornis Sharp, 1886 and Catoptes vexator Broun, 1904 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes stolidus (Broun); and Catoptes aemulator Broun, 1893 and Catoptes argentalis Broun, 1914 are junior subjective synonyms of Chalepistes tenebricus (Broun). Additional new combinations

  9. The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Prous

    2014-10-01

    of Nematus Panzer, 1801: Craesus Leach, 1817, Hypolaepus W.F. Kirby, 1882, and Paranematus Zinovjev, 1978. Synonyms of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810: Diphadnus Hartig, 1837, Lygaeonematus Konow, 1890, Micronematus Konow, 1890, Gymnonychus Marlatt, 1896, Neopareophora MacGillivray, 1908, syn. n., Neotomostethus MacGillivray, 1908, Dineuridea Rohwer, 1912, Sala Ross, 1937, Pristola Ross, 1945, syn. n., Nepionema Benson, 1960, syn. n., Melastola Wong, 1968, syn. n., Sharliphora Wong, 1969, Oligonematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, Lygaeotus Liston, 1993, Lygaeophora Liston, 1993, and Pristicampus Zinovjev, 1993, syn. n. Varna Ross, 1937, syn. n. is treated as a synonym of Dineura Dahlbom 1835. Stauronematus Benson, 1953 is treated as a separate genus from Pristiphora. Names of 20 species-group taxa are junior secondary homonyms when combined with Euura. Replacement names are proposed for these. To facilitate the identification of Nematinae genera, we provide an illustrated key to the 31 extant genera of world Nematinae.

  10. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  11. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

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    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  12. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  13. Revision of the Oriental genera of Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae with an emphasis on Thailand and interactive keys to genera published in three different formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genera of Oriental Agathidinae are revised and a fully illustrated dichotomous key is presented. New generic concepts are proposed for Bassus Fabricius, 1804 and Hypsostypos Baltazar, 1963. Bassus is restricted to a clade with an Old World distribution and the remaining members are divided amongst the resurrected genera Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, and Therophilus Wesmael, 1837. The concept of Hypsostypos is restricted and the new genus Amputostypos Sharkey, gen. n. is proposed to include species formerly included in Hypsostypos that do not have raised antennal bases. Troticus Brullé, 1846 is reported from the Oriental region for the first time. Eighteen genera are recognized for Thailand and neighboring areas, i.e., Agathis Latreille, 1804, Amputostypos, Aneurobracon Brues, 1930, Bassus, Biroia Szépligeti, 1900, Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894, Camptothlipsis, Coccygidium Saussure, 1892, Cremnops Förster, 1862, Disophrys Förster, 1862, Earinus Wesmael, 1837, Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900, Gryochus Enderlein, 1920, Hypsostypos, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, Therophilus, Cremnoptoides van Achterberg & Chen, 2004, and Troticus. Identification keys to the genera are provided as a standard textual dichotomous key, as well as online keys in three different formats (conventional dichotomous, DELTA/Intkey, Lucid, and MX to enable users to choose their prefered platform and to allow direct comparisons of the technologies for producing online keys. Publication of underlying data (data matrices, character states table, and images under the OpenDataCommons license (ODbl (http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ for DELTA/Intkey files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.1.ik, primary DELTA files (10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.2.ik Lucid3 (LIF3 and Lucid SDD key data files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.3.ik and MX MySQL database files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.4.ik allows future workers to edit keys and to add newly

  14. Histologia e ultra-estrutura do vaso dorsal de Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae em operárias e rainhas de diferentes idades Histology and ultrastructure of the dorsal vessel of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae in workers and queens of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O vaso dorsal é um órgão tubular localizado na região mediano-dorsal do corpo dos insetos, abaixo do tegumento. Fez-se um estudo de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão da porção abdominal do vaso dorsal, o coração, em uma espécie de abelha indígena. Foram estudadas operárias e rainhas em diferentes idades. O coração está localizado no sinus pericárdico. A parede cardíaca é formada por fibras musculares estriadas e apresenta aberturas ou ostíolos providos de válvulas. A fibra cardíaca contém miofibrilas arranjadas irregularmente, núcleos alongados ou redondos, mitocôndrias grandes e numerosas, e depósitos de glicogênio. Em operárias e rainhas longevas, as fibras encontram-se em degeneração, evidenciada por vacúolos autofágicos, alterações mitocondriais e acúmulo de corpos mielínicos. Em conclusão, o coração de Scaptotrigona postica é semelhante ao de outros insetos estudados. As alterações encontradas estão relacionadas ao processo de envelhecimento e mantêm relação temporal com a expectativa de vida da casta.The dorsal vessel is a tubular organ located in the mid-dorsal region of the insects body, just below the tegument. This work is a light and electron microscopy study of the abdominal part of the vessel, the heart, in a stingless bee species. Workers and queens of several ages were studied. The heart is located inside the pericardial sinus. Its wall presents openings or ostia provided with valves and is composed by special striated muscular fibers. The cardiac fiber presents myofibrils irregularly arranged, round or elongated nuclei, numerous and large mitochondria, and glycogen deposits. Old workers and queens present fibers degeneration, represented by autophagic vacuoles, mitochondria alterations and accumulation of myelinic bodies. In conclusion, the heart of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 is similar to other insects. The changes found are related to aging progress and

  15. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kate L; Lee, Michael S Y; Mumpuni; Bertozzi, Terry; Rasmussen, Arne R

    2013-03-01

    genus, Hydrophis Latreille 1802, for the core Hydrophis group. Estimated divergence times suggest that all Hydrophiini last shared a common ancestor ∼6million years ago, but that the majority of extant lineages diversified over the last ∼3.5million years. The core Hydrophis group is a young and rapidly speciating clade, with 26 sampled species and 9 genera and dated at only ∼1.5-3million years old.

  16. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a forma de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH. (SOROKIN, 1883] em carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806, assim como as lesões infringidas nos tecidos internos do ácaro. A forma de aderência e penetração do fungo foi estudada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a ação do fungo nos tecidos internos avaliada em secções histológicas convencionais. Para observação destes eventos, realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus contendo 12 fêmeas ingurgitadas cada. Para tal, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas durante 3 minutos, sob agitação manual, em suspensão com concentração 108 conídios/mL. No caso dos grupos controle o banho foi realizado apenas no veículo da suspensão. Os carrapatos foram processados para histopatologia e microscopia eletrônica em diversos tempos após a infecção, a saber: 1 e 18h, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e onze dias. Observou-se que a maior parte dos conídios germinou em até 18h após a inoculação e que o fungo penetrou no ácaro através do tegumento 48h após a infecção. Após a penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo do hospedeiro promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Dentre as lesões nos tecidos internos do ácaro, ressalta-se o rompimento da parede intestinal e vazamento do conteúdo para a hemocele. A morte do hospedeiro ocorreu entre 96 e 120h pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver do ácaro iniciou-se em torno de 120 a 144h pós-infecção. Espera-se, com este trabalho, contribuir para o desenvolvimento e viabilização de técnicas de controle biológico dos carrapatos por fungos como alternativa ao uso de acaricidas.The objective of this work was to verify the penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH

  17. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured

  18. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil

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    Alexandre Oliveira de Almeida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862, M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. jelskii (Miers, 1877, M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and Palaemon (Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871. The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral

  19. The identity and taxonomic status of Sitaris lativentris Schaufuss, 1861 and Sitaris melanurus Küster, 1849, two enigmatic Iberian taxa (Coleoptera, Meloidae

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    Ruiz, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive morphological variability in Nemognatinae has often led to proliferation of species descriptions. Most species of Nemognathinae are seldom encountered in nature and some species remain only known by the specimens used for the original descriptions. Two examples of this problem are represented by Sitaris lativentris Schaufuss, 1861 and Sitaris melanurus Küster, 1849, both described from Spain. The rediscovery of specimens morphologically assignable to S. lativentris in southern Spain, and a careful reading of the original description of S. melanurus, allow us to shed light on the taxonomic status of these enigmatic taxa. Sitaris lativentris has been considered a synonym of Sitaris solieri Pecchioli, 1840 until now; however, neither the lectotype of S. lativentris (here designated, nor the newly found specimens morphologically assignable to S. lativentris, correspond to S. solieri, except in coloration. Alternatively, comparisons between S. lativentris and S. muralis did not render any differences, except in the pattern of elytral coloration and coloration of the pilosity, both variable in other species of Nemognathinae. Therefore S. lativentris is hereby synonymised with S. muralis (new synonymy. The identity of Sitaris melanurus has been overlooked by most researchers, probably because the type specimens seem to be lost. However, the original description provides sufficient information to discard the inclusion of the taxon in Sitaris. Morphological characters presented in the description correspond to traits that, among western European sitarine beetles, are only present in Stenoria apicalis (Latreille, 1804. Küster’s (1849 description corresponds to one of the most frequent color variants of this species. As a consequence we include the name S. melanurus as a new synonym of S. apicalis.La amplia varibilidad morfológica en Nemognathinae a menudo ha originado una proliferación en la descripción de especies distintas. La mayor

  20. Essai d’analyse critique des principales hypothèses concernant la phylogenie des Malacostracés (Crustacea, Malacostraca (2éme partie

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    Ionel Tabacaru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . A revised classification of Malacostraca based on a phylogenetic analysis is presented. For this purpose 68 morphological characters were cladistically treated using the parsimony programme Paup 4.10. The system here proposed is a reflection of the cladistic tree produced by TABACARU & DANIELOPOL (2011. The following aspects are in the present contribution developed: (1 We consider, in accordance with a widely held opinion of carcinologists, that Phyllocarida (Ord. Leptostraca displays essential synapomorphies with Malacostraca, namely tagmosis 5+7+8+telson, fixation of the gonopore on the 6th female thoracic-segment and on the 8th male-thoracic segment. Based on this assertion Phyllocarida belongs to the Class Malacostraca. Hence we do not share either the ancient view of H. MILNE EDWARDS (1840, who included Nebalia into the Ordo Phyllopodes, Legio Branchiopodes Latreille, or the more recent opinions of SCHRAM (1986, WHEELER (1997 and WILLS (1998 who consider Phyllocarida as belonging to Phyllopoda; (2 the Class Malacostraca is dichotomously separated into Subclasses, Phyllocarida and Eumalacostraca. This is due to the fact that Hoplocarida shares essential synapomorphies with the Eumalacostraca, namely loss of 7th somite of the pleon, thoracic endopod built as stenopod and pleopods of the 6th somite of pleon differentiated as uropods. This opinion is in contradiction with those of other carcinologists who, presupposing a distinct origin of Hoplocarida, consider the Class Malacostraca separated in three Subclasses: Phyllocarida, Hoplocarida and Eumalacostraca (SCHRAM, 1978, 1981; MCLAUGHLIN, 1980; BOWMAN & ABELE, 1982; KUNZE, 1983; DAHL, 1983; AHYONG, 1997; MARTIN & DAVIS, 2001; WELLS & HOUSTON, 2002; FOREST, 2004 ; (3 in our opinion the Superorder Syncarida Packard, 1885 (including the orders Bathynellacea Chappuis, 1915 and Anaspidacea Calman, 1904 does not represent a monophyllum. We accept the view of SERBAN (1972 following which

  1. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae en Colombia

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    Hernández Martínez Édgar Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Colombia se registran 28 de los 29 taxones descritos para el subgénero Trigona s. str. T. (T. albipennis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. amalthea Olivier, 1789; T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis
    Ducke, 1916; T. (T. hyalinata var. branneri Cockerell, 1912; T. (T. chanchamayoënsis Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. cilipes Fabricius, 1804; T. (T. corvina Cockerell, 1913; T. (T. crassipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. dallatorreana Friese, 1900; T. (T. dimidiata var. venezuelana Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. dimidiata var. dimidiata F. Smith, 1854; T. (T. ferricauda Cockerell, 1917; T. (T. fulviventris var. fulviventris Guerin, 1835; T. (T. fulviventris var. guianae Cockerell, 1910; T. (T. fuscipennis Friese,
    1900; T. (T. hyalinata var. hyalinata Lepeletier, 1836; T. (T. hypogea Silvestri, 1902; T. (T. mazucatoi Almeida, 1992; T. (T. necrophaga Camargo y Roubik, 1991; T. (T. nigerrima Cresson, 1878; T. (T. pallens Latreille, 1804; T. (T. permodica Almeida, 1992; T. (T. recursa F. Smith, 1863; T. (T. setentrionalis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. silvestriana Vachal, 1908; T. (T. spinipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. truculenta Almeida, 1984 y T. (T. williana Friese, 1900. Se reportan por primera vez los machos
    de T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis y T. (T. ferricauda los cuales se describirán en un trabajo posterior. Se encontró a T. (T. permodica y T. (T. necrophaga como registros nuevos para el país. El subgénero presenta una amplia distribución geográfica y altitudinal, encontrándose desde los 0 hasta los 2.600 msnm, todas las especies se encuentran en los bosques tropicales de Colombia. Existe una alta concentración de taxones (25 taxones; 89% de los taxones del país en la región del piedemonte llanero entre los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Boyacá y Meta. Se presenta una clave taxonómica ilustrada para separar obreras de las especies neotropicales; con diagnosis, comentarios sobre distribución, taxonomía y hábitos de nidificación de cada una de ellas. Tambi

  2. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part V: Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart.

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    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-09-30

    [Ephydridae]; Pleurocerina Macquart, 1851[Conopidae]; Pteropexus Macquart, 1846 [Acroceridae]; Semiomyia Macquart, 1848 [Tachinidae]; Teremyia Macquart, 1835 [Lonchaeidae].        The following names are new synonymies of their respective senior synonyms: -genus-group names: Acemyia Macquart, 1834 of Acemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Acrochoeta Macquart, 1835 of Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Atractea Agassiz, 1846 of Atractia Macquart, 1838, n. syn. [Asilidae]; Aulacocephala Brauer, 1863 of Aulacephala Macquart, 1851, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Beckeriella Williston, 1897 of Notacanthina Macquart, 1834, n. syn. [Ephydridae]; Caenosia Macquart, 1835 of Coenosia Meigen, 1826, n. syn. [Muscidae]; Ceromyia Macquart, 1834 of Ceromya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chiromysa Macquart, 1835 of Chiromyza Wiedemann, 1820, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Chrisochlora Macquart, 1835 of Chrysochlora Latreille, 1829, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Chrysopyla Macquart, 1840 of Chrysopilus Macquart, 1826, n. syn. [Rhagionidae]; Cleigaster Macquart, 1844 of Cleigastra Macquart, 1835, n. syn. [Scathophagidae]; Clyto Macquart, 1835 of Clytho Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Cordylura Macquart, 1835 of Cordilura Fallén, 1810, n. syn. [Scathophagidae]; Craspedochaeta Marschall, 1873 of Anthomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Anthomyiidae]; Cyrtonevra Agassiz, 1846 of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Muscidae]; Diaphora Macquart, 1834 of Diaphorus Meigen, 1824, n. syn. [Dolichopodidae]; Dichoeta Macquart, 1835 of Dichaeta Meigen, 1830, n. syn. [Ephydridae]; Dichromyia Macquart, 1844 of Dichromya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Heleomyzidae]; Diphysa Macquart, 1838 of Archistratiomys Enderlein, 1913, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Echinomyia Fischer von Waldheim, 1808 of Tachina Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Egina Macquart, 1835 of Eginia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Muscidae]; Hematobia Macquart, 1850 of Haematobia Le

  3. Estudio taxonómico preliminar de los Grylloidea de España (Insecta, Orthoptera

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    Gorochov, A. V.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a taxonomic and faunistic study of the superfamily of Grylloidea of Spain including the Balearic and Canary Islands is carried on. Sixty species and subspecies are reported for the study area, six of them new to science: Petaloptila (P. fermini, P. (P. isabelae, P. (Zapetaloptila venosa, P. (Z. barrancoi, Paramogoplistes dentatus sp. n. and Grylloderes orlovskajae adventicius subsp. n.; likewise are erected two new subgenera Italoptila and Zapetaloptila. One correct synonymy of the genus Grylloderes Bolívar, 1894 (=Platygryllus Chopard, 1961, syn. dist., seven specific synonymies are established: Gryllomorpha (G. dalmatina (Ocskay, 1832 (=Gryllomorpha dalmatina strumae Andreeva, 1982, syn. n., Petaloptila (P. aliena (Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1882 (=Discoptila eitschbergeri Harz, 1976, syn. n., Acheta hispanicus Rambur, 1839 (=Gryllus erythrospilus Walker, 1869, syn. n., Gryllus hispanicus var. fusculus Bolívar, 1927, syn. n., Eumodicogryllus bordigalensis (Latreille, 1802 (=Gryllodes ferdinandi Bolívar, 1899, syn. n., Gryllus chinensis var. intermedia Bolívar, 1927, syn. n., Eugryllodes pipiens (Dufour, 1820 (=Gryllodes pipiens var. provincialis Azam, 1901, syn. n. and besides five new status and one new combination. Three species [Eumodicogryllus theryi (Chopard, 1943, Sciobia natalia Gorochov, 1985 and Oecanthus dulcisonans Gorochov, 1993] are recorded for the first time for the Iberian Peninsula, being the former two also new for Europe, one (Svercus p. palmetorum Krauss, 1902 for Peninsular Spain, three [Natula averni (Costa, 1855, comb. n., Acanthogryllus acus Gorochov, 1988, under this name, and Pseudomogoplistes vicentae Gorochov, 1996], for the Canary Islands, being latter recorded also for the first time for Algeria and

  4. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    , Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera. About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9% parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles.The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900 comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921 comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964 stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904 stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai

  5. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Rodriguez, Josephine J; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie D; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Solis, M Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai

  6. Distribuição geográfica da fauna e flora da Baía de Guanabara Geographic distribution of the flora and the fauna of the Guanabara Bay

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    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1947-09-01

    (Latreille and the sparingly the big oyster Ostrea rhizophorae Guild. Lower is the region of barnacles Ba

  7. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part IV: Charles Henry Tyler Townsend.

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    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel

    2015-06-25

    ]; Eustomatodexia insulensis Townsend, 1892, n. stat. [Tachinidae].       The following genus-group names, not listed in previous regional catalogs, are treated here: Arabisca Townsend, 1935 [Sarcophagidae]; Eupeleteria Townsend, 1908 [Tachinidae]; Macropatelloa Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae]; Neohypostena Townsend, 1915 [Tachinidae]; Neometapodia Townsend, 1892 [Sarcophagidae]; Tricyclopsis Townsend, 1916 [Calliphoridae]; Trongia Townsend, 1916 [Calliphoridae].        Previous First Reviser actions for multiple original spellings that were overlooked by other workers are given for the following: Genus-group names-Microchaetona Townsend, 1919 [Tachinidae]; Neopodomyia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Opsophytopsis Townsend, 1918 [Sarcophagidae]; Prohypotachina Townsend, 1933 [Tachinidae]; Rhinomyodes Townsend, 1933 [Tachinidae]; Servilliodes Townsend, 1926 [Tachinidae]; Tephromyiella Townsend, 1918 [Sarcophagidae]; Thelairochaetona Townsend, 1919 [Tachinidae]; Xanthopteromyia Townsend, 1926 [Tachinidae]. Species-group names-Brachybelvosia brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Neocraspedothrix nova Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae].        The following nominal genera enter into new synonymies: Bathytheresia Townsend, 1915 under Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Brachycoma Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 under Brachicoma Rondani, 1856, n. syn. [Sarcophagidae]; Chaetolyga Brauer, 1880 under Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chaetoprosopa Marschall, 1873 under Choeteprosopa Macquart, 1851, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chlororhynchomyia Senior-White, Aubertin & Smart, 1940 under Metallea Wulp, 1880, n. syn. [Rhiniidae]; Chrysomyia Macquart, 1835 under Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Calliphoridae]; Echinomyia Fischer von Waldheim, 1808 under Echinomya Latreille, 1805, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Euhypochaetopsis Townsend, 1928 under Campylocheta Rondani, 1859, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Graphomyia Macquart, 1834 under Graphomya Robineau