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Sample records for melia azedarach meliaceae

  1. Actividad antialimentaria e insecticida de un extracto de hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae Antifeedant and insecticide activity of an extract from senescent leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae

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    Graciela Valladares

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con la búsqueda de nuevos insecticidas naturales obtenidos de plantas, se estudió la actividad de un extracto de hojas senescentes (amarillas de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae. Mediante pruebas de elección se estudió el efecto antialimentario del extracto sobre cinco especies de Lepidoptera y cuatro especies de Coleoptera. Se evaluó además el efecto sobre la supervivencia de larvas y adultos de Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, en pruebas sin elección de alimento. En las pruebas de elección el extracto de hojas senescentes de M. azedarach inhibió fuertemente la alimentación de ocho de las nueve especies evaluadas. Por otra parte, al recibir exclusivamente alimento tratado con extracto de M. azedarach, tanto adultos como larvas de E. paenulata sufrieron un aumento significativo en la tasa de mortalidad, no alcanzando estas últimas el estado pupal. Los insectos comieron menos y presentaron menor peso corporal en comparación con los controles, sugiriendo que el incremento en la mortalidad podría estar vinculado a la fuerte actividad antialimentaria del extracto. Los efectos observados se relacionaron significativamente con la concentración empleada.In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from plants, the activity of a senescent (yellow leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae was investigated. Antifeedant effects were tested on five Lepidoptera and four Coleoptera species, in laboratory choice tests. Further effects on insect feeding and survival were studied in no-choice tests with larvae and adults of Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. In the choice tests, M. azedarach yellow leaf extract strongly deterred feeding in eight out of the nine species considered. Larvae and adults of E. paenulata which received only extract-treated food suffered higher mortality rates; larvae did not reach the pupal stage. Insects receiving extract-treated food ate

  2. Intoxicação experimental com frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em suínos Experimental poisoning by fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae in pigs

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    Maria del Carmen Méndez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutos maduros, triturados, de Melia azedarach foram administrados misturados à ração a 8 suínos em doses únicas de 5-20g/kg. Diarréia passageira foi o único sinal nos 2 suínos que consumiram 5g/kg. Os sinais clínicos observados nos animais que ingeriram doses únicas de 10, 15 e 20g/kg caracterizaram-se por incoordenação, tremores musculares, dificuldade para manter-se de pé, relutância para levantar-se, decúbito esternal e hipotermia. Os 2 suínos que ingeriram 20g/kg morreram. Macroscopicamente observou-se congestão do intestino delgado e da mucosa do estômago. As alterações histológicas caracterizaram-se por discreta a moderada necrose do tecido linfático, necrose dos músculos esqueléticos, congestão e necrose da mucosa gástrica e do intestino delgado e alterações degenerativas moderadas no fígado e rim. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK aumentaram após a ingestão do tóxico. Observaram-se valores altos de CPK nos animais que morreram, evidenciando a mionecrose. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, para suínos, a ingestão de altas doses de frutos de Melia azedarach induz ao aparecimento de sinais clínicos da intoxicação e causa lesões em diversos órgãos, inclusive a morte.Mature ground fruits of Melia azedarach were administered mixed with the food to 8 pigs at single doses of 5-20g/kg. Transient diarrhea was the only sign observed in the 2 pigs that ingested 5g/kg. Clinical signs observed in the pigs that ingested 10, 15 and 20 g/kg were incoordination, muscular tremors, difficulty to stand or to get up, sternal decubitus and hypothermia. The 2 pigs that ingested 20g/kg died. The gross lesions were congestion and necrosis of the small intestine and the stomach mucosa. The microscopic alterations were characterised by necrosis of the lymphatic tissues and skeletal muscles, congestion and necrosis of the stomach and small intestine, and moderate degenerative alterations of liver and kidneys. The serum

  3. Experimental intoxication by the leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae in cattle Intoxicação experimental pelas folhas de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em bovinos

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    Maria del Carmen Méndez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Melia azedarach were administered at single doses ranging from 5 to 30 g/kg bw to 11 calves. Clinical signs were depression, ruminal stasis, dry feces with blood, ataxia, muscle tremors, sternal recumbency, hypothermia and abdominal pain. Serum AST and CPK were increased. Signs appeared from 8 to 24 hours after dosing, and the clinical course lasted from 2 to 72 hours. Three calves dosed with 30g/kg bw died. The macroscopic findings included intestinal congestion, yellow discoloration of the liver, brain congestion and dry feces with blood in the rectum. The liver showed swollen and vacuolated hepatocytes. Necrotic hepatocytes were scattered throughout the parenchyma or concentrated in the periacinar zone. Degenerative and necrotic changes were observed in the epithelium of the forestomachs. There was also necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. Skeletal muscles showed hyaline degeneration and fiber necrosis. The necrotic fragments contained floccular or granular debris with infiltration by macrophages and satellite cells.Folhas verdes de Melia azedarach foram administradas em dose única a 11 bovinos nas doses de 5 a 30g/kg de peso vivo. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se por depressão, atonia ruminal, fezes duras com sangue, incoordenação, tremores musculares, decúbito esternal, hipotermia e dores abdominais. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK estavam aumentados. O aparecimento dos sinais clínicos foi observado entre 8-24 horas após a ingestão das folhas e o curso clínico durou entre 2 e 72 horas. Três animais que receberam 30g/kg morreram. Os achados macroscópicos caracterizaram-se por congestão dos intestinos e do cérebro, fígado amarelado e presença de fezes duras com sangue no reto. Os hepatócitos estavam tumefeitos e com vacuolização citoplasmática. Observaram-se hepatócitos necróticos distribuídos no parênquima ou próximos à veia centrolobular. Lesões degenerativas e necróticas foram observadas no epit

  4. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis

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    Perez Marlene Piña

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.

  5. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis Molluscicidal activity of Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae on Lymnaea cubensis, host snail of Fasciolosis

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    Marlene Piña Perez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.INTRODUÇÃO: A Fasciolosis constitui em diversas regiões fonte importante de perdas econômicas, e quando não se adotam medidas de controle de seus hospedeiros (moluscos, junto a condições ecológicas favoráveis, pode ocorrer o aparecimento de casos isolados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro dos métodos alternativos para o seu controle está o uso de extratos vegetais e se tem pretendido avaliar o provável emprego do suco extraído do fruto e sementes do Paraíso (Melia azedarach L., no controle de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vetor da Fasciolosis em Cuba. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Diferentes concentra

  6. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

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    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  7. Efeito larvicida de extratos etanólicos de folhas secas e frutos maduros de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) sobre Aedes albopictus

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    Rossi, Juliana C. N.; Prophiro, Josiane S.; Mendes, Anderson M.; Kanis, Luiz A.; Silva, Onilda S.

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho determinou-se o efeito larvicida de extratos etanólicos de frutos maduros e folhas secas de Melia azedarach em Aedes alpopictus silvestres. Os bioensaios de letalidade foram realizados de acordo com as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre as concentrações letais determinadas entre o 3º e 4º estágios para os diferentes extratos, entretanto, as LC90 e LC95 demonstram a maior letalidade do extrato obtido de frutos maduros. ...

  8. Micromorphological and preliminary phytochemical studies of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach

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    JAFARI, Samineh; SAEIDNIA, Soodabeh; ARDEKANI, Mohammad Reza SHAMS; HADJIAKHOONDI, Abbas; KHANAVI, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss. and Melia azedarach L. are 2 closely related species from Meliaceae that are considered noteworthy medicinal plants in the world and have very often been confused with each other. Various evaluations like organoleptic and microscopic characteristics, preliminary phytochemical screening, and fluorescence analysis were carried out on the pulp, husk, leaves, and seeds of both plants in powdered form to establish appropriate data that can aid rapid and easy differentiat...

  9. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  10. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  11. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos of paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.)

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    Scocchi, A.; Vila, S.; Mroginski, L.; Engelmann, Florent

    2007-01-01

    In paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.), immature zygotic embryos sampled from immature fruits are the starting material for the production of somatic embryos. These somatic embryos are employed for freezing experiments. Immature fruits could be stored at 25 degrees C for up to 80 days without impairing the embryogenic potential of zygotic embryos, which represents a four-fold increase in immature fruit storage duration, compared with previous studies. Among the three cryopreservation technique...

  12. Propagação de Melia azedarach L.

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    Fevereiro, M.J.; Delgado, F.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    A espécie Melia azedarach L. tem sido cultivada tanto como ornamental, como para aproveitamento da sua madeira para diversos fins. Mas, estudos recentes revelaram que esta espécie contém em vários órgãos (folhas, frutos, sementes e casca) substâncias com potencial utilização no controlo de algumas pragas, compostos estes, que podem obviar alguns dos problemas ambientais causados pelos insecticidas à base de petróleo.

  13. Actividad antibacteriana de extracto de hojas de Melia azedarach L

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    Johanna Norela Rojas Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of leaf extract Melia azedarach L. Resumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos de hojas de Melia azedarach L. sobre seis bacterias patógenas. Inicialmente mediante extracción por el método Soxhlet se obtuvo extracto total en etanol y a partir de éste se prepararon fracciones líquido-líquido con éter de petróleo y acetato de etilo. El extracto total y las dos fracciones fueron diluidos a diferentes concentraciones (ppm para evaluar in vitro su actividad antibacteriana.  Las bacterias de mayor susceptibilidad fueron las patógenas de humanos Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Klebsiella oxytoca, en relación a la fitopatógena Burkholderia glumae quien mostró resistencia a todos los tratamientos. Las bacterias patógenas fueron más susceptibles a la fracción éter de petróleo a concentración mínima de 25 ppm. El screen fitoquímico de la planta indicó presencia de metabolitos secundarios tipo alcaloides, terpenos/esteroles, saponinas, taninos y antocianinas. Estos resultados evidencian el posible uso de M. azederach como alternativa de control biológico sobre las bacterias analizadas. Palabras clave: bacterias; patógenas; inhibición; extractos. Abstract: The work was objective to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts from leaves of Melia azedarach (L on six pathogenic bacteria. Total ethanol extract was obtained initially by extraction with method Soxhlet and from this prepared liquid-liquid fractions with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The total extract and the two fractions were diluted at different concentrations (ppm to evaluate its antibacterial activity in vitro.  More susceptible bacteria were the pathogenic human Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca, in relation to the plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae who showed resistance to all treatments

  14. GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF Melia azedarach L., USING Agrobacterium MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was subjected to observe the possibility of  introducing specific foreign genes into Melia azedarach L., using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used in this study consisted of  strains of  EHA105 (vector plasmid pBIsGFP and EHA105 (vector plasmid pBsGFP to observe the possibility of introducing genes, and strains of EHA101 (vector plasmid pIG121-Hm and LBA4404/ferritin (vector plasmid pBG-1 to observe the shoot organogenesis after genes transformation. Explants were collected from one cm in length excised stem of in-vitro plantlets. The results of the study showed that genetic transformations of M. azedarach could be potentially developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains : EHA105 (pBIsGFP or pBsGFP, EHA101 (pGI121-Hm and LBA4404/ferritin (pBG-1. The expression of  GFP (green fluorescence protein signal worked successfully in this transformation  with 40% of transformation  rate for pBIsGFP and 20 % for pBsGFP.  The application of Agrobacterium strains of EHA101 (pIG121-Hm and LBA4404/ferritin (pBG-1 which contained specific gene of kanamycin resistance and iron accumulation for plant growth improvement showed that adventitious shoot was well induced and elongated on the rate of 30 - 60 % of explants after genes transformation.

  15. Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis.

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    Giuseppina Sanna

    Full Text Available The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae. The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Very interestingly, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and melianone showed a potent antiviral activity (EC50 in the range of 3-11μM against three important human pathogens, belonging to Flaviviridae family, West Nile virus, Dengue virus and Yellow Fever virus. Mode of action studies demonstrated that title compounds were inhibitors of West Nile virus only when added during the infection, acting as inhibitors of the entry or of a very early event of life cycle. Furthermore, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and methyl kulonate showed interesting antimycobacterial activity (with MIC values of 29 and 70 μM respectively. The limonoids are typically lipophilic compounds present in the fruits of Melia azeradach. They are known as cytotoxic compounds against different cancer cell lines, while their potential as antiviral and antibacterial was poorly investigated. Our studies show that they may serve as a good starting point for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of infections by Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which there is a continued need.

  16. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos of paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.).

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    Scocchi, Adriana; Vila, Silvia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2007-01-01

    In paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.), immature zygotic embryos sampled from immature fruits are the starting material for the production of somatic embryos. These somatic embryos are employed for freezing experiments. Immature fruits could be stored at 25 degrees C for up to 80 days without impairing the embryogenic potential of zygotic embryos, which represents a four-fold increase in immature fruit storage duration, compared with previous studies. Among the three cryopreservation techniques tested for freezing paradise tree somatic embryos, namely desiccation, encapsulation-dehydration and pregrowth-dehydration, only encapsulation-dehydration and pregrowth-dehydration led to successful results. The optimal protocol was the following: i) somatic embryos (encapsulated or not) pretreated in liquid Murashige & Skoog medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5 M/0.75 M/1.0 M); ii) dehydrated with silica gel to 21 - 26% moisture content (fresh weight basis), for encapsulation-dehydration, or to 19% moisture content, for pregrowth-dehydration; iii) frozen at 1 degree C/min from 20 degrees C to -30 degrees C with a programmable freezing apparatus; iv) rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen. The highest recovery achieved was 36% with encapsulation-dehydration and 30% with pregrowth-dehydration. Regrowth of frozen embryos was direct in most cases, as secondary embryogenesis originating from the root pole was observed on only around 10% of cryopreserved somatic embryos. Plants recovered from cryopreserved embryos presented the same phenotypic traits as non-frozen control plants.

  17. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  18. IN-VITRO CULTURE FOR REGENERATION OF Melia azedarach L. USING AGITATED LIQUID MEDIUM

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    Nirsatmanto Arif

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the applicability of liquid medium in direct organogenesis of in-vitro culture of Melia azedarach L. Explants were collected from in-vitro multiplication originating from aseptically germinated seedling and from a 48 - years old mature tree. For adventitious shoot differentiation, 2 mm length of excised explants were cultured on liquid medium of MS (Murashige and Skoog's) basal medium supplemented with 28 combinations of hormone BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and NAA (á- na...

  19. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

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    Italo Chiffelle G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae as an insect model. The diameter of M. azedarach fruit was in the lower limit in relation to other studies. The flour obtained from green fruit had an average dry weight inferior to that of mature fruit. The average dry leaf weights were similar in both juvenile and mature states. The green fruits had 50% initial humidity, similar to juvenile (60% and mature (57% leaves, but greater than the mature fruits (44%. The chemical analysis of the fruit maturity stages determined a slight increase in crude fiber content as maturity increased. There was a decrease in the lipid content of leaves close to 60% at maturity. Furthermore, an analysis of polyphenols was made using HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector, and 14 compounds were identified as causes of the insecticidal effect of the M. azedarach fruit, of which three would correspond to flavonoids: one catechin and two kaempherols. Finally, the aqueous fruit and leaf extracts of M. azedarach were effective insecticides on D. melanogaster, reaching 90% mortality (125 000 mg kg-1 with juvenile leaves and 73.3% (10 700 mg kg-1 with green fruit.Se estudiaron las características físicas, químicas y las propiedades insecticidas del fruto y hojas de melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae, árbol introducido con fines ornamentales en Chile. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de dos estados de madurez del fruto, verde y maduro, y de las hojas, juveniles y maduras. Las propiedades insecticidas se evaluaron

  20. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

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    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  1. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach fruits in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes / Atividade anti-helmíntica do fruto da Melia azedarach em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guzzo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach grounded dry fruits, in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty four (24 mixed-breed Ile de France x Corriedale, male lambs, aged 3 month, were separeted into three (3 groups of eight (8 animals: the first group was medicated with 5mg.Kg-1 of albendazole orally, in a single dose, the second group was medicated with 2g.Kg-1 of Melia azedarach fruits orally, in a single dose, and the third group remained untreated, as control. The results showed that the group that presented the best efficacy was the one treated with albendazole (51.96%, followed by the group treated with Melia azedarach fruits that presented 33.21% of efficacy.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos frutos secos e moídos da planta Melia azedarach, em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizou-se 24 cordeiros, com 90 dias de idade, machos, mestiços Ile de France x Corridale, os quais foram divididos em 3 grupos de oito animais cada, sendo: grupo 1, medicado com 5mg.Kg-1 em dose única, de albendazole pela via oral (V.O; grupo 2, com 2g.Kg-1 (V.O, em dose única, do fruto do cinamomo (Melia azedarach e o grupo 3, controle, não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que o grupo tratado com albendazole foi o que apresentou melhor eficácia 51.96%, seguido do grupo tratado com frutos de cinamomo o qual apresentou eficácia de 33.21%.

  4. Effects of fractions of Melia azedarach (L. fruit extracts on some biochemical parameters in rabbits

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    Ilahi Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of the methanolic extract of Melia azedarach fruits on serum glucose, lipid profile, GPT, ALP and creatinine of normal rabbits. Each fraction at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to normal rabbits for 40 days and the serum biochemical parameters were estimated on days 20 and 40 after treatment. All of the extracts significantly decreased serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL concentrations, however, their administration caused elevation of serum HDL levels. All except the aqueous extract, caused a significant rise in the serum levels of GPT, ALP and creatinine. The present study demonstrates that all of the extracts possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and HDL boosting properties. Of the tested extracts, only the aqueous fraction was found safe, as it caused no significant alterations in the serum levels of GPT, ALP and creatinine.

  5. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  6. Ovary histology and quantification of hemolymph proteins of Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus treated with Melia azedarach

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    Lorena Alessandra Dias de Sousa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze ovary histology and quantify total protein in the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus females treated with hexane extracts from green fruits of Melia azedarach. Eight engorged females were immersed in the extract at 0.25% concentration, and eight in water containing 5% acetone (control. The females were dissected 72 hours after treatment, and the ovaries were weighed and subjected to standard histological techniques. The total protein concentration was measured in the hemolymph of 200 females, of which 100 were treated as described above and 100 served as a control. In the treated group, ovary weight reduction and predominance of immature oocytes were observed. In addition, there were decreases in the diameters of the cytoplasm and germ vesicle of the oocytes in the treated group, compared with the controls. The protein concentration in the hemolymph was higher in the treated group than in the controls. The morphological changes observed in the treated ovaries included: presence of vacuolization; alteration of oocyte morphology, which changed from rounded to elongated; deformation of the chorion; and disorganization of the yolk granules. These results demonstrate the action ofM. azedarach fruit extracts on R.(B. microplus oogenesis.

  7. Phytochemical screening and antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves in rabbits

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    Sabira Sultana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antipyretic effect of the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves was investigated using the yeast induced pyrexia method in rabbits. Paracetamol was used as a positive control and negative control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all rabbits were recorded immediately before the administration of the extract or vehical or paracetamol and again at 1 h interval for 6 h using digital thermometer. The extract was also phytochemically screened for alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. At 500 mg/kg dose the extract showed significant (p<0.0001 reduction in yeast-induced elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol whereas the extract dose 250 mg/kg was less effective when compared with higher dose (p<0.05. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenols. This study showed that the hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach leaves at a dose of 500 mg/kg possesses significant antipyretic effect against the yeast-induced elevated temperature.

  8. Atividade inseticida de Eugenia uniflora L. e Melia azedarach L. sobre Atta laevigata Smith

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    Paulo Henrique Jung

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras estão entre os principais insetos pragas das florestas plantadas brasileiras, causando danos econômicos desde a implantação até a sua colheita. Em razão das questões ambientais e da exigência da certificação florestal, métodos alternativos estão sendo desenvolvidos para o controle do gênero Atta. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. e cinamomo (Melia azedarach L. sobre soldados de Atta laevigatta Smith. Para tal, a partir de folhas, foram obtidos extratos pelos processos de decocção, infusão, maceração, extrato alcoólico e extração de óleo essencial, em diferentes concentrações. O óleo essencial de E. uniflora, nas concentrações de 1,25, 2,5 e 5%, apresentou potencial inseticida sobre soldados de A. laevigata, quando comparado às demais formas de obtenção. O extrato alcoólico de M. azedarach, a 10%, também apresentou potencial inseticida, podendo estes extratos serem testados em práticas de campo.

  9. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

    2005-06-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and

  10. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  11. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

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    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  12. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

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    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES DE PAINÉIS COMPENSADOS DE Melia azedarach L. PRODUZIDOS COM DIFERENTES GRAMATURAS E TEMPOS DE PRENSAGEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilani Trianoski; Setsuo Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de Matos; Antonio Rioyei Higa; Rafael Leite Braz

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOO Brasil é um grande produtor de painéis compensados, suas florestas de Pinus são as mais utilizadas nesse processo e grande parte dessa produção é destinada à indústria moveleira. Muitas espécies têm sido introduzidas no país para essa e outras finalidades, entre elas a Melia azedarach, que ainda requer diversos estudos tecnológicos para a melhor utilização de sua madeira. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a viabilidade de utilização da Melia azedarach para a produç...

  14. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  15. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  16. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  17. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  18. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  19. Microbial transformation of vanillin isolated from melia azedarach to vanillyl alcohol followed by protease inhibition and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahwar, D.; Raza, M.A.; Ali, T.; Ahmad, V.U.

    2011-01-01

    Vanillin [1) was isolated from ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. and incubated in the culture of Aspergillus niger GC-4, which resulted in vanillyl alcohol (2). The product was identified by mass, /sup 1/H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Protease inhibition potential was measured using in vitro model, which indicated significant enzyme inhibition activity of vanillyl alcohol as compared to vanillin (1). Compound 1 and 2 were screened for antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdate and diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro model systems. Dose-dependant increase in the antioxidant activity of vanillyl alcohol was observed in phosphomolybdate method, while vanillin was found to be inactive. Vanillyl alcohol showed remarkable decay of the free radicals in the solution of DPPH within first two minutes which finally became constant after five minutes. In contrast, vanillin exhibited much lower antioxidant activity. (author)

  20. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

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    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  1. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  2. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

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    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  4. Assessing The Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Physio-Morphological Traits of Bitter Olive (Melia azedarach Linn. Under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Parvaneh Yousefvand

    2017-02-01

    dry weight, dry matter biomass, and physiological characteristics including proline content of leaves, soluble sugar of leaves, a andb chlorophyll content, total chlorophyll content, carotenoid, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and water content of leaves were measured. To analyze the data, normality was assessed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Analysis of variance was performed to detect the difference between the different levels of treatment for all traits. Difference among treatments means were compared by using Duncan test. All the analyses were performed using SAS statistical software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that CO2at the concentrations of 750 and 1100 ppm affected significantly all the measured morphological properties except for plant height, root dry weight and physiological traits such as proline, N, and leaves relative water content. However, CO2concentration of 750 ppm had the highest effect on the studied parameters, so that mean dry weight of shoot, dry matter biomass and proline increased up to more than three times, and shoots and roots wet weight and wet matter biomass increased up to more than two times compared to control. The greatest diameter of the collar and the amount of nitrogen were observed at 750 ppm concentration. Concentrations of 750 and 1100 ppm caused a significant increasein the number of leaves (up to two times and the height of stem compared to control. The increase observed inmorphological characteristics may be owing to photosynthesis stimulation during the experiment in CO2-elevated chamber. Soluble sugar as an important product of photosynthesis increased but the differences were not significant. Soluble sugar may be used for synthesis of morphological characteristics. Conclusion: Growth of Melia azedarach in elevated-CO2 chamber strongly reacted to theincrease in photosynthesis. Therefore, based on the results of this study,CO2 elevation in glasshouse can be proposed for increasing the growth of plant

  5. Flower Initiation, Morphology, and Developmental Stages of Flowering-Fruiting of Mindi (Melia azedarach L

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    Dida Syamsuwida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine flower initiation, floral morphology and to observe the stages of flowering and fruit  development of mindi (Melia  azedarch  L within a population  for one period of time 2008–2009.  The methods used were observing directly over the trees and some vegetatives and generatives buds were sampled for dissecting.  The observation revealed that the inflorescence type of mindi was panicle, located at the end of a branch.  The number of flower varied among inflorescences, ranged between 30–80 that bloomed simultaneously.  The flower was hermaphroditic with position of anther was closed to stigma that selfing might be happened.  Usually, the ovary contained 5 ovules that  developed into seeds.  Reproductive cycle was proceeded for 6–7 months within the year, first observation commenced from flower initiation that occur in August, generative buds to flower burst  in September–October.  Early fruits were formed in October–November and fruits reached physiological-maturity in January–February.  Reproductive success was 34%, indicated that the rate of fertilized ovules proportion to be potencially viable seeds were relatively low.Keywords: indian lily, phenology, reproductive biology, reproductive cycle, seed production

  6. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta.

  7. Extratos aquosos de frutos verdes de Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach: Investigação da presença de cianeto e avaliação toxicológica

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    Rita de Cássia A. S. Seffrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n3p143 Melia azedarach L., cinamomo, tem sido estudada pela sua ação inseticida e medicinal. Contudo, é uma espécie conhecida pela sua capacidade de produzir compostos cianogênicos e pela presença de saponinas e de compostos polares em frutos verdes, podendo causar intoxicação em animais domésticos e em seres humanos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos a verificação da presença de cianeto em  frutos verdes de M. azedarach var. azedarach, espécie adaptada à região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, e a avaliação toxico-lógica, em ratos, de extratos aquosos dessas estruturas vegetais. Os frutos foram colhidos em março de 2005, em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. A presença de cianeto foi avaliada através de medidas voltamétricas e a toxicidade foi analisada através de avaliação da mortalidade, de alterações comportamentais e das funções hepática e renal em ratos Wistar. Os extratos foram administrados através das vias oral e intraperitoneal, nas doses de 2,5,  5,0 e 10% (p/v, 1mL/kg. Pôde-se concluir que frutos verdes de cinamomo não apresentam cianeto em sua composição e extratos aquosos, nas doses analisadas,  não causam sintomas de toxicidade em ratos.

  8. Detection of heavy metals in leaves of melia azedarach and eucalyptus citriodora as biomonitring tools in the region of Quetta valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves of two tree species, Melia azedarach and Eucalyptus citriodora (Safeda) from different sampling sites at urban areas in Quetta city , were measured. Correlation between elements and the use of tree leaves as indicators of environmental pollution was investigated. The results show that the higher concentrations of heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves of the areas of the Hudda, Barori and Mashraqi by Pass and in the areas with dense transportation activities are in function. So this preliminary study presents scientific basis to establish the applicability of the tree leaves as bio-monitoring tool for the rapid evaluation of the pollution status in the Quetta city by analyzing heavy metals concentration in the tree leaves. (author)

  9. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  10. Green-synthesised nanoparticles from Melia azedarach seeds and the cyclopoid crustacean Cyclops vernalis: an eco-friendly route to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Priya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES DE PAINÉIS COMPENSADOS DE Melia azedarach L. PRODUZIDOS COM DIFERENTES GRAMATURAS E TEMPOS DE PRENSAGEM

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    Rosilani Trianoski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO Brasil é um grande produtor de painéis compensados, suas florestas de Pinus são as mais utilizadas nesse processo e grande parte dessa produção é destinada à indústria moveleira. Muitas espécies têm sido introduzidas no país para essa e outras finalidades, entre elas a Melia azedarach, que ainda requer diversos estudos tecnológicos para a melhor utilização de sua madeira. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a viabilidade de utilização da Melia azedarach para a produção de painéis compensados e o efeito da gramatura de adesivo e do tempo de prensagem sobre as propriedades dos painéis. Foram utilizadas cinco árvores provenientes de um plantio experimental localizado em Corupá, SC, das quais foram obtidas amostras para determinação da densidade básica (COPANT 461/1972 e das propriedades químicas (TAPPI 204, 1997; 207, 1999; 280, 1999; 212, 2002; 252, 2002, bem como para a obtenção das lâminas. Os painéis foram produzidos com dimensões de 500 mm x 500 mm x 10 mm (cinco lâminas, segundo um delineamento em arranjo fatorial (3x2 com três gramaturas (320 g/m2,360g/m2 e 400 g/m2 e dois tempos de prensagem (8 e 10 min, adesivo ureia-formaldeído, pressão específica de 1 MPa e temperatura de 110 °C. As propriedades dos painéis foram avaliadas a partir do ensaio de flexão estática (EN:310:2002 e resistência da linha de cola ao cisalhamento (EN 3141:2004 e EN 314-2:2002. Os resultados indicaram diferença estatística significativa dos efeitos principais: a gramatura e tempo de prensagem apenas no módulo de elasticidade no sentido perpendicular e a inexistência de diferença estatística significativa entre as médias a partir da interação dessas duas variáveis de resposta. Concluiu-se que a espécie apresenta viabilidade técnica para a produção de painéis compensados, podendo maximizar a produtividade e minimizar os custos de produção, por meio da utilização da menor gramatura de

  12. Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakiri, Setsuo; Potulski, Daniele Cristina; Sanches, Felipe Gustavo; Silva, Janice Bernardo da; Trianoski, Rosilani; Pretko, Williams Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando resina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpen...

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves on the growth and development of ovary and histological structure of the mid gut in the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Gorgees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.

  14. Potencial Insecticida de Extractos de MeliaAzederach L (Meliaceae. Actividad Biologica y Efectos sobre Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E: Smith

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    Vergara Ruiz Rodrigo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de alternativas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, diferentes al uso de insecticidas se planifico esta investigación con el objetivo de precisas las propiedades insecticidas de extractos de Melia azederach L. para el control de larvas en estado L2. El trabajo se adelantó en Laboratorios de la Universidad del Tolima en Ibagué, ubicados en una zona de vida correspondiente al bosque húmedo Montano Bajo (bh-MB, las condiciones de temperatura fueron de 28 ±2°C y 70%de humedad relativa. Estos trabajos se realizaron durante 1994 y 1995. Los extractos se obtuvieron empleando tres solventes: alcohólico y etéreo trabajando con un diseño complemente al azar con arreglo factorial 3ˆ2, con 5 replicaciones. Antes de hacer las aplicaciones de los extractos se procedió a verificar su actividad biológica sobre Artemia salina. La dieta alimenticia natural y la cría masiva de Spodoptera frugiperda, se organizó de tal forma que se pudiera obtener material para toda la investigación. Después de efectuados los tratamientos se hicieron lecturas de mortalidad hasta los 6 días y porteriormente se continuaron realizando observaciones bioecológicas sobre los individuos sobrevivientes, hasta el estado adulto y etapa de oviposición El análisis de mortalidad demostró que los extractos tienen un efecto antialimentario sobre las larvas del insecto-plaga, siendo el extracto alcohólico en su dosis alta el mejor. Al efectuar el establecimiento de las dosis letales medidas se precisó que se pueden trabajar concentraciones entre 1.000-3.000 ppm para obtener óptimos resultados. El efecto antialimentario de los extractos produce en los individuos sobrevivientes una prolongación de la duración en días de las fases de su ciclo de vida.

  15. The Survey of Melia Azaderach L. ash in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Synthetic Electroplating Industry Wastewater

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    MT Ghaneian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Melia azedarach ash is an effective adsorbent in removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic electroplating industries wastewater. In addition, the use of this biosorbent in preparation and application aspects is simple and cheap compared to many other natural and man-made adsorbent.

  16. Clinical aplications of Trioxolane derivatives | Koech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro.

  17. In vitro anti-viral activity of aqueous extracts of Kenyan Carissa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro.

  18. Antibacterial triterpenoids from Melia toosendan

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    Qin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lanostan-type triterpenoid with hydroperoxy group, toosendanin A (1, together with two known triterpenoids, meliastatin 3 (2 and ursolic acid (3, w ere isolated and identified from the stems of Melia toosendan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and other spectroscopic studies. These compounds were assayed for the antibacterial activities against some hospital pathogenic bacteria. Toosendanin A (1 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae .

  19. Anti-Urolithiatic Activity of Melia Azedarach Linn Leaf Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Pharmacognosy, Padmavathi College of Pharmacy and Research Institute, Tamilnadu, India. ... Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, as well as. African and ..... profile. Bull III, Ann Conf Urol Soc India, 1985; 12. 2. Hadjzadeh MA, Khoei A, Hadjzadeh Z, and Parizady M. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds on.

  20. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roop, J.K.; Dhaliwal, P.K.; Guraya, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Mel...

  1. The Variability of Seed Viability and Seed Vigour of Mindi (Melia azedarachlinn. from Several Populations in The Community Forest of West Java

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    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of good quality seeds for the development of mindi (Melia azedarach L. in the community forest is absolutely necessary. The purpose of this research is to investigate the diversity of the viability and seedling vigor of mindi from different populations with various treatments of dormancy breaking. The sample materials were mindi seeds that were collected from 6 locations (6 seed lots or seed sources which were located in the community forest of West Java. There are 10 treatments of dormancy breaking that were applied in this study. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Design (RAL. The breaking dormancy  was focused to the delignification of hard seed coat.  Results showed that the most effective dormancy breaking for mindi seed was soaking in consentrated Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 as long as 30 to 45 minutes. The first count for germination of mindi was on the 16 day and the final count was on the 31 day.The average value of germination percentage (DB for all seed sources was 40 %, while the highest which is 60% was mindi from Sumedang seed source. The highest value of germination rate that is 6,543%/etmal was seed  from Sumedangand seed from Gambung was the lowest (1,400 %/etmal. Keywords : community forest, Melia azedarach L., variation, viability, vigor.

  2. Meliaceae endémicas del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    León, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    The Meliaceae are represented in Peru by ten genera and 75 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), all trees. Here we recognize three endemic species in the same number of genera. These endemic species are found in areas of Humid Lowland Amazonian Forests, Mesoandean and Dry Forests regions, between 100 and 1700 m elevation. No endemic Meliaceae have been registered today within Peru’s protected areas system. La familia Meliaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar d...

  3. Sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae); Sesquiterpenos de sementes de Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luzinatia Ramos [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Silva, Alene Cortes de Queiroz e; Freire, Talita Vilalva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes 6{alpha}-ethoxyeudesm-4(15)-en-1{beta}-ol (1) and (7R{sup *})-5-epi-opposit-4(15)-ene-1{beta},7-diol (7) were isolated from the seeds of a specimen of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae). Five other known sesquiterpenes, eudesm-4(15)-ene-1{beta},6a-diol (2), 5-epi-eudesm-4(15)-ene-1{beta},6{beta}-diol (3), eudesm-4(15)-ene-1{beta},5a-diol (4), eudesm-4(15),7-dien-1{beta}-ol (5) and (7R{sup *})-opposit-4(15)-ene-1{beta},7-diol (6), were also isolated in this work. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparisons with the literature. The substances 3, 4 and 6 are reported for the first time in Meliaceae and 5 for the first time in the genus Guarea. (author)

  4. Interim Results on Improvement of Melia volkensii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.G.; Kimondo, J.M; Muchri, D.K

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is important in some dry lands of Kenya as a high quality timber, for fodder, shade and construction. It is both drought resistant and fast growing and is termite resistant. Demand for the species has led to dysgenic selection, resulting in the selection of superior trees, progressively leading to a pool of poor parent trees remaining in most populations. A genetic improvement strategy and implementation plan was initiated in the year 2005. The main objective was genetic improvement of melia volkensii through selection, breeding and propagation. Specific objectives was to develop new plantations that are superior to their predecessors in one or several key economic traits and to maximize value of logs produced by farmers. The basic material for selection of plus trees were the natural and on farm populations across most of the species' natural range. Selection was carried out in nine transects located in various areas from Isiolo to Voi, through assessment of candidate trees and subsequent comparison with nearest 5 check trees. Site characterization and passport data collection was also carried out. Various selection criteria were used including diameter at breast height (dbh), height, form (straightness and branching habit), resistance to diseases, pests and spiral grain tendency. For establishment of hedges , stressing of root through severing part of the root to produce scions was done, followed by scion selection and grafting. Initial results showed the existence of two main forms in M. volkensii i.e crop and tree ideotypes. Crop ideotypes are shorter, have shorter clear boles with deep large and spreading crowns, mainly found in Mwingi, Nuu, Tseikuru and some parts of Kitui. Tree ideotypes are taller with long clear boles, light branching and sparce crowns mainly found in Voi, Mbeere,Mutha and Embu. Intermediate forms also exist. Because the breeding objective was timber production, the tree ideotypes were favoured in selection. In all nine

  5. Limonoids from the stems of Toona ciliata var. henryi (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Su, Zu-Shang; Lin, Bing-Dong; Wu, Yan; Yue, Jian-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ten limonoids, toonacilianins A-J, and two norlimonoids, toonacilianins K and L, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the stems of Toona ciliata var. henryi (Meliaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two compounds showed strong cytotoxic activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Callus induction in meliacea exotics (Khaya nyasica Stapf y Toona ciliata)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Daquinta; Yarianne Lezcano; Mariela Cid; Romelio Rodríguez; Danilo Pina; Maritza Escalona

    2003-01-01

    Meliaceas are very important for the programs of construction and furniture production, among other applications. Khaya nyasica is a Meliacea originally from Africa, as African Caoba. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from Himalayan Region, known in Cuba as Cedro of Himalayan. Natural regeneration in these species occur by seed and grafting. These sorts of propagation are limited, when it is wished to introduced these species in the production. The objective of this paper was to provide ...

  7. The Variability of Seed Viability and Seed Vigour of Mindi (Melia azedarachlinn. from Several Populations in The Community Forest of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of good quality seeds for the development of mindi (Melia azedarach L. in the community forest is absolutely necessary. The purpose of this research is to investigate the diversity of the viability and seedling vigor of mindi from different populations with various treatments of dormancy breaking. The sample mat erials were mindi seeds that were collected from 6 locations (6 seed lots or seed sources which were located in the community forest of West Java. There are 10 treatments of dormancy breaking that were applied in this study. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Design (RAL. The breaking dormancy was focused to the delignification of hard seed coat. Results showed that the most effective dormancy breaking for mindi seed was soaking in consentrated Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 as long as 30 to 45 minutes. The first count for germination of mindi was on the 16 day and the final count was on the 31 day. The average value of germination percentage (DB for all seed sources was 40 %, while the highest which is 60 % was mindi from Sumedang seed source. The highest value of germination rate that is 6,543 %/etmal was seed from Sumedang and seed from Gambung was the lowest (1,400 %/etmal.

  8. BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid was isolated from hexane extract of the stem bark of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (Meliaceae. This structure had been established based on spectroscopic data (UV, IR, and NMR and by comparison with spectroscopic data of related compound that had been reported.   Keywords: Meliaceae, Oleane, Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Triterpenoid

  9. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Junior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Monica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-b-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods ( 1 H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13 C and UV), ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family. (author)

  10. Flavonoid Compounds from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Julinton Sianturi; Mayshah Purnamasari; Tri Mayanti; Desi Harneti; Unang Supratman; Khalijah Awang; Hideo Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoid compounds, kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-α-L-rhamnoside (3), were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae). The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were identified with spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H-COSY NMR), and MS, as well as a compared with previously reported spectra data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia...

  11. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV, ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family.

  12. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  13. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  14. Antioxidant Constituents from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae

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    Julinton Sianturi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aglaia is a a rich source of different compounds with interesting biological activities. A part of our continuing search for novel biologically active compounds from Indonesia Aglaia plants, the ethyl acetate extract of bark of Aglaia eximia showed significant antioxidant activity. Four antioxidant compounds, kaempferol (1, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (3 and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(1→4-α-L-rhamnoside (4 were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae. The chemical structures of compounds 1-4 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic datas including UV, IR, NMR and MS along with by comparison with those spectra datas previously reported. All compounds showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity with IC50 values of 1.18, 6.34, 8.17, 10.63 mg/mL, respectively.

  15. Flavonoid Compounds from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae

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    Julinton Sianturi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three flavonoid compounds, kaempferol (1, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-α-L-rhamnoside (3, were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were identified with spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H-COSY NMR, and MS, as well as a compared with previously reported spectra data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1–3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50 values of 1.22, 42.92, and >100 mg/mL, respectively

  16. A LONG CHAIN ALCOHOL AND TWO STEROL COMPOUNDS FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae

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    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A long chain alcohol, 1-eicosanol together with two sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol had been isolated from hexane extract of stem bark of pacar cina (Aglaia odorata Lour (Meliaceae. These structures had been established based on spectroscopic data (IR and NMR and by comparison to those of standard compounds.   Keywords: Aglaia odorata Lour, Alcohol, Meliaceae, Sterol

  17. Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects

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    Senthil-Nathan eSengottayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β- glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.1, lipases (EC 3.1.1 Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST, glutathione S-transferase (GST and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.3.1.3.1 and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.3.1.3.2 are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail.

  18. In vitro rhizogenesis: histoanatomy of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae microcuttings

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    Liliana Millán-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae is considered as one of the most valuable forest tree in the tropics. Clonal propagation of this species provide an alternative method to propagate superior genotypes, being the production of good quality adventitious roots one of the most important steps in micropropagation techniques. The sequence of anatomical changes that takes place during the formation of adventitious roots in shoots of Cedrela odorata cultured in vitro is described in this study. Eigth-week-old shoots, from multiplication cultures, were rooted in Murashige and Skoog´s medium (1962 with half- strength macronutrients and with 0 or 1mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Between 12 and 24h after the start of rooting, some cambium, phloem and interfascicular parenchyma cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed, especially in shoots treated with auxin (dedifferentiation phase. After 3-4 days, the number of dedifferentiated cells and mitotic divisions increased considerably, and the formation of groups of some 30-40 meristematic cells (meristemoids was observed (induction phase. The first primordial roots developed from the 4th-5th day. The vascular tissues of these primordia connected to those of the explant, and roots began to emerge from the base by day 6. Development of the primordial roots was similar in the control shoots and shoots treated with 1mg/l IBA, although there were more roots per explant in the latter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 447-453. Epub 2011 March 01.Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae es una especie tropical de gran valor económico. La propagación in vitro de esta especie ofrece una vía alternativa para la clonación de genotipos superiores, siendo la formación de un buen sistema radical uno de los pasos claves en la micropropagación. En este trabajo analizamos la secuencia de cambios anatómicos que tienen lugar durante la formación de raíces adventicias en microestaquillas

  19. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

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    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  20. In vitro rhizogenesis: histoanatomy of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Millán-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae is considered as one of the most valuable forest tree in the tropics. Clonal propagation of this species provide an alternative method to propagate superior genotypes, being the production of good quality adventitious roots one of the most important steps in micropropagation techniques. The sequence of anatomical changes that takes place during the formation of adventitious roots in shoots of Cedrela odorata cultured in vitro is described in this study. Eigth-week-old shoots, from multiplication cultures, were rooted in Murashige and Skoog´s medium (1962 with half- strength macronutrients and with 0 or 1mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Between 12 and 24h after the start of rooting, some cambium, phloem and interfascicular parenchyma cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed, especially in shoots treated with auxin (dedifferentiation phase. After 3-4 days, the number of dedifferentiated cells and mitotic divisions increased considerably, and the formation of groups of some 30-40 meristematic cells (meristemoids was observed (induction phase. The first primordial roots developed from the 4th-5th day. The vascular tissues of these primordia connected to those of the explant, and roots began to emerge from the base by day 6. Development of the primordial roots was similar in the control shoots and shoots treated with 1mg/l IBA, although there were more roots per explant in the latter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 447-453. Epub 2011 March 01.

  1. Callus induction in meliacea exotics (Khaya nyasica Stapf y Toona ciliata

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    Marcos Daquinta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Meliaceas are very important for the programs of construction and furniture production, among other applications. Khaya nyasica is a Meliacea originally from Africa, as African Caoba. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from Himalayan Region, known in Cuba as Cedro of Himalayan. Natural regeneration in these species occur by seed and grafting. These sorts of propagation are limited, when it is wished to introduced these species in the production. The objective of this paper was to provide callus formation in Toona ciliata for in vitro propagation. Mature trees of 20 year in Khaya nyasica and of 2-3 years in Toona ciliata were used. In order to use rachis of young branchesthese these plantsthey were disinfected with same protocol reported for another Meliaceas and they were established in the tissue medium MS + 0-1 mg.l-1 Thidiazuron. Nodular calli with good morphogenic characteristicwere obtained, in the explants the calli formation began by cut ends. The shoots were achieved in darkness and plants regeneration in light in Toona ciliata. Key words: callus, Caoba African, Cedro of Himalayan, plants regeneration, Thidiazuron

  2. Optimizing the size of root cutting in Melia volkensii Gürke for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melia volkensii is a tree species growing in semi-arid regions of East Africa, and is recognized as one of the most valuable forestry species in such regions of Kenya. The use of root cutting is an easy method for its clonal propagation, but the most appropriate conditions have not been systematically examined. In this study ...

  3. Floral development in the tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies.

  4. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  5. Atividade antibacteriana de extratos do caule de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae Antibacterian activity of extracts from wood of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae

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    Tânia Ueda Nakamura

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae é uma árvore nativa das florestas do Paraná, Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como adstringente, emética, no combate à leucorréia e na lavagem de úlceras e feridas. Extratos de diferentes polaridades, obtidos do caule, foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Do extrato hexânico foi isolada uma mistura de sitosterol (50,40%, estigmasterol (21,70% e campesterol (22,80%, que apresentou uma concentração mínima inibitória (CIM de 0,5mg/mL sobre Staphylococcus aureus.Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae is a native tree found in forests of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and used in folk medicine as astringent and emetic substance against leukorrhea and in the washing of ulcers and wounds. Extracts of different polarity obtained from the stem were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Hexane extract yielded a mixture of sitosterol (50,40%, stigmasterol (21,70% and campesterol (22,80% which showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0,5mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. 12alpha-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one: a new bioactive steroid from Toona ciliata (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, R; Rashid, R B; Sohrab, M H; Hasan, C M

    2003-04-01

    In a bioassay guided phytochemical investigation of Toona ciliata (Fam. Meliaceae), a new hydroxy steroidal ketone, 12alpha-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (1) was isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the plant together with two known steroids and three C-methyl coumarins. The structure of 1 was established by means of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 was found cytotoxic in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 of 9.9 microg/ml and it also showed significant antitumor activity with Ti50 value of 14.1 microg/ml in a potato disc bioassay.

  7. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and T. catigua (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Andreia Pereira; Nebo, Liliane; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) has led to the identification of the limonoids 11β-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone) and the steroids stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda. (author)

  8. Elusidasi Struktur Kimia Senyawa Bioaktif Pengendali Serangga Ulat Kubis Dari Kulit Batang Aglaia Disoxylum (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian elusidasi struktur kimia senyawa fenol-2-(1-metiletoksi-metilkarbamat, yang bersifat bioaktif (LC50 = 3,57 ppm pengendali serangga ulat kubis(Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller dari ekstrak etil asetat kulit batang Aglaia disoxylum(Meliaceae, salah satu tumbuhan yang dikenal sebagai pasak bumis. Senyawa inidiperoleh berupa kristal tidak berwarna, berbentuk jarum (40 mg, titik leleh 99–101 oC,rumus molekul C11H15NO3 dan BM = 209. Penetapan struktur kimia senyawa tersebutdilakukan berdasarkan data spektroskopi UV-VIS, FTIR, 1H dan 13C NMR, HMQC,HMBC, dan MS (GC-MS.

  9. Post-logging loss of genetic diversity in a mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) population in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. André; M.R. Lemes; J. Grogan; R. Gribel

    2008-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) is the most valuable widely traded timber species from the Neotropics. Mahogany has been severely overexploited throughout its natural range, which stretches from southern Mexico through Central and South America as far south as the Bolivian Amazon.We investigated effects of selective logging on the genetic...

  10. Recently evolved diversity and convergent radiations of rainforest mahoganies (Meliaceae) shed new light on the origins of rainforest hyperdiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.J.M.; Clarkson, J.J.; Pennington, T.D.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    •Tropical rainforest hyperdiversity is often suggested to have evolved over a long time-span (the ‘museum’ model), but there is also evidence for recent rainforest radiations. The mahoganies (Meliaceae) are a prominent plant group in lowland tropical rainforests world-wide but also occur in all

  11. New triterpenoids with diverse side-chains from the barks of Melia Toosendan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-Lin; Li, Yi; Qiu, Lu; Li, Jun-He; Heng, Li; Wei, Shan-Shan; Gao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2018-01-31

    Nine new euphane- and apotirucallane-type triterpenoids (Toosendines A-I; 1-9), along with three known tirucallane-type compounds were isolated from the barks of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated based on detailed spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D/2D-NMR) and circular dichroism spectra. Results of bioactivities screening exhibited that compounds 1, 4 and 5 showed remarkable NO inhibitory activities in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, meanwhile, compounds 1 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicities against U2OS human cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rooting Ability of Melia volkensii Cuttings Under Different Auxin Concentration Levels and Provenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeba, V.O; Muok, B.; Odee, D

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 s ignificantly (p n ot showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1 s hould be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 w ould significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting

  13. Isolation of the New Antiplasmodial Butanolide, Malleastrumolide A, from Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongle; Abedi, Alexander K; Valenciano, Ana Lisa; Fernández-Murga, Maria L; Cassera, Maria B; Rasamison, Vincent E; Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S; Kingston, David G I

    2017-12-01

    An extract of Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC 50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg ml -1 . After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C 18 SPE and C 18 reversed phase HPLC, the new butanolide, malleastrumolide A, was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC 50 value of 17.4 μm and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC 50 value of 2.74 μm. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Siderin from Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) as photosystem II inhibitor on spinach thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Thiago A M; González-Vázquez, Raquel; Neto, João Oiano; Silva, Maria F G F; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-09-01

    Four natural products were isolated from plants of the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families and their effect on photosynthesis was tested. Siderin (1) inhibited both ATP synthesis and electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV); therefore, it acts as Hill reaction inhibitor in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. Natural products 2-4 were inactive. Secondary metabolite 1 did not inhibit PSI electron transport. It inhibits partial reactions of PSII electron flow from water to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), from water to sodium silicomolybdate, and partially inhibits electron flow from diphenylcarbazid (DPC) to DCPIP. These results established that the site of inhibition of 1 was at the donor and acceptor sides of PSII, between P(680) and Q(A). Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements confirmed the behavior of the Toona ciliate coumarin 1 as P(680) to Q(A) inhibitor by the creation of silent centers. May be this is the mechanisms of action of 1 and is the way in which it develops a phytotoxic activity against photosynthesis.

  15. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and T. catigua (Meliaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade inseticida dos extratos de frutos de Trichilia elegans E T. catigua (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Andreia Pereira; Nebo, Liliane; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) has led to the identification of the limonoids 11{beta}-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone) and the steroids stigmasterol, {beta}-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda. (author)

  16. Constituintes químicos e atividade inseticida dos extratos de frutos de Trichilia elegans E T. catigua (Meliaceae Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans AND T. catigua (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pereira Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae has led to the identification of the limonoids 11β-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone and the steroids stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda.

  17. Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit against colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Xin-Ying; Park, Hyun; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Sung-Yeon; Kang, Baek-Dong; Park, Won-Cheol; Choi, Du-Young; Kjm, Ok-jin

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plant-derived products have proven to be valuable sources for discovery and development of unique anticancer drugs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit (EMTF), a traditional medicine in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against colon cancer. Human colon cancer cells SW480 and murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cells CT26 were used to investigate cell proliferation. The results showed that EMTF inhibited cell proliferation of SW480 and CT26 by promoting apoptosis as indicated by nuclear chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Through increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, EMTF induced caspase-9 activity which further activated caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, leading the tumor cells to apoptosis. The in vivo results confirmed reduction of tumor volume and apoptotic effects and the side effects were not induced by EMTF. Therefore, EMTF may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment. (author)

  18. Classification of CITES-listed and other neotropical Meliaceae wood images using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Costa, Adriana; Soares, Richard; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2018-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art for field wood identification to combat illegal logging relies on experienced practitioners using hand lenses, specialized identification keys, atlases of woods, and field manuals. Accumulation of this expertise is time-consuming and access to training is relatively rare compared to the international demand for field wood identification. A reliable, consistent and cost effective field screening method is necessary for effective global scale enforcement of international treaties such as the Convention on the International Trade in Endagered Species (CITES) or national laws (e.g. the US Lacey Act) governing timber trade and imports. We present highly effective computer vision classification models, based on deep convolutional neural networks, trained via transfer learning, to identify the woods of 10 neotropical species in the family Meliaceae, including CITES-listed Swietenia macrophylla , Swietenia mahagoni , Cedrela fissilis , and Cedrela odorata . We build and evaluate models to classify the 10 woods at the species and genus levels, with image-level model accuracy ranging from 87.4 to 97.5%, with the strongest performance by the genus-level model. Misclassified images are attributed to classes consistent with traditional wood anatomical results, and our species-level accuracy greatly exceeds the resolution of traditional wood identification. The end-to-end trained image classifiers that we present discriminate the woods based on digital images of the transverse surface of solid wood blocks, which are surfaces and images that can be prepared and captured in the field. Hence this work represents a strong proof-of-concept for using computer vision and convolutional neural networks to develop practical models for field screening timber and wood products to combat illegal logging.

  19. Genetic diversity and geographic structure in Aglaia elaeagnoidea (Meliaceae, Sapindales), a morphologically complex tree species, near the two extremes of its distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muellner, A.N.; Greger, H.; Pannell, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea is the most widespread and one of the more morphologically diverse complex species in the largest genus of the mahogany family (Meliaceae, Sapindales). We performed maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses (nuclear ITS rDNA) to estimate genetic relations among

  20. \\"Estudo do desenvolvimento floral em espécies arbóreas da família Meliaceae\\"

    OpenAIRE

    Cantidio Fernando Gouvêa

    2005-01-01

    A família Meliaceae compreende cerca de 51 gêneros e 550 espécies distribuídas principalmente na região Neotropical. Incluídas nesta família, estão espécies de elevado interesse comercial para a produção de madeiras nobres. Há carência de informações quanto à biologia floral dessas espécies, que aliada a problemas silviculturas dificulta a elaboração de programas efetivos de melhoramento genético das espécies de interesse econômico da família. O presente trabalho visa contribuir para o entend...

  1. Antidiarrheal Evaluation of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaku L. Elisha, Micah S. Makoshi, Sunday Makama*, Christiana J. Dawurung, Nkechi V. Offiah§, Jurbe G. Gotep, Olusola O. Oladipo and David Shamaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, intestinal worms, diarrhea, dysentery and venereal diseases. Despite the claim as an effective antidiarrheal remedy in both humans and animals, there is scarcity of documented scientific information of specific in vivo antidiarrheal test using extracts of this plant. The number of wet feces and the distance travelled by activated charcoal meal in rats orally given 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of K. senegalensis were evaluated in the castor oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility studies. The phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity test of the extracts were also tested using standard methods. Both extracts dose-dependently (P0.05 distance travelled by charcoal in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extracts were apparently safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight per os. Cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were present in both extracts, while tannins were present only in the ethanolic extract. The aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of K. senegalensis inhibits diarrhea, at least in part, by a mechanism other than inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. The antidiarrheal activity of K. senegalensis may be attributed to the flavonoid and tannin constituents present in the extracts. The ability of K. senegalensis to significantly protect against castor oil induced diarrhea justifies its use in traditional management of human and animal diarrhea.

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Extracts of Aglaia spp. (Meliaceae Against Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Prijono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal potential of eleven species of Aglaia (Meliaceae was evaluated in the laboratory against the cabbage cluster caterpillar, Crocidolomia binotalis. The feeding treatment of second-instar larvae C. binotalis for 48 hours with ethanol twig extract of A. odorata at 0.5% caused 98.7% larval mortality; leaf and twig extracts of A. elaeagnoidea caused 17.3% and 6.7% mortality, respectively; twig extracts of A. argentea, A. formosana, and A. latifolia caused only 1.3% mortality each; whereas extracts of the other six Aglaia species were inactive (0% mortality. Further tests with A. odorata showed that twigs gave the most active extract compared to other plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots, and air-drying of plant materials for 2 weeks markedly decreased the activity of the derived extracts. The active extracts also delayed the development of surviving larvae in similar degree to the level of their lethal effect. LC50 of ethyl acetate fraction of A. odorata twig extract and its main active compound, rocaglamide, against C. binotalis larvae were 310.2 and 31.4 ppm, respectively. This active compound was about 8.7 times less potent than azadirachtin (LC50 3.6 ppm. Key words: Aglaia, botanical insecticides, Crocidolomia binotalis

  3. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  4. Acaricidal activities of extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal activities of extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt (Burseraceae), Melia volkensii Gürke, Turraea abyssinica Hochst., Turraea floribunda Hochst and Turraea cornucopia Styles & F. White (Meliaceae) against the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus ap.

  5. Forest trees in human modified landscapes: ecological and genetic drivers of recruitment failure in Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sascha A; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Kettle, Chris J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agro-forest landscapes are global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Little is known about the ability of these landscapes to sustain large late successional forest trees upon which much forest biodiversity depends. These landscapes are subject to fragmentation and additional habitat degradation which may limit tree recruitment and thus compromise numerous ecosystem services including carbon storage and timber production. Dysoxylum malabaricum is a large canopy tree species in the Meliaceae, a family including many important tropical timber trees. This species is found in highly fragmented forest patches within a complex agro-forest landscape of the Western Ghats biodiversity hot spot, South India. In this paper we combined a molecular assessment of inbreeding with ecological and demographic data to explore the multiple threats to recruitment of this tree species. An evaluation of inbreeding, using eleven microsatellite loci in 297 nursery-reared seedlings collected form low and high density forest patches embedded in an agro-forest matrix, shows that mating between related individuals in low density patches leads to reduced seedling performance. By quantifying habitat degradation and tree recruitment within these forest patches we show that increasing canopy openness and the increased abundance of pioneer tree species lead to a general decline in the suitability of forest patches for the recruitment of D. malabaricum. We conclude that elevated inbreeding due to reduced adult tree density coupled with increased degradation of forest patches, limit the recruitment of this rare late successional tree species. Management strategies which maintain canopy cover and enhance local densities of adult trees in agro-forest mosaics will be required to ensure D. malabaricum persists in these landscapes. Our study highlights the need for a holistic understanding of the incipient processes that threaten populations of many important and rare tropical tree

  6. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK BIJI TRICHILIA TRIJUGA ROXB. (MELIACEAE TERHADAP ULAT DAUN MELATI PALPITA UNIONALIS (HÜBNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Sartika , Djoko Prijono Gustini Syahbirin , dan Maryam Abn.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of Trichilia trijuga Roxb. (Meliaceae seed extracts against jasmine leaf caterpillar Palpita unionalis (Hübner.  The insecticidal activity of Trichilia trijuga seed extracts was evaluated in the laboratory against the jasmine leaf caterpillar Palpita unionalis.  Acetone neem (Azadirachta indica seed extract and NeemAzal T/S formulation (a.i.: 1% azadirachtin were included in the test as positive controls.  First-instar larvae of P. unionalis were fed with treated jasmine leaves for 2 days, then surviving larvae were fed with untreated leaves and observed daily until reaching third-instar stage.  The treatments with acetone extract and aqueous extract of T. trijuga at concentrations of 0.175% and 21 g of seeds/l of water (2.1%, respectively, caused a complete kill in the test larvae.  The insecticidal activity of T. trijuga acetone extract at 0.175% was comparable with that of NeemAzal preparation containing azadirachtin of about 10 – 17.5 ppm.  Based on larval mortality until the third instar, LC50 of acetone extract and aqueous extract of T. trijuga were 0.024% and 0.307%, respectively (LC50 of acetone neem seed extract was 0.018%.  In addition to lethal effect, T. trijuga seed extracts also delayed the development of the surviving larvae; for example, the treatment with T. trijuga acetone extract at 0.1% prolonged the developmental time of P. unionalis larvae to the third instar by 3 days compared to control.  It is concluded that T. trijuga seeds serve as a potential source of botanical insecticides, particularly against P. unionalis.

  7. Forest trees in human modified landscapes: ecological and genetic drivers of recruitment failure in Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha A Ismail

    Full Text Available Tropical agro-forest landscapes are global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Little is known about the ability of these landscapes to sustain large late successional forest trees upon which much forest biodiversity depends. These landscapes are subject to fragmentation and additional habitat degradation which may limit tree recruitment and thus compromise numerous ecosystem services including carbon storage and timber production. Dysoxylum malabaricum is a large canopy tree species in the Meliaceae, a family including many important tropical timber trees. This species is found in highly fragmented forest patches within a complex agro-forest landscape of the Western Ghats biodiversity hot spot, South India. In this paper we combined a molecular assessment of inbreeding with ecological and demographic data to explore the multiple threats to recruitment of this tree species. An evaluation of inbreeding, using eleven microsatellite loci in 297 nursery-reared seedlings collected form low and high density forest patches embedded in an agro-forest matrix, shows that mating between related individuals in low density patches leads to reduced seedling performance. By quantifying habitat degradation and tree recruitment within these forest patches we show that increasing canopy openness and the increased abundance of pioneer tree species lead to a general decline in the suitability of forest patches for the recruitment of D. malabaricum. We conclude that elevated inbreeding due to reduced adult tree density coupled with increased degradation of forest patches, limit the recruitment of this rare late successional tree species. Management strategies which maintain canopy cover and enhance local densities of adult trees in agro-forest mosaics will be required to ensure D. malabaricum persists in these landscapes. Our study highlights the need for a holistic understanding of the incipient processes that threaten populations of many important and

  8. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  9. The combined action of phytolarvicides for the control of dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Grzybowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amongst other botanical sources, Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, seeds and Piper nigrum L., Piperaceae, fruits are particularly enriched with acetogenins and piperine-related amides, respectively. These crude ethanolic extracts are potent Aedes aegypti bioactives that can kill Aedes aegypti larvae (dengue fever mosquito. A. muricata displayed a 93.48 µg/mL LC50 and P. nigrum an 1.84 µg/mL LC50. An uncommon pharmacognostical/toxicological approach was used, namely different combinations of both extracts to achieve an improved lethal effect on the larvae. The independence test (χ² was utilized to evaluate the combination of the two crude extracts. All of the tested combinations behaved synergistically and these novel results were attributed to the completely different biochemical mechanisms of the differentiated chemical substances that were present in the two botanical sources. Besides the two above selected plants, Melia azedarach L., Meliaceae, Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae, and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, in order of decreasing toxicity, may also be sought as potential extracts for the sake of synergic combinations.

  10. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  11. Evaluación de fenoles y limonoides en hojas de Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae de una plantación experimental establecida en Tezonapa Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha del Rocío Mariscal-Lucero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae es una especie forestal maderable nativa de América Tropical, conocida por la alta calidad de su madera. Plantaciones de esta especie son atacadas severamente por Hypsipyla grandella; la atracción o repelencia de la plaga está relacionada con metabolitos secundarios tipo fenoles y limonoides (triterpenos, por lo que el estudio de estos compuestos es importante para comprender algunos fenómenos fitoquímicos. Se evaluó la concentración de fenoles totales y limonoides en hojas de C. odorata (Meliaceae de una plantación establecida en Tezonapa Veracruz México, se analizaron 66 individuos de siete procedencias. La concentración de fenoles y limonoides mostró diferencias significativas, no solo entre las procedencias sino también entre los árboles de una determinada procedencia (Tukey, p≤0.05. La concentración de fenoles totales varió de 49 a 223mg EAG/g e, los flavonoides de 7 a 158mg EC/g e y las proantocianidinas de 4 a 104mg EC/g e, mientras que en limonoides se obtuvieron valores de 227 a 748mg EL/g e. Mediante Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detector UV-Arreglo de Diodos (HPLC-UV-DAD se encontró un compuesto mayoritario que corresponde a un flavonol de tipo glicósido de Kaempferol y se identificó el flavanol catequina a bajas concentraciones. Por medio de Cromatografía de Gases-Espectrometría de Masas (CG-MS se identificaron los sesquiterpenos β-elemeno, E-cariofileno, aromadendreno, humuleno, gama-cadineno, D-germacreno, biciclogermacreno y los poli terpenos Di-α-Tocoferol y β-sitosterol. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la evaluación de los fenoles puede desempeñar un papel importante como parámetro de selección en programas de mejora y conservación, si se complementan con las prácticas convencionales de mejoramiento genético.

  12. Phytotoxicity of triterpenes and limonoids from the Rutaceae and Meliaceae. 5α,6β,8α,12α-Tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin--a potent phytotoxin from Toona ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebo, Liliane; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Severino, Vanessa G P; Sarria, André L F; Cazal, Cristiane M; Fernandes, Maria Fátima das Graças; Fernandes, João B; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    Limonoids and triterpenes are the largest groups of secondary metabolites and have notable biological activities. Meliaceae and Rutaceae are known for their high diversity of metabolites, including limonoids, and are distinguished from other families due to the frequent occurrence of such compounds. The increased interest in crop protection associated with the diverse bioactivity of these compounds has made these families attractive in the search for new allelopathic compounds. In the study reported here we evaluated the bioactivity profiles of four triterpenes (1-4) and six limonoids (5-10) from Meliaceae and Rutaceae. The compounds were assessed in a wheat coleoptile bioassay and those that had the highest activities were tested on the standard target species Lepidinum sativum (cress), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Allium cepa (onion). Limonoids showed phytotoxic activity and 5α,6β,8α, 12α- tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin (10) and gedunin (5) were the most active, with bioactivity levels similar to, and in some cases better than, those of the commercial herbicide Logran. The results indicate that these products could also be allelochemicals involved in the ecological interactions of these plant species.

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 40 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of bioactive chemical components of two medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum and Melia azedarach) leaves using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AH Al-Marzoqi, IH Hameed, SA Idan ...

  14. EVALUATION OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA IND/CA) DERIVATIVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melia azedarach, with different formulations were tested against stalk borers on sorghum at. Sirinka and Chefa in 2002/03 and 2003/04 cropping seasons. This field evaluation experiment was arranged in complete randomized block design with three replications. Sorghum varieties 'Gambella 1107' and local land race ...

  15. Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) derivatives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is the most potential plant for solving the multidimensional problems of the rural people. Neem, Azadirachta indica and Persian lilac, Melia azedarach, with different formulations were tested against stalk borers on sorghum at Sirinka and Chefa in 2002/03 and 2003/04 cropping seasons.

  16. Avaliação de propriedades físicas e mecânicas da madeira de cinco espécies florestais em função da deterioração em dois ambientes Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of wood from five species as a function of deterioration in two enviroments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Trevisan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar algumas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake "Eucalipto" (Myrtaceae, Melia azedarach L. "Cinamomo" (Meliaceae, Lophantera lactescens Ducke, "lanterneira" (Malpighiaceae, Pinus elliottii Engelm. "Pinus" (Pinaceae e Inga marginata Wild "Inga" (Mimosaceae, submetidas ao processo de degradação em razão da exposição à intempérie no período de 12 meses, as madeiras foram colocadas em dois ambientes com características edafoclimáticas diferenciadas, isto é, foram montados dois campos de apodrecimento, sendo um dentro de uma mata secundária e outro a céu aberto, em um pasto formado por gramíneas rasteiras. Na avaliação, adotou-se um índice de deterioração médio, para expressar a degradação causada pelos fatores bióticos, nos corpos-de-prova oriundos de toras expostas nos respectivos ambientes. As determinações da densidade aparente, bem como da resistência à flexão (módulo de elasticidade (MOE e ruptura (MOR e compressão paralela às fibras da madeira, foram realizadas antes e depois da exposição à intempérie. Os resultados indicaram que ocorreram reduções diferenciadas nas propriedades avaliadas. As diminuições significativas da densidade ocorreram somente nos corpos-de-prova oriundos das madeiras expostas dentro da mata, bem como as reduções nos módulos de elasticidade e ruptura foram mais acentuadas nas madeiras procedentes desse ambiente. A resistência à compressão da madeira apresentou-se com reduções maiores, também nesse ambiente.The objective of this work was to evaluate some physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake - Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae, Melia azedarach L. - Chinaberry (Meliaceae, Lophantera lactescens Ducke - "Lanterneira" (Malpighiaceae, Pinus elliottii Engelm. - Slash Pine (Pinaceae, Inga marginata Wild - Inga (Mimosaceae, subjected to the degradation process caused by the

  17. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  18. seco-Tiaminic acids B and C: Identification of two novel 3,4-seco-tirucallane triterpenoids isolated from the root of Entandrophragma congoënse (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi, Gervais Mouthé; Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Laatsch, Hartmut; Zühlke, Sebastian; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Spiteller, Michael; Kouam, Simeon Fogue

    2018-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Entandrophragma congoënse (Meliaceae) led to the isolation of two new 3,4-seco-tirucallane triterpenes, namely seco-tiaminic acids B and C (1 and 2) together with nine known compounds: 3,4-secotirucalla-21-formyl-23-oxo-4(28),7,24-trien-3-oic acid (3), methyl angolensate (4), molucensin N (5), molucensin O (6), piscidinol A (7), 7α,20(S)-dihydroxy-4,24(28)-ergostadien-3-one (8), 24-methylene-cholest-5-en-3β,7α-diol (9), entilin A (10), and entilin B (11). Their structures were determined using extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and CD analyses; new results were compared to existing data in the literature. The two newly identified seco-tiaminic acids showed moderate antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum NF54) and were cytotoxic toward an L6 rat skeletal myoblast cell line, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Final Environmental Statement and Supplemental Information for Aquilla Lake, Aquilla Creek, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-13

    Horse-apple) Matelea gonocarpa (Walt.) Shinners Mil1k-vine Medicago lupulina L. Black Medick Melia azedarach L. Chinaberry Melilotus albas Lan. White... Lippia Incisa Small Texas Frog-fruit Plantago aristata Michx. Buckthorn Plantain Plantago rhodosperma Dcne. Red-seeded Plantain B- Polytaenia nuttalii...ruficollis: Buff-breasted Sandpiper R R 0 0 Limosa fedoa: Marbled Godwit R Sh + L imosa haemastica: Hudsonian Godwit R R MSh + Crocethia alba : Sanderling

  1. The effects of sooty mold on photosynthesis and mesophyll structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae Efeitos da fumagina sobre a fotossíntese e a estrutura do mesofilo de mogno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of the sooty mold on anatomy and photochemical activity of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla leaves. The photochemical features of shade-developed leaves with or without sooty mold were compared to those of sun leaves using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Leaf anatomy was also evaluated using conventional techniques. The degree of blockage of the photosynthetic active photon flux density (PPFD by sooty mold and its effect on photochemistry were evaluated. Sun leaves showed thick mesophyll with palisade parenchyma disposed in a uniseriate layer, whereas shade leaves showed narrow mesophyll, independently of sooty mold presence. The effective quantum yield (deltaF/Fm' and the apparent electron transport rate (ETR of sun leaves were higher than those of shade leaves. The values of ETR suggested that photochemistry saturation occurred at lower PPFD in shade-grown plants. Lower values of the deltaF/Fm' and, consequently, lower values of ETR were observed in leaves with sooty mold. A reduction of 40% of the incident light was seen due to physical blockage by sooty mold which is presumably responsible for an additional decrease of ETR values. Our data indicated that sooty mold did not directly damage the leaf, but reduce leaf photochemistry capacity, by decreasing light availability.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da fumagina na anatomia e a atividade fotoquímica em folhas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae. Folhas com e sem fumagina desenvolvidas na sombra foram comparadas com as de folhas de sol, para verificar as diferenças em parâmetros fotoquímicos utilizando-se medidas de fluorescência. As amostras de folhas destinadas a estudos anatômicos foram processadas segundo técnicas convencionais. A intensidade de bloqueio da radiação densidade de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFA pela fumagina e seu efeito sobre a atividade fotoquímica foram

  2. Antiplasmodial Limonoids from Trichilia rubescens (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelle, Tsamo T; Pamela, Nangmo K; Pierre, Mkounga; Müller, Ingrid B; Marat, Kirk; Sass, Gabriele; Ephrem, Nkengfack A

    2016-01-01

    Two new limonoids, named rubescins D-E (1-2) along with eight known compounds, including five havanensin type limonoids, TS1 (3), TS3 (4), rubescins A-C (5-7) and three known phytosterols, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and its 3β-O-glucopyranoside derivative were isolated from the roots and stem bark of Trichilia rubescens, collected from Cameroon. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry data and by comparison with related data from literature. Anti-plasmodial activities of some of the isolated limonoids 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 were evaluated against erythrocytic stages of strain 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant anti-plasmodial in vitro activity with IC50 values of 1.13 and 0.79 μM, respectively.

  3. 1388-IJBCS-Article-Melia Mamatchi+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Dans l'ensemble, les résultats ont montré une altération des enzymes antioxydantes, du système de la glutathion et une induction de la peroxydation lipidique due à la présence du Cd et du Pb qui provoquent un stress oxydatif chez les poissons, et donc chez les espèces de la biodiversité marine de la côte togolaise des.

  4. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  5. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil potential by woody plants on Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2018-01-02

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed that soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg respectively, which belonged to severe contamination. Fourteen species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated; except for Ligutrum lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed accumulation index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrum lucidum, Firmiana simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacia are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  6. Regioselective synthesis of fraxinellone-based hydrazone derivatives as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chun; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, twenty-three new fraxinellone-based hydrazone derivatives were smoothly prepared from fraxinellone via regioselectively allylic oxidation in the presence of selenium dioxide or chromium trioxide under microwave irradiation and subsequent condensation with hydrazides or hydrazines. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6d and 7a displayed the most pronounced insecticidal activity compared with toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina Potulski; Felipe Gustavo Sanches; Janice Bernardo da Silva; Rosilani Trianoski; Williams Carlos Pretko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture...

  8. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  9. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  10. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world.

  11. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  12. Cytototoxic constituents from the bark of Chisocheton cumingianus (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katja, Dewa Gede; Farabi, Kindi; Nurlelasari; Harneti, Desi; Mayanti, Tri; Supratman, Unang; Awang, Khalijah; Hayashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-25-ethyl-lanost-9(11),24(24')-diene (1), along with 3β-hydroxy-lanost-7-ene (2) and β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (3) was isolated from the stem bark of C. cumingianus. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1-3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC 50 values of 28.8 ± 0.10, 4.29 ± 0.03, and 100.18 ± 0.16 μg/ml, respectively.

  13. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Júnior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV), ESI-MS and com...

  14. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  15. Limonoids isolated from fruits of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae); Limonoides isolados dos frutos de Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sunia Gomes; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi, E-mail: sunisilva@ibest.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Tecnologia e Inovacao

    2012-07-01

    Six limonoids were isolated in hexane extract obtained from the seeds and pericarps of Carapa guianensis. The structures of the limonoids were determined based on the analysis of High Resolution Mass Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (uni-and bi-dimensional experiments) data. This is the first report of isolation of the limonoid 6{alpha}-acetoxy-7-deacetilgedunin from the seeds of the C. guianensis species. The limonoid 6-hydroxy-methyl angolensate was also described for the first time in this species. (author)

  16. Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae); Estudo fitoquimico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Roque, Nadia F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10 beta-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4 beta,10 alpha-diol and aloaromadendrane-4 alpha,10 beta-diol) as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(R*)-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(S*)-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3 beta,25-diol). Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic), two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature. (author)

  17. Estudo fitoquímico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10β-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol and aloaromadendrane-4α,10β-diol as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(R*-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(S*-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol. Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic, two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature.

  18. Efficacy of chitosan supported organic acaricide extract from Melia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conductometric titration, ultraviolet-visible ("UV-Vis") and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were conducted with materials to evaluate the chitosan anchoring ability. In vitro test was used in engorged females for each treatment, which consisted of control, raw extract and three treatments with increasing ...

  19. Efficacy of chitosan supported organic acaricide extract from Melia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRISCILA FERNANDA

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplustick control is mainly performed by chemicals products, but organic acaricides use has higher advantages compared to conventional products. Brazilian cerrado native plants are known for their bioactive potential. Due to this fact, the objective of this study is to.

  20. Morphological and RAPD-marker characterization of Melia volkensii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... principal coordinates, cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (Anosim) and similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER) revealed significant ... poles, animal fodder, bee forage, mulch, analgesics and botanical pesticides(Kokwaro ..... contamination with proteins, whose peak absorbance is usually at 280 nm.

  1. Analysis of genetic structure in Melia volkensii (Gurke.) populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Farm Forestry Programme, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, Nairobi, Kenya. Accepted 5 ... were used to estimate genetic distances between populations and for construction of neighbour-joining phenograms. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated significant genetic differentiation between ...

  2. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  3. Allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees on germination and early seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Abdul Majeed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the growth promotory or inhibitory allelopathic effects of agroforestry trees on other plants is necessary for selection of suitable crops to be cultivated in their vicinity. In this experiment, aqueous leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees (Populus deltoides, Melia azedarach and Morus alba were evaluated on germination and seedling growth of wheat applied at concentration 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g L-1 while distilled water was used as control treatment. Lower concentration of extracts (1 and 1.5 g L-1 of P. deltoides stimulated percent germination, root and stem height and dry biomass while higher concentration (2 and 2.5 g L-1 had no effect on these parameters. Mean germination time (MGT was not affected by the extract and its concentration. Aqueous extracts of M. azedarach and M. alba at concentration > 1 g L-1 significantly lowered the studied parameters except MGT which was significantly prolonged. Negative allelopathy was more evident at the highest aqueous extract concentration (2.5 g L-1 of the two trees. Extracts of M. alba were found more growth inhibitory than those of M. azedarach. The study suggests that lower concentration of leaf extracts of P. deltoides imparts stimulatory while M. azedarch and M. alba have negative allelopathic effects on wheat germination.

  4. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

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    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  5. Identification of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Active Compound in Medicinal Forest Plants

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    Shelly Rahmania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, hypercholesterolemia is one of the causes. Three medicinal forest plants are potential natural resources to be developed as cholesterol-reducing herbal product, but scientific informations on their mechanism is still limited. The objective of this research is to explore the potency of the leaf of Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia, Jabon (Antocephalus macrophyllus, and Mindi (Melia azedarach as inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR, a key enzyme in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Samples were macerated in ethanol 96% and the filtrate was partitioned using n-hexane and chloroform to obtain the ethanolic flavonoid extract. The effect of each extracts on the HMG-CoA reductase activity were analyzed using HMGR assay kit. At concentration of 10 ppm the G.ulmifolia ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibitory activity as well as pravastatin control inhibitor.  The phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 11.00, 34.83, and 13.67 mg gallic acid AE/g dried leaves, respectively. The flavonoid content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 0.22, 0.64, and 0.78 mg QE/g dried leaves, respectively. Interestingly, G.ulmifolia extract the lowest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed that all samples contain quercetin at similiar small concentrations (6.7%, 6.6%, and 7.0% for G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach, respectively. This indicating other active compounds may play some roles in this inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Further identification using LC-MS/MS showed that G.ulmifolia flavonoid extract contained an unidetified coumpound with molecural weight of 380.0723 Da.  

  6. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  7. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

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    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  8. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)]. E-mail: padhypk2003@yahoo.com; Varshney, C.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2{+-}6.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2{+-}4.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made.

  9. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, P.K.; Varshney, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2±6.8 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2±4.9 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made

  10. Plantas tóxicas para suínos Toxic plants for swine

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    Cláudio Dias Timm

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as intoxicações por plantas que ocorrem em suínos no Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina. Descrevem-se a intoxicação por sementes de Senna occidentalis, que causa necrose muscular segmentar e lesões hepáticas, e a intoxicação por sementes de Aeschynomene sp., caracterizada por áreas de degeneração focais e simétricas na substância branca do cerebelo. Mencionam-se, também, a intoxicação por Wedelia glauca e Xantium spp., que causam necrose centrolobular no fígado; a intoxicação por Amaranthus spp., que produz necrose tubular tóxica; a intoxicação por Solanum malacoxylon, caracterizada por calcificação dos tecidos moles; a intoxicação por frutos maduros de Melia azedarach, que causa sinais nervosos, digestivos e musculares; e a intoxicação por Crotalaria spectabilis, estudada experimentalmente no Brasil como causa de hepatite crônica.Poisonous plants for swine in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina are reviewed. Poisoning by seeds of Senna occidentalis, as a cause segmentar muscle necrosis, and by seeds of Aeschynomene sp., as a cause of symmetric focal degeneration in the white matter of the cerebellum, are described. Nefrosis due to Amaranthus spp., soft tissue calcification caused by Solanum malacoxylon, acute periacinar liver necrosis caused by Wedelia glauca and Xanthium spp., and nervous, digestive and muscular signs caused by the fruits of Melia azedarach, are also mentioned. The intoxication by Crotalaria spectabilis, studied experimentally in Brazil as a cause of chronic hepatitis, is also reveiwed.

  11. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos de 2002 e 2004, com a pulverização dos produtos vegetais em cinco tratamentos, e quatro repetições. No ano de 2002, os produtos testados foram: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (extrato aquoso 2%, e óleo a 1%; Melia azedarach L. (extrato aquoso 2%; Quassia amara L. (extrato aquoso 2%; óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica 1 e 2%. No ano de 2004, os produtos testados foram: A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%, e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%. As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%, and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%; Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%; nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%, and oil at 2%, M

  12. Plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions on the population control of Bradybaena similaris

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test the efficiency of plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions, as alternatives to the population control of the snail Bradybaena similaris , and to investigate the effect of the plant extracts in reducing the damage of the snail on Brassica oleracea . The experiments were performed at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (Unochapecó, using a random experimental design with nine treatments in triplicate. Five adult individuals of B. similaris were subjected to each trial, totaling 135 snails. The following treatments were tested: cinnamon ( Melia azedarach , timbó ( Ateleia glazioveana , rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis , mate herb ( Ilex paraguariensis , two concentrations of metaldehyde (3% and 5%, two concentrations of salt solution (5% and 10 %, and a control treatment (distilled water. To evaluate the survival of B. similaris it was checked the treatments every 24 hours, over four consecutive days. The results revealed that the two concentrations of metaldehyde were fully efficient, that the saline solution (10% had and intermediate efficiency, and that all other treatments were not effective. The treatment with the M. azedarach extract induced a higher consumption of B. oleracea , while the saline solution at 10% and the extracts of R. officinalis and I. paraguariensis inhibited leaf consumption.

  13. Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd ( Momordica charantia L.

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    Muhammad Abid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab. Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL. N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm. However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively. Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.

  14. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  15. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  16. Cabralea canjerana subsp. polytricha (Adri. Juss. Penn. (Meliaceae, uma espécia diótica Cabralea canjerana subsp. polytricha (Adri. Juss. Penn (Meliaceae, a dioecious species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Fuzeto

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em áreas de cerrado do Clube Caça e Pesca Itororó em Uberlândia-MG, durante os meses de setembro de 1997 a novembro de 1998. Para confirmação da suspeita da ocorrência de dimorfismo sexual foram adotados vários procedimentos: análise morfológica da flor de indivíduos supostamente dimórficos, análise de viabilidade polínica, medidas de altura dos indivíduos e do comprimento das inflorescências e determinação do sistema reprodutivo com realização de experimentos de polinização. Os resultados dos tratamentos florais e da análise de viabilidade polínica revelaram o caráter dióico dos indivíduos estudados. Os morfos sexuais diferem significativamente quanto à altura (F=11,01; PThe study was carried out at the savanna areas of the Caça e Pesca Itororó Club, Uberlândia, MG, from September 1997 to November 1998. In order to confirm the occurrence of sexual dimorphism, several procedures were undertaken on the supposed dimorphic flowers: pollen viability analysis, measurements of plant height and length of the inflorescence, and pollination experiments to assess the breeding system. Results of pollination treatments and pollen viability analysis revealed the dioecious character of the studied individuals. Sexual morphs were significantly different in their height (F=11.01; P<0.001 and inflorescence length (F=240.82; P<0.005, both being larger on pistillate individuals. Fruit formation was observed only in cross--pollinated treatments between pistillate and staminate individuals (except one case among 900 trials. The occurrence of fruits naturally formed on male phenotypes indicates that the evolutionary process towards dioecy on this species is still not concluded. Pollination is performed by Polistes wasps and Xylocopa and Exomalopsis bees.

  17. Bark essential oil composition of Cedrela tonduzii C. DC. (Meliaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Eason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bark essential oils from two different individuals of Cedrela tonduzii were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the two oils were qualitatively similar, but showed quantitative differences. One sample had abundant quantities of a -selinene (32% and germacrene-D (17%, while the second sample was rich in a-humulene (34%, β-caryophyllene (13% and germacrene-D (13%.

  18. Essential oils of toona and Cedrela species (Meliaceae): taxonomic and ecological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    MAIA, B. H. L. N. S.; PAULA, J. R. de; SANT' ANA, J.; SILVA, M. F. das G. F. da; FERNANDES, J. B.; VIEIRA, P. C.; COSTA, M. do S. S.; OHASHI, O. S.; SILVA, J. N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The essential oils of Toona ciliata, Cedrela odorata and C. fissilis have been analysed by GC-MS. Cedrela contains the main sesquiterpenes formed from the cis- and trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, Toona tend to produce mainly sesquiterpenes formed from the trans-precursor. These results show that the affiliation of Toona in the tribe Cedreleae together with Cedrela is still rather problematic. Mean electroantennogram responses (EAGs) to the essential oils from T. ciliata and C. odor...

  19. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.

  20. Toxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Meliaceae Against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, A M M; Vendramim, J D; Freitas, S D L; Silva, M F G F

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the bioactivity of secondary metabolites from Trichilia pallida, Trichilia pallens, and Toona ciliata against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae. The studied compounds included (+/-)-catechins, a triglyceride, and cedrelone isolated from T. ciliata branches, fruits, and stems, respectively; dammaradienol isolated from T. pallida leaves; and scopoletin isolated from T. pallens branches. The compounds' activity was evaluated through ingestion and topic treatment. Treated artificial diet was offered to first instar larvae to evaluate ingestion effect, while an application on the dorsal thoracic region of third instar larvae was used to evaluate the topic effect. Mortality was assessed daily, and larval weight was recorded after 7 days for ingestion and 5 days for topic application. Scopoletin and triglyceride caused low mortality rates and reduction in larval weight by ingestion, (+/-)-catechins caused larval weight reduction by ingestion, and scopoletin reduced survival by topic treatment. The most effective compound was cedrelone that affected larval survival and development mainly by ingestion. The estimated LC 50 , LC 90 , and EC 50 for cedrelone were 0.0365, 0.0659, and 0.0095%, respectively. Further, cedrelone-treated corn leaf discs were offered to fourth instar larvae during 16 h in choice and no-choice tests. The deterrence indexes obtained in the choice tests were 23.5 and 36.3% at concentrations of 0.0365 and 0.0659, respectively. Consumption of cedrelone-treated leaf discs at the concentration of 0.0659% was lower compared to the control in the no-choice test. Thus, cedrelone caused lethal and sublethal effects and phagodeterrence on S. frugiperda and should be further studied.

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of Cedrela Fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae seedlings to light

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    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo were planted and maintained under two distinct conditions: at east border of a forest with red: far-red ratio of 1.15 and under canopy with photosynthetic photon flux density of 0.22-7% of full sun radiation and red: far-red ratio of 0.21-0.36. Seedling growth (height and stem diameter was faster under sun, the development of roots more continuous and the number of leaves almost twice of that of shade plants. The leaf area was 10 times greater in sun plants with 15-25 leaflets per leaf while under shade only 5 to 10 leaflets were found per leaf. In shade plants, a higher proportion of dry mass was found in aerial parts. Leaves of sun plants had the capacity of gas exchange to respond to high light radiation, but leaves adapted to shade presented a lower response to light changes. When shade plants were transferred and maintained under the sun for 15 days, only the young leaves were adapted to increased light radiation, reaching the same photosynthetic rate as sun plants, while old leaves were shed. Sun plants transferred to shade conditions did not lose leaves, but did not reach the same photosynthetic rate attained by shade plants.Cedrela fissilis foi semeada e mantida em dois ambientes de luz: na margem leste (tratamento sol - razão vermelho: vermelho extremo da radiação solar direta foi 1,15 e sob dossel de floresta (tratamento sombra - radiação fotossinteticamente ativa reduzida de 0.22 a 7% da radiação direta e razão vermelho:vermelho extremo de 0,21 a 0,36. O crescimento em altura e diâmetro do caule no sol foi mais rápido, o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular continua, o número de folhas foi em média o dobro das de sombra, quanto à área foliar foi 10 vezes maior em plantas de sol com 15-25 folíolos por folha, enquanto as plantas da sombra desenvolveram de 5 a 10. Nas plantas de sombra, as maiores proporções de matéria seca foram investidas em parte aérea. A capacidade de troca de gases das plantas da sombra expostas na radiação alta não aumentou. Quando plantas de sombra foram transferidas ao sol e mantidas por 15 dias, apenas as folhas jovens se adaptaram às condições de radiação aumentada, atingindo a capacidade de resposta das folhas das plantas de sol, enquanto as folhas mais velhas caíram. As plantas de sol transferidas para a sombra não perderam as folhas, mas não atingiram a resposta das plantas de sombra.

  2. FUNCTIONAL DIOECY AND MOTH POLLINATION IN CABRALEA CANJERANA SUBSP. CANJERANA (MELIACEAE

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    Edivani V. Franceschinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabralea canjerana subsp . canjerana es una especie común en la Mata Atlántica del sudeste de Bra - sil ; sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de sus estrategias reproductivas . Este estudio tiene como objetivo entender la biología reproductiva de esta subespecie , incluyendo su biología floral, sistema sexual y la biología de la polinización. Las plantas masculinas y femeninas tienen flores morfológicamente simi - lares, pero las plantas masculinas tienen inflorescencias más grandes con más flores que las femeninas. Además, las flores femeninas permanecen abiertas y receptivas por dos días, mientras que las flores masculinas duran sólo un día, compensando así el desequilibrio de la cantidad de flores por planta entre los dos sexos. Flores masculinas y femeninas semejantes , como se observan en C. canjerana subsp . canjerana , son poco comunes entre las especies dioicas . La alta frecuencia de las polillas que visitan las flores , el periodo de apertura de la flor y de la producción de néctar sugieren que las polillas son polini - zadores de esta subespecie. Contrastando con el dimorfismo floral encontrado en C. canjerana subsp . polytricha , las variaciones en la morfología floral no están relacionadas con el sexo de la planta en la subsp . canjerana . Este y otros resultados encontrados en este estudio sugieren que estas dos subspecies de C. canjerana podrían ser especies distintas.

  3. Hirtinone, a Novel cycloartane-type triterpene and other compounds from Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Azevedo, Otoniel de Aquino; de Souza, Jucimar Jorgeane; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Gonçalves, Milena dos Santos; de Araújo, Marcelo Francisco

    2013-02-26

    One novel triterpene cycloartane-type, named hirtinone (1), six protolimonoids - nilocitin (2), dihydronilocitin B (3), melianone epimers (4) and (5), piscidinol A (6) and melianone lactone (7), one tertranortriterpenoid, hirtin (8), and one sesquiterpene, spathulenol (9), were identified in the fruits of Trichilia hirta. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), high resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) and infrared (IR) spectral data.

  4. Hirtinone, a Novel Cycloartane-Type Triterpene and Other Compounds from Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae

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    Marcelo Francisco de Araújo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One novel triterpene cycloartane-type, named hirtinone (1, six protolimonoids – nilocitin (2, dihydronilocitin B (3, melianone epimers (4 and (5, piscidinol A (6 and melianone lactone (7, one tertranortriterpenoid, hirtin (8, and one sesquiterpene, spathulenol (9, were identified in the fruits of Trichilia hirta. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HSQC and HMBC, high resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS and infrared (IR spectral data.

  5. Hirtinone, a Novel Cycloartane-Type Triterpene and Other Compounds from Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Ivo; Azevedo, Otoniel de Aquino; Souza, Jucimar de; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Gonçalves, Milena dos Santos; Araújo, Marcelo de

    2013-01-01

    One novel triterpene cycloartane-type, named hirtinone (1), six protolimonoids – nilocitin (2), dihydronilocitin B (3), melianone epimers (4) and (5), piscidinol A (6) and melianone lactone (7), one tertranortriterpenoid, hirtin (8), and one sesquiterpene, spathulenol (9), were identified in the fruits of Trichilia hirta. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), high resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) and infrared ...

  6. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

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    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (mogno é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Amazônia cuja madeira é considerada uma das mais nobres do mundo. Por esse motivo, vem sofrendo grande pressão de exploração, colocando-a entre as espécies em risco de extinção. Além disso, possui dificuldade de regeneração natural e de estabelecimento em reflorestamentos, sendo atacado por larvas de Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver a etapa de multiplicação in vitro de mogno. Após a desinfestação, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS completo. Após 6 semanas de germinação, os caules foram cortados em segmentos nodais, cada um contendo uma gema axilar. Foram realizados quatro experimentos com meios de cultura acrescidos de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP (2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM, 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP (0; 1,1; 2,2; 4,4 e 8,8 μM e combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM. Nos dois primeiros tratamentos (BAP e 2-iP isoladamente, o meio de cultura MS foi utilizado como meio básico e, nos últimos tratamentos, utilizaram-se os meios MS e QL. Quando BAP foi testado isoladamente, o ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 23,61 µM, enquanto que não houve multiplicação na presença de 2-iP. O meio de cultura QL, suplementado com as combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 20 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM, não induziu a multiplicação dos brotos. O ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 18,51 µM, obtido com o uso do meio de cultura MS acrescido de BAP e 2,2 µM de 2-iP.

  7. Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae

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    Carlos Kemmelmeier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth.

  8. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae

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    Kiessoun Konaté

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica. Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  9. Reproductive success of Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae in Atlantic forest fragments, Brazil

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    Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the Atlantic forest remnants have high biological diversity and a high level of endemism, but very little is known about the reproductive success of native species. Cabralea canjerana is a common tree in the Montane Atlantic forest, and its reproduction is highly dependent on pollinators. In order to contribute with the particular knowledge on this species, we collected data in three fragmented and three continuous forest sites, where the effects of fragmentation on both mutualistic (pollination and antagonistic (seed predation interactions were analysed. We determined fruit production and weight of 25 trees per site. The number of seeds and the percentage of predated and aborted seeds were also accessed for seven fruits of 10 trees per site. Pollinator visitation frequencies to flowers were recorded in two forest fragments and in two sites of the continuous forest. Our data showed that plants of C. canjerana produced more fruits (z-value=-8.24; p<0.0001 and seeds per fruit (z-value=-6.58; p=0.002 in the continuous than in the fragmented sites. This was likely due to differences in pollination, because the number of pollinator visits was higher in the continuous forest than in the fragments. Seed abortion (z-value=4.08, p<0.001 and predation (z-value=3.72, p=0.0002, on the other hand, were higher in the fragmented than in the continuous sites. Then, mutualistic and antagonistic interactions were affected by fragmentation, decreasing the reproductive success of the study tree. This study was the first to show a decrease in the reproductive output in forest fragments in an Atlantic forest tree species. This decrease may threaten the population structure and viability of C. canjerana in forest fragments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 515-524. Epub 2015 June 01.

  10. A Cytotoxic Rocaglate Compound from The Stembark of Aglaia argentea (Meliaceae

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    Ace Tatang Hidayat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aglaia genus belong to Meliceae family is unique plant species because the presence of rocaglate and rocaglamide which is so far isolated only from Aglaia genus, indicate that type of this compound as a chemical marker for the genus of Aglaia. This type of compound known to have strong activity, such as insecticide and cytotoxic. This study describe the isolation, structure elucidation, and cytotoxic activity of an isolated rocaglate compound. Dried stembark of A. argentea extracted with methanol and partition between n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, respectively The extracts were tested against P-388 murine leukemia cells and the ethyl acetat showed strongest activity with IC50 value of 15.5 mg/mL. The ethyl acetate then was separated and purified with chromatography technique to obtain isolated compound 1. The chemical structure of isolated  compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional NMR as well as high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis and identified as a methyl rocaglate. Compound  1 showed strong cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of < 0.1 μg/mL.

  11. Essential oils of Toona and Cedrela Species (Meliaceae: taxonomic and ecological implications

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    Maia Beatriz H. L. N. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Toona ciliata, Cedrela odorata and C. fissilis have been analysed by GC-MS. Cedrela contains the main sesquiterpenes formed from the cis- and trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, Toona tend to produce mainly sesquiterpenes formed from the trans-precursor. These results show that the affiliation of Toona in the tribe Cedreleae together with Cedrela is still rather problematic. Mean electroantennogram responses (EAGs to the essential oils from T. ciliata and C. odorata, in Hypsipyla grandella females were significantly greater than those obtained for males, suggesting that females would use attractant odours messages from the host-plant (genera of Swietenioideae as search strategy behaviour for habitat location and oviposition.

  12. 'Geed-hindi' - Melia azadirachta l. - a most common cultivated tree in Somalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    M. azadirachta (Azadirachta indica), also known as 'meri-meri', a straight-stemmed evergreen exotic which grows to 18 m height, tolerates 250 mm annual rainfall and dry or saline soils. Primary uses are in shelterbelts and as a soil binder; the timber is used for building, fuelwood (at 10 yr old) and charcoal; the fruits (from 5 yr old) yield oil; and the tree has medicinal uses.

  13. Optimizing the size of root cutting in Melia volkensii Gürke for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ewomazino Egbeme

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... the effects of some factors on the succession of root cutting. For example, Ede et al. (1997) reported the importance of root size (whether > 5 mm of diameter of root cut edge or not) and the position where the root was obtained. Ky-Dembele et al. (2010) also reported significant effect of root size (> 10 cm of ...

  14. Fitossociologia do estrato arbóreo e arbustivo em sub-bosque de talhões de Pinus elliottii e Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora na Estação Experimental de Tupi, Piracicaba – SP. Phytosociology of the arboreal and arbustive stratum in understory of Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora at Estação Experimental de Tupi, Piracicaba – SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Galera GONÇALVES

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Estação Experimental de Tupi – EET, Piracicaba–SP, é uma unidade do Instituto Florestal com 198 ha, onde a maior parte foi reflorestada com espécies dos gêneros Pinus e Eucalyptus entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980. Neste estudo se fez o levantamento fitossociológico do sub-bosque em talhão de Pinus elliottii – TP e de Eucalyptus maculata/citriodora – TE. Foram instaladas 30 parcelas com 100 m2 (10 m x 10 m em cada ambiente, de onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivos e arbóreos com diâmetro 3,0 cm, e altura 1,0 m. No talhão de Pinus foram identificadas 26 famílias e 63 espécies e no talhão de Eucalyptus foram 20 famílias e 57 espécies. A família Fabaceae ocorreu com a maior riqueza, com 25 espécies quando somados os dois ambientes. As espécies com maior densidade em cada ambiente foram: Piper arboreum com 115 ind. ha-1 (TP e Melia azedarach com 173,3 ind. ha-1 (TE. Essas apresentaram comportamento de invasoras. A espécie M. azedarach teve também o maior Índice de Valor de Importância nos dois ambientes (IVI = 34,4 em TP e 47,8 em TE, devido à sua elevada densidade. Por outro lado, as espécies raras somaram 45,5 e 27,5% do IVI total em TP e em TE, respectivamente. As comunidades vegetais estudadas mostraram alta riqueza de espécies, porém ocorreram muitas espécies raras. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as espécies exóticas estudadas (Pinus e Eucalyptus podem ser utilizadas como pioneiras no processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas. No entanto, para se obter comunidades vegetais com alta diversidade são necessárias intervenções de manejo visando controlar a densidade das espécies dominantes. Palavras-chave: reflorestamento; restabelecimento; floresta estacional semidecidual; manejo florestal.The Estação Experimental de Tupi in Piracicaba, SP, is one of the Forest Institute units mostly of its 198 ha was recovered with the genera Pinus and Eucalyptus species between the decades

  15. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, N.; Ahmad, M.; Siddique, M.; Ali, A.; Naz, I.; Ullah, N.; Ahmad, F.

    2016-11-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were assessed for their anti-microbial activity, both in-vitro (10% w/v) and in-vivo (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg of potted soil) against R. solanacearum. Aqueous extracts (prepared as 10% w/v, soaking for 48-72 h and filtering) of C. procera, A. vasica, and T. patula inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterial pathogen over 60% of that produced by the standard antibiotic streptomycin. A. sativum, N. oleander and P. harmala aqueous extracts were less effective while M. azedarach showed no effect against R. solanacearum. The higher dose (40 g/kg of soil) of C. procera, A. vasica and T. patula decreased disease severity quite effectively and increased yield and plant growth characters as much as the standard antibiotic did. No phytotoxicity of medicinal plants powder was observed on tomato plants. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were detected in the aqueous extracts of T. patula and A. vasica whereas C. procera was found to have only alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Our data suggest that dried powders of T. patula, C. procera and A. vasica (40 g/kg of soil) could be used as an effective component in the integrated disease management programs against bacterial wilt of tomato. (Author)

  16. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith Yabuuchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseerud Din

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue, Calotropis procera (sodom apple, Melia azedarach (white cedar, Allium sativum (garlic, Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut, Tagetes patula (marigold and Nerium oleander (oleander were assessed for their anti-microbial activity, both in-vitro (10% w/v and in-vivo (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg of potted soil against R. solanacearum. Aqueous extracts (prepared as 10% w/v, soaking for 48-72 h and filtering of C. procera, A. vasica, and T. patula inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterial pathogen over 60% of that produced by the standard antibiotic streptomycin. A. sativum, N. oleander and P. harmala aqueous extracts were less effective while M. azedarach showed no effect against R. solanacearum. The higher dose (40 g/kg of soil of C. procera, A. vasica and T. patula decreased disease severity quite effectively and increased yield and plant growth characters as much as the standard antibiotic did. No phytotoxicity of medicinal plants powder was observed on tomato plants. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were detected in the aqueous extracts of T. patula and A. vasica whereas C. procera was found to have only alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Our data suggest that dried powders of T. patula, C. procera and A. vasica (40 g/kg of soil could be used as an effective component in the integrated disease management programs against bacterial wilt of tomato.

  17. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549 Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of 10 Cuban medicinal plant extracts on the human lung tumor cell line A549. METHODS: the effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 µg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them. RESULTS: the ethanolic extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima showed mean cytotoxic concentrations under 100 µg/mL. Except for P. hysterophorus, the others are used in traditional medicine to fight

  18. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da flora com potencial apícola nos municípios de Ubiratã e Nova Aurora-PR, por meio da coleta de plantas e análises polínicas em amostras de mel coletadas mensalmente. Foram registradas 208 espécies de plantas, distribuídas em 66 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de tipos polínicos foram Asteraceae, Myrtaceae e Solanaceae. Aproximadamente 80 tipos polínicos foram encontrados nas amostras de mel e, na maioria, foram caracterizados como heteroflorais. Plantas cultivadas, como Glycine max (soja e Eucalyptus spp. foram representativas em alguns meses do ano. Espécies exóticas, tais como Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach também foram frequentes. No entanto, mais de 50% dos tipos polínicos pertencem a espécies nativas da região, tais como Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp., Alchornea triplinervea, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp

  19. Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants used against livestock infections by the people living around Indus River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species.

  20. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

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    Sakina Mussarat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29% were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%. Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81, mastitis (0.82, and dermatological infections (0.80. Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL value (66% followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%. Preference ranking (PR results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species.

  1. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC 50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC 50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC 50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  2. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia

    2010-03-24

    The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549

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    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.

  4. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

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    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO SOMBREAMENTO ARBÓREO NO MEIO RURAL

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    Cristiane Guiselini

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade das sombras proporcionadas por algumas espécies arbóreas, de forma a quantificar e estabelecer um critério para indicação aos produtores rurais e paisagistas. Foram avaliadas as sombras das espécies: Melia azedarach (Santa Babara, Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, Terminalia catappa (Chapéu de Sol e Bambusa vulgaris (Bambu cujos dados foram colhidos de hora em hora; no período entre as 9:00 até as 17:00 h, registrou-se: temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido, umidade relativa, temperatura de globo negro e velocidade do vento, com instrumentos localizados debaixo da sombra respectiva e, a partir dos dados coletados, obtiveram-se os índices de conforto térmico: carga térmica radiante (CTR, índice de termômetro de globo negro (WBGT e índice de temperatura e umidade relativa (THI. Os resultados obtidos após a análise estatística dos dados, permitiram concluir que a Leucena possui qualidade de sombra inferior às demais e que o Bambu apresentou melhores características térmicas. A Santa Bárbara e Chapéu de Sol não se diferenciaram estatisticamente e apresentaram valores intermediários.

  6. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular-Assisted Pollen Grain Analysis Reveals Spatiotemporal Origin of Long-Distance Migrants of a Noctuid Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong; Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Hou, Youming; Wu, Kongming

    2018-02-13

    Pollen grains are regularly used as markers to determine an insect's movement patterns or host (plant) feeding behavior, yet conventional morphology-based pollen grain analysis (or palynology) encounters a number of important limitations. In the present study, we combine conventional analytical approaches with DNA meta-barcoding to identify pollen grains attached to migrating adults of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Northeast China. More specifically, pollen grains were dislodged from 2566 A. segetum long-distance migrants captured on Beihuang Island (Bohai Sea) and identified to many (plant) species level. Pollen belonged to 26 families of plants, including Fagaceae, Oleaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Rosaceae, including common species such as Citrus sinensis , Olea europaea , Ligustrum lucidum , Robinia pseudoacacia , Castanopsis echinocarpa , Melia azedarach and Castanea henryi . As the above plants are indigenous to southern climes, we deduce that A. segetum forage on plants in those locales prior to engaging in northward spring migration. Our work validates the use of DNA-assisted approaches in lepidopteran pollination ecology research and provides unique and valuable information on the adult feeding range and geographical origin of A. segetum . Our findings also enable targeted (area-wide) pest management interventions or guide the future isolation of volatile attractants.

  8. 1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-κB modulating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, Andrea A.; Michelini, Flavia M.; Alche, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-κB signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-κB activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-κB subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-κB signaling pathway

  9. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

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    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  10. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  11. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

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    Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each. The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each. The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L. Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol. Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61% and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45% was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

  13. Fenologia de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae na região rural de Itirapina, SP, Brasil Phenology of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae in Itirapina, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia de queda de folhas, brotação, floração e frutificação de Cedrela fissilis Vell. foi estudada de setembro/1999 a novembro/2001 na zona rural do Município de Itirapina, SP. Foram observados, a cada 14 dias, 10 indivíduos que apresentaram comportamento fenológico sazonal, com ocorrência seqüencial das fenofases, queda de folhas na estação seca, brotação seguida de floração no início da estação chuvosa, e frutificação longa, com a duração de 11 meses, dispersando as sementes aladas ao final da estação seca. O desfolhamento total durante os meses mais secos do ano caracterizou a espécie como decídua. A floração e frutificação ocorreram em ciclos supra anuais.The study of phenology of leaf fall, flushing, flowering and fruiting was carried at from September /1999 to November/2001. Ten trees were systematically observed every at 14 days intervals. Leaf fall ocurred at the dry season and flushing and flowering at the beginning of rain season. The fruiting period was long, and dispertion at the end of dry season. Flowering and fruiting not showed an annual cycle, years which massive flowers and fruits was followed by non productive year.

  14. Avaliação da qualidade de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis - meliaceae pelo teste de raios X Evaluation of the seed quality in Cedrela fissilis - (meliaceae by X-ray test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O teste de raios X tem se demonstrado uma técnica muito eficiente no controle de qualidade de sementes de espécies florestais, caracterizando fases do desenvolvimento, danos causados por secagem, beneficiamento e predação, entre outros. Objetivouse com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade física de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis pelo teste de raios X. Para isso, após o beneficiamento, as sementes de cedro foram expostas às seguintes condições de intensidade de radiação e tempos (25 Kv durante 60/30 segundos e 30 Kv durante 40 segundos para determinar o padrão de raios X. De acordo com a anatomia visualizada pela imagem radiográfica, as sementes foram classificadas em Sementes Cheias, Sementes Com Danos, Sementes Mal Formadas e Sementes Vazias. Em seguida, foi realizado o teste de germinação em BOD, utilizando-se substrato de papel umedecido dentro de caixas para germinação, sob 25ºC e luz branca constante. Ao final de 20 dias, foram registrados os números de plântulas normais, anormais e sementes mortas. Pelos resultados obtidos, a intensidade de radiação de 25 Kv durante 60 segundos permitiu melhor visualização das características internas e os danos observados pela imagem radiográfica afetaram a germinação das sementes, reduzindo a qualidade do lote.The X-ray has showed to be a very efficient technique in the quality control of forest tree seeds, characterizing development phases, damages caused by dehydration, improvement and infestation, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical quality of cedar seeds (Cedrela fissilis by X-ray test. For this, the cedar seeds were exposed at the following conditions of radiation intensity and times (25 Kv during 60/30 seconds and 30 Kv during 40 seconds to determine the pattern of X-rays. According to the anatomy visualized by the radiographic image, seeds were classified in Full Seeds; Seeds With Damages, Deformed Seeds and Empty Seeds. Soon after, the seeds were submitted to the germination test, accomplished in BOD, using paper substratum damped in boxes for germination under 25ºC and white light. After 20 days, the numbers of normal, abnormal seedlings and died seeds were registered. From the results obtained the intensity of radiation of 25 Kv in the time of exposure of 60 seconds allowed clear visualization of the internal characteristics and damages observed. By the radiographic damage affected the seed germination reducing the plot quality.

  15. Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); Bioatividade de moleculas isoladas de Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Uemerson S. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: uscunha@ufpel.edu.br; Vendramim, Jose D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Rocha, Waldireny C.; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-11-15

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticide activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3{beta},25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3{beta},4{beta},22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship. (author)

  16. Bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae in the laboratory

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    Lisonéia Smaniotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, a common tree species in the western region of Santa Catarina, was tested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleptera: Bruchidae, an important insect-pest that can cause damage to bean seeds. In the experiment, 10 adult insects were put onto Petry dishes lined with filter paper, to wich where was add aliquots of crude extract, hexanic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate fractions and essential oil of Cabralea canjerana leaves, concentrated in 10%, 5% and 1%, were added. The results in the laboratory showed 100% efficiency of the crude extract (concentration 1%, followed by the hexanic fraction (concentration 1% with 84.2%. The ethyl acetate, chloroformic fractions and essential oil showed lower efficiency in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus.

  17. Bioactivity of Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae in the laboratory

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    Lisonéia Smaniotto

    2010-04-01

    and 1%, were added. The results in the laboratory showed 100% efficiency of the crude extract (concentration 1%, followed by the hexanic fraction (concentration 1% with 84.2%. The ethyl acetate, chloroformic fractions and essential oil showed lower efficiency in the control of Acanthoscelides obtectus.

  18. Effects of Trichilia monadelpha (Meliaceae extracts on bone histomorphology in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis

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    INEMESIT OKON BEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of petroleum ether extract (PEE, ethyl acetate extract (EthE, and ethanol extract (EAE of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark on bone histomorphology in arthritis. Methods: Percentage inhibition of edema and arthritic scores in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced (0.1 ml of 5 mgml-1 of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin oil injected sub-plantar into the right hind paw arthritic Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PEE, EthE, or EAE (10, 30, and 100 mgkg-1, dexamethasone (0.3-3.0 mgkg-1 or methotrexate (0.1–1.0 mgkg-1 over a 28-day period were estimated. Rat paws were radiographed and scored. Body weights were taken and paw tissues harvested for histopathological studies. Results: The extracts significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 and dose-dependently reduced the polyarthritic phase of arthritis. EAE and PEE significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 minimized edema spread from acute arthritic phase (day 0-10 to polyarthritic phase (day 10-28. EthE improved deteriorated body weight in arthritis. All extracts significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 improved arthritic score; reducing erythema, swelling and joint rigidity, and also significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 reduced hyperplasia, pannus formation, and exudation of inflammatory cells into synovial spaces. Conclusion: The stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha reduce bone tissue damage and resorption associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis, hence could be useful in managing arthritis in humans. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 177-185

  19. Effects of fungicides on endophytic fungi and photosynthesis in seedlings of a tropical tree, guarea guidonia (meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa Gaitan, Miguel A; Wen, Shiyun; Fetcher, Ned; Bayman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within healthy plant tissues, and include fungi and bacteria. They can be mutualists, comensals or even latent pathogens. Presence of these endosymbionts may affect host physiology, for example by consuming products of photosynthesis (endophytes are heterotrophs) or producing toxic metabolites. In this work two fungicides were used to eliminate fungal endophytes from seedlings of guarea guidonia. light saturated photosynthesis (Amax) was measured in endophytefree plants and compared with control plants. Each fungicide killed different fungal endosymbionts. phomopsis was more susceptible to benomyl while colletotrichum was more susceptible to propiconazole. Although suggestive, values of Amax were not significantly different for each treatment compared with control plants. No prediction can be made at this point about the final outcome of a given plantendophytic fungi interaction

  20. The phytochemistry of a member of the meliaceae family and virtual screening for cytochrome P450 11 inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee

    2016-01-01

    Eleven tetranortriterpenoids were isolated from the heartwood of X. rumphii and were identified as the limonoids, xylorumphiins L (RH.1), E (RH.2) and C (RH.3) and tetranortriterpenoids, xylorumphiins M-S (RH.4-10). Compounds RH.4-10 have a hemiacetal group which opens and closes in solution making it impossible to purify. Acetylation enabled separation of the R and S forms. Separation of the acetylated mixtures RH.4-10 led to the isolation of four acetylated derivatives of RH.4 (RH.4a-d),...

  1. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-04-12

    For thousands of years, medicinal plants have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing a variety of diseases. Kani tribal people in Tirunelveli hills still depend on medicinal plants and most of them have a general knowledge of medicinal plants which are used for first aid remedies, to treat cough, cold, fever, headache, poisonous bites and some simple ailments. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify traditional healers who are practicing herbal medicine among the Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India and quantitatively document their indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants particularly most common ethnomedicinal plants. Field study was carried out over a period of 4 years in Tirunelveli hills. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews among the Kani traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through use value (UV), informant consensus factor (F(ic)), fidelity level (FL) and relative importance (RI). A total of 90 species of plants distributed in 83 genera belonging to 52 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by the Kani traditional healers in Tirunelveli hills for the treatment of 65 types of ailments. These ailments were categorized into 15 ailment categories based on the body systems treated. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines were prepared in the form of paste and administered orally. F(ic) values of the present study indicated that there was a high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of jaundice and diabetes among the users. Dermatological infections/diseases and gastro-intestinal disorders had highest use-reports and 29 species of plants had the highest fidelity level of 100%. The most important species according to their use value were Gymneme sylvestre (2.00), Melia azedarach, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia chebula (1.83). As a result of the

  3. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  4. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  5. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  6. Enriched cultures of lactic acid bacteria from selected Zimbabwean fermented food and medicinal products with potential as therapy or prophylaxis against yeast infections

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    Alec Chabwinja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal activity of crude cultures of putative strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean traditional and commercial food/ medicinal products against yeasts (strains of environmental isolates of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp.. Methods: Cultures of putative LAB from our selection of fermented products were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe and isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar. Results: The crude microbial cultures from the products that showed high antifungal activities (zone of inhibition, mm were as follows: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP from an extract of Melia azedarach leaves [(27.0 ± 2.5 mm] > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk [approximately (26.0 ± 1.8/2.5 mm] > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko [(25.0 ± 1.5 mm] > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.5 mm], SFMP from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.4 mm] and SFMP from mahewu [(20.0 ± 1.5 mm]. These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. However, culture from WAYA LGG (shown elsewhere to harbour antimicrobial activities showed no antifungal activity. The LAB could have inhibited yeasts by either competitive exclusion or the release of antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions: Our cultures of LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean fermented products, especially Ziziphus mauritiana and fermented milk products have great potential for use as antifungal probiotics against yeast infections. Studies are ongoing to determine the exact mechanisms that are employed by the putative LAB to inhibit Candida albicans.

  7. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797.

  8. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  9. Efeito de extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida no controle de Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col.: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p41 Extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida foram testados no controle de  Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, uma importante praga de brassicáceas nas fases larval e adulta. Duas larvas com três dias de idade, mantidas sob condições de laboratório (T:25ºC, U.R:70% e 14 horas de fotofase, foram colocadas em tubos de vidro contendo folha de  couve-chinesa (Brassica chinensis previamente tratada com extratos aquosos (10% p/v de folha de cinamomo (Melia azedarach, de ramo de  cinamomo e de pó-de-fumo (Nicotiana tabacum. O mesmo procedimento foi repetido em dois ensaios com insetos adultos. No primeiro, foram utilizados todos os extratos anteriormente citados mais o extrato de Dal- Neem (produto comercial à base de Azadirachta indica. No segundo, os insetos foram expostos a extratos de frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens e de folhas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora, de jambolão (Syzygium cuminii e de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Todos os testes constaram de 10 insetos por tratamento, com cinco repetições no primeiro ensaio com insetos adultos e com seis repetições nos demais. As  observações foram realizadas diariamente até o quinto dia, objetivando avaliar a mortalidade dos insetos. Todos os extratos testados  resultaram num controle efetivo de larvas de M.ochroloma.Em  relação aos insetos adultos, apenas os extratos de pó-de-fumo e de Dal- Neem apresentaram efi ciência de controle.

  10. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-09-01

    Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30-45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S(1) and S(2) layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S(1) + S(2) + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood.

  11. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  12. The use of biomonitors and neutron activation analysis in the study of air pollution of Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Adler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitors were used as part of a pollution study of Buenos Aires city atmosphere under the International Atomic Energy Agency Research Contract ARG 7251, from the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear Related Analytical Techniques. Lichens were primarily selected as indicators. Two different approaches were conducted, direct sampling of Parmotrema reticulatum, at a few places and the use of lichen bags, filled with Usnea sulcata from a northern national park, and hung at different sites. Simultaneously, tree bark was tried as biomonitor. Platanus acerifolia and Melia azedarach were selected as candidates, for being the most common trees in the city, but only P. acerifolia was analyzed. All the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of the National Atomic Energy Commission. RA-3) reactor was used for the irradiations, determining: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Concentration values for P. reticulatum compared well with values from literature. For U. sulcata differences were found among the tested sites and also, for some elements an increasing trend with time was observed. Enrichment factors calculated using Sc as reference and Mason's crustal average concentrations showed vehicules and refuse incineration as contributing sources to the aerosol. Tree bark from Buenos Aires and from a smaller city with mainly agricultural activities were analyzed and the results are coincident with those from lichens. This work is the first and preliminar contribution to the study of Buenos Aires aerosol using biomonitors. (author)

  13. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-15

    Medicinal plants are utilized for handling health care system and in preventing a variety of diseases. A survey was conducted to document the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in union council Bheri, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Questionnaire format was used to collect the medicinal uses of plants. The 180 informants were interviewed from six villages in total, 30 from each village (20 male and 10 female) regarding the ethnoveterinary uses of plants in several ailments. For the reliability of ethnoveterinary knowledge, the informant consensus factor (FIC), and fidelity level (FL) were calculated and the literature cited was surveyed. The medicinal information was gathered from local inhabitants, healers, shepherds and old men and women of different age groups. A total of 24 medicinal plant species used as ethnoveterinary were found belonging to 22 genera and 19 families. The most dominant family was Polygonaceae (3 species) followed by Araceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae each with 2 species and remaining families having one species. The important medicinal plant species showed the highest fidelity level (FL) such as: Rumex nepalensis, Primula denticulata, (100%) used for dysuria, red urination, Skimmia laureola (100%), Swertia paniculata (99%), and Angelica glauca (97%), used for ague, cold, shivering, gastric ailments, Melia azedarach (100%), used to reduce intestinal worm load in cattle showing the conformity of knowledge on these species. Highest FIC was recorded for foot and mouth diseases and ectoparasite (1) followed by ague (0.98) and dysuria (0.99) depicting that a few species were used to cure various animals׳ ailments. The findings of the research revealed that merely a few species are used as ethnoveterinary medicine supported by pharmacology study. Due to anthropogenic pressure the extinction of each species from the areas could result in disappearing knowledge regarding century׳s old traditional methods of

  14. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. M. Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba (Carapa guianensis seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids. The required hydrophile-lipophile was around 11.0 and the optimal nanoemulsion was obtained using polysorbate 85. The particle size distribution suggested the presence of small droplets (mean diameter around 150 nm and low polydispersity index (around 0.150. The effect of temperature on particle size distribution revealed that no major droplet size increase occurred. The preliminary residual larvicidal assay suggested that the mortality increased as a function of time. The present study allowed achievement of a potential bioactive oil in water nanoemulsion that may be a promising controlled release system. Moreover, the ecofriendly approach involved in the preparation associated with the great bioactive potential of C. guianensis makes this nanoemulsion very promising for valorization of this Amazon raw material.

  15. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species' evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (F IS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies.

  16. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  17. Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, M; Evans, D S; Reilly, D; Schulte, K; Wright, C; Innes, D; Holton, T A; Nikles, D G; Dickinson, G R

    2012-03-01

    Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany or dry-zone mahogany) is a high-value hardwood timber species with great potential for forest plantations in northern Australia. The species is distributed across the sub-Saharan belt from Senegal to Sudan and Uganda. Because of heavy exploitation and constraints on natural regeneration and sustainable planting, it is now classified as a vulnerable species. Here, we describe the development of microsatellite markers for K. senegalensis using next-generation sequencing to assess its intra-specific diversity across its natural range, which is a key for successful breeding programs and effective conservation management of the species. Next-generation sequencing yielded 93,943 sequences with an average read length of 234 bp. The assembled sequences contained 1030 simple sequence repeats, with primers designed for 522 microsatellite loci. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were tested with 11 showing reliable amplification and polymorphism in K. senegalensis. The 11 novel microsatellites, together with one previously published, were used to assess 73 accessions belonging to the Australian K. senegalensis domestication program, sampled from across the natural range of the species. STRUCTURE analysis shows two major clusters, one comprising mainly accessions from west Africa (Senegal to Benin) and the second based in the far eastern limits of the range in Sudan and Uganda. Higher levels of genetic diversity were found in material from western Africa. This suggests that new seed collections from this region may yield more diverse genotypes than those originating from Sudan and Uganda in eastern Africa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique.

  19. Dinámica de nutrientes en plantaciones forestales de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae establecidas para restauración de tierras degradadas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Flórez-Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Nim ha sido ampliamente empleada en procedimientos de restauración, por lo tanto se evaluó el potencial de sus plantaciones para restaurar tierras secas degradadas por sobrepastoreo, vía reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico. En 20 parcelas de 250m², se instalaron trampas de hojarasca y litter-bags. Se tomaron muestras de hojas maduras y de suelos dentro y fuera de las plantaciones, y se determinaron sus contenidos elementales. Fueron monitoreados la caída de hojarasca, la descomposición de hojarasca y la reabsorción de nutrientes foliares durante un año. Los aportes anuales de hojarasca fina representaron 557.54kg/ha (33% hojas de Nim. Los mayores retornos potenciales de nutrientes vía foliar fue- ron de Ca (4.6kg/ha y N (2.4kg/ha y los menores de P (0.06kg/ha. El 68% del material se descompuso tras un año. La mayor liberación de nutrientes fue de K (100% y la menor de N (40%. El P fue el nutriente más limitante, con baja disponibilidad edáfica y alta eficiencia en su uso según el Índice de Vitousek (IEV=3 176 y la reabsorción foliar (35%. Estas plantaciones juveniles demostraron efectividad en la reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico, que mejoraron parámetros edáficos, según incrementos de materia orgánica, P y K; 72%, 31% y 61%, respectiva- mente. Además mejoraron la estabilidad de agregados y las tasas de respiración microbiana.

  20. Efficacy of Tamarindus indicus, Melia azadirach and Santalum album in syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge: A single-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tabasum Ali; Begum, Wajeeha

    2017-12-19

    Background At least 25 % of women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics receive treatment for one of the three common causes of abnormal vaginal discharge: bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Syndromic diagnostic approach was adopted by National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) India, at the primary health centre level. Syndromic management implies the simultaneous treatment of two or more infections. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy of sandal sufaid, maghze tukhme bakayin and khaste tamar hindi in syndromic management of Sailanur rehm. Methods This study was a randomized, single blind, standard controlled trial. It was conducted to compare efficacy of formulation which contains buradae sandal safaid, safoofe maghze tukhme bakayin, safoofe khaste tamar hindi and safoofe shakkar safaid against combination of azithromycin, fluconazole and secnidazole on diagnosed subjects of Sailanur rehm. Test group received 10 g of test drug B.D for 21 days while control group received single dose of standard drug to both the partners. Vaginal symptom score (VSS) was used for assessing discharge and associated complaints. Visual analogous scale (VAS) was used for assessing low backache and lower abdominal pain. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups concerning baseline characteristics (p>0.05). VSS was significantly decreased with p<0.001 for both control and test group. VAS was significantly decreased with p<0.001 and p=0.07 in test and control group respectively for low backache. For lower abdominal pain p=0.006 for both groups after the completion of treatment. Conclusions The formulation can effectively alleviate the disease with associated symptoms without any side effects. It can be used in syndromic management of vaginal discharge. Future research is on large sample size.

  1. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a três concentrações do óleo de nim: 0,006; 0,05; 0,4%, adicionadas à dieta artificial. Dez lagartas do 3º instar, retiradas de cada tratamento, foram submetidas à análise histológica. O canal alimentar dos indivíduos foi fixado em Baker por 12 horas, desidratado, diafanizado em álcool/xilol (1:1 e xilol. Após a inclusão em parafina, as amostras foram seccionadas em 8 µm e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina. Observou-se que o óleo de A. indica adicionado à dieta de S. frugiperda causa: mortalidade total na dosagem 0,4% nos primeiros instares, aumento na duração do período larval e pupal, redução no peso de pupas. Alterações histofisiológicas, como degeneração do epitélio do revestimento do mesêntero, da matriz peritrófica foram registradas em todas as concentrações do óleo de neem.

  2. Dinámica de nutrientes en plantaciones forestales de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae establecidas para restauración de tierras degradadas en Colombia Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae established for resto- ration of degraded lands in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Flórez-Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Nim ha sido ampliamente empleada en procedimientos de restauración, por lo tanto se evaluó el potencial de sus plantaciones para restaurar tierras secas degradadas por sobrepastoreo, vía reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico. En 20 parcelas de 250m², se instalaron trampas de hojarasca y litter-bags. Se tomaron muestras de hojas maduras y de suelos dentro y fuera de las plantaciones, y se determinaron sus contenidos elementales. Fueron monitoreados la caída de hojarasca, la descomposición de hojarasca y la reabsorción de nutrientes foliares durante un año. Los aportes anuales de hojarasca fina representaron 557.54kg/ha (33% hojas de Nim. Los mayores retornos potenciales de nutrientes vía foliar fue- ron de Ca (4.6kg/ha y N (2.4kg/ha y los menores de P (0.06kg/ha. El 68% del material se descompuso tras un año. La mayor liberación de nutrientes fue de K (100% y la menor de N (40%. El P fue el nutriente más limitante, con baja disponibilidad edáfica y alta eficiencia en su uso según el Índice de Vitousek (IEV=3 176 y la reabsorción foliar (35%. Estas plantaciones juveniles demostraron efectividad en la reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico, que mejoraron parámetros edáficos, según incrementos de materia orgánica, P y K; 72%, 31% y 61%, respectiva- mente. Además mejoraron la estabilidad de agregados y las tasas de respiración microbiana.Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m² plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were moni- tored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha and N (2.4kg/ha, and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha. A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%, and the least was that of N (40%. P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek´s index (IEV=3176 and foliar nutrient resorption (35%. Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many benefits for the restoration of biodiversity and ecosystemic functions. The conditions of severe land degradation demand the initial use of species, such as A. indica, that can adapt quickly and successfully, and progressively reestablish the biogeochemical cycle.

  3. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  4. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  5. Avaliação de biofertilizantes, extratos vegetais e diferentes substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes em cebola em sistema orgânico Evaluation of biofertilizers, plant extracts, and some alternative substances to manage onion thrips in organic agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.S. Gonçalves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes (Thrips tabaci Lind., em cebola, cv, Crioula, no sistema orgânico. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na EPAGRI, Ituporanga (SC. Os períodos entre transplante e colheita foram de 11/09/1996 a 10/01/1997 e 13/08/1997 a 11/12/1997. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com 8 tratamentos em 1996 e 12 tratamentos em 1997 e quatro repetições. Em 1996 os tratamentos incluíram o biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, sulfato de manganês 1%, extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2%, macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 2% e 4%, extrato de fumo (Nicotiana tabacum 2 L ha-1 + 1% detergente neutro, testemunha sem aplicação. Em 1997 os tratamentos incluíram o macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 5% 10%, enxofre pó molhável 0,25% + extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2% + extrato de samambaia 3%, biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, extrato de losna (Artemisia verlotorum 3%, extrato de timbó (Ateleia glazioviana 0,5%, extrato de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum 10%, extrato de erva-de-santa-maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides 10%, extrato de cinamomo (Melia azedarach 10%, extrato de camomila (Matricaria chamomilla 5%, testemunha sem aplicação. Para aplicação dos produtos empregou-se pulverizador de pressão constante a base de CO2. Os tratamentos não causaram redução significativa na incidência de tripes e aumentos significativos na produtividade.Alternative substances to manage thrips population (Thrips tabaci Lind. on onion, in an organic agriculture system were evaluated. The experiments were carried out in Ituporanga, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Plants of onion cv. Crioula were transplanted into two fields on 9th September/96 and 13th August/97 and harvested respectively on 10th January/97 and 11th December/97. A randomized blocks with four replicates were used in both experiments. In 1996 the treatments included the anaerobic liquid

  6. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  7. Short communication. Characterization of chloroplast region rrn16-rrn23S from the tropical timber tree Cedrela odorata L. and de novo construction of a transplastomic expression vector suitable for Meliaceae trees and other economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ochoa, L A; Apolinar-Hernández, M M; Peña-Ramírez, Y J

    2015-02-20

    The forest tree Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) is well-known for its high-value timber; however, this species is attacked by the shoot borer (Hypsipyla grandella) during its early years of development, resulting in branched stems and making the plants useless for high-quality wood production. The generation of resistant varieties expressing entomotoxic proteins may be an alternative to pesticide treatments. The use of plastid transformation rather than nuclear transformation should be used because it reduces the risk of transgene dissemination by pollen. Chloroplast transformation vectors require an expression cassette flanked by homologous plastid sequences to drive plastome recombination. Thus, C. odorata plastome sequences are a prerequisite. The rrn16-rrn23 plastome region was selected, cloned, and characterized. When the sequence identity among the rrn16-rrn23 regions from C. odorata and Nicotiana tabacum was compared, 3 inDels of 240, 104, and 39 bp were found that might severely affect transformation efficiency. Using this region, a new transformation vector was developed using pUC19 as a backbone by inserting the rrn16-trnI and trnA-rrn23 sequences from C. odorata and adding 2 independent expression cassettes into the trnI-trnA intergenic region, conferring spectinomycin resistance, the ability to express the gfp reporter gene, and a site that can be used to express any other gene of interest.

  8. Remote sensing object-oriented approaches coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the combined use of new generation sensor imagery and the employment of object-oriented image classification techniques provided more accurate information on Melia invasion in the study area. This is an encouraging result given the high degree of intermingling of Melia with other plants at the study site.

  9. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  10. Limonoids from Cipadessa fruticosa and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Oliveira, Cintia G.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, M. Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the fruits of Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) afforded the new limonoid cipadesin B and the known swietemahonolide. From the roots of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) were isolated the limonoid 3β-acetoxycarapin, new as natural product, along with the triterpenes oleanolic and oleanonic acid. These compounds and other six mexicanolide limonoids previously isolated from C. fruticosa showed insecticidal activity against the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  11. Congo, Brazzaville

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achariaceae. Anacardiaceae. Annonaceae. Apocynaceae Bign oniaceae. Burse raceae. Cann abaceae. Cecropia cea e. Chryso balana ceae. Clusia ceae. Combre taceae. Ebenaceae. Euphorbiace ae. Fabaceae. Hypericace ae. Irvingiaceae. Ixonan thacea e. Lauraceae. Lecythidaceae. Loga niaceae. Malvaceae Melia.

  12. NJP VOLUME 40 No 4 Corrected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-05-25

    meaning 'seal') and melia. (meaning 'limb'), to indicate a developmental abnormal ... to HIV using ELISA and DNA PCR. Other viral studies like rubella cytomegalovirus serology could not be done because of lack of necessary ...

  13. Screening of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of crude extracts of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plants on glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 100 μg/mL. Forty-six extracts were tested and fifteen of them showed significant inhibitory activity (IA % > 50. The majority of the assayed extracts of Meliaceae plants (Cedrela fissilis, Cipadessa fruticosa and Trichilia ramalhoi showed high ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity. The fractionation of the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa led to the isolation of three flavonoids: flavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 3',4',5',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone. The two last compounds showed high ability to inhibit the gGAPDH activity. Therefore, the assayed Meliaceae species could be considered as a promising source of lead compounds against Chagas' disease.

  14. Integration of biological control and botanical pesticides : evaluation in a tritrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Kfir, R.

    2001-01-01

    The plant kingdom is by far the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesising many products that are used in defence against herbivores. Extracts made from some plants, particularly extracts from plants within the Meliaceae (mahogany) family, have been shown to have insecticidal

  15. Toxicological studies of the stem bark extract of Khaya grandifoliola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant widely used in Africa for the management of malaria. In this study, toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of the plant has been evaluated with a view to ascertaining some of its possible toxic effects in the rats. Healthy rats of ...

  16. In vivo activity of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) stem bark was used to treat trypanosomiasis in rats in vivo and changes in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were studied. The treatment involved oral infusion of the crude extract at 60 mg/kg body weight ...

  17. Diversité floristique et infiltration humaine de la forêt classée de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les familles les plus abondantes sont Fabaceae, les Rubiaceae, les Euphorbiaceae, les Moraceae, les Malvaceae, les Meliaceae, les Moraceae, les Annonaceae, les Sapindaceae et les Poaceae. Parmi ces espèces, 79 % sont des phanérophytes et 3 % des hémicryptophytes. Conclusion: Malheureusement, cette forêt est ...

  18. Antiplasmodial activities of some products from Turreanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the antiplasmodial activity of some pure compounds of Turreanthus africanus (Meliaceae), a plant that is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria in Southwest Cameroon. A phytochemical analysis of the methylene chloride: methanol (1:1) extract of the seeds of the plant yielded seven compounds.

  19. Flowering phenology and its implications for management of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Grogan; M. D. Loveless

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Flowering phenology is a crucial determinant of reproductive success and offspring genetic diversity in plants. We measure the fl owering phenology of big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla , Meliaceae), a widely distributed neotropical tree, and explore how disturbance from logging impacts its reproductive biology. • Methods: We use a crown...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-16

    May 16, 2016 ... temperature and humidity with a 12 hours day-light cycle, with free access to food and water ad libitum. Experimental protocols were based on World Health Organization ..... Costa-Silva JH, Lima CR, Silva EJR et al. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil. J.

  1. RES COVER APR QQ April 4th Final

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Toona ciliate M. Roem. subsp. ciliata Bahadur var. ciliata. Bahadur Syn.Cedrela toona (Indian Toon or Indian Ma- hogany) of Meliaceae is a large handsome evergreen tree with a dense spreading crown. Leaves are compound, alternate with large leaflets. Flowers are a cm long, fragrant and borne on large drooping ...

  2. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi: Neem) ofMeliaceae a large evergreen tree with spreading crown and brownish bark is either pLanted or se(f-sown. Leaves are compound and the LeafLets are somewhat oblique with toothed margin. Flowers are small and white and borne on branched ...

  3. What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M.V. Baima; do Carmo A. Lopes J.; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rog& eacute Oliveira; rio; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204 ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites...

  4. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Toona ciliate M. Roem. subsp. ciliata Bahadur var. ciliata. Bahadur Syn.Cedrela toona (Indian Toon or Indian Ma- hogany) of Meliaceae is a large handsome evergreen tree with a dense spreading crown. Leaves are compound, alternate with large leaflets. Flowers are a cm long, fragrant and borne on large drooping ...

  6. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  7. INTER-FAMILY VARIATION IN FIBRE DIMENSIONS OF SIX TROPICAL HARDWOODS IN RELATION TO PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles ANTWI-BOASIAKO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre characteristics determine utilizationpotentials of timbers. Fibre dimensions influencewood pulpability, durability and physico-mechanicalproperties. Fibre length, width, lumen width and wallthickness of six tropical timbers from three families(Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae wereinvestigated from heartwood splinters (20×2×2mmdelignified in 1:1 glacial acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide [at 600C], teased out and stained. Fibrelengths range from 0.79mm for Holoptelea grandis(Ulmaceae to 1.88mm for Khaya ivorensis(Meliaceae similar to the mean (2mm for tropicalhardwoods and pulpable length (0.65-1.2mm. TheMeliaceae has moderately long fibres (1.61mm butmedium-sized for Ulmaceae (1.19mm andSterculiaceae (1.59mm. Cedrella odorata(Meliaceae has wide fibres (36.5μm and lumina(27.6μm, Celtis milbraedii (Ulmaceae has narrowfibres (17.49μm and lumen (8.97μm, all withinpulpable range (i.e., 9-40μm. Fibre wall thicknessranges from 3.31μm (for H. grandis to 5.49μm (forPterygota macrocarpa, Sterculiaceae and is withinpulpable range (2.90-5.15μm. Fibre walls forMeliaceae and Sterculiaceae are thick (>4μm butmedium (2-4μm for Ulmaceae. Runkel ratio of 2.65(for C. odorata to 3.9 (for C. milbraedii is greaterthan stipulated for pulping (1.25. However,Flexibility Coefficients (within 75-50 category andfibre dimensions for timbers from the three familiesindicate their pulping suitability. It is anticipated thewood and construction industries exploit their fibrecharacteristics for structural applications andengineering of fibre-based products.

  8. Review on herbal remedies used by the 1860 South African Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of these plants needs to be noted. In line with the 150 year commemoration of the 1820 settlers, this paper reviews some of the ayurvedic plants being currently utilized and which were brought to South Africa along with the settlers. Key words: Ayurveda, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tulsi, Moringa oleifera, Melia azederach, ...

  9. An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total flavonoids and phenolic content in leaves of in vitro Melia dubia was 0.56 ± 0.8 mg quercitin equivalent (QE) and 2.97 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) respectively. The antioxidant property was further assed through measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The in-vitro regeneration protocol can be ...

  10. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 15, No 19 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant studies in Melia dubia Cav · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Syed Naseer Shah, Tareq Ahmad Wani, Bhimi Ram, Monika Koul, Praveen Awasthi, Deependra Singh Rajput, Gillela Ravi ...

  11. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  12. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  13. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In case of Calendula arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the ...

  14. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum. (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in. Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the.

  15. O Desenho Cultural da Arquitetura Guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zibel Costa

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is about the guarani-mbya tribe dwelling, and its relation to their cultural characteristics, especially those found in the ritual and mythological traditions. The guarani-mbya way of life or tradition - teco - can just exist in their own place - tecoa - which means 'place where we live according to our own way of life' (Melia, 1988:104

  16. Integration of biological control and botanical pesticides : evaluation in a tritrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, D.S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Kfir, R.

    2001-01-01

    The plant kingdom is by far the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesising many products that are used in defence against herbivores. Extracts made from some plants, particularly extracts from plants within the Meliaceae (mahogany) family, have been shown to have insecticidal properties. We investigated the potential of these extracts and the possibility of integrating botanical pesticides with biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Sub-lethal doses ...

  17. Africa's highest mountain harbours Africa's tallest trees

    OpenAIRE

    Hemp Andreas; Zimmermann Reiner; Remmele Sabine; Pommer Ulf; Berauer Bernd; Hemp Claudia; Fischer Markus

    2017-01-01

    While world records of tree heights were set by American, Australian and Asian tree species, Africa seemed to play no role here. In our study we show that Entandrophragma excelsum (Meliaceae) found in a remote valley at Kilimanjaro has to be included in the list of the world’s superlative trees. Estimating tree age from growth rates monitored by high resolution dendrometry indicates that tall individuals may reach more than 470 years of age. A unique combination of anatomical peculiarities an...

  18. Investigating South African plants as a source of new antimalarial drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available and their biological activity. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 36, 288-291. Jakupovic, J., Aad, M.A., Eid, F., Bohlmann, F., El-Dahmy, S., Sarg,T., 1988. Further glaucolides and other sesquiterpene lactones from Brocchia Cinerea. Phytochemistry 27, 2219...; Kraft et al., 2003). Similarly, our results (Clarkson et al., 2004) for species like Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) and Artemisia afra jacq. ex Willd. (Asteraceae) agreed with previous reports on their antiplasmodial activity (El Tahir et al...

  19. 2233-IJBCS-Article-Mouamfaon Mama

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    accès au bois pour les ...... Mémoire d'études supérieures spécialisées (DESS) en sciences forestières, Université de Yaoundé 1,. Yaoundé, p. 56. Forget P-M. 1996. Removal of seeds of. Carapa procera (Meliaceae) by rodents and their fate in ...

  20. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  1. Utilização de substâncias naturais no controle de pulgões em cultivo orgânico de brócolis, Brassica oleracea var. itálica (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adriano Jorge Nunes dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Meliaceae, leaves and foliage of bitter melon, in Brazil named melão-de-são-caetano (Mormodica charantia L.), Cucurbitaceae, Chili Pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), Solanaceae, black pepper seeds (Piper nigrum), Piperaceae, NeenMax® (neem oil) and water (control) to control aphid infestations in organic cultivation of Brassica oleracea var. italic, in Arapiraca city, Alagoas...

  2. 377 Konan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    aurantifolia (Rutaceae) sur le muscle lisse, Taenia coli de cobaye. Rev. Med. Pharm. Afr. 16: 103-112. 35. Souza, A., Aka, K.J., Abo, K.J.C., Datté, Y.J., Traoré, F. and M'Batchi, B. (2007). Myostimulating effect of the aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis (Desr) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in isolated Taenia caeci contractile activity.

  3. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  4. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nasreen

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan.

  6. FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF ONE HECTARE OF PALM-DOMINATED CREEK FOREST IN JENARO HERRERA, PERU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prickett, Ruby; Honorio, Euridice; Baba, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    A floristic inventory was carried out in an area of palm-dominated creek forest in Jenaro Herrera, in the northeast of Peru. All trees ≥ 10 cm dbh were surveyed in a one-hectare permanent plot using the standard RAINFOR methodology. There were 618 individuals belonging to 230 species, 106 genera...... in order of importance were Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. Although the soil of this plot was poorly drained, the number of trees and the diversity of the plot were typical for terra firme forest in the western Amazon....

  7. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves; Determinacao de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: ladetec@iq.gov.br; Cabral, Jose Augusto; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Cid [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Elias, Vladimir O. [Analytical Solution, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, IR). (author)

  8. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; Almeida-Cortez, J S; Fernandes, G W

    2011-02-01

    We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  9. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  10. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  11. Determinação de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Denilson Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractIons of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae, caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae, cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae, marupá (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae, were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (¹H and 13C NMR, IR.

  12. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Barth Ortrud M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  14. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, Cíntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

    2004-09-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  15. METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS DE LAS FAMILIAS ANNONACEAE,

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Enrique Castillo; J.J. Jimenez; M.A. Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Debido a los problemas que ocasionan los insecticidas sintéticos tanto en el ambiente como en la salud humana existe un resurgimiento en investigaciones sobre los extractos de origen vegetal para el control de insectos. Se presenta una revisión de literatura especializada de los trabajos publicados de los diferentes extractos vegetales obtenidos de las familias Annonaceae, Meliaceae y Solanaceae, describiendo los compuestos o mezcla de compuestos obtenidos, así como sus mecanismos de acciÃ...

  16. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  17. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR). (author)

  18. Abreviaturas

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Aj Biblia romanceada de la Biblioteca de Ajuda, Ms. 52-XIII-1 (Enrique-Arias y Pueyo, Biblia medieval) Alba Biblia de Alba o de Arragel (Enrique-Arias y Pueyo, Biblia medieval) Alba (PM) Biblia de Alba (ed. Paz y Melia, 1920-1922) Aut Diccionario de autoridades, 1726-1739 (Real Academia Española, 2013) BH Bulletin Hispanique BNE Biblia romanceada de la Biblioteca Nacional de España, Mss. 10.288 (Enrique-Arias y Pueyo, Biblia medieval) BLÁN Blánquez Fraile, Diccionario latino (2002) BHS Bull...

  19. METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS DE LAS FAMILIAS ANNONACEAE,

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    Luis Enrique Castillo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los problemas que ocasionan los insecticidas sintéticos tanto en el ambiente como en la salud humana existe un resurgimiento en investigaciones sobre los extractos de origen vegetal para el control de insectos. Se presenta una revisión de literatura especializada de los trabajos publicados de los diferentes extractos vegetales obtenidos de las familias Annonaceae, Meliaceae y Solanaceae, describiendo los compuestos o mezcla de compuestos obtenidos, así como sus mecanismos de acción que presentan sobre insectos. Las especies vegetales de las tres familias presentan compuestos muy polares. La familia Meliaceae es la más estudiada, con la azadiractina como el compuesto activo más importante. Las acetogeninas, squamocin y annonacin de la familia Annonacea, son las de mayor impacto, mientras que en la familia Solanaceae son los alcaloides y glicósidos esteroidales los principios con mayor bioactividad. La actividad biológica de los metabolitos secundarios ha sido mayor cuando se prueban los extractos, que son mezclas complejas de compuestos secundarios. La mayoría de las investigaciones revisadas han sido bioensayos in vitro para la actividad insecticida, por lo que se desconoce la efectividad de los extractos en campo.

  20. Aspectos fitossociológicos de um fragmento da floresta natural de Astronium balansae engl., no município de Bossoroca, RS Phytosociological characteristics of a fragment of the natural forest of Astronium balansae engl, in the county of Bosssoroca, RS

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    Alexandra Augusti Boligon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento da Floresta Natural de Astronium balansae Engl., no município de Bossoroca, RS, Brasil. Foram demarcadas 7 unidades amostrais de 10x100m (1000m2 onde observou-se a ocorrência de 476 indivíduos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito (CAP = 30cm, distribuídos em 35 espécies e 25 famílias. As espécies mais características e importantes da floresta foram Astronium balansae, Myrcianthes pungens, Patagonula americana, Eugenia uniflora e Parapiptadenia rigida. As famílias Myrtaceae, Meliaceae e Euphorbiaceae foram as mais representativas do fragmento florestal estudado. O valor do Índice de diversidade de Shannon foi 3.The study was carried out to evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological characteristics of a fragment of the natural forest of Astronium balansae Engl, in Bossoroca county, RS, Brazil. Seven 10x100m (1000m² units were inventoried: 476 measured trees (CBH = 30cm were distributed in 35 species and 25 families. The most important species were Astronium balansae, Myrcianthes pungens, Patagonula americana, Eugenia uniflora and Parapiptadenia rigida. The families Myrtaceae, Meliaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most representative families in the forest fragment studied. The Shannon diversity index was 3.

  1. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CEDAR AUSTRALIAN IN DIFFERENT DOSES OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM

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    J. R. Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian cedar is a forest species of Meliaceae family with great potential for the production of hardwood. Studies related to fertilization and nutrition of this species are still incipient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and early development of the Australian cedar at different levels of fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK in a cerrado Oxisol. In this sense, the experiment was developed at IFMG - Campus Bambuí. The experimental design was randomized blocks, using five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of doses corresponding to 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the recommendation for Eucalyptus. The best growth and development of Australian cedar, at 180 days after planting, was obtained when applied doses of 45 kg ha-1 N, 135 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 67.5 kg ha-1 K2O.

  2. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  3. Brine Shrimp test Triterpenes from root bark of Sandoricum emarginatum

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    Pratiwi Pratiwi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The root of Sondoricum emargiatum , Meliaceae was collected in North Tapanuli, North Sumatera. Local people use this timber plany for construction and the fruit bark for cooking (Naito, 1986. In the previous investigation, 1,3,4 cuparatrien-15-ol, 4.15-cubebene and secobryononic acid were isolated from stem bark of Sondoricum emargiatum (Pratiwi. Further fractionation of n-hexane extract of root bark of Sondoricum emargiatum in the isolation of two triterpenes resulted byononic (1 and 3,4-seco-olean-4 (23, 12-dien-3,29-dionic acids (3 and their structures were elucidated by IR, MS, and NMR-spectroscopy. Compound (1 and (3 were forund more active than methyl bryononic derivate (2 with Brine Shrimp as bioindicator.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Sosa, Edgar; Mora Gonzalez, Nestor; Morris Quevedo, Humberto J

    2013-01-01

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  5. QUALITY EVALUATION OF Cedrela fissilis SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS

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    Edicléia Aparecida Iensen Cherobini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the Meliaceae family, cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell. presents a great economical and ecological importance. The wood is light and easy to work, being suggested to the manufacturing of furniture in general, also it is used to reset degraded areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of Cedrela fissilis seedlings and seeds from Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, through the accomplishment of varied tests of vigor, test of health and evaluation of the quality of seedlings produced from these seeds. The present study showed that the presence of fungi pathological potential – Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. – can cause losses in the germination. Considering tests with seeds collected in the different states of the South Region, it was possible to verify that differences of the vigor levels exist. The fungi found in the seeds can cause damages in the production.

  6. STUDI SIFAT FISIK BIJI KECAPI (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. f. Merr DAN PENYIMPANANNYA DALAM SUHU KAMAR

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    Popi Aprilianti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Santol fruit (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. f. Merr. is one of the most important fruit trees in Meliaceae. It possesses seeds with sticky white aril that cannot be stored for a long term because of its characteristic as recalcitrant seeds. The aim of this research was to study the storage period of the santol seeds in the room temperature. Measurements were conducted on seed characteristics such as weight, length, seed thickness, water content, seed viability, and germination rate. The result shows that santol seed can be stored maximum for 40 days. Between 30-40 days the seed can still germinate but the seedling is in normal strong and normal weak category. Based on water content measurement and viability observation, santol seed can be grouped as recalcitrant.

  7. Vegetation structure in the mountain forest in the Turquino National Park, province of Granma

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Jeringa site of the Turquino National Park in order to characterize the vegetation of a mountain forest fragment with Juglans jamaicensis. Floristic composition, vegetation structure, and the index value of importance were evaluated. Diameter at 1.30 m above the ground and height of all trees greater than 5 cm in diameter was measured. Data were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis. 776 individuals of 43 species and 41 genera belonging to 30 families, reporting the Rubiaceae family as the richest in species, followed by Amigdalaceae, Araliaceae, Cyatheaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Poaceae. The tree species with more IVI were the Pseudolmedia spuria, Oxandra laurifolia, Trophis racemosa, Ocotea leucoxylon, Guarea guara, Dendropanax arboreus and Juglans jamaicensis, mainly due to its abundance in the vegetation, but it was found that the main contributor to the organic weight parameter species was the relative frequency.

  8. Phytosociology analysis of a fragment of Seasonal Deciduous Forest: Parque Estadual do Turvo, RS, Brazil

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    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem formed by the Seasonal Deciduous Forest (SDF predominates in the region of Alto Uruguay in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to analyze descriptively the floristic composition and the phytosociology of trees from a fragment of SDF present in Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET located in the Municipality of Derrubadas, Rio Grande do Sul State (Yucumã forest. We used the method of fixed area, based on 18 sample units with 1,000 m2 installed randomly oriented by the main road of the park. All wood species with diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (DBH greater than 10 cm were measured and identified. It was observed the presence of 842 individuals belonging to 32 families, 67 genera and 83 species (12% were not identified. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae. Shannon index estimated was 3.72.

  9. Atividades de coleta e origem floral do pólen armazenado em colônias de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae no sul do Brasil Collection activities and floral origin of the stored pollcn in colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae in south Brazil

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    Raquel A. Pick

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903, of São Francisco de Paula, were studied during the period from October/1998 to October/1999. The counting of the bees was proceeded monthly, differentiated workers that came back with and without pollen in the corbicula. Grains of pollen of pots previously marked were collected monthly and identified. The percentage of the pollen types of the samples was estimated: 20% of Asteraceae, 17% Myrtaceae, 15% type Meliaceae and 10% Euphorbiaceae. The remaining corresponds to other pollen types of small representation, besides those the were no identified. The climatic influence on the pollen collection was analyzed being used simple and multiple regressions. It was verified that in the spring and in the summer the temperature, the solar irradiation and relative humidity were significant for the pollen foraging. During autumn and winter the relative humidity had smaller influence in the pollen collection.

  10. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  11. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördegen, P; Cabaret, J; Hertzberg, H; Langhans, W; Maurer, V

    2006-11-03

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was used as reference anthelmintic. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of the stem of Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae), the ethanolic extracts of seeds of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Asteraceae), and the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Fumaria parviflora (Papaveraceae) and of the fruit of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae) showed an anthelmintic efficacy of up to 93%, relative to pyrantel tartrate. Based on these results obtained with larval Haemonchus contortus, the modified MTT reduction assay could be a possible method for testing plant products with anthelmintic properties.

  12. Naturally Occurring Diterpenoid Dimers: Source, Biosynthesis, Chemistry and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Gen; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Feng, Zhe-Ling; Huang, Li; Hu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Diterpenoid dimers are rare in nature and mainly found in higher plants including the families Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Calceolariaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Meliaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Taxaceae, Velloziaceae, and Zingiberaceae. In addition, a few diterpenoid dimers have been also reported from fungi (Psathyrellaceae), liverworts (Scapaniaceae), and a gorgonian (Gorgoniidae). They feature a wide variety of structures due to different core skeletons, linkage patterns, substituents, and configurations. Accordingly, diterpenoid dimers exhibit a broad range of bioactivities, including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, and antifouling properties, which have attracted more and more research interests in the past decades. This review with 176 metabolites from 109 references provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the source, biosynthesis, structure, synthesis, and bioactivities of diterpenoid dimers. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Plant Resources, 13C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids

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    Jingya Ruan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  14. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Carapa guianensis collected from Venezuelan Guayana and the antimicrobial activity of the oil and crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meccia, Gina; Quintero, Patricia; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Velasco, Judith; Diaz, Tulia; Diaz, Clara; Velásquez, Jesús; Toro, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae) leaves was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, which made up 93.7% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bicyclogermacrene (28.5%), alpha-humulene (17.2%), germacrene B (11.9%), and trans-beta-caryophyllene (9.9%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, as well as the crude extracts of the leaves obtained by refluxing the dried leaves with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol, was determined using the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was only found for the essential oil and the methanolic extract, at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 400 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL.

  16. Atividade da torta de nim sobre adultos do cascudinho dos aviários em condições de laboratório Activity of neem cake on adults of the lesser mealworm in laboratory

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    Victor Michelon Alves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O cascudinho dos aviários é considerado um importante problema mundial no sistema de produção avícola, por infestar os aviários e ser potencial vetor de patógenos às aves e ao ser humano. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar em laboratório a atividade da torta de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae como forma alternativa de controle de Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A torta foi aplicada diretamente no substrato (ração para aves ou cama de aviário na quantidade de 100g m-2 do produto. Foram verificados os efeitos letais e subletais da torta contra adultos do cascudinho dos aviários, sendo eles: ação inseticida, efeito na oviposição, repelência e efeito na alimentação. A utilização de torta de nim pareceu não afetar a sobrevivência dos insetos, porém, a avaliação do efeito repelente, atividade alimentar e oviposição foram influenciados, sendo observada redução de 23% na oviposição e 21% na atividade alimentar.The lesser mealworm is one the most important problem to avian production system, being a potential vector of avian and other animal pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neem cake (Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae as an alternative to control the Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The neem cake was directly applied to substrates at 100g m-2 and were evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects to A. diaperinus adults, as mortality, oviposition, repellent effect and feeding. There was no effect on adult mortality, but were observed reduction of the oviposition (23%, repellent effect, and reduction of insect feeding (21%.

  17. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

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    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  18. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

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    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  19. Production of biodiesel from Amari (Amoora Wallichii King) tree seeds using optimum process parameters and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, J.; Gogoi, T.K.; Pakshirajan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from Amari tree seed oil (ATSO). • Two stage acid base transesterification was used. • The fatty acid composition of ATSO was determined. • Reaction time, temperature and concentrations of methanol and catalysts were optimized. • Properties of ATSO FAME were compared with standards and FAMEs of Amoora and Pithraj. - Abstract: Amari (Amoora Wallichii King) is a forest based tree from Meliaceae family which is mainly used in making timber. Amari wood also possess some medicinal activity. In this article, biodiesel production from Amari tree seed oil (ATSO) was investigated. Oil content in the seed was 42.85%. Linoleic (32.938%) and oleic acids (23.007%) were the major fatty acid constituents in ATSO with 84.617% unsaturation. The free fatty acid (FFA) in ATSO was 16%, hence, a two stage acid base transesterification was done to produce biodiesel from ATSO. Effect of reaction time, temperature, methanol and catalyst concentrations on yields from the 1st stage acid pre-treatment and 2nd stage base transesterification was evaluated. Maximum 96% yield (vol.%) from the 1st stage occurred with 0.80% (v/v) H 2 SO 4 at an oil methanol ratio of 4:1 after 3.5 h of acid esterification. From the 2nd stage, highest biodiesel yield of 88.5% (vol.%) was obtained during base catalysed transesterification by adding 1% (w/v) NaOH and 30% (v/v) methanol with the acid pre-treated oil after 2.5 h. Characterization of ATSO fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was done and properties were compared with Amoora and Pithraj tree seed biodiesels from same Meliaceae family. Properties were found similar and most of them conformed to the ASTM (D6751) and EN 14214 standards except water and sulphur contents with slight deviations.

  20. arXiv New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Plefka, Jan

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons, massive quarks and scalars minimally coupled to gravity. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary matter and gluon multiplicities involving one graviton are reduced to partial amplitudes in QCD or scalar QCD. The obtained relations are a direct generalization of the recently found Einstein-Yang-Mills relations. The proof of the new relation employs a simple diagrammatic argument trading the graviton-matter couplings to an `upgrade' of a gluon coupling with a color-kinematic replacement rule enforced. The use of the Melia-Johansson-Ochirov color basis is a key element of the reduction. We comment on the generalization to multiple gravitons in the single color trace case.

  1. Ryoji Ikeda, Data Artist - Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Koek, Ariane; Heuer, Rolf; Ikeda, Ryoji; Mr. Horst, Hoertner

    2014-01-01

    at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN. You are very warmly invited to the opening presentation of Data Artist, Ryoji Ikeda’s residency at CERN. Ryoji Ikeda, one of the world’s leading electronic composers and visual artists, is the new Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN award winner. Ryoji Ikeda and his science inspiration partner, Theoretical Physicist, Dr. Tom Melia will talk about their work in arts and science. They are at the beginning of their creative journey together at CERN. A little about Ryoji Ikeda – the new Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN artist in residence. Ryoji Ikeda focuses on the essential characteristics of sound itself and that of visuals as light by means of both mathematical precision and mathematical aesthetics. Ikeda has gained a reputation as one of the few international artists working convincingly across both visual ...

  2. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

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    McElroy SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED, an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.Keywords: binge eating disorder, pharmacotherapy, medication management

  3. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  4. Análise fitossociológica de um fragmento de floresta estacional decidual no município de Jaguari, RS Fitossociological analisys of a deciduous seasonal forest fragment in Jaguari county, RS

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    Cristiano Hack

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo da vegetação de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual, na localidade de São Roque, município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil, com objetivo de caracterizar a diversidade florística, bem como as espécies mais importantes na composição do fragmento. Para a avaliação e identificação das espécies arbóreas com Circunferência à Altura do Peito (CAP = 30cm, foram demarcadas de maneira sistemática, 14 unidades amostrais de 10x100 m (1000 m². Nestas, foram avaliadas a espécie vegetal, CAP, altura total, altura comercial, posição sociológica e classe de copa. Observou-se a ocorrência de 54 espécies arbóreas e 28 famílias. O Índice de Diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,63, indicando elevada diversidade de espécies no fragmento. As famílias Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae e Meliaceae foram, em número de espécies, as mais representativas do fragmento, sendo que as espécies com maior valor de importância foram Cupania vernalis, Patagonula americana e Cabralea canjerana. No estrato superior, as espécies dominantes foram Patagonula americana, Cabralea canjerana e Luehea divaricata.A study was made in a fragment from a Deciduous Seasonal Forest, in São Roque locality, Jaguari county, RS, Brazil, with the objective of characterizing its diversity and the most important species in the forest fragment composition. For the evaluation and identification of the forest species with CBH = 30 cm there were measured, systematically, 14 sample units with 10x100 m (1000 m². In these samples there was made an evaluation of vegetation specie, CBH, total height, commercial height, sociological position and canopy class. Was found the occurrence of 54 forest species and 28 families. The Shannon’s diversity index was 3.63 and shows the great diversity of the fragment. The Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Meliaceae families were the most representative in the forest fragment studied. The species with the most important value were Cupania

  5. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, DF.

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    José Alves da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  6. Composição florística do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de floresta estacional semidecidual na Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG

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    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo das variações florísticas do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, floresta inicial e floresta madura, situados na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. As espécies arbóreo-arbustivas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, 10 parcelas em cada trecho de floresta, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP  4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostradas 55 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 27 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 10 espécies (18%, seguida de Euphorbiaceae (cinco espécies; 9%, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Salicaceae (três espécies; 6%. Na floresta madura foram amostradas 78 espécies distribuídas em 62 gêneros e 31 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 13 espécies (17%, seguida de Lauraceae e Myrtaceae (seis espécies; 8%, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae e Salicaceae (cinco espécies; 6%, Annonaceae e Meliaceae (quatro espécies, 5%, Rubiaceae e Moraceae (três espécies; 4%. O grupo ecológico que mais se destacou nos dois trechos de floresta foi o das secundárias iniciais, seguido pelas secundárias tardias na floresta madura e pelas pioneiras na floresta inicial. A variabilidade na composição florística e na proporção de espécies em cada grupo ecológico foi resultante das variações na intensidade da ação antrópica nestas florestas e do tempo de regeneração florestal.

  7. Caracterização fitossociológica do estrato arbóreo em um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecidual, em Montenegro, RS Phytosociological characterization of arboreal stratum in a remainder of a semidecidual seasonal forest in Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual antropizado, localizada nas coordenadas 29° 49'S e 52° 25'W, nas proximidades do pólo petroquímico no município de Montenegro (RS, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos. A amostragem foi sistemática constituída de 21 faixas com 10m de largura e comprimento variável de acordo com a extensão da floresta, distantes entre si em 80m, onde foram distribuídas parcelas contíguas de 10 x 10m (100m². Foram avaliados indivíduos que apresentavam circunferência à altura do peito (CAP>15cm, totalizando 3.854 indivíduos (1,83ha, distribuídos em 81 espécies, 59 gêneros e 32 famílias. As famílias botânicas mais representativas na formação foram Myrtaceae (13 espécies, Fabaceae (7, Lauraceae (6, Meliaceae (5, Moraceae e Euphorbiaceae (4. As espécies mais características e importantes da floresta foram Sebastiania commersoniana, Casearia sylvestris, Myrsine umbellata, Mimosa bimucronata, Allophylus edulis e Syagrus romanzoffiana, representando 51,52 % do VI. A floresta apresentou média diversidade, com índice de Shannon de 1,9948 (nats., indicando antropismo.This research was developed in a Semideciduous Seasonal Forest located at coordinates (29° 49'S; 52° 25'W in Montenegro Petrochemical pole, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aiming at studying the floristic and phytossociological aspects of the forest. Sampling was systematic and composed of 21 strips (10m wide and variable length according to fragment extension located 80m apart. In the strips the distribution was in contiguous 10 X 10m plots (100m². Individuals that presented circumference at breast height (CBH>15cm, totaling 3.854 individuals (1,83ha, distributed in 81 species, 59 geneus and 32 families were appraised. The most representative botanic families in the forest formation were Myrtaceae (13 species; Fabaceae (7, Lauraceae (6; Meliaceae (5

  8. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FLORÍSTICA, FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DO SUB-BOSQUE DA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL TAMANDUÁ, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão João Marcelo de Rezende

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  9. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  10. Ação de extrato e óleo de nim no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Action of extract and oil neem in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais orgânicos e óleos emulsionáveis de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar seus efeitos no controle de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos hexânicos e alcoólicos a 2% (peso/volume, em testes de imersão, durante 5 minutos, preparados com sementes, solubilizados em dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a 1%. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por 6 tratamentos e 5 repetições, cada uma delas representada por 5 carrapatos. O grupo controle consistiu de fêmeas sem tratamento. Com base nos resultados deste trabalho, pode-se indicar que os tratamentos extrato de semente (hexano e óleo emulsionável I¹, em concentração a 2%, possuem significativo potencial adjuvante de controle do carrapato bovino, pois ocasionam a mortalidade nos primeiros dias após o tratamento e interferem na reprodução, mostrando ser uma alternativa aos carrapaticidas normalmente utilizados.Organic plant extracts and emulsified oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem were studied to evaluate its effects in control of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in the laboratory. Hexane and alcoholic organic extracts, 2% (weight/volume were used in tests of immersion for 5 minutes, prepared with seeds, solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to 1%. The experiment was entirely randomized, consisting of 6 treatments and 5 replicates, each represented by 5 ticks. Control groups consisted of untreated females. Based on the results of this work, we can indicate that the seed extract (hexanic fraction and óleo emulsionável I1 concentration to 2% have significant adjuvant potential to control the cattle tick, because, cause the mortality in the first days after the treatment and interfere in the reproduction, showing to be an alternative to acaricides normally used.

  11. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  12. Methodology for the insecticide potential evaluation of forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocides effects to pest control and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts, and test with Artemia Salina, leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm). The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer and Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  13. Especies maderables y no maderables con sustancias colorantes utilizadas para el teñido y pintado de telas en 19 comunidades indígenas de la región Ucayali, Perú

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    Luisa Riveros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación se llevó a cabo en 19 comunidades indígenas de la etnia Shipibo-Conibo, en la Región Ucayali, con el objetivo de determinar que especies maderables y no  maderables son utilizadas, como materia prima para teñir o dibujar líneas en las telas, con el diseño característico de este grupo étnico.  La metodología utilizada fue descriptiva, con visitas a las diferentes comunidades indígenas, talleres participativos, conversaciones con los artesanos más experimentados y colecta botánica de las especies señaladas por ellos.  Se logró determinar que las especies con sustancias de coloración más utilizadas son Swietenia macrophylla (caoba, Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana  (Meliaceae, Terminalia oblonga, Terminalia sp., Buchenavia parvifolia (Combretaceae, y Picramnia juniniana (Simaroubaceae. Las tonalidades que proporcionan son rojos, café oscuro, café claro y en el caso de Picramnia juniniana, lila. Los componentes químicos encontrados en las sustancias colorantes fueron taninos, flavonoides, lactonas y quinonas.

  14. Variations in log quality of eighteen years old Toona ciliata M. Roem.

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    Otávio Augusto Carvalho Nassur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae contains the most valuable timber species found in tropical regions. However, plantation of such species in their natural range is limited by damages from shoot borers of the genus Hypsipyla. Nevertheless, specifically in Brazil, the commercial cultivation of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata has been successful for presenting a satisfactory vegetative growth, adapting to the Brazilian soil and climate, but especially for being resistant to the cedar shoot borer attacks. In spite of these favorable conditions, the majority of existing T.ciliata commercial plantations is still recent and little is known about the log quality destined for timber industries. In this sense, the present work aims at qualifying logs of 18 years old trees, with dimensions fit for sawing and grown on plantations for timber industries. From the data gathered it will be possible to assess the variability between trees in order to define forest management strategies and of breed improvements for the species. It was used eighteen years old trees from the city of Marechal Floriano – Espírito Santo state. The logs were previously measured and their defects were evaluated afterwards and from which, the trees were classified. The classification showed that the most significant defects were knots and bumps and the least pronounced defect was the log taper. The trees showed significant variations regarding the defects, suggesting the need for breeding programs in association with improved forest management practices.

  15. FLORISTIC OF NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF REMINISCENT SEASONAL SEMI-DECIDUAS FOREST IN THE ALTO RIO GRANDE REGION MINAS GERAIS

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    Valéria Evangelista Gomes Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Information was gathered in rural communities of the south of the State of Minas Gerais, microregion of Alto RioGrande, municipalities of Lavas, Carrancas, Ingaí, Itumirim and Itutinga, which ones, how and what for, the native semideciduousforest species plants, in this kind of vegetation, are used for popular medicine. The inquiring method used was that proposed byAlencar & Gomes (1998 and the survey and data analysis were based on Trivinos method. Eight informants participated in the fieldwork. For each medicinal species that was sampled, notes were taken on habit and the level of occurrence. In 12 sample areas, 351individuals belonging to 64 families, 112 genres and 142 species, were surveyed. The families that presented the largest number ofnative medicinal species, were: Fabaceae - 11; Asteraceae - 10; Annonaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae - 7; Solanaceae - 5;Aristolochiaceae, Lamiaceae, e Malvaceae - 4; Anacardiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Rutaceae - 3; these speciescontributed with 56,7% of the total. The genres that presented the largest number of native medicinal species were: Aristolochia eEugenia - 4; Luehea, Mikania, Solanum, Vitex e Xylopia - 3. The occurrence of rare species in the studied forest fragments was alsoverified, among which were: Geissospermum laeve (Vell. Miers., Capsicodendron dinisii (Schwacke Occhioni, Citronella gongonha(Mart. R. A. Howard, Maytenus aquifolia Mart., Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke, Virola sebifera Aubl., Eugenia pleuranthaO. Berg, Baufourodendron riedelianum (Engl. Engl., Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil., e Styrax pohlii A. DC.

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Toonaciliatin K against Adjuvant Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, HaiXing; Ye, Jie; Wang, YiRu; Xu, XiaoLi; Shen, QiXing; Xue, JingWei; Zhao, Jie; Lu, XinGang

    2017-01-01

    Toonaciliatin K is a natural limonoid purified from the Toona ciliata Roem. var. ciliata (Meliaceae). This study is to reveal the inflammatory suppression effect of toonaciliatin K and further the intrinsic mechanism. Firstly, anti-inflammatory effect of toonaciliatin K was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA expressions of TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β were downregulated by toonaciliatin K. The toonaciliatin K inhibited TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β levels stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, LPS elicited the excess iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein production and toonaciliatin K attenuated the excess production. Western blot assay demonstrated that MAPK and NF- κ B signaling pathways play critical roles in the toonaciliatin K's anti-inflammatory activity. Secondly, toonaciliatin K inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thirdly, toonaciliatin K alleviated the paw swelling and improved arthritis clinical scores in the adjuvant arthritis rats. Toonaciliatin K decreased the proinflammatory cytokines levels and Mankin scores in adjuvant arthritis rats. The HE staining, safranin O-fast green, and toluidine blue staining results demonstrated that toonaciliatin K alleviated the histological changes of paw, for example, pannus formation, focal loss of cartilage, bone erosion, and presence of extra-articular inflammation. Hence, toonaciliatin K is a promising agent for treatment of arthritis.

  17. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response.

  18. Traditional medicine in north Côte-d'Ivoire: screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, W M; Atindehou, K Kamanzi; Terreaux, C; Hostettmann, K; Traoré, D; Dosso, M

    2004-07-01

    Sixty-seven crude ethanol extracts from 50 plants (31 families), which are used in North Côte-d'Ivoire as traditional remedies for bacterial diseases, were screened for in vitro activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Thirty-one extracts showed antibacterial activity only on Gram positive bacteria. Of these, 10 extracts from 10 plant species had a promising level of activity against bacteria including strains resistant to antibiotics such as aminosides, penicillin M, macrolides, lincosamide and streptrogramin B. The most active was Erythrina senegalensis DC (Fabaceae) followed by Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema (Caesalpinaceae), Waltheria lanceolata R. Br. ex Mast. (Sterculiaceae), Uapaca togoensis Pax. (Euphorbiaceae), Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae), Khaya senegalensis (Ders.) A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Lannea acida A. Rich. (Anacardiaceae), Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae), Keetia hispida (Benth.) Bridson (Rubiaceae) and Ficus thonningii (Miq.) A. Rich. (Moraceae). This is the first report of the antibacterial potency of these 10 plant species on a range of bacteria. The results provided evidence that some of the studied plants might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents, also against some antibiotic-resistant strains.

  19. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

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    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  20. Control experiments with yellow jacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) injuring cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Yeruham, I; Kolsky, O; Saran, A

    1998-04-01

    Injuries caused by the German yellow jacket Vespula germanica F. to dry and lactating dairy cows (Bos tourus) in 5 herds in Israel were monitored and adversely affected < or = 65% of the cows. Elimination of large alternative protein sources (placentas, sewage containing milk from the milking parlor), and prebaiting with high-quality minced meat (or fish) in adequate numbers of baiting cages around the dairy farm for several days, are necessary for successful control. Significant control was achieved after a shorter period of time when the dairy farm was surrounded by a smaller area of uncultivated land than by a larger area. At some dairy farms there were significant differences among numbers of wasps visiting the various cage sites and significant variability between baiting days. Efficient and significant control was achieved by minced meat bait containing 1.5% acephate (orthene) and 2% microencapsulated diazinon (Antikan). Wasps were totally repelled by minced meat bait containing 2.25% of a plant-derived bioinsecticide derived from Meliaceae (Ag1000). The potential of using Ag 1000 for repelling yellow jackets from teats and udders of dairy cows is discussed.

  1. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Toonaciliatin K against Adjuvant Arthritis

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    HaiXing Gou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toonaciliatin K is a natural limonoid purified from the Toona ciliata Roem. var. ciliata (Meliaceae. This study is to reveal the inflammatory suppression effect of toonaciliatin K and further the intrinsic mechanism. Firstly, anti-inflammatory effect of toonaciliatin K was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were downregulated by toonaciliatin K. The toonaciliatin K inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, LPS elicited the excess iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein production and toonaciliatin K attenuated the excess production. Western blot assay demonstrated that MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the toonaciliatin K’s anti-inflammatory activity. Secondly, toonaciliatin K inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thirdly, toonaciliatin K alleviated the paw swelling and improved arthritis clinical scores in the adjuvant arthritis rats. Toonaciliatin K decreased the proinflammatory cytokines levels and Mankin scores in adjuvant arthritis rats. The HE staining, safranin O-fast green, and toluidine blue staining results demonstrated that toonaciliatin K alleviated the histological changes of paw, for example, pannus formation, focal loss of cartilage, bone erosion, and presence of extra-articular inflammation. Hence, toonaciliatin K is a promising agent for treatment of arthritis.

  3. Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease

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    Bruno Burlando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.

  4. Diversidad de flora vascular del Chocó Andino en el área de Selva Virgen, Ecuador

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    Ximena Aguirre Ulloa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El bosque junto a la Hostería Selva Virgen, ubicado en el noroccidente de Pichincha, zona del Chocó Andino, es uno de los sitios de alta biodiversidad (hotspot del mundo; lo cual se determinó en el análisis de su flora vascular. Para dicho análisis se implementó un muestreo con transectos temporales de 50 x 4 y 50 x 2 m que cubren una superficie de 0.1 hectáreas. Se calcularon los índices de Sorensen, Simpson y Shannon, con el programa Past, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados: 159 especies (spp. registradas, que corresponden a 121 géneros y 54 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies fueron: Moraceae 15 spp, Rubiaceae 10 spp, Arecaceae 9 spp, Fabaceae 9 spp, Melastomataceae 8 spp y Meliaceae 8 spp. La diversidad obtuvo un valor de 0.95 en el índice de Simpson, que se interpreta como alta diversidad. La riqueza fue de 0.33, riqueza media. El índice de Sorensen identifica espacios que comparten el mayor número de especies. El endemismo es bajo: 6.25%. La alta biodiversidad encontrada en el bosque, demuestra una riqueza biológica importante, que sugiere la realización de más estudios en esta zona poco explorada desde el punto de vista biológico.

  5. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  6. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhl

    Full Text Available The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea. The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata and 50 percent (G. glabra of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  7. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantoni, L; Giusti, F; Cristofaro, M; Pasqualini, L; Esposito, F; Lupetti, P; Habluetzel, A

    2006-12-01

    Secondary metabolites of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have addressed the effects of neem extracts or compounds in arthropods of medical importance. In this study, a laboratory strain of Anopheles stephensi was used to assess the effects of a commercial formulation (Neem Azal) (NA)), containing azadirachtin A at 34%, on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure. Oral administration of Neem Azal) to A. stephensi females through artificial blood meals did impair blood intake and oviposition in a concentration dependent manner. Similar results were obtained on females, which had consumed Neem Azal) in sucrose solution before taking a blood meal of plain blood. Neem treated females displayed a delay in oocyte development in both the phase of vitellogenesis and the phase of choriogenesis. The ultrastructural studies on ovaries from Neem Azal) treated females revealed distinct structural modifications indicative of: (i) a complete block of oogenesis, (ii) impairment of vitellogenesis and vitelline envelope formation, (iii) a severe degeneration of follicle cells. In agreement with results obtained in other insects, this study indicates that Neem Azal) impairs hormone control of oogenesis and exerts a cytotoxic effect on both follicular cells and oocytes of the Asian malaria vector A. stephensi.

  8. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

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    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  9. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

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    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  10. STRUKTUR DAN KOMPOSISI JENIS HUTAN MANGROVE DI GOLO SEPANG – KECAMATAN BOLENG KABUPATEN MANGGARAI BARAT

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    M. Hidayatullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mangrove forest structure and composition in Golo Sepang Village, Manggarai Barat District. Important value index and diversity index value obtained from mangrove vegetation analysis were used as indicators for determining mangrove forest structure and diversity. Transect method with square frame along the line was applied in vegetation analysis. Totally 10 lines and 30 plots were applied for getting types of mangrove, growth parametersvalue (height and diameter and others related information. This study found that the stucture of mangrove consist of 5 familyes with 10 species, namely: Rhizophoraceae (Ceriops tagal (Perr, Rhizophora apiculata (Bi, R. mucronata Lmk., Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb., B. sexangula (Lour dan B. gymnorrizha (L. Lamk., Fabaceae (Derris trifoliata Lour, Meliaceae (Xylocarpus granatum Koen, Pteridaceae (Acrosthicum aereum Linn and Lythraceae (Phempis acidula Forst. R. apiculata (Bi is the most dominant species founded in 7 of 10 total sites. Two sites, Sotri and Muara Kiri, have the highest important value index (300% for R. Apiculata species. The highest individual density is found at Sotri site, with value 1.300 tree/hectare, while the lowest density, 100 trees/hectare is found at Muara Kanan site. In diversity of mangrove, all sites were categorized as low with highest diversity index value 1,06.Keywords: Mangrove forest, structure and composition, Golo Sepang

  11. CURSO DIÁRIO E SAZONAL DO POTENCIAL HÍDRICO FOLIAR DE MOGNO EM SISTEMAAGROFLORESTAL1

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    Ronaldo Ribeiro de Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o curso diário e sazonal do potencial hídrico foliar de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae em sistema agroflorestal (SAF. O experimento foi realizado em árvores de S. macrophylla plantadas num sistema agroflorestal instalado no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, AM. Avaliou-se o potencial hídrico foliar (Ψf dos cursos diário e sazonal nos anos 2004 e 2005, por meio da utilização de bomba de pressão tipo Scholander. Os resultados indicaram que os valores do Ψf de S. macrophylla, de modo geral, foram superiores no início da manhã e no final da tarde, com redução acentuada ao meio-dia, e que, em relação à sazonalidade de precipitação, as menores taxas foram reportadas para a época menos chuvosa, variando de -26 bar em 2004 para -31bar em 2005. Verificou-se que o potencial hídrico de Swietenia macrophylla em sistema agroflorestal sofreu reduções significativas em razão dos baixos índices pluviométricos entre junho e outubro de 2005.

  12. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants

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    Mariana Laundry de Mesquita

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae, Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae, Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae, Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae, and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae. With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae, and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  13. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Mariana Laundry de; Desrivot, Julie; Bories, Christian; Fournet, Alain; Paula, José Elias de; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2005-11-01

    The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50) between 0.1-10 microg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 microg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  14. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  15. Capturing chloroplast variation for molecular ecology studies: a simple next generation sequencing approach applied to a rainforest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Hannah; van der Merwe, Marlien; Delaney, Sven K; Edwards, Mark A; Henry, Robert J; McIntosh, Emma; Rymer, Paul D; Milner, Melita L; Siow, Juelian; Rossetto, Maurizio

    2013-03-14

    With high quantity and quality data production and low cost, next generation sequencing has the potential to provide new opportunities for plant phylogeographic studies on single and multiple species. Here we present an approach for in silicio chloroplast DNA assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism detection from short-read shotgun sequencing. The approach is simple and effective and can be implemented using standard bioinformatic tools. The chloroplast genome of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae), 159,514 base pairs long, was assembled from shotgun sequencing on the Illumina platform using de novo assembly of contigs. To evaluate its practicality, value and quality, we compared the short read assembly with an assembly completed using 454 data obtained after chloroplast DNA isolation. Sanger sequence verifications indicated that the Illumina dataset outperformed the longer read 454 data. Pooling of several individuals during preparation of the shotgun library enabled detection of informative chloroplast SNP markers. Following validation, we used the identified SNPs for a preliminary phylogeographic study of T. ciliata in Australia and to confirm low diversity across the distribution. Our approach provides a simple method for construction of whole chloroplast genomes from shotgun sequencing of whole genomic DNA using short-read data and no available closely related reference genome (e.g. from the same species or genus). The high coverage of Illumina sequence data also renders this method appropriate for multiplexing and SNP discovery and therefore a useful approach for landscape level studies of evolutionary ecology.

  16. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions.

  17. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  18. Target and non-target response of Swietenia Mahagoni Jacq. chemical constituents against tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab. and earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh-Kumar, Anandan; Srimaan, Elangovan; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Karthi, Sengodan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Kanagaraj; Shyam-Sundar, Narayanan; Annamalai, Mahendiran; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2018-05-01

    Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86.82 ppm respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations (30 ppm) showed higher larval and pupal durations. However, pupal weight and mean fecundity rate reduced significantly. Similarly, the adult longevity reduced significantly in dose dependent manner. Midgut histology studies showed that the methanolic extracts significantly disturbs the gut epithelial layer, lumen and brush border membrane compare to the control. The soil assay on a non-target beneficial organism, the soil indicator earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, with extracts from S. mahagoni (200 mg/kg) showed no toxicity compared to Monocrotophos at the dosage of 10 ppm/kg. Current results suggest that this bio-rational plant product from S. mahagoni displays a significant effect to reduce lepidopteran pests with low toxicity to other beneficial species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Structural characterization of the gallery forest of the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the gallery forest of the Cupaynicú stream, belonging to the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station, with the objective of characterizing its structure. Eight parcels of 500 m2 were randomly raised, in them the species were identified, their height and diameter were measured. The flora was analyzed through the origin of the species and the frequency histogram. The structure of the forest was analyzed through the diametric structure and the Value Index of Ecological Importance, the vertical structure was described taking into consideration the forest strata as well as the preparation of the canopy diagram. A descriptive analysis of the parameters diameter, height and basal area was made to study the parametric structure. The richness of the riparian forest was evidenced by the registry of 25 families, 40 genera and 43 species, as well as the predominance of the Meliaceae family followed by Lauraceae, Mimosaceae and Sapindaceae, which reflects the high timber value, melliferous and ecological of the same. The species Roystonea regia, Sterculiaapetala, Dendropanaxarboreus, Andirainermis and Mangifera indica, determine the physiognomy of the gallery Forest. The trees reach 33 cm in diameter and 18.27 m in height on average, although the presence of trees with 30 m is the most frequent, which denotes the irregular structure of the forest.

  20. Allometric relationships predicting foliar biomass and leaf area:sapwood area ratio from tree height in five Costa Rican rain forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Alvarado, J C; McDowell, N G; Waring, R H

    2008-11-01

    We developed allometric equations to predict whole-tree leaf area (A(l)), leaf biomass (M(l)) and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(l):A(s)) in five rain forest tree species of Costa Rica: Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Fabaceae/Mim), Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae), Vochysia ferru-gi-nea Mart. (Vochysiaceae), Virola koshnii Warb. (Myristicaceae) and Tetragastris panamensis (Engl.) Kuntze (Burseraceae). By destructive analyses (n = 11-14 trees per species), we observed strong nonlinear allometric relationships (r(2) > or = 0.9) for predicting A(l) or M(l) from stem diameters or A(s) measured at breast height. Linear relationships were less accurate. In general, A(l):A(s) at breast height increased linearly with tree height except for Penta-clethra, which showed a negative trend. All species, however, showed increased total A(l) with height. The observation that four of the five species increased in A(l):A(s) with height is consistent with hypotheses about trade--offs between morphological and anatomical adaptations that favor efficient water flow through variation in the amount of leaf area supported by sapwood and those imposed by the need to respond quickly to light gaps in the canopy.

  1. Trichilia catigua: therapeutic and cosmetic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Longhini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants play an important role in human health care. It is estimated that about 25–30% of all drugs are evaluated as therapeutic agents derived from natural products. Research in the pharmaceutical industry has demonstrated that for complex diseases, natural products still represent a valuable source for the production of new chemical compounds, since they possess privileged structures. Among Brazilian biodiversity, "catuaba" is popularly used as a tonic to treat fatigue, stress, impotence, memory deficits, and digestive disorders. Studies show antibacterial, trypanocidal, antioxidant, antiarrhythmic, antidepressant, improvement of memory, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, as well as phytocosmetic activity in cellulite treatment and in anti-ageing. The Brazilian plants known and used as catuaba are represented by more than twenty different species; however, the plant most commonly found in Brazil as "catuaba" is the species Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a review of T. catigua, with emphasis on biological activities, chemical and analytical development and formulations in order to provide a broader and deeper insight, seeking a herbal medicine and/or phytocosmetic as well as future prospects for commercial exploitation and directions for future studies.

  2. Preliminary results on in vitro mutagenesis studies on Lansium domesticum Corr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Sakinah Ariffin

    2000-01-01

    Dokong (Lansium domesticum Corr.) which belongs to the family Meliaceae is an important fruit trees for the Malaysian fruit industry. Despite the various types that have been identified, the genetic variability is still too narrow for meaningful breeding efforts. Dokong also has long juvenility period and the fruits are pathenocarpically developed. The fruits are often not uniform in size, the tree is prone to bark borers, and the tree architecture needs a lot of pruning for better fruit formation and facilitate easier harvesting. A lot of breeding efforts is needed to improve the genetic characteristics of this species before it can really have an industrial impact. Induced mutation and in vitro culture are two approaches which may be more efficient for genetic improvement. Results of radiosensitivity studies showed that irradiation doses between 50 and 70 Gy is effective enough to induced mutations in seeds. Initial attempts to develop in vitro cultures of Lansium showed that shoot-tips and axillary buds can be cultured to produce plantlets in a medium containing 3 mg/L kinetin and 4 mg/L indoleacetic acid. The procedures can be optimised to develop an efficient micropropagation system. However, attempts to initiate callus cultures have not been successful

  3. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  4. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN IBITURUNA COUNTY, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Fernandes da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey describing the physiognomic structure and the species composition and diversityof the tree community was carried out in a fragment of tropical semideciduous forest. The forestfragment, with an area of 57ha, is situated at 21 °09’S of latitude and 44 °50’W of longitude, in Ibiturunacounty, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The surveys were carried out in two sectors of the fragment,Slope and Valley, where 26 (20 ×20m plots were located. All trees with diameter at breast height dbh ≥ 5 cm were identified and measured (diameter and height. The survey registered 1008 tree,distributed in 191 species, 128 genera and 54 families; 20 species were added to this total andregistered during incursions outside the plots. The Fabaceae (Leguminosae family stood out for itsrichness of species (30 and genera (18, representing 15,7% of the total species registered. In secondplace, the Myrtaceae family presented 20 species and 9 genera, followed by the Lauraceae family,with 17 species and 7 genera. Other families that contributed with an expressive number of specieswere: Meliaceae, with 11; Euphorbiaceae, with 8; Malvaceae and Rubiaceae, both with 7 species.This floristic profile may be considered typical of the semideciduous forests of the region.

  5. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  6. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf ( C. pilosula ), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke ( S. lappa ), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ( I. cylindrical var. major ) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. ( M.toosendan ) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo . These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula , S. lappa , I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  7. Editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Dirk O.; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Respaldiza, Miguel Ángel

    2006-08-01

    The IBA conference has taken place in different countries from all over the world. It started in the United States in 1973, and since then has been held biennially without interruption, becoming the reference meeting on ion beam analysis and related methods and techniques. In its 17th edition, two Spanish laboratories, one from the Universidad de Sevilla and one from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid had the honour and responsibility of organizing the conference. These two laboratories are, so far, the only ones in the country equipped with accelerators dedicated to ion beam analysis; the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Seville and the Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. We took up this task enthusiastically, conscious that Spain has only very recently been equipped with IBA techniques and that this event would highlight to the scientific community of our country the importance and involvement of IBA techniques in new scientific and technological developments. The conference was held at the Melia Sevilla Hotel in Seville, Spain from 26 June-1 July 2005. This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the published proceedings of the conference.

  8. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  9. Evaluation and cross-comparison of vegetation indices for crop monitoring from sentinel-2 and worldview-2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Dercas, Nicholas; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Spyropoulos, Nikolaos V.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers throughout the world are constantly searching for ways to maximize their returns. Remote Sensing applications are designed to provide farmers with timely crop monitoring and production information. Such information can be used to identify crop vigor problems. Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from satellite data have been widely used to assess variations in the physiological state and biophysical properties of vegetation. However, due to the various sensor characteristics, there are differences among VIs derived from multiple sensors for the same target. Therefore, multi-sensor VI capability and effectiveness are critical but complicated issues in the application of multi-sensor vegetation observations. Various factors such as the atmospheric conditions during acquisition, sensor and geometric characteristics, such as viewing angle, field of view, and sun elevation influence direct comparability of vegetation indicators among different sensors. In the present study, two experimental areas were used which are located near the villages Nea Lefki and Melia of Larissa Prefecture in Thessaly Plain area, containing a wheat and a cotton crop, respectively. Two satellite systems with different spatial resolution, WorldView-2 (W2) and Sentinel-2 (S2) with 2 and 10 meters pixel size, were used. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) were calculated and a statistical comparison of the VIs was made to designate their correlation and dependency. Finally, several other innovative indices were calculated and compared to evaluate their effectiveness in the detection of problematic plant growth areas.

  10. Comparison between the growth and development of some cultured plants among different regions of Kish Island

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    Narsis HAGHIGHI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kish Island is located in the Persian Gulf on the mainland Iran. Salinity and the use of low quality water affect the ornamental aspects of species. Plants in Kish Island irrigated by low quality water face with salt and drought stress. The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of Tecoma stans (L. Juss. ex Kunth, Euonymus sp., Conocarpus erectus Jack, Ficus benjamina L., Ficus bengalensis L., Melia azadirachta L. and Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook. Raf in four different regions (Sanaie, Sadaf, Pavion and Saffain of Kish Island regarding the growth, development and ornamental characteristics. During the assay, March-September, the plant height, leaf area, leaf number, chlorophyll and proline content, stem diameter and height, and dry and fresh weight of leaf were measured twice. C. erectus and F. bengalensis were recommended for the considered regions in Kish Island. Furthermore, D. regia was ideal for Sadaf and Pavion regions. This study may be useful in selecting suitable species for the same situation as these different regions in Kish Island.

  11. Response of tropical trees to sulphur dioxide stress and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartshney, C.K.; Mitra, I. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene emission, ascorbic acid content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were measured in four tropical tree species. Six month old saplings of Morus alba Linn., Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Melia-azadirach Linn. and Syzgium jambolina Lamk, were exposed to 0.5 ppm SO{sub 2} for four hours for six consecutive days. Recovery from SO{sub 2} stress was followed for twelve days after termination of the fumigation. SO{sub 2} induced foliar ethylene emission increased during fumigation but declined following termination of fumigation. SO{sub 2} fumigation enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in all four species. Their activities, however, declined on withdrawal of SO{sub 2} stress. Ascorbic acid content decreased due to SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited recovery on termination of fumigation. The response of the four plant species was widely different both during the fumigation period and during post-fumigation recovery regime. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Clarification of Taxonomic Status within the Pseudomonas syringae Species Group Based on a Phylogenomic Analysis

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    Margarita Gomila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae phylogenetic group comprises 15 recognized bacterial species and more than 60 pathovars. The classification and identification of strains is relevant for practical reasons but also for understanding the epidemiology and ecology of this group of plant pathogenic bacteria. Genome-based taxonomic analyses have been introduced recently to clarify the taxonomy of the whole genus. A set of 139 draft and complete genome sequences of strains belonging to all species of the P. syringae group available in public databases were analyzed, together with the genomes of closely related species used as outgroups. Comparative genomics based on the genome sequences of the species type strains in the group allowed the delineation of phylogenomic species and demonstrated that a high proportion of strains included in the study are misclassified. Furthermore, representatives of at least 7 putative novel species were detected. It was also confirmed that P. ficuserectae, P. meliae, and P. savastanoi are later synonyms of P. amygdali and that “P. coronafaciens” should be revived as a nomenspecies.

  13. Toosendanin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through suppression of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Chu, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Yun-Min; Zhu, Jin-Shui; Zhang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid extracted from the bark or fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc and possesses antitumour effects on various human cancer cells. However, its effect on CRC remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of TSN on CRC SW480 cells and the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. Proliferation assay, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining demonstrated TSN dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and induced cell apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in S phase. Confocal laser scanning microscope showed β-catenin transferred to the outside of the nucleus in TSN-treated cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis found that TSN effectively modulated molecules related to apoptosis and AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, TSN administration significantly inhibited CRC growth in a mouse tumor xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TSN inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in CRC cells through suppression of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway, suggesting that TSN may have potential for use in CRC treatment.

  14. Determination of toosendanin in rat plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xintang; Wang, Changhong; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-02-01

    Toosendanin (TSN) is a major triterpenoid existing in Melia toosendan, which has been used as a digestive tract parasiticide and insecticide but with serious hepatotoxicity. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for determination of TSN in rat plasma. Plasma samples were separated on Acquity UPLC(TM) BEH C(18) column with acetonitrile and water as flow phase by gradient elution and determined by quadrupole mass spectrometer in negative selective ion monitoring mode. Usolic acid was used as internal standard. The calibration curves were linear over 0.02-3.0 µg/mL for TSN with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 20 ng/mL in rat plasma. The extraction recoveries of TSN were within 74.3-80.7% with an accuracy of 94.5-108.9%. The intra- and inter-day precision values of the assay at three quality control levels were 8.8-13.8% and TSN in rats after a single intravenous and oral administration of 2 and 60 mg/kg. The shorter T(max) , higher V(d) and Cl of TSN after oral administration indicated that TSN could be absorbed, distributed and eliminated quickly in rats in vivo. The absolute bioavailability of TSN after oral administration was 9.9%. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Toosendanin inhibits adipogenesis by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Xing; Cheng, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yun; Yin, Wu

    2018-03-15

    Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes. To understand the mechanism, we observed that TSN effectively activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in which TSN increased low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6, disheveled 2, β-catenin, and cyclin D1 expression levels, while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β by enhancing its phosphorylation. Moreover, TSN reduced weight of gonadal white fat and serum triacylglycerol (TAG) content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, the in vivo studies also demonstrated that TSN promoted the expression of β-catenin, but accordingly repressed C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ expression in HFD-induced mice. Overall, TSN is capable of inhibiting the lipogenesis of adipocytes by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, suggesting potential application of TSN as a natural anti-obesity agent.

  16. Toosendanin induces apoptosis through suppression of JNK signaling pathway in HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianming; Qi, Zhichao; Cai, Xueting; Cao, Peng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Shuzhen; Chen, Yijun

    2013-02-01

    Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid isolated from Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., has been found to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. However, the mechanism how TSN induces apoptosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effects of TSN on the growth, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and the involved signaling pathway in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Proliferation of HL-60 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner with the IC(50 (48 h)) of 28 ng/mL. The growth inhibition was due primarily to the S phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Cell apoptosis induced by TSN was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. The increase of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cleaved PARP and caspase-3, and the decrease of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were observed. Western blot analysis indicated that TSN inhibits the CDC42/MEKK1/JNK pathway. Taken together, our study suggested, for the first time, that the pro-apoptotic effects of TSN on HL-60 cells were mediated through JNK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  19. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I.

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after γ -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs

  20. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W.

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after γ-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

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    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  2. effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on the black cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    the present study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma radiation and plant extracts separately or combined on certain biological and histological aspects of the black cut worm agrotis ipsilon (Hufn). , throughout two successive generations. this work comprised the study of effects of two low doses 75 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation as well as two species of plant extracts(M.azedarach and S. terebinthifolius). special stress was given to study the reproductive biology and the histological changes in the gonads of the parental adult males . parental adult females and their f1 generation. - effect of gamma irradiation on p1 and f1 generation: 1. when full grown male pupae were irradiated with the doses of 75 or 150, the number of deposited eggs per mated female was not significantly affected among p1 generations at the two tested radiation doses while it was significantly affected among f1 generation. 2. the eg hatchability percentage among p1 and f1 generations was significantly reduced by increasing the radiation dose applied to p1 male. 3. the two tested doses of gamma irradiation (75 and 150 Gy) did not clearly affect the percentage of mated females among p1 and f1 generations. 4. the average number of spermatophores per mated female was not evidently different from the control.-effect of plant extracts on p1 and f1 generations:1)effect of petroleum ether (p.t) extract treatment on certain biological aspects. 2) effect of acetone extracts treatment on certain biological aspects.3)effect o plant extracts on reproductive biology through p1 generation.4)effect of plant extracts on the reproductive biology through f1 generation.3. the combined effects of irradiation and plant extracts.4.histological effects of different treatments on on gonads of adult and females

  3. Effect of essential oils of medicinal plants on leaf blotch in Tanzania grass Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a helmintosporiose do capim Tanzânia

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    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spots caused by phyto-pathogenic fungi, can reduce the production of forage plants. The essential oils of medicinal plants have antimicrobial potential. The objective here was to evaluate the fungotoxicity in vitro of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill. NE Br ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae and peppermint (Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae on the fungus Helminthosporium sp. and the in vivo effect of these oils and of commercial neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae on leaf blotch in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1. The mycelial growth of the fungus was evaluated over five periods (2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 days from incubation and with five concentrations of essential oils (C1 = 250 ppm; C2 = 500 ppm; C3 = 750 ppm; C4 = 1,000 ppm e C5 = 1,250 ppm. As an alternative control, the preventative and curative effect on leaf blotch of five oil-based treatments were evaluated: lemongrass, citronella, lemon balm, peppermint and neem in four concentrations (2,500; 5,000; 7,500 and 10,000 ppm. The essential oils of lemongrass and citronella were the most effective in reducing mycelial growth of Helminthosporium sp. With the essential oil of lemongrass, the pathogen presented the highest growth concentration (1.250 ppm. The results obtained showed that all the essential oils and concentrations tested presented a preventive and curative effect, reducing the severity of leaf blotch.Manchas foliares, causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos, podem reduzir a produção de forrageiras. Óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade in vitro dos óleos essenciais de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e hortel

  4. A vegetação arbórea do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Baitello

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento florístico da vegetação arbórea da floresta mesófila do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, Município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W pelos métodos de quadrantes e parcelas, incluindo as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito igual ou superior a 10 cm. A utilização dos dois métodos deu-se em função das características fisionômicas, solo e drenagem dos locais amostrados. O método de quadrante envolveu 462 pontos com intervalos de 30 m., e o método de parcelas ca. 26.900 m² (ca. 2,7 ha.. Os parâmetros fitossociológicos serão abordados em futuros trabalhos. Os dados florísticos subsidiaram o reassentamento dos grupos faunísticos, em especial o Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 (mico-leão-preto, dentro das áreas remanescentes. O "check list" inclui também algumas espécies coletadas aleatoriamente em outras áreas do Parque. Constatou-se nas áreas de amostragem e adjacentes 113 espécies, 95 gêneros e 42 famílias, das quais 6 contribuíram com 56% das espécies levantadas. As famílias mais representativas no Parque, envolvendo todos os locais de coleta são: Leguminosae (13 Faboideae, 6 Caesalpinioideae e 6 Mimosoideae, Rutaceae 11, Meliaceae 8, Lauraceae 7, Euphorbiaceae 7 e Myrtaceae 6. A listagem das espécies revela que o Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo apresenta uma vegetação de grande heterogeneidade florística.In a mesophyll forest at the State Park of "Morro do Diabo", in the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, State of São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W the floristic composition was surveyed. The point centered quarter and quadrant methods were used to survey trees with a diameter equal or greater than 10 cm at breast height. These methods were used as a function of soil features, drainage and physionomical characteristics of the place where the samples were taken. The quarter method sampled 462 points with intervals of 30 m, and the other one had an area

  5. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  6. Micropropagação de Cabralea canjerana Micropropagation of Cabralea canjerana

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    Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae (canjarana é uma espécie arbórea nativa brasileira importante para fornecimento de madeira de boa qualidade. As sementes desta espécie não podem ser armazenadas por muito tempo e, por tanto, existe a necessidade do desenvolvimento de técnicas alternativas de propagação como a micropropagação. Neste trabalho, foram realizados experimentos de multiplicação utilizando segmentos nodais, retirados de plantas germinadas in vitro. Os segmentos foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS ou WPM, adicionado de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e, ou, 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP nas concentrações de 2,5 ou 5 µM. Microestacas de rebrotas foram colocadas em meio de cultura MS/2, com a metade da concentração dos sais do meio MS, adicionado de ácido indol 3-butírico (AIB (0, 2,5 e 5 µM. Após sete dias, foram transferidas para meio MS/2 sem auxina e na luz. Na fase de multiplicação, o meio de cultura MS foi mais adequado que o meio WPM. O segmento nodal, em presença de 2,5 µM de BAP, propiciou um dos melhores resultados, com uma taxa de multiplicação de 1,77 por mês, em meio de cultura MS. O enraizamento das microestacas oriundas de rebrotas foi de 87,5% em presença de 5 µM de AIB durante sete dias. A aclimatização foi realizada em casa de vegetação e proporcionou 90% de sobrevivência das mudas após 30 dias. A micropropagação da canjarana a partir de segmentos nodais de mudas cultivadas in vitro é viável para a multiplicação dessa espécie.Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (Meliaceae ("canjarana" is a native tree of economic importance in Brazil. The storage of seeds is of short duration and it is therefore necessary to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species. In this work, multiplication experiments were carried out using nodal segments, excised from in vitro germinated plants. The segments were inoculated in MS or WPM culture medium, supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine

  7. Composição florística de dois trechos em diferentes etapas serais de uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Floristic composition of two sites different seral stages of semideciduous seasonal montane forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Rogério Ferreira Ribas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em dois trechos de floresta semidecídua, com diferentes estádios de sucessão secundária, localizada no município de Viçosa-MG, objetivando verificar variações qualitativas na composição florística. Foram demarcadas, em cada trecho, dez parcelas de 10 x 20 m, nas quais foram inventariados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com circunferência à altura de 130 cm do solo maior ou igual a 5 cm. A similaridade florística entre as parcelas foi avaliada por meio de análise de agrupamentos, utilizando o índice de Sørensen. Foram amostradas 67 espécies no trecho com 15 anos e 69 no trecho com 30 anos. Dentre as espécies exclusivas, 38 foram para o trecho com 15 anos e 40 para o trecho com 30 anos. As famílias Annonaceae, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae e Sapindaceae, com cinco, quatro e quatro espécies cada, respectivamente, e o gênero Nectandra, com duas espécies, foram os taxa mais bem representados no trecho com 15 anos. Por outro lado, as famílias Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae e Myrtaceae, com quatro, três e quatro espécies, respectivamente, e o gênero Ocotea, com três espécies, foram mais bem representados no trecho com 30 anos. A similaridade florística entre parcelas de um mesmo trecho foi considerada alta, tendo sido relacionada à proximidade espacial, o que implica históricos de perturbação e regeneração semelhantes, resultando, conseqüentemente, em composições florísticas mais similares e mesmo estádio de sucessão secundária.This study was carried out in two sites of a semideciduous forest, under different stages of secondary succession in Viçosa, MG to verify qualitative variations in floristic composition. In each site, ten plots of 10 m x 20 m were delimited, with all woody individuals with circumference at 130 cm height from the soil larger than or equal to 5 cm being listed. Floristic similarity among parcels was evaluated through clustering analysis, using the S

  8. Composição florística do estrato arbóreo de floresta Atlântica Interiorana em Araponga - Minas Gerais Tree strtum floristc composition of an Inland Atlantic forest in Araponga - MG

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a composição florística de um fragmento de Floresta e analisar a sua similaridade com outras áreas de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, com o intuito de classificar a tipologia florestal da área de estudo. O levantamento foi realizado em uma trilha interpretativa na Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S e 42º29'47"W, 1.100 m de altitude, região de entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Município de Araponga, MG. A listagem florística foi obtida a partir do levantamento fitossociológico, no qual foram demarcados 150 pontos quadrantes. Foram relacionadas 147 espécies, 98 gêneros e 50 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram: Melastomataceae (14, Leguminosae (11, Myrtaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Annonaceae (7, Flacourtiaceae (7, Lauraceae (7 e Meliaceae (6. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento revelaram que os aspectos de proximidade geográfica e altitude são os principais responsáveis pela similaridade florística de muitas áreas. A vegetação da área de estudo pode ser classificada como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, pelo fato de a sua composição florística mostrar alta similaridade com outras áreas dessa mesma tipologia.The objective of this work was to determine the floristic composition of a forest fragment and to analyze its similarity with other areas of the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and Dense Ombrophylous Forest, in order to classify the forest typology of this area. The survey was carried out in an interpretative trail at the Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S and 42º29'47"W, 1100 m altitude, in the region around the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB, municipality of Araponga, MG. The floristic list was obtained from the phytosociological survey in which 150 quarter-centered-points were established. A total of 147 species, 98 genera and 50 families were found. The families with the greatest

  9. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were

  10. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP > 3,18 cm, totalizando 661 indivíduos pertencentes a 33 famílias, 57 gêneros e 66 espécies. As famílias Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae destacaramse pelo elevado número de espécies. Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg D. Legrand, Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Chodat & Hassl., Dalbergia sp., Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Unonopsis lindmanii R.E. Fr., Guarea kunthiana A. Juss., Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Guarea guidonea (L. Sleumer, Averrhoidium paraguaiense Radlk.e Astronium graveolens Jacq. foram as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' obtido foi 3,413 nats/indivíduo e a eqüabilidade (J' foi 0,815. A densidade e a área basal estimada foi 734,44 indivíduos/ha e 21,32 m²/ha respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho reforçam a necessidade de preservação da mata ciliar do rio da Prata e são de extrema importância para subsidiar projetos de manejo e recomposição nestas formações.The present study describes species richness and diversity, and analyses phythossociologic aspects of a riparian forest at Rio da Prata, Jardim district, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The phytosociological study was carried out on six 150 m transects perpendicular to the river subdivided in 90 quadrats (10 m×10 m. All trees and shrubs with a minimum of 3,18 cm diameter at breast height were recorded, totalizing 661 individuals of 33 families, 57 genera and 66

  11. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  12. Florística das espécies arbóreas de quatro fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua Montana na Fazenda Dona Carolina (Itatiba/Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic of tree species of four fragments of semi-deciduous Seasonal Montana Forest in Dona Carolina Farm (Itatiba/Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Roberta Macedo CERGUEIRA Leonardo Dias MEIRELES

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento florísticoem quatro fragmentos de Floresta EstacionalSemidecídua Montana na Fazenda Dona Carolina,localizada nos municípios de Itatiba e Bragança Paulista,São Paulo, Brasil (22º 56’ 16” S e 46º 42’ 02” W.A Fazenda localiza-se dentro da unidademorfoescultural do Planalto Atlântico, com climaCfa e altitudes entre 775 e 974 m. As espéciesarbóreas de altura 2 metros foram coletadas eidentificadas. Foram amostradas 157 espécies,distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 41 famílias. As famíliasFabaceae (24 spp., Myrtaceae (15 spp., Lauraceae(9 spp. e Meliaceae (9 spp. foram as mais ricasem espécies. A similaridade florística da área emestudo com Florestas Estacionais SemidecíduasMontanas e Submontanas do Estado de São Paulofoi verificada através do índice de Jaccard e dométodo de agrupamento por média de grupos(UPGMA. Uma Twinspan foi realizada paraverificar quais espécies caracterizariam os gruposformados. A área estudada apresentou altasimilaridade florística com os fragmentos localizadosno município de Campinas, não se agrupando como fragmento florestal amostrado no mesmomunicípio. A restauração de áreas degradadas e aconservação de fragmentos localizados nessa regiãodevem, então, considerar a composição florísticados fragmentos adjacentes.A floristic survey was carried out in fourfragments of Semideciduous Seasonal MontaneForest in Dona Carolina Farm, located in themunicipalities of Itatiba and Bragança Paulista,São Paulo, Brazil (22º 56’ 16” S e 46º 42’ 02” W.The Farm is within the Atlantic Plateaumorphosculptural unit, with climate Cfa, between775 and 974 m elevation. Only tree species 2 meters high were collected and identified.A total of 157 species distributed in 109 generaand 41 families were sampled. Fabaceae (24species, Myrtaceae (15, Lauraceae (9 and Meliaceae(9 were the richest families. The floristicsimilarity between the studied area and other Semideciduous

  13. The participation of Wajãpi women from the State of Amapá (Brazil) in the traditional use of medicinal plants--a case study.

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    da Mata, Nely Dayse Santos; de Sousa, Rosinaldo Silva; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2012-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of traditional medicinal plants use to Wajãpi women in the State of Amapá, Brazil, as well as their practices in the local common illnesses of treatment considering the prevailing practice by non-Indians. This study was conducted in the Community of the Wajãpi Indigenous People, a Brazilian territory located in the central western State of Amapá. Wajãpi women were selected for the interview since they have the responsibility to harvest, collect and prepare the preparations. The studied women were residents of four villages. The number of women within these four villages is 24. The findings fell into the following three categories: 1) The daily use of medicinal plants by women and main methods of application. In this category, the botanical families found included Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, Anacardiaceae, Meliaceae, and Rubiaceae. The main forms of use found were teas, baths, maceration, in natura, and juices; 2) Through analysis of illness and treatment records, a lack of knowledge integration in the health system was shown to be due to a variety of gaps and the need of health professionals to be more aware about the local culture which they intend to work with, what could decrease the prevailing barriers between the social groups involved; 3) Traditional knowledge and possible sustainability can be fostered by stimulating the transmission of traditional knowledge from generation to generation, therefore reducing the dependence on industrialized medicines and also by maintaining an appreciation of those practices among youngsters, who tend to question them.

  14. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

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    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  15. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA EM ÁREA DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NA REGIÃO DO ALTO URUGUAI, RS / FLORISTIC AND STRUCTURE IN AREA OF SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST IN THE REGION OF THE ALTO URUGUAI, RS

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    F. R. Lambrecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available           O trabalho teve como objetivos realizar a análise florística das estruturas horizontal e vertical em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED na região do Alto Uruguai, em Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brasil. Foi realizado um censo em uma área amostral de 10.000 m², subdividida em 100 subparcelas de 10x10 m. Realizou-se a mensuração e a identificação de todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas com circunferência a altura do peito (CAP≥ 31,4cm. Com os dados obtidos, foram realizados cálculos de densidade (D, frequência (F, dominância (Do, índice de valor de importância (IVI, índice de valor de cobertura (IVC e a estratificação dos indivíduos. O maior número de espécies concentrou-se na família Fabaceae (10 e o maior número de indivíduos na família Meliaceae (147 ou 25,3%. Trichilia claussenii C. DC. Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Achatocarpus praecox Griseb. e Eugenia rostrifolia D. Legrand representaram 38,28% da densidade relativa e Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Trichilia claussenii, Nectandra megapotamica, Cordia americana (L. Gottshling & J.E.Mill., Phytolacca dioica  L., Achatocarpus praecox, e Eugenia rostrifolia representaram 50,5% da dominância relativa. Considerando a estrutura vertical, as sete espécies mais frequentes apresentaram uma maior quantidade de indivíduos no estrato médio. Conclui-se que a área florestal encontra-se em estágio intermediário de sucessão.

  16. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS E PRODUTIVIDADE DE MINICEPAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO MANEJADAS EM CANALETÕES E TUBETES

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    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs tothe family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and fourfrom the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100 % of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  17. Tree growth variation in the tropical forest: understanding effects of temperature, rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Peter; Sterck, Frank; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-28

    Tropical forest responses to climatic variability have important consequences for global carbon cycling, but are poorly understood. As empirical, correlative studies cannot disentangle the interactive effects of climatic variables on tree growth, we used a tree growth model (IBTREE) to unravel the climate effects on different physiological pathways and in turn on stem growth variation. We parameterized the model for canopy trees of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) from a Thai monsoon forest and compared predicted and measured variation from a tree-ring study over a 30-year period. We used historical climatic variation of minimum and maximum day temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in different combinations to estimate the contribution of each climate factor in explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Running the model with only variation in maximum temperature and rainfall yielded stem growth patterns that explained almost 70% of the observed inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our results show that maximum temperature had a strong negative effect on the stem growth by increasing respiration, reducing stomatal conductance and thus mitigating a higher transpiration demand, and - to a lesser extent - by directly reducing photosynthesis. Although stem growth was rather weakly sensitive to rain, stem growth variation responded strongly and positively to rainfall variation owing to the strong inter-annual fluctuations in rainfall. Minimum temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration did not significantly contribute to explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our innovative approach - combining a simulation model with historical data on tree-ring growth and climate - allowed disentangling the effects of strongly correlated climate variables on growth through different physiological pathways. Similar studies on different species and in different forest types are needed to further improve our understanding of the sensitivity of

  18. Medical pluralism on Mfangano Island: use of medicinal plants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Suba District, Kenya.

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    Nagata, Jason M; Jew, Alan R; Kimeu, John M; Salmen, Charles R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2011-05-17

    Given the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS treatment as well as the high utilization of herbal medicine, many persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are thought to practice medical pluralism, or the adoption of more than one medical system for their care and treatment. Using a cross-sectional study we sought to document and identify the herbal medicines used by persons living with HIV/AIDS on Mfangano Island, Suba District, Nyanza Province, Kenya. We interviewed herbalists and knowledgeable mothers to obtain information regarding medicinal plants, particularly for HIV/AIDS-related symptoms, HIV/AIDS, and chira (an illness concept with similarities to HIV/AIDS regarding sexual transmission and wasting symptoms). Using systematic sampling, 67 persons living with HIV/AIDS (49 of whom were receiving ART) were selected from an Mfangano Island health clinic and participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews with herbalists and mothers identified 40 plant species in 37 genera and 29 families that a person with HIV/AIDS or chira could use for herbal remedies. Overall, 70.1% of persons living with HIV/AIDS had used medicinal plants after HIV diagnosis, most commonly to treat symptoms related to HIV/AIDS. In addition to common vegetables and fruits that can serve medicinal purposes, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae) were the most frequently cited medicinal plants used by persons living with HIV/AIDS. Collaboration and communication between biomedical clinicians and herbalists should be encouraged given high rates of concomitant ART-herb usage. Pharmacological, toxicological, and ART-herb interaction studies based on the plants identified in this study and their constituent ingredients should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual em São Miguel do Oeste, Santa Catarina

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    Geniane Schneider

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p43 A cobertura florestal em Santa Catarina encontra-se reduzida e fragmentada e entre as tipologias florestais mais fortemente afetadas está a Floresta Estacional Decidual. Com objetivo de conhecer a composição e estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional foram demarcadas unidades amostrais de 20 x 20 m, totalizando 0,4 ha. As espécies arbóreas com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP ≥ 25 cm foram avaliadas e identificadas. Foram amostrados 205 indivíduos, de 54 espécies, distribuídas em 44 gêneros e 23 famílias. A estimativa da diversidade arbórea pelo índice Shannon-Weaver (H’ resultou em 3,472 (nats e a equabilidade de Pielou (J’ em 0,870. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae e Sapindaceae e as espécies com as maiores densidades e coberturas foram Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C. Burger, Lanjouw & Boer e Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn. Mez. A riqueza e diversidade da amostra situam-se como intermediárias entre aqueles obtidos para fragmentos de Florestas Estacionais Deciduais, nos levantamentos do Inventário Florístico Florestal de Santa Catarina, evidenciando impacto da exploração e fragmentação nesta formação. Apesar do contexto, a área estudada conserva importante parcela das espécies citadas para essa tipologia florestal.

  20. Rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer: Physiognomy, floristics and diversity in ‘lowland rainforests’ of Meghalaya, India

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    Uma Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lowland rainforests of Meghalaya, India represent the westernmost limit of the rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer. These forests, on the Shillong plateau, are akin to Whitmore's ‘tropical lowland evergreen rainforest’ formation and exhibit striking similarities and conspicuous differences with the equatorial rainforests in Asia-Pacific as well as tropical seasonal rainforests in southwestern China near the Tropic of Cancer. We found these common attributes of the rainforests in Meghalaya: familial composition with predominance of Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrsiticaceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae; deciduousness in evergreen physiognomy; dominance of mega- and mesophanerophytic life-forms; abundance of species with low frequency of occurrence (rare and aggregated species; low proportional abundance of the abundant species; and truncated lognormal abundance distribution. The levels of stand density and stand basal area were comparable with seasonal rainforests in southwestern China, but were lower than equatorial rainforests. Tropical Asian species predominated flora, commanding 95% of the abundance. The differences include overall low stature (height of the forest, inconspicuous stratification in canopy, fewer species and individuals of liana, thicker understory, higher proportion of rare species, absence of locally endemic species and relatively greater dominance of Fagaceae and Theaceae. The richness of species per hectare (S was considerably lower at higher latitudes in Meghalaya than in equatorial rainforests, but was comparable with seasonal rainforests. Shannon's diversity index (H′ = 4.40 nats for ≥10 cm gbh and 4.25 nats for ≥30 cm gbh was lower on higher latitudes in Meghalaya in comparison to species-rich equatorial rainforests, but it was the highest among all lowland rainforests near the Tropic of Cancer.

  1. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  2. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

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    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  3. Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks inTheobroma cacaoagroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.

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    Dawoe, Evans; Asante, Winston; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Bosu, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Biomass of cacao and shade trees was determined using allometric equations. One thousand four hundred and one (1401) shade trees comprising 109 species from 33 families were recorded. Total number of species ranged from 34 to 49. Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniacea) was the most frequently occurring specie and constituted 43.2 % of all shade trees. The most predominant families were Sterculiaceae and Moraceae (10 species each), followed by Meliaceae and Mimosaceae (8 species each) and Caesalpiniacaea (6 species). Shannon diversity indices (H', H max and J') and species richness were low compared to other similar studies. Shade tree densities ranged from 16.2 ± 3.0 to 22.8 ± 1.7 stems ha -1 and differed significantly between sites. Carbon stocks of shade trees differed between sites but were similar in cacao trees. The average C stock in cacao trees was 7.45 ± 0.41 Mg C ha -1 compared with 8.32 ± 1.15 Mg C ha -1 in the shade trees. Cacao landscapes in Ghana have the potential of contributing to forest carbon stocks enhancement by increasing the stocking density of shade trees to recommended levels.

  4. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

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    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  5. In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in Benin as folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothon, Fifa T D; Debiton, Eric; Avlessi, Felicien; Forestier, Christiane; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Sohounhloue, Dominique K C

    2013-03-01

    Extracts from Polygonum senegalensis (Polygonaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Meliaceae) are two important traditionally used medicinal plants in rural Benin to treat many diseases and notably type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of those plants extract: Polygonum senegalensis leaves, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi root. Hydro-alcoholic (50%) extracts were analyzed for their phytochemical content and tested for their inhibition potency on α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antioxidant activities were assessed using the DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH-DA (cell based) assay. Finally, the antibacterial activity was evaluated using MIC determination on four Gram-positive cocci (Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and the yeast Candida albicans. Each extract presented significant α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activities. Polygonum senegalensis leaf extracts were the most active in each in vitro assay with an IC50 = 1.5 μg/ml for α-glucosidase inhibition and an IC50 = 6.8 μg/ml for DPPH scavenging, - 4.5 μmol Fe II/g of dry matter - 9366 μmol Trolox / g DW - for FRAP and ORAC values, respectively. IC50 = 2.3 μg GA / ml for DCFH-DA assay. Concerning its antibacterial activity, a growth inhibitory effect was observed only against three Gram negative bacilli: B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. aureus and the yeast C. albicans at high concentration. The results showed that the semi alcoholic extract of the two studied plants possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, antioxidant potency, and low antibacterial effect.

  6. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

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    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  7. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  8. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

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    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  9. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  10. Effects of insect and decapod exclusion and leaf litter species identity on breakdown rates in a tropical headwater stream

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    José Rincón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran variedad de especies vegetales junto a los ríos tropicales afecta la diversidad de detritos orgánicos que llegan a los arroyos, creando variaciones temporales en cantidad y calidad de hojarasca. Examinamos la influencia de las especies vegetales y de la exclusión de macroinvertebrados sobre la descomposición de hojarasca en la parte alta de un arroyo en las montañas Luquillo de Puerto Rico. Incubamos hojarasca de Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae, Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae, Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae, Manilkara bidentata (Sapotaceae y Prestoea acuminata (Palmae en bolsas descomposición que colocamos en una poza de Quebrada Prieta. Usamos bolsas de malla fina para excluir los macroinvertebrados y de malla gruesa para permitir la entrada a crustáceos decápodos (camarones y cangrejos jóvenes e insectos acuáticos (principalmente efemerópteros, quironómidos y tricópteros. D. excelsa y G. guidonia (en ambos tipos de malla tuvieron tasas de descomposición más altas que C. scheberiana, M. bidentata y P. acuminata. La descomposición fue más rápida para todas las especies de hoja con la malla gruesa, resaltando el papel de los descomponedores en este hábitat. Tras 42 días de esta incubación, las densidades totales de invertebrados, efemerópteros y tricópteros fueron mayores en las bolsas con hojas de D. excelsa y G. guidonia, e inferiores en P. acuminata, C. scheberiana y M. bidentata. A mayor densidad de insectos hubo mayor tasa de descomposición. Nuestros resultados indican la importancia de la especie de las hojas y de la presencia de macroinvertebrados en el proceso de descomposición de hojarasca en partes altas de arroyos tropicales.

  11. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology.

  12. Investigation on scalable high-power lasers with enhanced 'eye-safety' for future weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigotta, S.; Diener, K.; Eichhorn, M.; Galecki, L.; Geiss, L.; Ibach, T.; Scharf, H.; von Salisch, M.; Schöner, J.; Vincent, G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible use of lasers as weapons becomes more and more interesting for military forces. Besides the generation of high laser power and good beam quality, also safety considerations, e. g. concerning eye hazards, are of importance. The MELIAS (medium energy laser in the "eye-safe" spectral domain) project of ISL addresses these issues, and ISL has developed the most powerful solid-state laser in the "eye-safe" wavelength region up to now. "Eye safety" in this context means that light at a wavelength of > 1.4 μm does not penetrate the eye and thus will not be focused onto the retina. The basic principle of this technology is that a laser source needs to be scalable in power to far beyond 100 kW without a significant deterioration in beam quality. ISL has studied a very promising laser technology: the erbium heat-capacity laser. This type of laser is characterised by a compact design, a simple and robust technology and a scaling law which, in principle, allows the generation of laser power far beyond megawatts at small volumes. Previous investigations demonstrated the scalability of the SSHCL and up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms have been obtained. Opticalto- optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained. The residual thermal gradients, due to non perfect pumping homogeneity, negatively affect the performance in terms of laser pulse energy, duration and beam quality. In the course of the next two years, ISL will be designing a 25 to 30 kW erbium heat-capacity laser.

  13. Heavy metal tolerance traits of filamentous fungi isolated from gold and gemstone mining sites

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    Oluwatosin Gbemisola Oladipo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, arsenic (As and iron (Fe. The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd, (0-1000 Cu, (0-400 Pb, (0-500 As and (0-800 Fe concentrations (mgkg-1 incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1, not differing significantly (p > 0.05 from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05 difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.

  14. Identification of amino acid and glutathione N-conjugates of toosendanin: bioactivation of the furan ring mediated by CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinghua; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-15

    Toosendanin (TSN) is a hepatotoxic triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc. Considering that TSN contains the structural alert of the furan ring, it is believed that bioactivation of TSN may be responsible for its toxicity. Herein, the bioactivation potential and metabolism profiles of TSN were investigated. After an oral administration of 10 mg/kg TSN to rats, esterolysis and conjugation with amino acids were identified as the main metabolic pathways. The same types of conjugates were detected in liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent manner. According to the remaining amount of the parent drug, the reactivity of trapping reagents with TSN reactive metabolites was sorted in a decreasing order of N(α)-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-lysine (Boc-Lys) > alanine, lysine, taurine, phenylalanine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, and glutathione (GSH) > cysteine. No conjugates were observed in NADPH and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-supplemented human liver microsomal incubations. Further phenotyping studies and the chemical synthesis of the major conjugated standards proved that TSN was bioactivated by CYP3A4 and yielded a cis-butene-1,4-dial intermediate, which was prone to undergo 1,2-addition with the amino group of amino acids and GSH to form 3-pyrroline-2-one adducts. The sulfydryl group of GSH also attacked the intermediate and yielded S-conjugates by 1,4- or 1,2-addition, which would form pyrrole conjugates by further reacting with the amino group. Compared to the well-recognized S-conjugation of the furan ring, N-conjugation with multiple amino acids and GSH played a more important part in the elimination of reactive metabolites of TSN. The significance of these conjugates requires further investigation.

  15. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

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    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  16. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta estacional semidecidual secundária em Viçosa, MG

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    Antonio Jorge Tourinho Braga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição florística e a estrutura da comunidade arbórea, bem como a distribuição das espécies em diferentes grupos ecológicos e os solos dos estádios inicial e avançado, de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, MG (20°46' S e 42°52' W. O levantamento foi realizado em meio hectare, onde foram alocadas 10 parcelas de 25 x 10 m em cada trecho, sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo (CAP > 15 cm. Registraram-se 820 indivíduos, sendo 440 no trecho de floresta inicial e 380 no de floresta avançada. No levantamento florístico da floresta inicial foram amostradas 76 espécies, pertencentes a 28 famílias, destacando-se como as de maior número de indivíduos Fabaceae (137, Urticaceae (45 e Sapindaceae (41 e, as com os maiores valores de importância, Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speng., Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr., Allophylus sericeus Radlk., Siparuna guianensis Aubl. e Maclura tinctoria (L. Don ex Steud. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,57 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,82. Já na floresta avançada foram amostradas 59 espécies, distribuídas em 26 famílias, das quais Fabaceae (103, Meliaceae (49 e Flacourtiaceae (34 sobressaíram com maior número de indivíduos. Por sua vez, as espécies com os maiores valores de importância foram A. peregrina, Trichilia pallida Swartz, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze., P. gonoacantha, Rollinia silvatica Mart. e S. guianensi. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,49 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,85. No contínuo, o índice de Shannon (H' e a equabilidade (J' foram de 3,82 nat.ind.-1 e 0,84, respectivamente. Cada floresta apresentou distinta identidade florística e estrutural, tendendo a ser minimizada com o avanço da sucessão.

  17. Características dendrométricas de um povoamento de nim indiano (Azadirachta indica A. Juss no semiárido paraibano

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    Francisco Tibério de Alencar Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O Nim (Azadirachia indica A. Juss é uma espécie de múltiplo uso que pertence a família Meliaceae. Por possuir múltiplos usos, o nim tem despertado a atenção e seus produtos têm sido cada vez mais utilizados na área de agricultura. No entanto, aspectos dendrométricos relacionados ao crescimento da espécie ainda são escassos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento da espécie nim plantada em região semiárida do Nordeste brasileiro em dois diferentes espaçamentos. A coleta de dados foi realizada em duas áreas localizadas na Fazenda Laranjeiras, localizada no município de São José de Espinharas, Estado da Paraíba. No plantio-1 o espaçamento usado foi de 5 m x 5 m semeado no ano de 1996, em uma área de 2100 m2 e no plantio-2 o espaçamento usado foi de 4 m x 4 m em 1998, em uma área de 1600 m2. As variáveis medidas foram: DNB-Diâmetro a 0,30 cm do nível do solo (cm, HF-Altura do fuste comercial (m, HT-Altura total (m e DC-Diâmetro de copa (m. A partir destes dados foram calculados o volume cilíndrico (m3/ha, volume real (m3/ha, volume empilhado (st/ha e a área basal (m2/ha. O crescimento do nim indiano na região semiárida paraibana apresentou comportamento semelhante ao de outras áreas experimentais estudadas. Quando se pretende produzir madeira com finalidade energética o espaçamento mais indicado, entre os dois avaliados, é o de menor espaçamento.

  18. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  19. Efeito inseticida sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biótipo B em tomateiro

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    Sheila Salles de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB. A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE. Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB, as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.

  20. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

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    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  1. Induction of Mkp-1 and Nuclear Translocation of Nrf2 by Limonoids from Khaya grandifoliola C.DC Protect L-02 Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    Arnaud F. Kouam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major clinical problem where natural compounds hold promise for its abrogation. Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae is used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases and has been studied for its hepatoprotective properties. Till date, reports showing the hepatoprotective molecular mechanism of the plant are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to identify compounds from the plant bearing hepatoprotective activity and the related molecular mechanism by assessing their effects against acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in normal human liver L-02 cells line. The cells were exposed to APAP (10 mM or co-treated with phytochemical compounds (40 μM over a period of 36 h and, biochemical and molecular parameters assessed. Three known limonoids namely 17-epi-methyl-6-hydroxylangolensate, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin and deacetoxy-7R-hydroxygedunin were identified. The results of cells viability and membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species generation and lipid membrane peroxidation assays, cellular glutathione content determination as well as expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 demonstrated the protective action of the limonoids. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that limonoids inhibited APAP-induced c-Jun N-terminal Kinase phosphorylation (p-JNK, mitochondrial translocation of p-JNK and Bcl2-associated X Protein, and the release of Apoptosis-inducing Factor into the cytosol. Interestingly, limonoids increased the expression of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp-1, an endogenous inhibitor of JNK phosphorylation and, induced the nuclear translocation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor-2 (Nrf2 and decreased the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated Protein-1. The limonoids also reversed the APAP-induced decreased mRNA levels of Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase-1, Glutathione-S-Transferase and Methionine Adenosyltransferase-1A. The obtained results

  2. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

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    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  3. Dinámica de la concentración y acumulación de nutrimentos en los componentes de la biomasa aérea de Cedrela odorata L. en Costa Rica

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    Daniel Ramírez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se planteó el presente estudio con el objetivo de estudiar la dinámica de la concentración y la acumulación de nutrimentos en árboles de Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, para mejorar el conocimiento y la gestión de las plantaciones forestales tropicales. Mediante una serie falsa de tiempo (crono secuencia compuesta por 15 plantaciones en bosque Muy Húmedo Tropical de Costa Rica, se determinó la biomasa aérea, la concentración de nutrimentos y se estimó su acumulación en los componentes de la biomasa en árboles seleccionados. Como resultado se obtuvo que la concentración de los nutrimentos presentó tendencia a disminuir en el orden: nitrógeno > potasio > magnesio > calcio > azufre > fósforo para los macro nutrimentos, mientras que los micro elementos siguen la secuencia hierro > boro > zinc > manganeso > cobre > aluminio. Destacaron los altos valores de concentración de potasio medidos en los pecíolos (1,46 ± 0,48% en contraste con contenidos más bajos de este elemento en el follaje (1,09 ± 0,21%. Se desarrolló modelos de regresión lineal para evaluar el comportamiento de la concentración de nutrimentos y se observó tendencia a la disminución de la concentración nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio y magnesio con el incremento de la edad, al ser este comportamiento más evidente en el potasio del fuste. Por otro lado, los modelos de regresión generados para evaluar el comportamiento de la acumulación de nutrimentos en los distintos componentes de la biomasa presentaron un comportamiento exponencial, con significancia estadística principalmente en el fuste y en el total acumulado. Dichos modelos permiten estimar posibles salidas de nutrimentos del sitio de plantación durante la cosecha, así como el reciclaje de cantidades de nutrimentos en componentes de la biomasa que permanecen en el sitio de plantación.

  4. ROOTING OF MINICUTTINGS AND MANAGED PRODUCTIVITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR MINISTRAINS GROWN IN LIFTED SEEDBEDS AND TUBES

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    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987552The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs to the family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone                                                                      gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and four from the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100% of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  5. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  6. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

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    Balamurugan eP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 value of 200 µg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylaminocyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC¬50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 µg/mL and 65 µg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  7. Mobile Health Technology Interventions for Suicide Prevention: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen

    2018-01-26

    identified mobile applications that appear to present harmful content. The current review will address a gap in the literature by evaluating the efficacy of stand-alone mobile technology tools in suicide prevention. It is imperative that research identifies the evidence base for such tools in suicide prevention in order to inform policy, guide clinical practice, inform users and focus future research. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42017072899; https:// www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017072899  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/ 6tZAj0yqJ). ©Ruth Melia, Kady Francis, Jim Duggan, John Bogue, Mary O'Sullivan, Derek Chambers, Karen Young. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.01.2018.

  8. Composição florística de uma floresta ripária na Reserva Estadual de Porto Ferreira, SP Floristic composition of a riparian forest area in Porto Ferreira State Reserve, State of São Paulo, S.E. Brasil

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    José Eduardo de Arruda Bertoni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicou-se o método de quadrantes (63 pontos na Reserva Estadual de Porto Ferreira (21º49'S e 47º25'W, numa área (l,08ha à margem direita do rio Moji Guaçu, amostrando dois indivíduos lenhosos em cada quadrante: um com fuste mínimo de 130cm e DAP 10cm. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os publicados por outros autores para uma área de mata riparia na Estação Ecológica de Moji Guaçu (Mata da Figueira, cerca de 100 km a montante daquele rio. Em Porto Ferreira, encontraram-se 107 espécies, sendo 80 exclusivas. Das 59 espécies listadas por outros autores para a Mata da Figueira, 31 foram exclusivas. As duas áreas tiveram 27 espécies comuns, com uma similaridade de Sørensen de 48,6%, considerada baixa. A grande heterogeneidade ambiental das várzeas e os diferentes graus de perturbação antrópica poderiam contribuir para essa variação florística. Os maiores números de espécies ocorreram em Leguminosae (20, Myrtaceae (17, Rutaceae (9, Euphorbiaceae (7 e Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae e Rubiaceae (6 espécies cada. Ao nível de família, parece haver poucas diferenças'com as florestas paulistas não inundáveis, mas as espécies mostram diferentes graus de preferência pelo habitat. As duas áreas apresentaram uma mistura de espécies típicas com outras de florestas nâo inundáveis. Estas ocorreriam na várzea em decorrência de, principalmente: a adaptações do sistema radicular a períodos relativamente curtos de inundação; b menor tempo de inundação nos pontos mais elevados do microrrelevo da várzea; c maior aeração provocada pela água corrente.The point-centred quarter method (63 points was applied in Porto Ferreira State Reserve (21º49'S and 47º25'W in an area (1.08ha on the right margin of Moji Guaçu river, including two woody individuals per quarter - one with DBH 10cm. The results obtained were compared with those published by other authors for a riparian forest (Mata da Figueira at Moji Gua

  9. Estrutura do sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo da mata da silvicultura, uma floresta estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa-MG Understory structure of Silvicultura forest, a seasonal tropical forest in Viçosa, Brazil

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    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos em comunidades florestais, tradicionalmente são estudadas apenas a composição e a estrutura do componente arbóreo, relegando o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo ao esquecimento ou ao segundo plano. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a estrutura fitossociológica desse estrato para entender suas relações sinecológicas e, por fim, estudar a distribuição dos indivíduos pelas classes de tamanho para inferir sobre fatores e processos determinantes da organização florestal da Mata da Silvicultura. Para o estudo da fitossociologia da área foram utilizados os parâmetros de abundância obtidos a partir de 100 m² de amostra subdividida em parcelas de 1 m². A estrutura fitossociológica horizontal considerou todos os indivíduos com CAP menor que 10 cm ou com altura maior que 20 cm. Os aspectos dinâmicos foram avaliados por meio da distribuição de tamanhos individuais expressos pelos diâmetros à altura do solo em cada população amostrada. Foram amostrados 1.193 indivíduos de 109 espécies, pertencentes a 41 famílias botânicas, resultando em um índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' de 3,38 e equabilidade (J' de 0,72, valores considerados altos para a heterogeneidade do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Piper lucaeanum, Psychotria conjugens, Olyra micrantha, Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Ottonia leptostachya, Aparisthmium cordatum e Psychotria hastisepala. As famílias mais importantes (VI foram Rubiaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Monimiaceae, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae, Myrtaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae e Flacourtiaceae. Pela análise de distribuição de tamanhos foi levantada a hipótese de existirem dois grupos de espécies, segundo a estratégia que possuem de habitar o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo da Mata da Silvicultura. Um dos grupos seria formado pelas espécies que investem preferencialmente recursos energéticos no sistema caulinar e

  10. Fossil Leaves and Fossil Leaf n-Alkanes: Reconstructing the First Closed Canopied Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Although the age and location is disputed, the rise of the first closed-canopy forest is likely linked with the expansion of angiosperms in the late Cretacous or early Cenozoic. The carbon isotope 'canopy effect' reflects the extent of canopy closure, and is well documented in δ13C values of the leaves and leaf lipids in modern forests. To test the extent of canopy closure among the oldest documented angiosperm tropical forests, we analyzed isotopic characteristics of leaf fossils and leaf waxes from the Guaduas and Cerrejón Formations. The Guaduas Fm. (Maastrichtian) contains some of the earliest angiosperm fossils in the Neotropics, and both leaf morphology and pollen records at this site suggest an open-canopy structure. The Cerrejón Fm. (Paleocene) contains what are believed to be the first recorded fossil leaves from a closed-canopy forest. We analyzed the bulk carbon isotope content (δ13Cleaf) of 199 fossil leaves, as well as the n-alkane concentration and chain-length distribution, and δ13C of alkanes (δ13Clipid) of 73 fossil leaves and adjacent sediment samples. Fossil leaves are dominated by eudicots and include ten modern plant families (Apocynaceae, Bombaceae, Euphorbaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Moraceae, Sapotaceae). We interpreted extent of canopy coverage based on the range of δ13Cleaf values. The narrow range of δ13C values in leaves from the Guaduas Fm (2.7‰) is consistent with an open canopy. A significantly wider range in values (6.3‰) suggests a closed-canopy signature for site 0315 of the Cerrejón Fm,. In contrast, at Site 0318, a lacustrine deposit, leaves had a narrow range (3.3‰) in δ13C values, and this is not consistent with a closed-canopy, but is consistent with leaf assemblages from a forest edge. Leaves that accumulate in lake sediments tend to be biased toward plants living at the lake edge, which do not experience closed-canopy conditions, and do not express the isotopic

  11. Germinação de sementes de Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne (mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum L. f. (cabreúva-vermelha e Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro-rosa. Seed germination of Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne (mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum L. f. (cabreúva-vermelha and Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro-rosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar osefeitos de três fatores externos que influenciama germinação das sementes de três espéciesflorestais nativas do Brasil, visando obterinformações sobre a capacidade de germinar emcondições naturais e recomendar as condições aserem adotadas no teste padrão de germinação.As espécies estudadas foram Lafoensia glyptocarpa(mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum (cabreúvavermelhae Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa e os fatorestestados foram umidade do substrato, temperaturae qualidade de luz. O substrato (30 g de vermiculitapor gerbox foi umedecido com 45, 90 e 135 mLde água destilada e as sementes foram submetidasàs temperaturas constantes de 25 e 30 ºC e alternadade 20-30 ºC, na ausência de luz e sob luzes brancae vermelha, com fotoperíodo de oito horas.Foram avaliados a porcentagem final e o índicede velocidade de germinação das sementes.Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as sementes dastrês espécies são capazes de germinar, em condiçõesnaturais, tanto sob o dossel como em clareiras.O teste padrão de germinação, utilizando a vermiculitacomo substrato, pode ser conduzido com fotoperíodode oito horas sob luz branca, em laboratório,adotando as seguintes condições: 90 a 135 mL deágua a 30 ºC ou 20-30 ºC, para L. glyptocarpa;90 mL de água a 25 ºC, para M. peruiferum; 45 a90 mL de água a 25 ou 30 ºC, para C. fissilis.This research aimed to study the effect ofthree extrinsical factors of seed germination inthree Brazilian tree species, in order to predict theseed capacity to germinate in natural conditionsand to recommend the conditions for the germinationstandard test. Lafoensia glyptocarpa (Lythraceae,Myroxylon peruifereum (Papilionaceae and Cedrelafissilis (Meliaceae were the studied species andsubstrate moisture content, temperature and lightquality were the tested factors. Vermiculite wasused as substrate (30 g/gerbox, moistened with 45,90 and 130 mL of distilled water and

  12. A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    these results a new definition of η is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

  13. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ( 3 H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC 50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2

  14. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cayo; Matas, Isabel M; Bardaji, Leire; Aragón, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    . Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. Kingdom Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Pseudomonadaceae; Genus Pseudomonas; included in genomospecies 2 together with at least P. amygdali, P. ficuserectae, P. meliae and 16 other pathovars from the P. syringae complex (aesculi, ciccaronei, dendropanacis, eriobotryae, glycinea, hibisci, mellea, mori, myricae, phaseolicola, photiniae, sesami, tabaci, ulmi and certain strains of lachrymans and morsprunorum); when a formal proposal is made for the unification of these bacteria, the species name P. amygdali would take priority over P. savastanoi. Gram-negative rods, 0.4-0.8 × 1.0-3.0 μm, aerobic. Motile by one to four polar flagella, rather slow growing, optimal temperatures for growth of 25-30 °C; oxidase negative, arginine dihydrolase negative; elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco; most isolates are fluorescent and levan negative, although some isolates are nonfluorescent and levan positive. P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi causes tumours in cultivated and wild olive and ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Although strains from olive have been reported to infect oleander (Nerium oleander), this is generally not the case; however, strains of P. savastanoi pv. nerii can infect olive. Pathovars fraxini and nerii are differentiated from pathovar savastanoi mostly in their host range, and were not formally recognized until 1996. Literature before about 1996 generally names strains of the three pathovars as P. syringae ssp. savastanoi or P. savastanoi ssp. savastanoi, contributing to confusion on the host range and biological properties. Symptoms of infected trees include hyperplastic growths (tumorous galls or knots) on the stems and branches of the host plant and, occasionally, on leaves and fruits. The pathogen can survive and multiply on aerial plant surfaces, as well as in knots, from where it can be dispersed by rain, wind, insects and human activities, entering the plant through

  15. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    is not good for my blood pressure…remind me not to come to any more gravity conferences!'. The book does not mention this but Feynman's negativity may have resulted from the fact that he attended the meeting primarily to present his early work on quantum gravity. This did not excite the relativists as much as he had hoped, so this may have generated some antipathy. Nevertheless, his impression is interesting because it reflects the prevailing opinion at the time that relativity had made little progress since the 1930s. Feynman clearly did't recognize the significance of the Pound-Rebka experiment (which had recently measured the slowing down of time in the gravitational field of the Earth) or appreciate that a new band of young relativists were instilling fresh energy into the field, unintimidated by the fear (prevalent at the time) of what Einstein might say about their endeavours. The third strength of this book is that it puts Kerr's discovery in broader historical context. It starts with a useful discussion of the earlier development of ideas in special and general relativity. Most of this is well known but it also includes some points which are rarely described in popular accounts. Of particular interest is Melia's account of the exchanges between Einstein and the mathematician David Hilbert in 1915. He suggests that Hilbert may have submitted a paper containing the correct equations of general relativity five days earlier than Einstein, although this is controversial since Einstein's paper was certainly published first and Hilbert may well have modified his own paper after reading it [3]. It is also good to stress the contribution of Emmy Noether, who first found the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This is described in a book by Leon Lederman and Chris Hill [4] as `certainly one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved in guiding the development of modern physics'. Since Kerr was himself a mathematician, one important