Hayes, L E; Langheinrich, K A; Witter, R L
An emaciated wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) exhibiting neurologic signs was found on Ossabaw Island, Chatham County, Georgia (USA) on 11 April 1989. The neurologic abnormalities observed included ataxia, drooping wings, head tremors, torticollis, and circling. At necropsy, discrete yellowish-white nodules, varying in size from 2 to 5 mm, were present in the spleen. White nodular lesions approximately 2 mm in diameter were observed beneath the mucosal surface of the distal esophagus. Histopathologic examination of the splenic nodules disclosed large numbers of primitive lymphoreticular cells with leptochromatic nuclei and abundant, slightly basophilic cytoplasms. The mitotic index in these cells was moderate to high. Similar neoplastic cells composed the masses observed in the esophagus. Multifocal, mild perivascular cuffing with mononuclear cells was found in the lumbar spinal cord, brain, and brain stem. Reticuloendotheliosis virus, subtype 3, was isolated from samples of the spleen and liver.
Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Elferink, M.G.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Blomberg, L.; Fleischer, G.; Groenen, M.
Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production. Genetic improvement is attributed largely to selective breeding programs that rely on highly heritable phenotypic traits, such as body size and
Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson
W e studied the feeding ecology of Merriamâs turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, between 1986 and 1989. Adult birds consumed 78 kinds of food, of which four food categories constituted >79% of winter diets and six food categories constituted >75% of summer diets. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seeds were...
Speller, Camilla Filomena
As one of the New World’s few animal domesticates, the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represented an important resource for the Ancestral Puebloans of the Southwest United States. Despite the rich database of Southwest archaeology, several questions concerning the domestication and use of turkeys remain unanswered, including the geographic origin of turkey domestication, the pre-contact flock management and breeding practices, and the changing roles of wild and domestic turkeys through time. In...
Fritz, B A; Thomas, C B; Yuill, T M
From 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (M. gallopavo intermedia, M. gallopavo merriami and M. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) (n = 724), M. synoviae (MS) (n = 461) and M. meleagridis (MM) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) assay. Subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for antibody to MG (n = 664) and MS (n = 403). Attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas by swabbing the trachea and cloaca of 190 live wild turkeys and from various tissues (sinus, nasal turbinates, trachea, lung, ovaries and oviduct) from 76 turkeys at necropsy. Isolates were identified using an immunobinding assay. Seroprevalence of MG, MS and MM in the RPA test was highly variable among years and geographic sites, ranging from 0 to 85%, 0 to 87%, and 0 to 83%, respectively, for each mycoplasma species. Of the 724 wild turkey sera tested, 200 (28%) were positive using the RPA assay, while only 20 (3%) of 664 sera tested using the HI assay were positive (at a titer greater than/= 1:80) for antibody to MG. Of the 461 sera tested 178 (39%) were RPA positive for MS, whereas none of the 403 samples tested by HI were positive for MS. Antibody to MM was detected in 72 (20%) of 354 turkey sera tested by RPA. Mycoplasmas were cultured from 81 (30%) of 266 wild turkeys, including 48 that were sampled live and 33 that were examined by necropsy. Mycoplasmas were isolated from every population in which culture was attempted. M. gallopavonis (MGP) was isolated from 37 (46%) of 81 birds which yielded mycoplasma, representing seven of 12 populations sampled. MG was isolated from lower respiratory tissues of one Rio Grande wild turkey trapped in Texas. M. synoviae was isolated from five of 16 Merriam's wild turkeys trapped in Arizona. Sera of birds from which MG or MS was isolated were positive to the respective
Andreia Tomás Marques
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small 21-25 nucleotide regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. miRNAs are complementary to the 3′-untranslated regions of mRNA and act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, exhibiting remarkable stability in extracellular fluids such as blood. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo farming is a species economically relevant but the lack of efficient protocols for the evaluation of commercial turkeys prevents to measure the impact of industry practices on birds productivity and welfare. In order to identify potential molecular biomarkers for monitoring stress in turkey’s handling, we investigated by TaqMan qPCR the abundance of five circulating miRNA, namely miR-22, miR-155, miR-181a, miR-204 and miR-365, previously demonstrated to be involved in stress in chicken due to feed deprivation. Road transportation related procedures were selected as stressful model for this study. The serum of twenty healthy animals was collected before and after 2h transportation. Our results demonstrated that miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 are statistically more expressed after road transportation. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC analysis was used to estimate the diagnostic value of these miRNAs to evaluate the stress in animals. The serum level of miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 can discriminate stressed from non-stressed animals with an AUC=0.763, 0.710 and 0.704, respectively, and the average expression of their combination has the same specificity (AUC=0.745. miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 are stress-specific markers and can be considered as suitable biomarkers to identify turkeys stressed by road transportation.
Rami A Dalloul
Full Text Available A synergistic combination of two next-generation sequencing platforms with a detailed comparative BAC physical contig map provided a cost-effective assembly of the genome sequence of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. Heterozygosity of the sequenced source genome allowed discovery of more than 600,000 high quality single nucleotide variants. Despite this heterozygosity, the current genome assembly (∼1.1 Gb includes 917 Mb of sequence assigned to specific turkey chromosomes. Annotation identified nearly 16,000 genes, with 15,093 recognized as protein coding and 611 as non-coding RNA genes. Comparative analysis of the turkey, chicken, and zebra finch genomes, and comparing avian to mammalian species, supports the characteristic stability of avian genomes and identifies genes unique to the avian lineage. Clear differences are seen in number and variety of genes of the avian immune system where expansions and novel genes are less frequent than examples of gene loss. The turkey genome sequence provides resources to further understand the evolution of vertebrate genomes and genetic variation underlying economically important quantitative traits in poultry. This integrated approach may be a model for providing both gene and chromosome level assemblies of other species with agricultural, ecological, and evolutionary interest.
Aslam, Luqman; Beal, Kathryn; Ann Blomberg, Le; Bouffard, Pascal; Burt, David W.; Crasta, Oswald; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Cooper, Kristal; Coulombe, Roger A.; De, Supriyo; Delany, Mary E.; Dodgson, Jerry B.; Dong, Jennifer J.; Evans, Clive; Frederickson, Karin M.; Flicek, Paul; Florea, Liliana; Folkerts, Otto; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Harkins, Tim T.; Herrero, Javier; Hoffmann, Steve; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Jiang, Andrew; de Jong, Pieter; Kaiser, Pete; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Sungwon; Langenberger, David; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Taeheon; Mane, Shrinivasrao; Marcais, Guillaume; Marz, Manja; McElroy, Audrey P.; Modise, Thero; Nefedov, Mikhail; Notredame, Cédric; Paton, Ian R.; Payne, William S.; Pertea, Geo; Prickett, Dennis; Puiu, Daniela; Qioa, Dan; Raineri, Emanuele; Ruffier, Magali; Salzberg, Steven L.; Schatz, Michael C.; Scheuring, Chantel; Schmidt, Carl J.; Schroeder, Steven; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Smith, Edward J.; Smith, Jacqueline; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Stadler, Peter F.; Tafer, Hakim; Tu, Zhijian (Jake); Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Vilella, Albert J.; Williams, Kelly P.; Yorke, James A.; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yang; Reed, Kent M.
A synergistic combination of two next-generation sequencing platforms with a detailed comparative BAC physical contig map provided a cost-effective assembly of the genome sequence of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Heterozygosity of the sequenced source genome allowed discovery of more than 600,000 high quality single nucleotide variants. Despite this heterozygosity, the current genome assembly (∼1.1 Gb) includes 917 Mb of sequence assigned to specific turkey chromosomes. Annotation identified nearly 16,000 genes, with 15,093 recognized as protein coding and 611 as non-coding RNA genes. Comparative analysis of the turkey, chicken, and zebra finch genomes, and comparing avian to mammalian species, supports the characteristic stability of avian genomes and identifies genes unique to the avian lineage. Clear differences are seen in number and variety of genes of the avian immune system where expansions and novel genes are less frequent than examples of gene loss. The turkey genome sequence provides resources to further understand the evolution of vertebrate genomes and genetic variation underlying economically important quantitative traits in poultry. This integrated approach may be a model for providing both gene and chromosome level assemblies of other species with agricultural, ecological, and evolutionary interest. PMID:20838655
Erin Kennedy Thornton
Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.
Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya
Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156
Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho
Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.
Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L
Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ji Eun Kim
Full Text Available Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most susceptible animals known to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, a potent human hepatocarcinogen, and universal maize contaminant. We have demonstrated that such susceptibility is associated with the inability of hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs to detoxify the reactive electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO. Unlike their domestic counterparts, wild turkeys, which are relatively AFB1-resistant, possess hepatic GST-mediated AFBO conjugating activity. Here, we characterized the molecular and functional properties of hepatic alpha-class GSTs (GSTAs from wild and domestic turkeys to shed light on the differences in resistance between these closely related strains. Six alpha-class GST genes (GSTA amplified from wild turkeys (Eastern and Rio Grande subspecies, heritage breed turkeys (Royal Palm and modern domestic (Nicholas strain turkeys were sequenced, and catalytic activities of heterologously-expressed recombinant enzymes determined. Alpha-class identity was affirmed by conserved GST domains and four signature motifs. All GSTAs contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their coding regions: GSTA1.1 (5 SNPs, GSTA1.2 (7, GSTA1.3 (3, GSTA2 (3, GSTA3 (1 and GSTA4 (2. E. coli-expressed GSTAs possessed varying activities toward GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB, ethacrynic acid (ECA, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. As predicted by their relative resistance, livers from domestic turkeys lacked detectable GST-mediated AFBO detoxification activity, whereas those from wild and heritage birds possessed this critical activity, suggesting that intensive breeding and selection resulted in loss of AFB1-protective alleles during domestication. Our observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are down-regulated, silenced, or
Full Text Available Chlamydiosis is a contagious disease of birds, mammals, reptiles and humans. So far it was demonstrated in 469 species of birds and among them, turkeys are the most susceptible domestic poultry species. The disease appears in epizootic form in intensive turkey farming. Since commercial poultry rearing is under-developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, our investigation was based on extensively reared turkeys. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 26 birds and infection was proven by common chlamydial LPS antigen detection tests (IDEIA and CW. We have used rRT-PCR technique targeting chlamydial ompA gene region in order to prove Chlamydia species. Five birds, (19.2% were found positive as judged by IDEIA and CW tests. Among them one was positive Cp. psittaci speciesspecific rRT-PCR, ompA gene.
Microscopically, there was severe diffuse testicular degeneration and necrosis of the germinal epithelial cells, extravasation of spermatozoa into the epididymal interstitium, inciting a granulomatous reaction with arteritis. Based on these findings, sperm cell granuloma was diagnosed. This is probably the first reported case ...
Pre-decomposed (15 days), turkey litter was mixed with cow dung (1:1, w/w) and vermicomposted with earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis for 60 days. The vermicompost thus obtained was amended with regular farmers practice in the field soil for the cultivation of paddy (Oryza sativa, ADT-37) in six different treatments with ...
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 20 legs of ten adult clinically and healthy local and Tom were obtained from Mosul local market, were divided into three groups; the first and second groups were subjected to gross feature regarding to shape, position, relationship of tibiotarsal and fibula in both birds also the length and diameters of shank bone while third group study morphological of muscles, blood and nerve supply of leg. The purpose of this study, this part of the limb is popularly known as the (drum stick, the bird in lowering its body flexes knee and hock joints and this passively tenses these tendons of leg which clamp the digits about the perch, and that is the much longer than the femur and, in spite of importance study to parameters of leg are more economic to choose breed of fertilization depend on the measurement, the outcome of this investigation may served as a guide for successful study of domestic birds in Iraq. The results include in both birds, the leg is consist of tibia fuses with tarsal element, forming tibiotarsus and fiblula articulates with the femur that in contrast to mammals. In Tom the tibia has two cnemial crest in proximal extremity and the distal extremity has tendinal groove, but in local cock it has one cnemial crest of proximal extremity, and it has two tendinal groove in the distal extremity, while hock joint in the Tom and local cock is an intertarsal joint that unites the tibiotarsus with the tarsometatarsus but the stiff joint is similar to that seen in mammals. The mean length of tibiotarsal in Tom 17.99±0.44 cm and the mean length of tibiotarsal in local coke 11.74±0.31 cm, the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in Tom 3.02±0.0021 cm proximal part, 2.21±0.005 cm middle part, 1.94±0.0021 cm distal part, but the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in local coke 2.86±0.048 cm proximal part, 2.02±0.067 cm middle part, 1.51±0.0022 cm distal part. While the mean length of fibula in Tom 11.62±0.21 cm and the mean length of fibula in local coke 7.27±0.32 cm, the mean diameter of fibula in Tom 1.51±0.0021 cm proximal part, 0.81±0.0033 cm middle part, and 0.33±0.0043 cm the distal part,also the mean diameter of fibula in local coke 1.12±0.0025 cm proximal part, 0.51±0.007 cm middle part, and 0.23±0.0054 cm distal part. Tendon of muscles of shank bone in Tom generally ossification but remain that tendon in local cock. Also cranialis tibialis muscle has two head, femoral head is usually smaller than the tibial head and gastrocnimeus muscles is composed of three part into two birds which passes through the planter aspect of the tarsometatarsal joint, as soon as flexor digitorium muscle of both species can be grouped into three morphological level (superficial intermediate and deep, the muscles in turkey are very clearly distinguished are read deep color than it is rose color in local cock, blood, nerve supply and venous drainages of the shank bone in both birds by cranial tibial artery is passage with cranial tibial vein and common fibular nerve.
Jesse M Thomas
Full Text Available Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA. To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47% turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease.
Gyenai, Kwaku Barima
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or round heart disease is a muscle disease of the heart which is characterized by ventricular dilatation and abnormal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. In animals, including turkeys and humans, DCM is the major cause of morbidity and mortality which results from heart failure. In the turkey, DCM can be idiopathic or induced. Since idiopathic or spontaneous DCM occurs in about 1-4% of normal turkeys, it is of significant concern to the poultry indus...
Ramy K. A. Sayed
Full Text Available This work was carried out to describe the morphological characteristics of the choanal slit of the turkey through gross, light, and scanning electron microscopy. The choanal slit measures 27.62 mm long, and constitutes 38.30 % of the total length of the palate. The edges of the narrow part of the choanal slit is smooth rostrally but slightly thickened caudally due to the presence of 2-3 small papillae. The edge of the wide part is thickened because of presence of 5-7 conical and wedge shaped papillae. SEM indicates the presence of median fold within the choana, which represents the direct continuation of the median palatine ridge. After a short distance, this fold bifurcates into right and left folds. Several openings of the palatine salivary glands are demonstrated on the palate at the level of the choanal slit. The epithelium of the oral roof at the level of the choanal slit is stratified squamous epithelium showing intraepithelial sensory corpuscles. This epithelium transforms at the edge of the choanal slit into pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium that interrupted by intraepithelial mucous glands surrounded by lymphatic infiltration and nodules. Altogether, this study provides inclusive information on the macroscopic and microscopic morphological features of the choana in the turkey in comparing with those of the other birds.
Henry, Fabio C.; Valle, Felipe R.F.A. do; Moulin, Carlos H.S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Agropecuarias; Silva, Teofilo J.P.; Franco, Robson M.; Freitas, Monica Q., E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia
Irradiation is known to enhance the sanitary quality and extend the commercial shelf life of many kinds of food such as meat products. In this work, boned breasts from nine male turkeys, slaughtered according to the surveillance requirements of the Brazilian Federal Inspection Service, were purchased from a registered producer. They were then cut, vacuum packed, frozen at -18 degree C, exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 1 and 3kGy and kept in storage at -18 degree C for up to 540 days. Chemical analyses as well as sensory tests for taste, color and overall impression were performed on days 5, 180, 360 and 540 of storage. Statistical analyses were performed in order to investigate possible significant effects arising from the combination of treatments used (a- freezing, b- freezing and irradiation with 1kGy and c- freezing and irradiation with 3kGy) as functions of time. In the beginning of storage, the levels of lipids in samples irradiated with 3 kGy were about twice those found in unirradiated ones, with TBARS values increasing with storage time in all samples. However, the results from the sensory tests performed have indicated that irradiation with doses of 1 and 3 kGy does not significantly impact the acceptance of taste, flavor, color or the overall sensory impression of frozen turkey breast meat. (author)
Boros, Ákos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric
Members of the family Picornaviridae are important pathogens of humans and animals, although compared with the thousands of known bird species (>10 000), only a few (n = 11) picornaviruses have been identified from avian sources. This study reports the metagenomic detection and complete genome characterization of a novel turkey picornavirus from faecal samples collected from eight turkey farms in Hungary. Using RT-PCR, both healthy (two of three) and affected (seven of eight) commercial turkeys with enteric and/or stunting syndrome were shown to be shedding viruses in seven (88 %) of the eight farms. The viral genome sequence (turkey/M176/2011/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ691613) shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity (96 %) to the partial P3 genome region of a picornavirus reported recently in turkey and chickens from the USA and probably belongs to the same species. In the P1 and P2 regions, turkey/M176/2011/HUN is related most closely to, but distinct from, the kobuviruses and turdivirus 1. Complete genome analysis revealed the presence of characteristic picornaviral amino acid motifs, a potential type II-like 5′ UTR internal ribosome entry site (first identified among avian-origin picornaviruses) and a conserved, 48 nt long ‘barbell-like’ structure found at the 3′ UTR of turkey/M176/2011/HUN and members of the picornavirus genera Avihepatovirus and Kobuvirus. The general presence of turkey picornavirus – a novel picornavirus species – in faecal samples from healthy and affected turkeys in Hungary and in the USA suggests the worldwide occurrence and endemic circulation of this virus in turkey farms. Further studies are needed to investigate the aetiological role and pathogenic potential of this picornavirus in food animals. PMID:22875254
Roger A Sunde
Full Text Available The minimum Se requirement for male turkey poults is 0.3 μg Se/g--three times higher than requirements found in rodents--based on liver and gizzard glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4 and GPX1 activities. In addition, turkey liver GPX4 activity is 10-fold higher and GPX1 activity is 10-fold lower than in rats, and both GPX1 and GPX4 mRNA levels are dramatically down-regulated by Se deficiency. Currently, the sequences of all annotated turkey selenoprotein transcripts and proteins in the NCBI database are only "predicted." Thus we initiated cloning and sequencing of the full turkey selenoprotein transcriptome to demonstrate expression of selenoprotein transcripts in the turkey, and to develop tools to investigate Se regulation of the full selenoproteome. Total RNA was isolated from six tissues of Se-adequate adult tom turkeys, and used to prepare reverse-transcription cDNA libraries. PCR primers were designed, based initially on chicken, rodent, porcine, bovine and human sequences and later on turkey shotgun cloning sequences. We report here the cloning of full transcript sequences for 9 selenoproteins, and 3'UTR portions for 15 additional selenoproteins, which include SECIS elements in 22 3'UTRs, and in-frame Sec (UGA codons within coding regions of 19 selenoproteins, including 12 Sec codons in SEPP1. In addition, we sequenced the gap between two contigs from the shotgun cloning of the turkey genome, and found the missing sequence for the turkey Sec-tRNA. RTPCR was used to determine the relative transcript expression in 6 tissues. GPX3 expression was high in all tissues except kidney, GPX1 expression was high in kidney, SEPW1 expression was high in heart, gizzard and muscle, and SELU expression was high in liver. SEPP2, a selenoprotein not found in mammals, was highly expressed in liver but not in other tissues. In summary, transcripts for 24 selenoproteins are expressed in the turkey, not just predicted.
Full Text Available As a young researched I had the option to work on skeletal muscle at the University of Padova, Italy. Introduced to the study of muscle denervation/reinnervation, I started a project on long term denervated muscle that still is my primary interest and took me from rodents’ models of chronic muscle denervation to human spinal cord injury-related muscle denervation and its managements. On the way, I organized a series of conferences in Euganei Hills, Padua, Italy and an international journal, the Basic and Applied Myology. From 2010 this journal changed name to European Journal of Translational Myology, whose contents are focused on Myology, though they have important implications in aging, several neurological disorders and cancer cachexia. A relatively large community of Basic Biologists, Clinicians and Biomedical Technologists (usually meeting separately in very different specialty Conferences recognized the need of a Meeting Series focused on Translational Myology. Thus the Padua Muscle Days (PMD started more than 25 years ago. The next events of the PMD Series will be in Autumn 2017 an one-day Seminar on Easy Aging and a three-day event: The 2017 Fall Padua Experts’ Meeting. During the 2018Spring PMD, the Giovanni Salviati Memorial will be organized to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist, who abruptly disappeared twenty years ago at the peak of his research activities. Many friends and still-active pupils accepted invitation and will provide the backbone of the Program of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDay to be held, March 14-16, 2018 in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy. All these events will be sponsored by the Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology of the University of Padova and by the A&CM Carraro Foundation for Translational Myology.
Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=NS ...
Ortiz de Rott, M I; Santa Cruz, A M; Héctor Resoagli, E
A case of gastric nematodiasis is described in a gineafowl (Numida meleagris) from the Municipal Zoo, Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña (Chaco) Argentina. Nematodes obtained from the glandular stomach were observed in optic microscopy. According to their morphometric characteristics and location in the definitive host, were identified as belonging to the family Acuariidae, subfamily Acuariinae, species Dispharynx nasuta Rudolphi, 1819.
Full Text Available In the last decade, the conservation of local breeds and of their genetic resources has gained more and more importance (Notter, 1999. In fact, the safeguard of animal genetic variability is determinant to maintain ecosystem equilibriums but it is also essential to guarantee future economic potentials of these animal resources. Moreover, biodiversity has a great cultural value and it can be also used for scientific purposes (FAO, 1992.
Bartels, T; Lütgeharm, J-H; Wähner, M; Berk, J
Reflection and fluorescence properties of feathered and non-feathered body regions of white- and bronze-colored fattening turkeys of various ages were examined by ultraviolet (UV) photography. The examinations were carried out on 20 white-feathered fattening turkeys (B.U.T. 6; 10 males, 10 females) and 20 bronze-feathered fattening turkeys (Grelier 708; 10 males, 10 females) over a period of 21 weeks. The turkeys were photographed once a wk under long-wave UV (UVA) radiation illumination (λ = 344-407 nm) using a digital camera. A bandpass filter was used for UV reflectography to filter out the visible components of the used light source. A longpass filter was used for UV fluorescence photography to avoid blurring in the image due to chromatic aberration as a result of UV illumination. We found that natal down feathers of white-feathered turkeys showed an intense yellowish-green fluorescence under UVA light. UVA fluorescence also was shown by the natal downs of the slightly melanized plumage areas of bronze turkeys. Vaned feathers of white fattening turkeys reflected UVA radiation. Freshly molted feathers were optically distinguishable from the previous feather generation due to their more intense UVA reflection. In bronze turkeys, both the bright end seams of the dark pennaceous feathers and rectrices and the bright banding of primary and secondary remiges reflected UVA radiation. Intense UVA fluorescence was recognizable in day-old chicks of both color variants on the scutellate scales of the legs and toes. In male turkeys of both color variants, UVA-reflecting parts were recognizable with increasing age on the featherless head region. The UVA-fluorescent and UVA-reflective characteristics of the plumage of fattening turkeys were closely related to the plumage color, the feather type, the molting state, and the age of the birds. Further research is needed regarding the UVA-reflecting properties of the turkey plumage and the effects of full-spectrum illumination, including the UVA spectrum, on the behavior and health of fattening turkeys. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO microsatellite panel developed for chickens to assess genetic variability in turkeys. Genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 37 blood samples collected from turkey of different breeds [15 Brianzolo (BR; 12 Colli Euganei (EU; 10 Nero d’Italia (NI], and all 31 chicken microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO were tested. The results show that 22 chicken markers out of 31 suggested by FAO guidelines can be applied to turkey populations. In particular, the multiplex groups confirmed in the turkey were the Multiplex Master Mix 1 (ADL0268, ADL0278, LEI0094, MCW0216, MCW0248 and the Master Mix 2 (MCW0034, MCW0069, MCW0081, MCW0222, MCW0295, whereas 13 microsatellites were amplified only under single polymerase chain reaction (PCR conditions. No PCR products were obtained for 9 markers (LEI0166, MCW0020, MCW0078, MCW0080, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0248, MCW0284 and MCW0330, which is 29% of the total markers used. A panel of 22 markers was used to assess genetic diversity in three turkey breeds and a total number of 63 alleles were found. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC values for each microsatellite and the relative mean values were also calculated. The mean values were 0.210, 0.250, 0.203 for Ho; 0.301, 0.348, 0.228 for He; and 0.265, 0.313, 0.199 for PIC in NI, BR and EU, respectively.
Vidal, O; Viñas, J; Pla, C
By sequencing the full coding region of the turkey melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, we have found 4 mutations (c.96G > A, c.364A > T, c.450C > T, and c.887C > T) that are organized in 5 different haplotypes (MC1R*1 to MC1R*5). These haplotypes correlate perfectly with the 3 alleles of the bronze locus (i.e., B, b(+), and b(1)). We suggest that the dominant black phenotype, associated with the B allele, results from the constitutive activation of the receptor, an effect that might be mediated by the missense mutation c.364A > T (p.Ile122Phe). Moreover, we propose that the recessive black-winged bronze phenotype (linked to b(1)) might be produced by 2 deleterious mutations of MC1R (c.96G > A and c.887C > T). This is an unexpected finding because in mammals, MC1R deleterious polymorphisms are usually related with either red or lighter fur colors.
1. Microscopic morphology of ovarian tissue in post-hatching turkey poults at various ages was investigated. 2. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used and the diameter of the oocytes and follicles were measured using microphotography. 3. Immediately after hatching, oocytes in one-day turkey pou...
Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J
Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.
Schachner, Emma R; Manning, Phillip L; Dodson, Peter
The discovery of a largely complete and well preserved specimen of Poposaurus gracilis has provided the opportunity to generate the first phylogenetically based reconstruction of pelvic and hindlimb musculature of an extinct nondinosaurian archosaur. As in dinosaurs, multiple lineages of basal archosaurs convergently evolved parasagittally erect limbs. However, in contrast to the laterally projecting acetabulum, or "buttress erect" hip morphology of ornithodirans, basal archosaurs evolved a very different, ventrally projecting acetabulum, or "pillar erect" hip. Reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb musculotendinous system in a bipedal suchian archosaur clarifies how the anatomical transformations associated with the evolution of bipedalism in basal archosaurs differed from that of bipedal dinosaurs and birds. This reconstruction is based on the direct examination of the osteology and myology of phylogenetically relevant extant taxa in conjunction with osteological correlates from the skeleton of P. gracilis. This data set includes a series of inferences (presence/absence of a structure, number of components, and origin/insertion sites) regarding 26 individual muscles or muscle groups, three pelvic ligaments, and two connective tissue structures in the pelvis, hindlimb, and pes of P. gracilis. These data provide a foundation for subsequent examination of variation in myological orientation and function based on pelvic and hindlimb morphology, across the basal archosaur lineage leading to extant crocodilians. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Over the past two centuries, myology (i.e. the basic and clinical science of muscle and muscle disease has passed through 3 stages of development: the classical period, the modern stage and the molecular era. The classical period spans the last part of nineteenth century and the earlier part of the twentieth century. During this time, several major muscle disease were clinically and pathologically characterized, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, myotonic dystrophy (DM and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD. The modern stage in the second half of the twentieth century is characterized by the adaptation of histo and cytochemical techniques to the study of muscle biopsies. These tools improved the diagnostic accuracy and made possible the identification of new changes and structures (Engel and Cunningham, 1963; Scarlato, 1975.
Full Text Available Cobitis keyvani is recently described from the sourhern Caspian Sea basin. Limited information is available about morphological features of C. keyvani, therefore this study was conducted to provide osteological characteristics and cranial myology of this species. For this purpose, nine specimens of C. keyvani were collected from the Talar River. The specimens were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for osteological examinations. The detailed skeletal structure and cranial muscles of C. keyvani were provided. Based on the results, C. keyvani can be distinguished from other members of the genus Cobitis by a contact between sphenotic and supraoccipital and a contact between pterosphenoid, parasphenoid, prootic and sphenotic in terms of osteological features.
Burch, Sara H
The forelimbs of nonavian theropod dinosaurs have been the subject of considerable study and speculation due to their varied morphology and role in the evolution of flight. Although many studies on the functional morphology of a limb require an understanding of its musculature, comparatively little is known about the forelimb myology of theropods and other bipedal dinosaurs. Previous phylogenetically based myological reconstructions have been limited to the shoulder, restricting their utility in analyses of whole-limb function. The antebrachial and manual musculature in particular have remained largely unstudied due to uncertain muscular homologies in archosaurs. Through analysis of the musculature of extant taxa in a robust statistical framework, this study presents new hypotheses of homology for the distal limb musculature of archosaurs and provides the first complete reconstruction of dinosaurian forelimb musculature, including the antebrachial and intrinsic manual muscles. Data on the forelimb myology of a broad sample of extant birds, crocodylians, lizards, and turtles were analyzed using maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstruction and examined together with the osteology of the early theropod Tawa hallae from the Late Triassic of New Mexico to formulate a complete plesiomorphic myology for the theropod forelimb. Comparisons with previous reconstructions show that the shoulder musculature of basal theropods is more similar to that of basal ornithischians and sauropodomorphs than to that of dromaeosaurids. Greater development of the supracoracoideus and deltoideus musculature in theropods over other bipedal dinosaurs correlates with stronger movements of the forelimb at the shoulder and an emphasis on apprehension of relatively large prey. This emphasis is further supported by the morphology of the antebrachium and the intrinsic manual musculature, which exhibit a high degree of excursion and a robust morphology well-suited for powerful digital flexion
Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K
The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P cafeteria (US$3.67 ± 0.83/kg). The challenges faced by producers in the marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.
Full Text Available Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7 d was 74.23%.
Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Dong, Xiangli; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng
Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7 d was 74.23%.
Maxwell, Erin E; Larsson, Hans C E
Emus have reduced their wing skeleton to only a single functional digit, but the myological changes associated with this reduction have never been properly described. Moreover, the intraspecific variability associated with these changes has not previously been examined, dissections having been restricted in the past to only one or two individuals. In this paper, the myology and osteology of the Emu wing is described for a sample of five female birds. The Emu showed a marked reduction in the number of muscles in the wing, even compared with other ratites. Many wing muscles showed diversity in structure, origin and insertion sites, number of heads, as well as presence-absence variation. This variability dramatically exceeds that found in flying birds. Evolutionary theory predicts that relaxed selection on vestigial organs should allow more variation to persist in the population, and corresponds to what is observed here. A large amount of fluctuating asymmetry was also detected, indicating reduced canalization of the wing during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eggshell color of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris eggs on eggshell quality and hatchery results. The highest mean grey value (MGV, integrated density (ID, lightness (L* and Hue angle (H* values were obtained in eggs with lighter eggshell color. The effects of color difference (DE* value levels on egg characteristics were evaluated. Eggshell color presented different (p0.05. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, eggshell color influenced eggshell thickness and weight loss, but not hatching parameters of guinea fowl eggs. Further studies on this subject should be carried out.
Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.
Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L
Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dietz, Maurine W.; Mourik, Sijmen van; Tøien, Øivind; Koolmees, Peter A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G.; Heldmaier, G.
Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) chicks (0-27 days posthatch) were exposed to decreasing or increasing ambient temperatures. Root mean square electromyographic activity of musculus pectoralis (m. pect.) and musculus iliotibialis (m. iliot.) was recorded simultaneously
Liliana Carvalho Saucedo
Full Text Available La medusa Stomolophus meleagris es considerada un recurso pesquero de alto valor comercial. Debido a la relevancia de conocer aspectos de importancia biológica actualmente desconocidos, el presente trabajo analiza la fecundidad con base en la estimación del número de ovocitos vitelogénicos en la gónada; su relación con la longitud, diámetro y peso húmedo; y la relación del índice gonadosomático (IGS con su diámetro y longitud. De enero a mayo 2006 se recolectaron 30 ejemplares mensuales que fueron medidos y pesados, de los cuales se analizaron 60 hembras maduras para calcular el volumen de sus gónadas. Se extrajeron las gónadas, se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y se seleccionaron las hembras con madurez gonadal. Mediante la digitalización de imágenes se estimó el número de ovocitos vitelogénicos y previtelogénicos. Se emplearon datos de captura en Las Guásimas para el análisis de reclutamiento poblacional, estimado con FISAT II. La fecundidad se incrementó con la longitud, el diámetro y el peso húmedo total. La menor fecundidad se observó en febrero y la mayor en mayo (11 873 071 y 37 528 197 millones de ovocitos vitelogénico por gónada, respectivamente. El IGS se incrementó con la longitud y diámetro de los ejemplares, con su máximo en mayo de 3.7%. Se observó una producción continua de ovocitos previtelogénicos en todo el periodo de recolecta. El máximo reclutamiento se observó en julio y noviembre (37.50% y 28.01% respectivamente. La alta fecundidad encontrada en S. meleagris sugiere un alto potencial reproductivo para la población y sustenta la posibilidad de la consolidación de una importante pesquería de esta medusa.The cannonball jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris is regarded as a fishery resource with high commercial value, but with scarce biological information. With the aim to generate preliminary information on reproductive aspects, the present study analyzes its fecundity, based on the estimated
Yakovleva, Maria E.; Killyeni, Aniko; Seubert, Oliver; Conghaile, Peter O.; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Donal; Gonaus, Christoph; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Peterbauer, Clemens K.; Kjellstrom, Sven; Gorton, Lo
The present study focuses on fragmented deglycosylated pyranose dehydrogenase (fdgPDH) from Agaricus meleagris recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris. Fragmented deglycosylated PDH is formed from the deglycosylated enzyme (dgPDH) when it spontaneously loses a C-terminal fragment when stored in a buffer solution at 4 °C. The remaining larger fragment has a molecular weight of ∼46 kDa and exhibits higher volumetric activity for glucose oxidation compared with the deglycosylated and glycosyl...
Petrić, Marija P.
Proučavana je in vitro regeneracijia košutice (Fritillaria meleagris), višegodišnje lukovičaste geofite. Indukcija morfogeneze in vitro košutice postignuta je u kulturi zrelih zigotskih embriona, segmenata lukovica kao i bazalnih delova listova in vitro formiranih lukovica. U kulturi zrelih zigotskih embriona regeneracija biljaka je postignuta procesom somatske embriogeneze i organogeneze u isto vreme i na istom eksplalntatu na hranljivoj podlozi bez regulatora rastenja ili hra...
Morales, Miriam M; Moyano, S Rocío; Ortiz, Agustina M; Ercoli, Marcos D; Aguado, Luis I; Cardozo, Sergio A; Giannini, Norberto P
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L. wiedii that support its arboreal abilities. In addition, we documented both species hunting the same prey (domestic pigeon Columba livia, Aves: Columbidae) in captivity, to complement. We report differences in the origin, insertion and belly in 8 of the 10 dissected muscles. At least 3 of these interspecific variations can be associated with strengthening of the main muscles that command inversion/eversion movements of the tarsal joint and support the body weight in the head-down climbing position typical of L. wiedii. Frame-by-frame video reconstructions depict the sequence of movements in these species while hunting and highlight the advantages of the arboreal abilities of L. wiedii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Liliana Carvalho Saucedo
Full Text Available La medusa Stomolophus meleagris es considerada un recurso pesquero de alto valor comercial. Debido a la relevancia de conocer aspectos de importancia biológica actualmente desconocidos, el presente trabajo analiza la fecundidad con base en la estimación del número de ovocitos vitelogénicos en la gónada; su relación con la longitud, diámetro y peso húmedo; y la relación del índice gonadosomático (IGS con su diámetro y longitud. De enero a mayo 2006 se recolectaron 30 ejemplares mensuales que fueron medidos y pesados, de los cuales se analizaron 60 hembras maduras para calcular el volumen de sus gónadas. Se extrajeron las gónadas, se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y se seleccionaron las hembras con madurez gonadal. Mediante la digitalización de imágenes se estimó el número de ovocitos vitelogénicos y previtelogénicos. Se emplearon datos de captura en Las Guásimas para el análisis de reclutamiento poblacional, estimado con FISAT II. La fecundidad se incrementó con la longitud, el diámetro y el peso húmedo total. La menor fecundidad se observó en febrero y la mayor en mayo (11 873 071 y 37 528 197 millones de ovocitos vitelogénico por gónada, respectivamente. El IGS se incrementó con la longitud y diámetro de los ejemplares, con su máximo en mayo de 3.7%. Se observó una producción continua de ovocitos previtelogénicos en todo el periodo de recolecta. El máximo reclutamiento se observó en julio y noviembre (37.50% y 28.01% respectivamente. La alta fecundidad encontrada en S. meleagris sugiere un alto potencial reproductivo para la población y sustenta la posibilidad de la consolidación de una importante pesquería de esta medusa.
Innocent Jonah Gosomji
Full Text Available The histogenesis of the primordial oesophagus was studied to determine the period in which the tunics of the oesophagus developed and became functional in the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris. Eighteen embryos and nine keets were studied at prehatch and posthatch, respectively. Simple columnar epithelium surrounded by mesenchymal cells was obvious at the 8th day of embryonic development. By the 19th day of embryonic development, the four tunics, tunica mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica adventitia/serosa, were beginning to differentiate from the mesenchymal cells and also the primordial oesophageal glands appeared as clusters of cells that invaginate from the epithelium. By the 27th day, the tunics were clearly differentiated and the primordial glands were fully developed as evident with positive reaction to Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS. The tunics of the muscularis were not well developed till at posthatch. This study therefore concludes that the primordial oesophagus is active at the late incubation due to mucin secretion by mucous glands but fully functional at posthatch since the tunica muscularis is completely developed at posthatch.
Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The
Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The
Vidal, O; Araguas, R M; Fernández, E; Heras, S; Sanz, N; Pla, C
We have characterized a deletion in the MC1R gene causing the loss of one amino acid (p.Phe256del), which is perfectly associated with melanism in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Co-segregation of the p.Phe256del with melanism was confirmed in 25 offspring born from a cross of two heterozygote birds; therefore we suggest that this mutation is responsible for the black phenotype. Interestingly, this is the first case of recessive melanism linked to MC1R.
Histologia e histoquímica do magno, um dos segmentos do oviduto de Numida meleagris (Linné (Numididae, Galliformes Histological and histochemical of the magnum, a segment of oviduct of Numida meleagris (Linné (Numididae, Galliformes
Maria das Graças Ribeiro
Full Text Available Numida meleagris (Linné, 1758 is an african bird that was brought to Brazil. As the bird adapted to the climate of this new habitat and spread ali around the country, it is nowadays part of our avifauna. The present study continues topographic and morphofunctional researches on the female genital apparatus of this species, since it describes histological and histochemical aspects of magnum, a segment of oviduct. Magnum was dissected and processed according to routine and histochemical staining procedures to detect glycogen and mucous substances in the epithelial tissue and mucous glands. Besides focusing morphological aspects, the study compares the data obtained with those of other species aiming to contribute to the enlargement of the knowledge on reproductive biology of brazilian birds what may be important to make their biological control easier.
Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier
The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma descrição morfológica e comparativa da siringe, órgão responsável pelo canto das aves, na espécie Numida meleagris. Para isso foram utilizados cinco machos e cinco fêmeas de galinha d'angola, a fim de verificar a sintopia (traquéia, músculos traqueais e o dimorfismo sexual da siringe. Verificou-se que a siringe se localiza na bifurcação da traquéia e apresenta maior número de cartilagens nos machos. Nos machos, a inserção do músculo traqueal lateral bem como a origem do músculo esterno traqueal localizam-se mais caudalmente e são mais largos em relação às fêmeas. As diferenças existentes entre machos e fêmeas de galinha d'angola revelam a elevada capacidade das fêmeas em produzir sons semelhantes a "tô fraco" enquanto que os machos emitem arrulhos e cacarejos.
Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.
Dietz, MW; Drent, RH
In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix
Full Text Available Giambattista Canano was a sixteenth century Italian anatomist and physician. He was educated at the University of Ferrara where, upon graduation, he was appointed professor of anatomy. While at the university, Canano carried out a pioneering study of skeletal muscles. This study was to be published in a multi-volumed book entitled Musculorum Humani Corporis Picturata Dissectio. However, only the section on the muscles of the upper limb was published, as Canano stopped the printing of his book. It is hypothesized that he met Vesalius at the time and saw the proofs of his Fabrica which he assessed as far superior and, consequently, decided to abort his project. The preserved copies of the Dissectio, however, show that the standards of Canano′s work surpassed most of the anatomical studies published up to that time. Canano subsequently left the academic position and made a notable career as a physician. His appointments included prestigious positions of physician to the Pope and protomedicus of the House of Este in Ferrara.
Full Text Available The Characteristics of Rural Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris Breeding System in the Centre of Burkina Faso. The characteristics of rural guinea fowl (Numida meleagris breeding system in the centre of Burkina Faso are presented through a formal investigation. This activity is exclusively practised by men 32 or more years old. For reproduction and sale, 40.2% and 39.2% of the flock are respectively used. For gifts, 11.4% are used and for self-consumption 9.2%. The male reaches his sexual maturity at 6.2 ± 0.6 months and the female at 7.1 ± 1.8 months. The female lays 103.8 ± 9.6 eggs per year. Her laying career duration is 3.0 ± 0.6 years. The numerical productivity is about 5.3 ± 1.2 adults per female per year. The sex-ratio in the livestock farming is 2.3 ± 1.1 females per 1 male. The hatchery rates of 75.0% and 90.0% are observed respectively during the dry and rainy seasons. The incubation is made with 25 to 30 eggs per hen per hatchery. The keets leave the hen around 2.6 ± 0.5 months. The breeder holds traditional knows-how in several fields. The major constraints remain the mortality of the keets, the weak aptitude for the incubation, and the lack of technical knowledge on guinea fowl breeding. The proposals for a sustainable development of this activity will be focussed on the lifting of the identified constraints.
Xchel G Moreno
Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los hábitos alimenticios del tamboril de oro Arothron meleagris, así como sus posibles variaciones de alimentación por talla y sexo, se realizaron muestreos mensuales de noviembre 2004 a octubre 2005, en el arrecife de Los Frailes, Baja California Sur, México. Se capturaron un total de 101 ejemplares, en los cuales todos los estómagos contenían alimento. Se aplicó el índice de importancia relativa (IIR para determinar los principales categorías alimenticias (ítems, los cuales fueron: Echinometra vanbrunti (26.25 %, Porifera (12.63 %, Pocillopora spp. (11.84%, Bryozoa (5.37 % y Porites spp. (4.83 %. El índice de Levin indica baja amplitud del nicho trófico (Bi= 0.12 por lo que se le puede considerar como un depredador especialista con marcadas preferencias hacia algunos tipos alimentarios. El índice de Morisita-Horn indicó que existe un traslape alto entre las dietas por sexo (hembras y machos o = 0.78, temporadas (cálida y fría o = 0.95 y entre tallas (chica y mediana o = 0.94, chica y grande o = 0.74, mediana y grande o = 0.83.
Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of Bulgarian additive Vemoherb-T (dry extract of the annual plant Tribulus terrestris – L, produced by Vemo 99 Ltd Company, Sofia on main biochemical characteristics and hematological parameters of the blood in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris. An experiment was carried out with 30 Pearl-gray Guinea fowl (32 weeks old, distributed in two groups – a control and an experimental, 12 female and 3 male each. All birds were fed the same mixture for breeder guinea fowl. Vemoherb-T was supplemented to the compound feed of the experimental group in a daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for a period of 12 weeks. The tested product decreased significantly the levels of total triglycerides (P < 0.05, total cholesterol (P <0.01 and glucose (P < 0.01; P < 0.001 in male and female birds respectively in the blood serum. It was established significantly higher total protein- ((P < 0.001 and calcium (P<0.01 values in the blood serum of the treated birds. The addition of Vemoherb-T increased significantly hemoglobin level, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and decreased the number of eosinophils in guinea fowl from the both sexes.
Full Text Available Effects of Preventive Medical Treatments on the Productivity of Local Guinea-Fowl (Numida meleagris in the Sub-Humid Region of Burkina Faso. A study to measure the efficiency of preventive medical treatments on subsequent reproductive performances of local guinea fowl kept under natural photoperiod in the sub-humid region of Burkina Faso has been conducted. Two groups of 200 day-old guinea chicks each (T1 and T2 have been maintained under controlled conditions of feed, water allowance and more generally habitat (ex: temperature. T1 received no preventive medical treatment while Group T2 was vaccinated against Newcastle disease, and supplemented with a coccidiostatic and a trichomonacid. Percent mortality in T2 was significantly lower than in T1: 21% vs 43% (P < 0.05. In both groups, the livability of chicks with hatching body weights < 25 g at birth was very low (26% and 28% survival in T1 and T2, respectively. No significant differences were observed for body weights between the two groups at 60 weeks of age irrespective of the sex (P < 0.05 in both cases. A comparison of laying rates observed during the entire laying period (May to October indicated a significant difference between T2 and T1 (19 vs 13%, respectively; P < 0.05. The onset of lay was observed at 219 days in T2 but only at 255 days in T1. A general tendency for heavier egg weights in T2 than in T1 was also observed (ex: 40.1 + 3.0 g in T2 vs 38.0 + 1.7 g in T1 at 52 weeks of age, respectively. Our results confirm observations by farmers that the overall reproductive performances of guinea fowl in Burkina Faso is generally very low. The prevention of diseases by a preventive programme improves laying rates and egg weights while significantly decreasing mortality in breeder flocks. The improvement of the average body weight and the laying rate over the season by improved feed, preventive treatments and, possibly, genetic selection of breeder flocks would be of major interest in this
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), is a widely distributed three-host obligate blood-feeding parasite in the United States and Mexico. It mostly attaches to white-tailed deer, Odocoilus virginianus (Zimmerman) and wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo L., as well as a wide variety of other do...
Mendelian inheritance and selective neutrality. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to validate whether local popula- tions of P. viridis collected from ...... between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Poultry Sci. 86, 46–49. Kimura M. and Crow J. F. 1964 The number of alleles that can be maintained in ...
African grey parrots following single and multiple doses. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therapeut., 14: 359-. 366. HARITOVA, A., DJENEVA, H.,. LASHEV, L., SOTIROVA, P.,. GYUROV,. B. and. STEFANOVA, M. (2004):. Pharmacokinetics and PK/PD modeling of enrofloxacin in. Meleagris Gallopavo and Gallus. Domesticus. Bulg. J. Vet.
Leucocytozoon was dectected in Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis, Meleagris gallopavo, Francolinus bicalcaratus, Hirundo aethopia and Pychonotus barbatus. Live poultry markets prevalence were Plasmodium (47.8 %), Haemoproteus (15.8 %) and Aegyptionella (2.6 %). Leucocytozoon prevalence was 4.2 % in ...
Paul B. Hamel; Edward R. Buckner
Conservation activities aimed at protecting old-growth forests; at maintaining populations of desired species groups, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), other game species or Neotropical migratory birds; and at increasing populations of endangered species, such as red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), Bachman's warblers (...
James G. Dickson
A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...
Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 U09568.1 MGU09568 Lymphoproliferative disease virus of Meleagris gallopavo Gag precurso...r, protease p16, Pol precursor, Env precursor, ORF1 and ORF3 genes, complete cds. VRL 0.0 0 ...
Mark A. Rumble
Lack of roost habitat (trees >40 cm diameter breast height [dbh] and >18 m2/ha basal area) can limit populations of Merriamâs turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami). The Black Hills region has relatively large populations of Merriamâs turkeys, yet trees >40 cm dbh are uncommon. Consequently, I studied...
Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson
An important research area regarding the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is development of sound habitat models. Habitat models provide standardized methods to quantify wild turkey habitat and stimulate new research hypotheses. Habitat suitability index (HSI) models show species-habitat relationships on a scale of O-l, with 1 being optimum. A...
Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson
Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...
Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Groenen, M.
Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat type bird as egg production of this species is very low. Turkey is the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production after chicken. Understanding the etiology and
Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.
Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for
Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Chad P. Lehman
Because quantity and quality of roosting habitat can affect Merriam's Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) distribution, we described habitat characteristics of Merriam's turkey roost sites in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. Varying proportions of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills depended on supplemental feed from livestock...
Alternative substrates for production of Heliconia psittacorum L. seedlings under shade and open field conditions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Effect of turkey litter (Meleagris gallopavo L.) vermicompost on growth and yield characteristics of paddy, Oryza sativa (ADT-37) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...
Chad P. Lehman; Lester D. Flake; Mark A. Rumble
Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills feed in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest habitats during winter, but some birds centralize winter activities within or near farmsteads that provide waste grain as supplemental food. The objective of our research was to determine if female Merriam's...
Seth A. McClean; Mark A. Rumble; Rudy M. King; William L. Baker
Because resource selection is of paramount importance to ecology and management of any species, we compared 6 statistical methods of analyzing resource selection data, given the known biological requirements of radiomarked Merriamâs wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) hens with poults in the Black Hills of South Dakota. A single variable,...
Full Text Available La medusa S. meleagris, ha mostrado potencial de explotación pero hay escasa información sobre su biología reproductiva. El presente trabajo pretende conocer el contenido de los triglicéridos y fosfolípidos en los ovocitos durante el desarrollo gonadal, así como la proporción de sexos, talla de primera madurez y la concentración de proteínas y lípidos totales en la medusa. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante 2005 y 2006. A las medusas recolectadas en 2005, se les aplicó la técnica del sudán negro, para describir las características del ovocito y la cantidad triglicéridos y fosfolípidos y la técnica de hematoxilina-eosina para conocer el grado de desarrollo gonádico y la proporción de sexos. Las medusas del 2006 se emplearon para determinar la talla de primera madurez y el contenido de proteínas y lípidos totales. Se observaron cuatro fases de desarrollo en ambos sexos, con un desarrollo gamético continúo. El mayor porcentaje de organismos maduros se registró en abril. La proporción de sexos fue de 0.7:1.3. Se encontró mayor concentración de triglicéridos que de fosfolípidos en el citoplasma. Se obtuvo una correlación positiva entre triglicéridos y el diámetro del ovocito. La talla de primera madurez para ambos sexos fue de 105 mm. El mayor contenido de proteínas se obtuvo en abril y para lípidos en marzo.Lipid variation in oocytes of the jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae from Las Guasimas Lagoon, Mexico, during gonadal development. The jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris has potential for commercial exploitation but there is little information on their reproductive biology. This paper seeks to evaluate some biochemical and demographic characteristics of the species. Samples were taken monthly during 2005 and 2006. Jellyfish collected in 2005 were used to describe the characteristics and quantity of oocyte triglycerides and phospholipids with the Sudan black technique, and to ascertain
Miropé Santa Cruz, A C; Ortíz de Rott, M I; Resoagli, E H
A case of caecum nematodiasis is described in a guinea fowl (Numida melagris) from the Municipal Zoo, Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña (Chaco) Argentina. Nematodes obtained from the caecum were observed in optic microscopy. According to their morphometric characteristics and location in the definitive host, were identified as belonging to the family Heterakidae, species Heterakis gallinarum, (Schrank, 1788) Maden, 1949.
Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean
Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Powdered coconut water (ACP® at different temperatures as extender of guinea fowl (“Numida meleagris” spermatozoa Uso da água de coco em pó (ACP® em diferentes temperaturas como diluente de espermatozóides de capote ("Numida meleagris"
Francisco Militão de Sousa
Full Text Available The in vitro efficiency of powdered coconut water (ACP® as storage medium for fresh, cooled guinea fowl (Numida meleagris sperm at 4 or 15ºC compared to a commercially available medium (DC of poultry semen was evaluated. Sperm concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa, vigor, and morphology at baseline (T0, 2h (T2 and 24h (T24 were recorded. Average pool concentration was of 4.88±0.17 x 109 sptz/mL in the sperm and 600 x 106 sptz/mL in the final aliquots. The number of spermatozoa in the pool averaged 11.4±0.95 x109sptz/ejaculate. No treatment effect (P>0.05 on any parameter (motility, vigor and viable spermatozoa percentage at baseline was detected between four groups (4 and 15ºC in ACP® and DC. After two hours (T2, only the spermatozoa in ACP® at 4ºC was always higher than the acceptable values: motility 88%, vigor 8.9 and viable spermatozoa concentration of 10.01x109 sptz/mL (P<0.05. This fact was also observed at 24h. These results suggest that ACP® at 4ºC can be used in the artificial insemination in guinea fowl, because it was the best among in vitro treatments, in all storage times.Avaliou-se a eficiência in vitro do diluidor água de coco em pó (ACP® em sêmen recém-colhido e resfriado de capotes (Numida meleagris, a 4 ou 15ºC, em comparação ao diluidor comercial (DC de sêmen de aves. Registraram-se a concentração espermática, a motilidade, o vigor e as alterações morfológicas nos tempos 0 hora (T0, 2 horas (T2 e 24 horas (T24. A média dos pools foi de 4,88±0,17 x109 sptz/mL e a concentração final das alíquotas colhidas, de 600x106sptz/mL. A média/ejaculado do pool foi de 11,4 ± 0,95 x 109 sptz/ejaculado. Os quatro tratamentos (4 e 15°C em ACP® ou DC não ocasionaram diferenças estatísticas (P>0,05 em nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados (motilidade, vigor e sptz viáveis no tempo zero (T0. Após 2 horas, apenas os espermatozóides diluídos com ACP® a 4ºC mantiveram-se acima dos valores aceit
Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H
Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.
34.15 Chicken Meleagris gallopavo 4 1 4.5 19.22 Turkey UID Fish 4 1 4.5 1.16 Perciformes 1 1 4.5 0.19 Perciform Fish UID Vertebrate 5.25 TOTAL 812 22...Artiodactyl 2 Pig 3 1 12 2 Cow 3 1 22 3 UID Bird 15 26 Duck 1 1 4 2 Chicken 8 2 16 2 Turkey 4 1 UID Fish 1 1 Perciform Fish 1 1 TOTAL 216 9 596 13 293
Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D
We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak.
Full Text Available The present paper reports an outbreak of pseudotuberculosis in guinea fowls reared for meat production. The clinical and pathological features as well as the results of the laboratory investigations are described. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first reported case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in guinea-fowls.
A total of 164 candled fertile guinea fowl eggs were selected from the College farm and were randomly assigned to two treatment group consisting seven local hens and six guinea fowl hens. Effects of these replacement on hatchability, embryonic mortality, mean incubation time and weaned/keet mortality were investigated.
Brinkman, R J; Hage, J J
Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) was the first to market an illustrated text on the freshly dissected muscular anatomy of the human hand and forearm when he published his De Fabrica Corporis Humani Libri Septem, in 1543. To commemorate his 500th birthday, we searched the second of seven books composing De Fabrica, the annotated woodcut illustrations of De Fabrica, the Tabulae Sex, and Epitome, and an eyewitness report of a public dissection by Vesalius for references to the morphology and functions of these muscles. We found Vesalius to have recognized all currently distinguished muscles except the palmaris brevis and he noted occasional absence of some muscles. Generally, he limited the origin and insertion to bones, largely disregarding attachments to membranes and fascia. Functionally, he recorded the muscles as having a single vector and operating on only one joint. We conclude that Vesalius was nearly completely correct about the anatomy of the muscles of the forearm, but much less accurate about their function. 5. © The Author(s) 2015.
Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.
Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.
Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Song, M. J.; Arena, J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Marko, M.; Owen, C.; McEwen, B. F.
The interaction between collagen and mineral crystals in the normally calcifying leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, has been investigated at an ultrastructural level with conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy, computed tomography, and three-dimensional image reconstruction methods. Specimens treated by either aqueous or anhydrous techniques and resin-embedded were appropriately sectioned and regions of early tendon mineralization were photographed. On the basis of individual photomicrographs, stereoscopic pairs of images, and tomographic three-dimensional image reconstructions, platelet-shaped crystals may be demonstrated for the first time in association with the surface of collagen fibrils. Mineral is also observed in closely parallel arrays within collagen hole and overlap zones. The mineral deposition at these spatially distinct locations in the tendon provides insight into possible means by which calcification is mediated by collagen as a fundamental event in skeletal and dental formation among vertebrates.
Cobb, D T; Ley, D H; Doerr, P D
Serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Martin and Bertie counties, North Carolina (USA). Sera were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to M. gallisepticum by HI, and all were negative for antibodies to M. synoviae and M. meleagridis. Choanal cleft swabs from 22 livertrapped and five hunter killed wild turkeys cultured in Frey's broth medium resulted in 23 mycoplasma isolations. Using direct immunofluorescence, 74% (17/23) were M. gallopavonis, and 26% (six of 23) were unidentified; no isolate was identified as M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or M. meleagridis.
Full Text Available CH260-90L04_SP6 CHORI-260 Meleagris gallopavo gen... 46 2.5 1 ( ES222208 ) MpGVN_ag3_A19 Myzus persicae, li...ne G006, PLRV fre... 46 2.5 1 ( DW013102 ) w18o20_M13F Myzus persicae, tobacco lineage, whol... 46 2.5 1 ( C...( ES219391 ) MpGnorm_ag3_H23 Myzus persicae, tobacco lineage, ... 40 4.5 2 ( AM48...4.9 2 ( ES220416 ) MpGnorm_ag6_I23 Myzus persicae, tobacco lineage, ... 40 5.1 2 ( ES222123 ) MpGVN_ag2_M12 Myzus...-UI.r1 Ceratitis capitata emb... 42 5.9 2 ( ES451001 ) 25971 Myzus persicae 2001-12 (red), Fenton Myzus ...
Lopez-Oceja, A; Nuñez, C; Baeta, M; Gamarra, D; de Pancorbo, M M
Meat adulteration by substitution with lower value products and/or mislabeling involves economic, health, quality and socio-religious issues. Therefore, identification and traceability of meat species has become an important subject to detect possible fraudulent practices. In the present study the development of a high resolution melt (HRM) screening method for the identification of eight common meat species is reported. Samples from Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa domestica, Equus caballus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Meleagris gallopavo and Coturnix coturnix were analyzed through the amplification of a 148 bp fragment from the cyt b gene with a universal primer pair in HRM analyses. Melting profiles from each species, as well as from several DNA mixtures of these species and blind samples, allowed a successful species differentiation. The results demonstrated that the HRM method here proposed is a fast, reliable, and low-cost screening technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one.
Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Alexander, Michelle; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y; Richards, Michael; Speller, Camilla F
The turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope ( δ 13 C, δ 15 N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record ( M. g. mexicana , M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata ), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period.
Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y.; Richards, Michael
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record (M. g. mexicana, M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period. PMID:29410864
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare the levels of amino acids (AAs in breast and thigh muscles of six species of feathered game of the same age. The experiment involved the following species: wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, chukar partridge (Alectoris chucar, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and grey partridge (Perdix perdix. The highest content of AAs was found in the chukar partridge (breast: 815.7 ± 47.71 g/kg; thigh: 771.4 ± 107.0 g/kg, on a dry matter basis, the lowest levels of AAs were found in Japanese quail (breast: 734.2 ± 45.07 g/kg and grey partridge (thigh: 614.9 ± 49.66 g/kg. In all examined species, the level of histidine in breast muscles differed (P ≤ 0.01 from that in thigh muscles. In all investigated species, the levels of essential AAs in breast muscles were higher (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles, whereas the levels of non-essential AAs in breast muscles were lower (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles. Breast muscles are therefore more valuable than thigh muscles because of the content of essential AAs.
Vetterling, J M
Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.
Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y
To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Diogo, Rui; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Molnar, Julia L
Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa. Our data indicate that there were many more muscle synapomorphic changes from the last common ancestor (LCA) of amniotes to the mammalian LCA (63) and from this LCA to the LCA of extant therians (48) than from this latter LCA to the LCA of extant placentals (10 or 11). Importantly, Didelphis is anatomically more plesiomorphic (only 14 changes from LCA of extant therians) than are rats (37 changes) and humans (63 changes), but its musculature is more complex (193 muscles) than that of humans (only 180 muscles). Of the 194 muscles of Didelphis, 172 (89%) are present in rats, meaning that their adult muscle anatomy is indeed very similar. This similarity supports the existence of a common, easy recognizable therian Bauplan, but one that is caused by developmental constraints and by evolutionary change driven by the needs of the embryos/neonates, rather than by a "goal" toward a specific adult plan/"archetype," as the name Bauplan suggests. Anat Rec, 299:1224-1255, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
David K Smith
Full Text Available Therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Following descriptions of the basicrania of the North American therizinosaurs Falcarius utahenisis and Nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. These muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. Lateroflexors and dorsiflexors in Nothronychus, but not Falcarius, are reduced, from the plesiomorphic theropod condition, but are still well developed. Attachments in both genera are favorable for an increase in ventroflexion in feeding, convergent with Allosaurus fragilis. Falcarius and Nothronychus are both characterized by a flat occipital condyle, followed by centra with shallow articular facets suggesting neck function very similar to that of an ostrich Struthio camelus. Neck movement was a combined result of minimal movement between the individual cervical vertebrae.
Smith, David K
Therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Following descriptions of the basicrania of the North American therizinosaurs Falcarius utahenisis and Nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. These muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. Lateroflexors and dorsiflexors in Nothronychus, but not Falcarius, are reduced, from the plesiomorphic theropod condition, but are still well developed. Attachments in both genera are favorable for an increase in ventroflexion in feeding, convergent with Allosaurus fragilis. Falcarius and Nothronychus are both characterized by a flat occipital condyle, followed by centra with shallow articular facets suggesting neck function very similar to that of an ostrich Struthio camelus. Neck movement was a combined result of minimal movement between the individual cervical vertebrae.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal, inherited myopathy, which results in muscle degeneration. In this work, we aimed at developing an innovative 3D satellite cell niche derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) within their native sublaminal position in an engineered human skeletal muscle myofiber. One of the main limitations of cell therapy for DMD is the high number of myogenic cells required and the efficiency of engraftment in vivo. hiPSC ensure l...
Burch, Sara H
Forelimb reduction occurred independently in multiple lineages of theropod dinosaurs. Although tyrannosaurs are renowned for their tiny, two-fingered forelimbs, the degree of their reduction in length is surpassed by abelisaurids, which possess an unusual morphology distinct from that of other theropods. The forelimbs of abelisaurids are short but robust and exhibit numerous crests, tubercles, and scars that allow for inferences of muscle attachment sites. Phylogenetically based reconstructions of the musculature were used in combination with close examination of the osteology in the Malagasy abelisaurid Majungasaurus to create detailed muscle maps of the forelimbs, and patterns of the muscular and bony morphology were compared with those of extant tetrapods with reduced or vestigial limbs. The lever arms of muscles crossing the glenohumeral joint are shortened relative to the basal condition, reducing the torque of these muscles but increasing the excursion of the humerus. Fusion of the antebrachial muscles into a set of flexors and extensors is common in other tetrapods and occurred to some extent in Majungasaurus. However, the presence of tubercles on the antebrachial and manual elements of abelisaurids indicates that many of the individual distal muscles acting on the wrist and digits were retained. Majungasaurus shows some signs of the advanced stages of forelimb reduction preceding limb loss, while also exhibiting features suggesting that the forelimb was not completely functionless. The conformation of abelisaurid forelimb musculature was unique among theropods and further emphasizes the unusual morphology of the forelimbs in this clade. © 2017 Anatomical Society.
Full Text Available The effects of age and sex of guinea fowl on their dressing percentage, carcass composition, pH value, water holding capacity, colour and sensory properties of meat was determined. At 16 weeks of age, males and females had significantly higher body weights and carcass weights compared to birds at 13 weeks of age. The carcasses of older birds contained more breast muscles, leg muscles and skin with subcutaneous fat, and less wings, with a significant difference for males. At both evaluation times, males compared to females had lower body weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, content of breast muscles and abdominal fat, and a higher proportion of leg muscles. Older birds had significantly lower redness (a* values for breast muscles in males and for leg muscles in females.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigated the effects of the egg shape index on egg quality characteristics in Guinea fowl. For this, the eggs were classified in terms of egg shape index, as ≤ 75, and ≥ 78. A total of 100 Guinea fowl eggs were evaluated to determine the egg quality traits ( egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell surface area, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio, haugh unit and egg volume. In this study, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio and haugh unit were not significantly affected by egg shape index groups. Whereas egg weight, eggshell surface area and egg volume were significantly affected by egg shape index groups. At the same time, there were found significant relationship between the egg shape index and egg quality traits. Egg shape index was found to be an important factor affecting the egg quality characteristics.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine DNA polymorphism between and within white and grey varieties of guinea fowl. At the end of 12 weeks of age, blood was sampled from 13 white and 16 grey guinea fowl, and DNA was isolated. Genetic similarity between the birds was evaluated using RAPD-PCR technique. PCR with five primers was performed in birds studied. The largest number of bands appeared after electrophoresis with AB1-05 and AB1-09 primers, and the smallest number when AB1-08 primer was used. Genetic similarity between the white and grey varieties of guinea fowl, determined as the mean for the primers used, was 0.97. The coefficient of genetic similarity averaged 0.65 within white variety and 0.64 within grey variety.
King Shimumbo Nalubamba
Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
Sygmund, Ch.; Kittl, R.; Volc, Jindřich; Halada, Petr; Kubátová, Elena; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.
Roč. 133, č. 3 (2008), s. 334-342 ISSN 0168-1656 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) program KONTAKT ČR-Rakousko Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pyranose dehydrogenase * sugar oxidoreductase * galactose coversion Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.748, year: 2008
Okaeme, A N
The ectoparasites of poultry in a southern guinea savanna zone were investigated by the examination of guinea fowl and local domestic chickens in the range and guinea fowl under intensive management. The prevalent ectoparasites of range guinea fowl and local chickens include seven species of lice Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Numidilipeurus tropicalis, Damalinia bovis; three mites Bdellonyssus bursa, Megninia cubitalis, Dermanyssus gallinae; two fleas Echidnophaga gallinacea, Ctenocephalides felis and two ticks Argas persicus and Ambylomma variegatum. Under intensive management, infestation by G. gigas, L. caponis and M. gallinae led to clinical signs, feather damage, reduced food intake and death.
The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)
Jordan, B E; Onks, K R; Hamilton, S W; Hayslette, S E; Wright, S M
Lyme disease in the United States is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner), which is transmitted by tick vectors Ixodes scapularis (Say) and I. pacificus (Cooley and Kohls). Borrelia lonestari, transmitted by the tick Amblyomma americanum L., may be associated with a related syndrome, southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). Borrelia lonestari sequences, reported primarily in the southeastern states, have also been detected in ticks in northern states. It has been suggested that migratory birds may have a role in the spread of Lyme disease spirochetes. This study evaluated both migratory waterfowl and nonmigratory wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris, Eastern wild turkey) for B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari DNA sequences. A total of 389 avian blood samples (163 migratory birds representing six species, 125 wild turkeys harvested in habitats shared with migratory birds, 101 wild turkeys residing more distant from migratory flyways) were extracted, amplified, and probed to determine Borrelia presence and species identity. Ninety-one samples were positive for Borrelia spp. Among migratory birds and turkeys collected near migration routes, B. burgdorferi predominated. Among turkeys residing further away from flyways, detection of B. lonestari was more common. All A. americanum ticks collected from these areas were negative for Borrelia DNA; no I. scapularis were found. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of B. lonestari among any birds.
Speller, Camilla F; Nicholas, George P; Yang, Dongya Y
The ability to accurately identify bird species is crucial for wildlife law enforcement and bird-strike investigations. However, such identifications may be challenging when only partial or damaged feathers are available for analysis. By applying vigorous contamination controls and sensitive PCR amplification protocols, we found that it was feasible to obtain accurate mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based species identification with as few as two feather barbs. This minimally destructive DNA approach was successfully used and tested on a variety of bird species, including North American wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), blue heron (Ardea herodias) and pygmy owl (Glaucidium californicum). The mtDNA was successfully obtained from 'fresh' feathers, historic museum specimens and archaeological samples, demonstrating the sensitivity and versatility of this technique. By applying appropriate contamination controls, sufficient quantities of mtDNA can be reliably recovered and analyzed from feather barbs. This previously overlooked substrate provides new opportunities for accurate DNA species identification when minimal feather samples are available for forensic analysis.
Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M
Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180
Fowler Katie E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.
Burcham, Grant N; Ramos-Vara, José A; Murphy, Duane A
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema. Histologic lesions in the brain included severe, multifocal lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with foci of malacia, neuronal necrosis, and neuronophagia. All anatomic locations of the brain were affected, although histologic changes in the cerebellum were considered mild. Other histologic lesions included pulmonary congestion and edema, splenic congestion and lymphoid depletion, fibrinoid necrosis of vessels within the spleen, and multifocal pancreatic acinar necrosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was weakly positive for influenza A in the brain; IHC was negative in other tissues tested. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of this case matched previously published material concerning HPAI and add to instances of known or suspected mutation of a low pathogenic virus to a highly pathogenic virus.
Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov., a replacement name for Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas et al., 2015 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), preoccupied by Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), with observations on histopathology and phylogenetic analysis.
Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Medina, Juan Pablo; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; González-Gómez, Maricruz; Flores-Valle, Izanami Tereira; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes
Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas, Medina, Salgado-Miranda, García-Conejo, Galindo-Sánchez, Janczur, Berto and Lopes, 2015 is a junior homonym of Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 and needs to be replaced. This coccidium was described from a rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Thus, to maintain the original intent of the specific epithet derived from the scientific name of the type-host, the name Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name. Additionally, the current work reports another rufous-capped brush finch A. pileatus parasitized by E. atlapetesi in co-infection with an Isospora sp., providing observations of histopathology and phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from E. atlapetesi. Endogenous forms of E. atlapetesi and Isospora sp. were observed in intestinal sections. Few oocysts of Isospora sp. were observed; therefore they were not morphologically or molecularly identified. In return, E. atlapetesi was identified and it was phylogenetically close to Eimeria dispersa Tyzzer, 1929 from the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus.
Aslam, Muhammad L; Bastiaansen, John W M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Vereijken, Addie; Groenen, Martien A M
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (pmeat quality and breast yield traits. A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species. © 2011 Aslam et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.
The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229
Ng, J; Satkoski, J; Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S
DNA testing for food authentication and quality control requires sensitive species-specific quantification of nuclear DNA from complex and unknown biological sources. We have developed a multiplex assay based on TaqMan® real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for species-specific detection and quantification of chicken (Gallus gallus), duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nuclear DNA. The multiplex assay is able to accurately detect very low quantities of species-specific DNA from single or multispecies sample mixtures; its minimum effective quantification range is 5 to 50 pg of starting DNA material. In addition to its use in food fraudulence cases, we have validated the assay using simulated forensic sample conditions to demonstrate its utility in forensic investigations. Despite treatment with potent inhibitors such as hematin and humic acid, and degradation of template DNA by DNase, the assay was still able to robustly detect and quantify DNA from each of the three poultry species in mixed samples. The efficient species determination and accurate DNA quantification will help reduce fraudulent food labeling and facilitate downstream DNA analysis for genetic identification and traceability.
Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; McKee, M. D.; Nanci, A.; Song, M. J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Arena, J.; McEwen, B.
To gain insight into the structure and possible function of extracellular vesicles in certain calcifying vertebrate tissues, normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, have been studied in two separate investigations, one concerning the electron microscopic immunolocalization of the 66 kDa phosphoprotein, osteopontin, and the other detailing the organization and distribution of mineral crystals associated with the vesicles as determined by high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction. Immunolabeling shows that osteopontin is related to extracellular vesicles of the tendon in the sense that its initial presence appears coincident with the development of mineral associated with the vesicle loci. By high voltage electron microscopy and 3-D imaging techniques, mineral crystals are found to consist of small irregularly shaped particles somewhat randomly oriented throughout individual vesicles sites. Their appearance is different from that found for the mineral observed within calcifying tendon collagen, and their 3-D disposition is not regularly ordered. Possible spatial and temporal relationships of vesicles, osteopontin, mineral, and collagen are being examined further by these approaches.
Bhamidi, V.; Hanson, B. L.; Edmundson, A.; Skrzypczak-Jankun, E.; Schall, C.
The effect of a structurally similar protein impurity, turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) egg-white lysozyme (TEWL) on crystallization of the host protein, hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) from chicken ( Gallus gallus) was studied under varying impurity and host solution concentrations. A change in morphology is observed when crystals of HEWL are grown in the presence of TEWL. As the relative amount of TEWL increases, HEWL crystals become more elongated in the [0 0 1] direction. Elongation is more pronounced in samples with lower initial concentrations of HEWL than in samples with higher initial concentrations. This behavior is consistent with that of impurities in small molecule crystal growth and with predictions based on the Kubota-Mullin model. The observed effect on the growth process can be attributed to the apparent inhibition in the [1 1 0] crystal growth direction of HEWL by TEWL since slowly growing faces become dominant faces in crystal growth. Incorporation of TEWL into HEWL crystals grown in a sitting drop batch method was measured using cation exchange chromatography. The results indicate that impurity incorporation is associated with increasing supersaturation. This conclusion is consistent with a kinetically controlled process of impurity incorporation. The observed impurity effects are most probably associated with the interchange of glutamine in position 41 of HEWL by histidine in TEWL.
Blanco, J M; Gee, G; Wildt, D E; Donoghue, A M
Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR-14/propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: or =2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0. 05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.
Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A
Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of
Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Settlage, Robert E
Variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is increasingly associated with disease susceptibility and resistance in avian species of agricultural importance. This variation includes sequence polymorphisms but also structural differences (gene rearrangement) and copy number variation (CNV). The MHC has now been described for multiple galliform species including the best defined assemblies of the chicken (Gallus gallus) and domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Using this sequence resource, this study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate MHC variation in turkeys of North America (NA turkeys). An MHC-specific SureSelect (Agilent) capture array was developed, and libraries were created for 14 turkeys representing domestic (commercial bred), heritage breed, and wild turkeys. In addition, a representative of the Ocellated turkey (M. ocellata) and chicken (G. gallus) was included to test cross-species applicability of the capture array allowing for identification of new species-specific polymorphisms. Libraries were hybridized to ∼12 K cRNA baits and the resulting pools were sequenced. On average, 98% of processed reads mapped to the turkey whole genome sequence and 53% to the MHC target. In addition to the MHC, capture hybridization recovered sequences corresponding to other MHC regions. Sequence alignment and de novo assembly indicated the presence of several additional BG genes in the turkey with evidence for CNV. Variant detection identified an average of 2245 polymorphisms per individual for the NA turkeys, 3012 for the Ocellated turkey, and 462 variants in the chicken (RJF-256). This study provides an extensive sequence resource for examining MHC variation and its relation to health of this agriculturally important group of birds.
Full Text Available Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II transactivator (CIITA is a member of the pattern recognition receptor in cytoplasm, which is involved in host innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Cherry Valley duck CIITA (duCIITA was cloned from the spleen of healthy Cherry Valley ducks for the first time. The CDs of duCIITA have 3648 bp and encode 1215 amino acids. The homology analysis of CIITAs amino acid sequence showed that the duCIITA has the highest identity with the Anas platyrhynchos (94.9%, followed by Gallus gallus and Meleagris gallopavo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that duCIITA mRNA has a broad expression level in healthy Cherry Valley duck tissues. It was highly expressed in the lung and cerebellum, and lowly expressed in the rectum and esophagus. After the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC O1K1 infection, the ducks exhibited the typical clinical symptoms, and a severe fibrinous exudate in the heart and liver surface was observed. Meanwhile, a significant up-regulation of duCIITA was detected in the infected liver. The inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 have a significant up-regulation in the infected liver, spleen and brain. In addition, knockdown of the duCIITA reduces antibacterial activity and inflammatory cytokine production of the duck embryo fibroblast cells. Our research is the first study of the cloning, tissue distribution, and antibacterial immune responses of duCIITA, and these findings imply that duCIITA was an important receptor, which was involved in the early stage of the antibacterial innate immune response to APEC O1K1 infection of Cherry Valley duck.
Casey, James Kendall
Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.
McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E
Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species.
Dalsecco, Lissandra Sousa; Palhares, Rafael Melo; Oliveira, Pollyana Carvalho; Teixeira, Lilian Viana; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Denise Aparecida Andrade
Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product. The method combines species-specific and universal (used here as internal positive control) primers, and applies melt curve analysis for amplicon checking. Method accuracy was evaluated on 46 experimental meat mixtures and all species were correctly identified in all cases, at 1% test sensitivity. Analysis of 14 commercial meat products revealed that 6 of 14 samples had nondeclared bovine and/or chicken material. We performed an interlaboratory comparison using the reference meat mixtures and commercial samples, achieving 100% of reproducibility. The developed test proved to be effective and reliable for routine analysis of meat products. This paper describes a fast and reliable method for species detection in meat products based on real-time PCR. It can be applied for analysis of in natura or processed meat. The method proposed here can play an important role in controlling the origin of meat products, ensuring their quality and safety for the entire food industry-producers to consumers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M
A comparative approach was used to evaluate semen cooling rates, thawing rates and freezing volume on the cryosurvival of avian sperm. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) sperm were cryopreserved with dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentrations ranging from 6% to 26%. Experiments evaluated the efficacy of (1) rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates, (2) rapid and slow thawing rates, and (3) final volume of semen frozen (0.2 mL compared to 0.5 mL). For crane sperm only, additional experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sucrose on cryosurvival. The functionality of frozen/thawed crane sperm was evaluated by fertility trials. For all studies, sperm viability was assessed using the nigrosin-eosin stain. Higher percentages of crane and turkey sperm maintained intact membranes when frozen with moderate or slow cooling rates compared to rapid cooling rates (P0.05). Crane sperm viability was only affected by thawing rate for the 24% DMA treatment, where moderate thawing was better than slow thawing (P0.05). The percentage of membrane-intact crane sperm at lower DMA concentrations was improved by addition of 0.1M sucrose (Pcrane semen was 57.5%, and 71.4% of the fertile eggs hatched. The viability of crane sperm was always greater than turkey sperm, regardless of cooling rate, thawing rate or volume of semen frozen. These data verify avian-specific differences in sperm cryosurvival, further emphasize the need for species specific studies to optimize cryopreservation protocols. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Grimstead, Deanna N; Reynolds, Amanda C; Hudson, Adam M; Akins, Nancy J; Betancourt, Julio L.
Traditionally strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) have been used as a sourcing tool in numerous archaeological artifact classes. The research presented here demonstrates that 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios also can be used at a population level to investigate the presence of domesticated animals and methods of management. The proposed methodology combines ecology, isotope geochemistry, and behavioral ecology to assess the presence and nature of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) domestication. This case study utilizes 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios from teeth and bones of archaeological turkey, deer (Odocoileus sp.), lagomorph (Lepus sp. and Sylvilagus sp.), and prairie-dog (Cynomys sp.) from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, U.S.A. (ca. A.D. 800 – 1250). Wild deer and turkey from the southwestern U.S.A. have much larger home ranges and dispersal behaviors (measured in kilometers) when compared to lagomorphs and prairie dogs (measured in meters). Hunted deer and wild turkey from archaeological contexts at Chaco Canyon are expected to have a higher variance in their 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios, when compared to small range taxa (lagomorphs and prairie dogs). Contrary to this expectation, 87Sr/86Srbioapatite values of turkey bones from Chacoan assemblages have a much lower variance than deer and are similar to that of smaller mammals. The sampled turkey values show variability most similar to lagomorphs and prairie dogs, suggesting the turkeys from Chaco Canyon were consuming a uniform diet and/or were constrained within a limited home range, indicating at least proto-domestication. The population approach has wide applicability for evaluating the presence and nature of domestication when combined with paleoecology and behavioral ecology in a variety of animals and environments.
Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.
Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a low-pathogenic H6N2 avian influenza A viral strain (LPAIV strain H6N2 on subsequent (after 3 days vaccination with a lentogenic avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 strain La Sota (APMV-1 strain La Sota in guinea fowl. The effects were monitored by detection of the presence of viruses in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples, as well as by the presence of humoral immune response. The obtained results were compared to birds with monoinfections. Replication and virus shedding of LPAIV strain H6N2 from the cloaca and the oropharynx were established, while APMV-1 La Sota was reisolated only from the oropharynx. The reisolation of LPAIV strain H6N2 was similar in both monoinfection and co-infection. The dynamics of virus replication of APMV-1 strain La Sota was affected in the beginning of the co-infection, later occurrence of the peak which matched the period of decline of LPAIV strain H6N2 reisolates. The LPAIV strain H6N2 and APMV-1 strain La Sota co-infection did not exert any influence on humoral immune response to both viruses.
Kittl, R.; Sygmund, Ch.; Halada, Petr; Volc, Jindřich; Divne, Ch.; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.
Roč. 53, č. 2 (2008), s. 117-127 ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) Kontakt 6-06-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pyranose dehydrogenase * lignocellulose degradation * agarices spp Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2008
Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.
Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil
Divek V. T. Nair
Full Text Available Salmonella attached to the poultry skin is a major source of carcass contamination during processing. Once attached to the poultry skin, it is difficult to detach and inactivate Salmonella by commonly used antimicrobial agents since the pathogen is entrapped deeply in the feather follicles and the crevices on the skin. Essential oils could be natural, safe, and effective alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agents during commercial and organic processing setup. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pimenta (Pimenta officinalis Lindl. leaf essential oil (PEO, and its nanoemulsion in reducing Salmonella Heidelberg attachment on to turkey (Meleagris gallopavo skin during simulated scalding (65°C and chilling (4°C steps in poultry processing. A multidrug resistant S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States was used in the study. Results showed that PEO and the nanoemulsion resulted in significant reduction of S. Heidelberg attachment on turkey skin. Turkey skin samples treated with 1.0% PEO for 5 min resulted in >2 log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. Similarly, skin samples treated with 1.0% pimenta nanoemulsion (PNE for 5 min resulted in 1.5- and 1.8- log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. In addition, PEO and PNE were effective in reducing S. Heidelberg on skin during short-term storage at 4 and 10°C (temperature abuse (n = 6; P < 0.05. No Salmonella was detected in the dipping solution containing 0.5 or 1.0% PEO or PNE, whereas a substantial population of the pathogen survived in the control dipping solution. The results were validated using scanning electron -, and confocal - microscopy techniques. PEO or PNE could be utilized as an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce S. Heidelberg attachment to turkey skin during poultry processing.
Landis, W. J.; Song, M. J.; Leith, A.; McEwen, L.; McEwen, B. F.
To define the ultrastructural accommodation of mineral crystals by collagen fibrils and other organic matrix components during vertebrate calcification, electron microscopic 3-D reconstructions were generated from the normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. Embedded specimens containing initial collagen mineralizing sites were cut into 0.5-micron-thick sections and viewed and photographed at 1.0 MV in the Albany AEI-EM7 high-voltage electron microscope. Tomographic 3-D reconstructions were computed from a 2 degree tilt series of micrographs taken over a minimum angular range of +/- 60 degrees. Reconstructions of longitudinal tendon profiles confirm the presence of irregularly shaped mineral platelets, whose crystallographic c-axes are oriented generally parallel to one another and directed along the collagen long axes. The reconstructions also corroborate observations of a variable crystal length (up to 170 nm measured along crystallographic c-axes), the presence of crystals initially in either the hole or overlap zones of collagen, and crystal growth in the c-axis direction beyond these zones into adjacent overlap and other hole regions. Tomography shows for the first time that crystal width varies (30-45 nm) but crystal thickness is uniform (approximately 4-6 nm at the resolution limit of tomography); more crystals are located in the collagen hole zones than in the overlap regions at the earliest stages of tendon mineralization; the crystallographic c-axes of the platelets lie within +/- 15-20 degrees of one another rather than being perfectly parallel; adjacent platelets are spatially separated by a minimum of 4.2 +/- 1.0 nm; crystals apparently fuse in coplanar alignment to form larger platelets; development of crystals in width occurs to dimensions beyond single collagen hole zones; and a thin envelope of organic origin may be present along or just beneath the surfaces of individual mineral platelets. Implicit in the
Kent M. Reed
Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the
Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): I. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding of the haematological values of Guinea Fowls Abstract · Vol 13, No 1 (1986) - Articles Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): II. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding on protein ...
G de Graaff
Full Text Available The history of classification ofAfrotropical molerats is reviewed and an assessment is made of the supposed taxonomic "isolation" of the molerats (bathyergids by considering morphological features in the skull, post-cranial skeleton, reproductive organs and myology which collectively point to hystricomorph affinities in contrast to a myomorph relationship which is often postulated.
Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, C.; Havelková, P.; Herrel, A.; Roček, Zbyněk
Roč. 214, č. 1 (2009), s. 100-139 ISSN 0021-8782 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 1-06-05 (2006-2007) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * anuran jumping * Caudata * comparative myology * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2009
A comparative approach using Sandhill crane (Grus Canadensis) and the domestic white turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo) was used to determine the possible benefits of variation in cooling and thawing rates and semen volume on cryoprotective efficiency. Sperm was frozen in cryovials using a range of dime...
Recent information emerging from the diverse fields of cardiology, clinical chemistry , immunology. myology, and sports medicine each contain relevant...validated for use on the new Monarch 661-IOF chemistry analyzer, and analysis oft the samples has begun. CALENDAR YEAR 1994 PLANS Biochemical analysis...The validation effort attempts to answer several questions: I) Is the tesi battery sufficiently sensitive to differentiate among different populations
Jan 7, 2013 ... This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were.
In the first of a series of experiments, a wild rock pigeon (Columba guinea), a wild guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and a domestic feral pigeon (Columbia livia) were subcutaneously challenged each with 1´107 culture-derived stationary phase Leishmania major (NLB-144) promastigotes ...
Aralu, SN. Vol 45, No 1 (2014) - Articles Effect of genotype on egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in a humid tropical environment. Abstract. ISSN: 0300-368X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Haematological studies on the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Pallas): I. Effect of age, sex, and time of bleeding of the haematological values of Guinea Fowls · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BI Orji, GC Okeke, AO Akunyiba, 94-99 ...
Nwachukwu, EN. Vol 45, No 1 (2014) - Articles Effect of genotype on egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in a humid tropical environment. Abstract. ISSN: 0300-368X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES.
Items 601 - 650 of 781 ... Vol 18, No 1 (1991), Seasonal variations in haematological indices in the Grey Breasted Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris Galeata Pallas), Abstract. PA Onyeyelli, GO Egwu, GI Jibike, DJ Pepple, JO Ohaegbulam. Vol 8, No 1 (1981), Selection in Hereford Cattle: I. Selection intensity, generation interval ...
Kimata, Dennis M. Vol 49, No 1 (2014) - Articles Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) eggs. Abstract. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...
Andersen, Sophie Susanna Strindberg; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M
) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison...
Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and Tongue of the Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris) Abstract · Vol 10, No 3 (2013) - Articles Histological features of the tongue of the common pigeon (Columba livia) Abstract · Vol 11, No 2 (2014) - Articles Morphological features of the dorsal and ventral walls of ...
Haematological evaluation of broilers administered probiotics (lactobacillus bulgaricus) Abstract · Vol 12, No 1 (2014) - Articles The growth performance and nutrient digestibility of wild indigenous guinea fowl keets (Numida meleagris galeata) fed varying levels of roasted Senna occidentalis seeds under intensive system.
Fowl play: identification and management of hybridisation between wild and domestic Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) in South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Andrew L Walker, Rauri CK Bowie, Charles S Ratcliffe, Timothy M Crowe, 195-198.
The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...
This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were used to collect ...
Gambian sun squirrel. 13. 8. 11. Thryonomys swinderianus. Cane rat/Grasscutter. 9. 11. 4. Phacochoerus africanus. Warthog. 6. 1. -. Tragelaphus scriptus. Bushbuck. 2. 2. 3. Numida meleagris. Guinea fowl. 2. 2. 9. Hystrix cristata. Porcupine. 6. -. -. Manis gigantea. Pangolin. 2. -. -. Potamochoerus porcus. Red River Hog. 2.
Effect of disturbance on laying pattern and hatchability of feral helmet guinea fowl (numida meleagris galleata pallas) egg. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O A Jaiyeola, K O Ademolu, A A Ogunjinmi, A J Meduna, 54-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tzool.v5i1.41350 ...
Meduna, A J. Vol 5 (2007) - Articles Effect of disturbance on laying pattern and hatchability of feral helmet guinea fowl (numida meleagris galleata pallas) egg. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-972X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
The growth performance and nutrient digestibility of wild indigenous guinea fowl keets (Numida meleagris galeata) fed varying levels of roasted Senna occidentalis seeds under intensive system. Abstract · Vol 12, No 1 (2014) - Articles Dietary influence of Daniellia oliveri leaf meal (Dolm) on the growth and digestibility of ...
Yahaya, SK. Vol 12, No 1 (2014) - Articles The growth performance and nutrient digestibility of wild indigenous guinea fowl keets (Numida meleagris galeata) fed varying levels of roasted Senna occidentalis seeds under intensive system. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-0906. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Short communication: Physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs of four indigenous guinea fowls (Numida meleagris galeata, pallas) in Nigeria. Abstract · Vol 14, No 1 (1987) - Articles Performance of guinea fowl breeders fed varying levels of Cyperus bulb. Abstract · Vol 16, No 1 (1989) - Articles External ...
Full Text Available A influenza aviária é doença exótica no Brasil. O sistema de vigilância implementado pelo Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola (PNSA mantém monitoração permanente das aves das principais espécies domésticas, tanto do material genético importado para a indústria avícola, por exemplo, da espécie das galinhas (Gallus gallus formadomestica, perus (Meleagris gallopavo formadomestica, codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica, patos (Anas, primários (elite, bisavós e avós para postura ou corte, como aves de espécies de exploração mais recente, exóticas, por exemplo avestruzes (Struthio camelus ou nativas, por exemplo emas (Rhea americana. Os plantéis de reprodutores em produção são também acompanhados por amostragens periódicas, conforme previsto no PNSA, além da monitoração das respostas aos programas de vacinação, por exemplo, contra bronquite infecciosa e doença infecciosa bursal. O PNSA estabelece as normas de atuação para o controle e erradicação da doença de Newcastle (ND e Influenza Aviária (AI (Projeto de Vigilância, 2001, a saber: I - Notificação de focos da doença (e confirmação laboratorial no LARA-Campinas; II - Assistência a focos; III - Medidas de desinfecção; IV - Sacrifício sanitário; V - Vazio sanitário; VI - Vacinação dos plantéis ou esquemas emergenciais; VII - Controle e fiscalização dos animais susceptíveis; VIII - Outras medidas sanitárias; A vigilância e atenção ao foco exige o diagnóstico laboratorial e diferencial de AI e ND, que segue as normas do PNSA, conforme o sumário abaixo: 1- Interdição e coleta de materiais para exame laboratorial oficial; 2- Registro das aves: espécie(s, categoria(s, número(s, manutenção de aves; utensílios e produtos no local; proibição de trânsito de e para a(s propriedade(s em um raio de 10 km; controle de todos os animais e materiais possíveis fontes de propagação; desinfecção de vias de entradas e saídas à(s propriedade
Junker, K; Boomker, J
Published and personal records have been compiled into a reference list of the helminth parasites of guineafowls. Where data on other avian hosts was available these have been included for completeness' sake and to give an indication of host range. The parasite list for the Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, includes five species of acanthocephalans, all belonging to a single genus, three trematodes belonging to three different genera, 34 cestodes representing 15 genera, and 35 nematodes belonging to 17 genera. The list for the Crested guineafowls, Guttera edouardi, contains a single acanthocephalan together with 10 cestode species belonging to seven genera, and three nematode species belonging to three different genera. Records for two cestode species from genera and two nematode species belonging to a single genus have been found for the guineafowl genus Acryllium. Of the 70 helminths listed for N. meleagris, 29 have been recorded from domestic chickens.
Full Text Available The conservation status of relic melanistic lizard species occurring in the Saldanha- Langebaan area has been investigated. A contact zone between one melanistic form and a closely related non-melanistic form has been examined in detail. Apart from melanis- tic populations of the girdled lizards, Cordylus niger and C. polywnus, a melanistic morphotype of the Cape legless skink, Acontias meleagris meleagris also occurs in the area. The taxonomic status of this morphotype needs to be investigated. At Mauritz Bay, north of Saldanha, the ranges of C niger and the non-melanistic C cordylus are in contact over a distance of approximately 240 m, with maximum overlap of 70 m. The melanistic populations of C. polyz.onus and A. m. meleagris have relatively large ranges in the Saldanha-Langebaan area and are not threatened by urban development. The C niger population, however, is fragmented into several subpopulations, and those in the Saldanha area, including the contact zone, will be affected if urban development is allowed to continue in the area. As relic populations of other cool-adapted, melanistic invertebrate and lower vertebrate species may also occur in the area, the key areas demarcated by C. niger should be preserved.
Christine Azevedo Coste
Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.
Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R
The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term 'ansulate bone' is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia. © 2013 Anatomical Society.
Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R
The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term ‘ansulate bone’ is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia. PMID:24102560
Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J
The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N =10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata(N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765
Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke Flindt; Tokin, Radina Naytchova
A novel electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed for real-time detection of cellulase activity when acting on their natural insoluble substrate, cellulose. The enzyme biosensor was constructed with pyranose dehydrongease (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris that was immobilized on the surface...... jecorina (HjCel6A) on cellulosic substrates with different morphology (bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC) and Avicel). The steady-state rate of hydrolysis increased towards a saturation plateau with increasing loads of substrate. The experimental results were rationalized using a steady-state rate...
Hilbink, F W
Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.
The second 2017 issue of EJTM volume 27 contains the collection of abstracts from the 2017Spring PaduaMuscleDays conference, that was held March 23-25 in Montegrotto, Euganei Hills, Padova, Italy. In addition to a brief history of the Padova Myology Meetings held during the last 30 years, the present and the future of the PaduaMuscleDays conference are discussed with special reference to new media and the options they offer to spread to a larger audience the results of the many workshops held in the Hotel Augustus conference hall and in the Aula Guariento of the Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti , one of the hidden treasures of the medioeval Padua, Italy. Preliminary announcements of the 2017 and 2018 events, in particular of the Giovanni Salviati Memorial, will follow.
Full Text Available The second 2017 issue of EJTM volume 27 contains the collection of abstracts from the 2017Spring PaduaMuscleDays conference, that was held March 23-25 in Montegrotto, Euganei Hills, Padova, Italy. In addition to a brief history of the Padova Myology Meetings held during the last 30 years, the present and the future of the PaduaMuscleDays conference are discussed with special reference to new media and the options they offer to spread to a larger audience the results of the many workshops held in the Hotel Augustus conference hall and in the Aula Guariento of the Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, one of the hidden treasures of the medioeval Padua, Italy. Preliminary announcements of the 2017 and 2018 events, in particular of the Giovanni Salviati Memorial, will follow.
within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...... and De Articulationes. The Hippocratic account of the normal anatomy of the shoulder reveals some biomechanical insights. However, knowledge of bone and joint anatomy of the shoulder useful for surgical purposes is not found in medieval sources. Even in fourteenth century illustrations based on human......, and Vesalius (1514-1564) gives a systematic account for the osteology and myology of the shoulder. In early eighteenth century, the Hippocratic approach is challenged and more gentle modes of reduction and bandaging are proposed. Desault (1744-1795) gives an account of the muscle traction responsible...
Behlau, Mara; Gasparini, Gisele
The field of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Brazil, named 'fonoaudiologia', comprises both a therapeutic approach to communication disorders and audiology and was officially recognized on December 9, 1981 (law No. 6965). University programs exist since the 1960s. The undergraduate level is a 4-year honors Bachelor of Science program and requires at least a 3,700 h of coursework. Since 1996 four areas of specialization were established: language, audiology, voice and oral myology, requiring a minimum of 500 h of course. Graduate programs in the narrower sense,master's degree and doctorate, exist since the 1970s. Brazil is a 180-million inhabitant country with approximately 25,000 speech-language pathologists, of which 2,700 are specialists, 800 masters and 210 doctors. There are almost 100 undergraduate programs and 70 specialization courses; however, for master's degree and doctorate purposes there are only 8. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The tarsometatarsus, a compound bone from the lower leg in birds, is the most important skeletal element in fossil penguin taxonomy, especially in the case of early members of this group. However, any attempt to go beyond the problem of mere classification obviously requires the better understanding of osteological traits under consideration. This in turn touches on the issue of interplay between bone and concomitant soft-tissue structures, such as muscles, tendons and vessels. This paper focuses on the more holistic comprehension of the tarsometatarsal section of the Eocene penguin foot, based on the analysis of the myology and the vascular system of its modern counterparts. A number of graphical reconstructions are provided with a discussion of the role of the hypotarsus and intermetatarsal foramina.
Jandy B. Hanna
Full Text Available Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.
Frey, Lorraine; Green, Shari; Fabbie, Paula; Hockenbury, Dana; Foran, Marge; Elder, Kathleen
The origins of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy began in the early 1960's by orthodontists who recognized the importance of functional nasal breathing, proper swallowing, and more ideal oral rest postures. Re-patterning these functions through myofunctional therapy assisted with better orthodontic outcomes and improved stability. Experts in orofacial myology have concluded that improper oral rest postures and tongue thrusting may be the result of hypertrophy of the lymphatic tissues in the upper airway. Orthodontists are aware of the deleterious effects these habits have on the developing face and dentition. Sleep disordered breathing is a major health concern that affects people from infancy into adulthood. Physicians who treat sleep disorders are now referring patients for orofacial myofunctional therapy. Researchers have concluded that removal of tonsils and adenoids, along with expansion orthodontics, may not fully resolve the upper airway issues that continue to plague patients' health. Sleep researchers report that the presence of mouth breathing, along with hypotonia of the orofacial muscular complex, has been a persistent problem in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) coexist in a large population of people with sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnea. Advances in 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging offer the dental and medical communities the opportunity to identify, assess, and treat patients with abnormal growth patterns. These undesirable changes in oral structures can involve the upper airway, as well as functional breathing, chewing and swallowing. Leading researchers have advocated a multidisciplinary team approach. Sleep physicians, otolaryngologists, dentists, myofunctional therapists, and other healthcare professionals are working together to achieve these goals. The authors have compiled research articles that support incorporating the necessary education on sleep disordered
Ullmann, Paul V; Bonnan, Matthew F; Lacovara, Kenneth J
Wide-gauge posture of titanosauriform sauropods remains an enigmatic peculiarity among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and thin plate splines analyses were used to quantitatively analyze shape differences among sauropodomorph humeri and femora to identify how these elements may differ according to body gauge. Results demonstrate that titanosauriforms generally possess proportionately gracile humeri in comparison to other sauropods, with relatively more medially oriented humeral heads and proximally located deltopectoral crests. Myological repercussions of these features demonstrate a relative sacrificing of muscular torque for forelimb abduction/adduction in exchange for minimization of necessary muscle contraction to generate the same degree of limb excursion. Regarding femora, titanosauriforms possess significantly broader femora mediolaterally than other sauropods, with comparatively proximomedially placed fourth trochanters. Canonical variates results also identify a trend for titanosauriform femora to present distal condyles that are more frequently perpendicular to the long axis of the shaft or beveled medially. All of these femoral shape characteristics are expressed to the greatest degree by titanosaurians. Myologically, mediolateral femoral broadening increases relative mechanical advantages for hind limb abductor and adductor musculature. This supports previous hypotheses that suggested titanosauriforms were capable of a greater degree of hind limb abduction and adduction. This capability may have been necessary to maintain dynamic stability during wide-gauge locomotion over uneven terrain. Overall, our results corroborate previous qualitative assessments of wide-gauge attributes, afford new insights into statistically significant but obscure shape patterns, and add new clarity to aspects of the functional morphology of wide-gauge posture. Anat Rec, 300:1618-1635, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley
Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A
Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background Gross dissection is a widespread method for studying animal anatomy, despite being highly destructive and time-consuming. X-ray computed tomography (CT has been shown to be a non-destructive alternative for studying anatomical structures. However, in the past it has been limited to only being able to visualise mineralised tissues. In recent years, morphologists have started to use traditional X-ray contrast agents to allow the visualisation of soft tissue elements in the CT context. The aim of this project is to assess the ability of contrast-enhanced micro-CT (μCT to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the musculoskeletal system of the bird wing and to quantify muscle geometry and any systematic changes due to shrinkage. We expect that this reconstruction can be used as an anatomical guide to the sparrowhawk wing musculature and form the basis of further biomechanical analysis of flight. Methods A 3% iodine-buffered formalin solution with a 25-day staining period was used to visualise the wing myology of the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. μCT scans of the wing were taken over the staining period until full penetration of the forelimb musculature by iodine was reached. A 3D model was reconstructed by manually segmenting out the individual elements of the avian wing using 3D visualisation software. Results Different patterns of contrast were observed over the duration of the staining treatment with the best results occurring after 25 days of staining. Staining made it possible to visualise and identify different elements of the soft tissue of the wing. Finally, a 3D reconstruction of the musculoskeletal system of the sparrowhawk wing is presented and numerical data of muscle geometry is compared to values obtained by dissection. Discussion Contrast-enhanced μCT allows the visualisation and identification of the wing myology of birds, including the smaller muscles in the hand, and provides a non-destructive way for quantifying
Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta
The notion of scala naturae dates back to thinkers such as Aristotle, who placed plants below animals and ranked the latter along a graded scale of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' animals, such as humans. In the last decades, evolutionary biologists have tended to move from one extreme (i.e. the idea of scala naturae or the existence of a general evolutionary trend in complexity from 'lower' to "higher" taxa, with Homo sapiens as the end stage) to the other, opposite, extreme (i.e. to avoid using terms such as 'phylogenetically basal' and 'anatomically plesiomorphic' taxa, which are seen as the undesired vestige of old teleological theories). The latter view tries to avoid any possible connotations with the original anthropocentric idea of a scala naturae crowned by man and, in that sense, it can be regarded as a more politically correct view. In the past years and months there has been renewed interest in these topics, which have been discussed in various papers and monographs that tend to subscribe, in general, to the points defended in the more politically correct view. Importantly, most evolutionary and phylogenetic studies of tetrapods and other vertebrates, and therefore most discussions on the scala naturae and related issues have been based on hard tissue and, more recently, on molecular data. Here we provide the first discussion of these topics based on a comparative myological study of all the major vertebrate clades and of myological cladistic and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of bony fish and tetrapods, including Primates. We specifically (i) contradict the notions of a scala naturae or evolutionary progressive trends leading to more complexity in 'higher' animals and culminating in Homo sapiens, and (ii) stress that the refutation of these old notions does not necessarily mean that one should not keep using the terms 'phylogenetically basal' and particularly 'anatomically plesiomorphic' to refer to groups such as the urodeles within the Tetrapoda
Li, Zhiheng; Clarke, Julia A
Anatomical studies of the cranium of crocodilians motivated by an interest in its function in feeding largely focused on bite force, the jaw apparatus and associated muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve. However, the ossified and cartilaginous elements of the hyoid and the associated hyolingual muscles, innervated by the facial, hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves, received much less attention. Crocodilians are known to retain what are ancestrally the 'Rhythmic Hyobranchial Behaviors' such as buccal oscillation, but show diminished freedom and movement for the hyobranchial apparatus and the tongue in food transport and manipulation. Feeding among crocodilians, generally on larger prey items than other reptilian outgroups, involves passive transport of the food within the mouth. The tongue in extant crocodilians is firmly attached to the buccal floor and shows little movement during feeding. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the myology of the hyolingual apparatus of Alligator mississippiensis, utilizing contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography and dissection. We construct the first three-dimensional (3D) description of hyolingual myology in Alligator mississippiensis and discuss the detailed implications of these data for our understanding of hyolingual muscle homology across Reptilia. These anatomical data and an evaluation of the fossil record of hyoid structures also shed light on the evolution of feeding in Reptilia. Simplification of the hyoid occurs early in the evolution of archosaurs. A hyoid with only one pair of ceratobranchials and a weakly ossified or cartilaginous midline basihyal is ancestral to Archosauriformes. The comparison with non-archosaurian reptilian outgroup demonstrates that loss of the second set of ceratobranchials as well as reduced ossification in basihyal occurred prior to the origin of crown-clade archosaurs, crocodilians and birds. Early modification in feeding ecology appears to characterize the
C. W. Jubelius
Full Text Available Activity patterns of the Natal francolin (Francolinus natalensis, Swaison’s francolin (F. swaisoni and the crowned guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris appear to be influenced mainly by climatic conditions, either directly or indirectly. Diurnal activities are characterised by early-morning and late-afternoon peaks and long periods of rest during the middle of the day. Feeding is the most important activity of the birds, followed by maintenance and strenuous activities. Seasonal and species-specific preferences in the use of shade apparently play an important thermoregulatory role. In comparison to behaviour patterns carried out in direct sunlight, shade-associated behaviour tends to a greater extent to be dominated by maintenance activities, especially during the wet season.
Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swanson, David A.; Reynolds, Michael; Boyd, Robert C.; Eriksen, Robert; Swift, Bryan L.
We estimated loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys (Meleagris gallapavo) captured in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (USA) during December–March, 2006–2008. We used aluminum rivet leg bands as permanent marks to estimate loss of regular aluminum, enameled aluminum, anodized aluminum, and stainless steel butt-end leg bands placed below the spur. We used band loss information from 887 turkeys recovered between 31 days and 570 days after release (x¯ = 202 days). Band loss was greater for turkeys banded as adults (>1 yr old) than juveniles and was greater for aluminum than stainless steel bands. We estimated band retention was 79–96%, depending on age at banding and type of band, for turkeys recovered 3 months after release. Band retention was leg bands on male wild turkeys is inappropriate for use in mark–recapture studies.
Full Text Available For the entire Brazilian coast, there are 22 published records of scyphozoans. On the other hand, only 35 species ofcubozoans were described worldwide, four of them reported for the Brazilian coast. However, little is known about thespecies of cubozoans and scyphozoans in the Northeastern states of Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform asurvey of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeast ofBrazil. Specimens were collected using trawl net on beaches in the counties of Natal (in 2003 and Tibaú (in 2004. Forthe Rio Grande do Norte coast there were few records of large jellyfish, and new records of the following cubozoan andscyphozoan species were verified: Chiropsalmus quadrumanus; Chrysaora lactea; Lychnorhiza lucerna andStomolophus meleagris. The studied species had their distributions expanded in the coast to the State of Rio Grande doNorte.
Full Text Available Back in the nineteenth century artistic anatomy was still a controversial teaching that was passively influenced by the changing aesthetic theories and taste. The professors of this discipline, often physicians at their first experience in an academy of fine arts, succeeded in becoming part of the education system with difficulty, struggling to find the right teaching method. In this hard research, a key turning point consisted in adopting a handbook the lessons could be based on. The wonderful complexity of the human machine was difficult to depict; from the osteological to the myological system, in the nineteenth century it still proved to be a challenging subject, able to discourage even the most talented. Plentiful questions had to stud the work of physicians and artists involved in conceiving a handbook of anatomy for fine arts. Many more had to determine the choices of those who would have to structure their educational activity through these handbooks. Starting from an Italian case study, this article shall attempt to analyse the longstanding issue of the truthfulness in anatomical representation, focusing especially on the problem of illustration technique. Some pivotal matters in this paper are those about the depiction of body movement and, on a higher theoretical level, those concerning the representation of its vitality, of its being matter endowed with life.
Cubo, Jorge; Woodward, Holly; Wolff, Ewan; Horner, John R
Predator confrontation or predator evasion frequently produces bone fractures in potential prey in the wild. Although there are reports of healed bone injuries and pathologies in non-avian dinosaurs, no previously published instances of biomechanically adaptive bone modeling exist. Two tibiae from an ontogenetic sample of fifty specimens of the herbivorous dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum (Ornithopoda: Hadrosaurinae) exhibit exostoses. We show that these outgrowths are cases of biomechanically adaptive periosteal bone modeling resulting from overstrain on the tibia after a fibula fracture. Histological and biomechanical results are congruent with predictions derived from this hypothesis. Histologically, the outgrowths are constituted by radial fibrolamellar periosteal bone tissue formed at very high growth rates, as expected in a process of rapid strain equilibration response. These outgrowths show greater compactness at the periphery, where tensile and compressive biomechanical constraints are higher. Moreover, these outgrowths increase the maximum bending strength in the direction of the stresses derived from locomotion. They are located on the antero-lateral side of the tibia, as expected in a presumably bipedal one year old individual, and in the posterior position of the tibia, as expected in a presumably quadrupedal individual at least four years of age. These results reinforce myological evidence suggesting that Maiasaura underwent an ontogenetic shift from the primitive ornithischian bipedal condition when young to a derived quadrupedal posture when older.
Full Text Available Predator confrontation or predator evasion frequently produces bone fractures in potential prey in the wild. Although there are reports of healed bone injuries and pathologies in non-avian dinosaurs, no previously published instances of biomechanically adaptive bone modeling exist. Two tibiae from an ontogenetic sample of fifty specimens of the herbivorous dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum (Ornithopoda: Hadrosaurinae exhibit exostoses. We show that these outgrowths are cases of biomechanically adaptive periosteal bone modeling resulting from overstrain on the tibia after a fibula fracture. Histological and biomechanical results are congruent with predictions derived from this hypothesis. Histologically, the outgrowths are constituted by radial fibrolamellar periosteal bone tissue formed at very high growth rates, as expected in a process of rapid strain equilibration response. These outgrowths show greater compactness at the periphery, where tensile and compressive biomechanical constraints are higher. Moreover, these outgrowths increase the maximum bending strength in the direction of the stresses derived from locomotion. They are located on the antero-lateral side of the tibia, as expected in a presumably bipedal one year old individual, and in the posterior position of the tibia, as expected in a presumably quadrupedal individual at least four years of age. These results reinforce myological evidence suggesting that Maiasaura underwent an ontogenetic shift from the primitive ornithischian bipedal condition when young to a derived quadrupedal posture when older.
Zhu, Lu; Malatras, Apostolos; Thorley, Matthew; Aghoghogbe, Idonnya; Mer, Arvind; Duguez, Stéphanie; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Voit, Thomas; Duddy, William
Matthew J Cobley
Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.
Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel
Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their “conservative” morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints. PMID:25853557
Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.
Full Text Available While exceptional for an intense diversification of lineages, the evolutionary history of the order Rodentia comprises only a limited number of morphological morphotypes for the mandible. This situation could partly explain the intense debates about the taxonomic position of the latest described member of this clade, the Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus (Diatomyidae. This discovery has re-launched the debate on the definition of the Hystricognathi suborder identified using the angle of the jaw relative to the plane of the incisors. Our study aims to end this ambiguity. For clarity, it became necessary to revisit the entire morphological diversity of the mandible in extant and extinct rodents. However, current and past rodent diversity brings out the limitations of the qualitative descriptive approach and highlights the need for a quantitative approach. Here, we present the first descriptive comparison of the masticatory apparatus within the Ctenohystrica clade, in combining classic comparative anatomy with morphometrical methods. First, we quantified the shape of the mandible in rodents using 3D landmarks. Then, the analysis of osteological features was compared to myological features in order to understand the biomechanical origin of this morphological diversity. Among the morphological variation observed, the mandible of Laonastes aenigmamus displays an intermediate association of features that could be considered neither as sciurognathous nor as hystricognathous.
Estudo anatômico comparativo da região cefálica pré-branquial de Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith e Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes relacionados com a presença do cefalofólio em Sphyrna Rafinesque Anatomical study on the pre branchial region of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith and Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes related with the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque
Maisa da Cruz Lima
Full Text Available A comparative study on the pre-branchial cranial anatomy of the scalloped hammerhead sharks [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834] and the Brazilian sharpnose shark [Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839] was carried out to check the modification in the musculature, inervation and optic stalk related to the appearance of the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810. A total of seven adults and one juvenile of R. lalandii and eight juveniles of S. lewini were examined. In S. lewini the levator palaliquadrati and the levator labii superioris were the most modified cephalic muscles, as they became dorsalventrally attached and laterally developed. Among the oculomotor muscles, the recti followed the lateral expansion of the head constituting the rectal stalk associated with the nerves II, III, IV and VI and the optic stalk. It was observed that the oculomolorius branch "a" does not inervate the adductor mandibulae as it was mentioned in a previous paper. The myological structures and the inervation pattern presented diagnostic characters. Despite the shared characters between Carcharhinidae and the Sphyrnidae, the cephalofoil represents an autapomorphy which includes all the hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae.
Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Molnar, Julia L; Esteve-Altava, Borja
Previous accounts of the origin of tetrapod limbs have postulated a relatively sudden change, after the split between extant lobe-finned fish and tetrapods, from a very simple fin phenotype with only two muscles to the highly complex tetrapod condition. The evolutionary changes that led to the muscular anatomy of tetrapod limbs have therefore remained relatively unexplored. We performed dissections, histological sections, and MRI scans of the closest living relatives of tetrapods: coelacanths and lungfish. Combined with previous comparative, developmental and paleontological information, our findings suggest that the characteristic tetrapod musculoskeletal limb phenotype was already present in the Silurian last common ancestor of extant sarcopterygians, with the exception of the autopod (hand/foot) structures, which have no clear correspondence with fish structures. Remarkably, the two major steps in this long process - leading to the ancestral fin anatomy of extant sarcopterygians and limb anatomy of extant tetrapods, respectively - occurred at the same nodes as the two major similarity bottlenecks that led to the striking derived myological similarity between the pectoral and pelvic appendages within each taxon. Our identification of probable homologies between appendicular muscles of sarcopterygian fish and tetrapods will allow more detailed reconstructions of muscle anatomy in early tetrapods and their relatives.
Palavecino, Patricia Mónica
Full Text Available Se describe y compara la musculatura mandibular e hioidea de larvas de cuatro especies de anuros leptodactílidos presentes en el noroeste argentino. Las características miológicas observadas en Odontophrynus lavillai y Telmato-bius sp. son muy semejantes a las descriptas para otras larvas de anuros. Por el contrario, Ceratophrys cranwelli y Lepidobatrachus llanensis, muestran particularidades en éstos caracteres que los diferencian notablemente entre sí y con el resto de las especies descriptas. Tales particularidades parecen estar relacionadas con su modo de alimentación. Para la larva de Ceratophrys cranwelli se nomina un nuevo músculo, intermandibularis medio superficial. The jaw and hyoid musculature are described and compared for species of anuran tadpoles from the argentinean northwest. The myological characteristics observed in Odontophrynus lavillai and Telmatobius sp. are very similar when compared with other anuran tadpoles. In the contrast, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Lepidobatrachus llanensis show special muscular features which point out difference between each other and with all described species. These different characteristics appear to be related with their feeding habits. A new muscle found in Ceratophrys cranwelli, intermandibularis medio superficial, is desbribed and named.
Full Text Available Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New Worldmicrohylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogeneticcontext for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolvedwith robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift ofthe jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region, and with the alignment of the planum antorbitale, the cartilage wall separating the nasal capsule from the orbits. The larval infrarostral and the adult mandibles lack a typical anuran mandibular symphysis, and the mentomeckelian bone of the adult is modified with a special process. The most variable part of the skull is the palate in which a neopalatine usually is absent and the vomer may be single or divided. The posteromedial processes of the hyoids of gastrophynines tend to be elaborated, and some taxa bear a peculiar transverse slit in the posterior part of the hyoid corpus. The anterior zonal
Full Text Available Background Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, “Phoca” vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of “Phoca” vitulinoides is lost. Methods “Phoca” vitulinoides is redescribed. Its phylogenetic position among Phocinae is assessed through phylogenetic analysis. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy is used to determine and reassess the geological age of the species. Myological descriptions of extant taxa are used to infer muscle attachments, and basic comparative anatomy of the gross morphology and biomechanics are applied to reconstruct locomotion. Results Detailed redescription of “Phoca” vitulinoides indicates relatively little affinities with the genus Phoca, but rather asks for the establishment of a new genus: Nanophoca gen. nov. Hence, “Phoca” vitulinoides is recombined into Nanophoca vitulinoides. This reassignment is confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouping the genus Nanophoca and other extinct phocine taxa as stem phocines. Biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy expand the known stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides from the late Langhian to the late Serravallian. The osteological anatomy of N. vitulinoides indicates a relatively strong development of muscles used for fore flipper propulsion and increased flexibility for the hind flipper. Discussion The extended stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides into the middle Miocene confirms relatively early diversification of Phocinae in the North Atlantic. Morphological features on the fore- and hindlimb of the species point toward an increased use of the fore flipper and greater flexibility of the hind flipper as compared to extant
Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S
The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving. © 2014 Anatomical Society.
Gallais, Benjamin; Montreuil, Michèle; Gargiulo, Marcela; Eymard, Bruno; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc
Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adult phenotypes were compared with 19 patients with FSHD and 20 matched controls. Patient participants were consecutively recruited, regarding their interdisciplinary annual evaluation at the neuromuscular pathology reference center (Institute of Myology, Paris, France), within an 18-month period. Additional measurements included motor disability, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive abilities. Inter-group comparisons were performed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U Tests. Intra-group comparisons were carried out with the Wilcoxon Signed rank and Friedman tests. Also, Spearman's correlations were used to assess the strength of linear relationships between pairs of variables. The significance level was set at 0.05. Global score of apathy was significantly higher in DM1 patients than in FSHD patients (p fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Apathy is a frequent symptom in DM1 (almost 40 %). It is more prevalent than in a similarly disabled group of patients with FSHD and in controls. Results also show that apathy in DM1 is independent of the psychopathological domain, fatigue, age, and motor disability, but associated to general cognitive status. These results altogether could suggest a central cause for apathy in DM1 rather than an adjustment process to cope with the progressive and debilitating nature of the disease. Data emphasize the importance to evaluate this symptom in routine clinical management of DM1 patients.
Bona, Paula; Desojo, Julia Brenda
Caiman latirostris Daudin is one of the extant species of Caimaninae alligatorids characterized taxonomically only by external morphological features. In the present contribution, we describe the cranial osteology and myology of this species and its morphological variation. Several skull dissections and comparisons with other caimans were made. Although jaw muscles of living crocodiles show the same general "Bauplan" and alligatorids seem to have a similar cranial musculature pattern, we describe some morphological variations (e.g., in C. latirostris the superficial portion of the M. adductor mandibulae externus did not reach the postorbital; the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus dorsalis did not reach the pterygoid and lacrimal and contrary to the case of C. crocodilus the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus ventralis attaches to the posterodorsal surface of the pterygoid and the pterygoid aponeurosis, without contacting the dorsal and ventral surface of the pterygoid margin; the M. intermandibularis is attached to the anterior half of the splenial and posteriorly inserts medially by a medial raphe that serves as attachment zone for M. constrictor colli, and the M. constrictor colli profundus presents a medial notch in its anterior margin). In addition, the skull of C. latirostris differs from that of other caimans and possesses several characters that are potential diagnostic features of this species (e.g., outline of glenoid cavity in dorsal view, extension of the rostral ridges, and occlusion of the first dentary tooth). Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Diogo, Rui; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard
In this paper, we explore how the results of a primate-wide higher-level phylogenetic analysis of muscle characters can improve our understanding of the evolution and homologies of the forearm and hand muscles of modern humans. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, none of the forearm and hand muscle structures usually present in modern humans are autapomorphic. All are found in one or more extant non-human primate taxa. What is unique is the particular combination of muscles. However, more muscles go to the thumb in modern humans than in almost all other primates, reinforcing the hypothesis that focal thumb movements probably played an important role in human evolution. What makes the modern human thumb myology special within the primate clade is not so much its intrinsic musculature but two extrinsic muscles, extensor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis longus, that are otherwise only found in hylobatids. It is likely that these two forearm muscles play different functional roles in hylobatids and modern humans. In the former, the thumb is separated from elongated digits by a deep cleft and there is no pulp-to-pulp opposition, whereas modern humans exhibit powerful thumb flexion and greater manipulative abilities, such as those involved in the manufacture and use of tools. The functional and evolutionary significance of a third peculiar structure, the intrinsic hand structure that is often called the 'interosseous volaris primus of Henle' (and which we suggest is referred to as the musculus adductor pollicis accessorius) is still obscure. The presence of distinct contrahentes digitorum and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely the result of prolonged or delayed development of the hand musculature of these apes. In relation to these structures, extant chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horak, Ivan G; Jordaan, Adri J; Nel, Pierre J; van Heerden, Joseph; Heyne, Heloise; van Dalen, Ellie M
The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks' role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.
Romano, Donato; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare
Escape and surveillance responses to predators are lateralized in several vertebrate species. However, little is known on the laterality of escapes and predator surveillance in arthropods. In this study, we investigated the lateralization of escape and surveillance responses in young instars and adults of Locusta migratoria during biomimetic interactions with a robot-predator inspired to the Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris. Results showed individual-level lateralization in the jumping escape of locusts exposed to the robot-predator attack. The laterality of this response was higher in L. migratoria adults over young instars. Furthermore, population-level lateralization of predator surveillance was found testing both L. migratoria adults and young instars; locusts used the right compound eye to oversee the robot-predator. Right-biased individuals were more stationary over left-biased ones during surveillance of the robot-predator. Individual-level lateralization could avoid predictability during the jumping escape. Population-level lateralization may improve coordination in the swarm during specific group tasks such as predator surveillance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of lateralized predator-prey interactions in insects. Our findings outline the possibility of using biomimetic robots to study predator-prey interaction, avoiding the use of real predators, thus achieving standardized experimental conditions to investigate complex and flexible behaviours.
The spotted puffer ( Arothron meleagris) commonly feeds on finger coral ( Porites compressa) on Hawaiian shallow reefs. The predation involves removal of branch tips, resulting in open lesions that, in the field, heal in little over a month. This study determined the cost of tissue regeneration across simulated bite scars on the growth of experimentally scarred P. compressa nubbins, of three different size classes (4, 2, 1 cm tall), in a controlled laboratory environment. The results indicate that inflicted P. compressa lesions heal completely within approximately 36 days, on even the smallest nubbins. While growth was slowed before lesions closed, the healing process did not appear to affect the longer-term growth of fragments. Successful regeneration of tissue may be explained by small lesion size, the high surface area to perimeter ratio of the lesions, and the location of lesions on the growing tips. The lack of impact on overall growth rate of experimental fragments indicates that under favorable conditions, P. compressa is resilient to predation.
Peter G. Tickle
The application of artificial loads to mammals and birds has been used to provide insight into the mechanics and energetic cost of terrestrial locomotion. However, only two species of bird have previously been used in loading experiments, the cursorial guinea fowl (Numida meleagris and the locomotor-generalist barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis. Here, using respirometry and treadmill locomotion, we investigate the energetic cost of carrying trunk loads in a diving bird, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula. Attachment of back loads equivalent to 10% and 20% of body mass increased the metabolic rate during locomotion (7.94% and 15.92%, respectively while sternal loads of 5% and 10% had a greater proportional effect than the back loads (metabolic rate increased by 7.19% and 13.99%, respectively. No effect on locomotor kinematics was detected during any load carrying experiments. These results concur with previous reports of load carrying economy in birds, in that there is a less than proportional relationship between increasing load and metabolic rate (found previously in guinea fowl, while application of sternal loads causes an approximate doubling of metabolic rate compared to back loads (reported in an earlier study of barnacle geese. The increase in cost when carrying sternal loads may result from having to move this extra mass dorso-ventrally during respiration. Disparity in load carrying economy between species may arise from anatomical and physiological adaptations to different forms of locomotion, such as the varying uncinate process morphology and hindlimb tendon development in goose, guinea fowl and duck.
Marie-Cecile van de Lavoir
Full Text Available In birds, the primordial germ cell (PGC lineage separates from the soma within 24 h following fertilization. Here we show that the endogenous population of about 200 PGCs from a single chicken embryo can be expanded one million fold in culture. When cultured PGCs are injected into a xenogeneic embryo at an equivalent stage of development, they colonize the testis. At sexual maturity, these donor PGCs undergo spermatogenesis in the xenogeneic host and become functional sperm. Insemination of semen from the xenogeneic host into females from the donor species produces normal offspring from the donor species. In our model system, the donor species is chicken (Gallus domesticus and the recipient species is guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, a member of a different avian family, suggesting that the mechanisms controlling proliferation of the germline are highly conserved within birds. From a pragmatic perspective, these data are the basis of a novel strategy to produce endangered species of birds using domesticated hosts that are both tractable and fecund.
Christo J. Botha
Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Galliformes is a well-known and widely distributed Order in Aves. The phylogenetic relationships of galliform birds, especially the turkeys, grouse, chickens, quails, and pheasants, have been studied intensively, likely because of their close association with humans. Despite extensive studies, convergent morphological evolution and rapid radiation have resulted in conflicting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships. Many internal nodes have remained ambiguous. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt genomes from 34 galliform species, including 14 new mt genomes and 20 published mt genomes, and obtained a single, robust tree. Most of the internal branches were relatively short and the terminal branches long suggesting an ancient, rapid radiation. The Megapodiidae formed the sister group to all other galliforms, followed in sequence by the Cracidae, Odontophoridae and Numididae. The remaining clade included the Phasianidae, Tetraonidae and Meleagrididae. The genus Arborophila was the sister group of the remaining taxa followed by Polyplectron. This was followed by two major clades: ((((Gallus, Bambusicola Francolinus (Coturnix, Alectoris Pavo and (((((((Chrysolophus, Phasianus Lophura Syrmaticus Perdix Pucrasia (Meleagris, Bonasa ((Lophophorus, Tetraophasis Tragopan. Conclusions The traditional hypothesis of monophyletic lineages of pheasants, partridges, peafowls and tragopans was not supported in this study. Mitogenomic analyses recovered robust phylogenetic relationships and suggested that the Galliformes formed a model group for the study of morphological and behavioral evolution.
Kampichler, Christian; Calmé, Sophie; Weissenberger, Holger; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan Louis
The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Classification Trees and Random Forests in order to determine the factors that most closely explain the observed patterns of distribution and abundance loss, and to develop hypotheses that may guide measures for the protection of the OT. Among the most important predictors of change were variables corresponding to aspects of forest cover and variables on human population and small settlements. OT abundance in 1980, however, was by far the most important predictor for OT abundance change. This is an indication that the OT dynamics are governed by internal rather than by external factors. Medium and low abundances in 1980 inevitably led to a further decrease during the following years, which gives rise to the conclusion that the OT might find itself in an extinction vortex. We suggest the following hypothetical scenario for OT decline: migrant people from other Mexican states colonise forested regions in Yucatan; they establish small settlements; bushmeat hunting is important for their survival; the naïve OT is easy prey; hunting—together with beginning deforestation—reaches a certain level, and local OT abundance falls below a critical threshold; OT continues declining regardless of current social and environmental changes except where there is total protection of both the species and its habitat.
Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D
Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.
Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.
Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma. Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly
Maidment, Susannah C R; Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; VanBuren, Collin; Arbour, Victoria; Barrett, Paul M
Ornithischian dinosaurs were primitively bipedal with forelimbs modified for grasping, but quadrupedalism evolved in the clade on at least three occasions independently. Outside of Ornithischia, quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors has only evolved on two other occasions, making this one of the rarest locomotory transitions in tetrapod evolutionary history. The osteological and myological changes associated with these transitions have only recently been documented, and the biomechanical consequences of these changes remain to be examined. Here, we review previous approaches to understanding locomotion in extinct animals, which can be broadly split into form-function approaches using analogy based on extant animals, limb-bone scaling, and computational approaches. We then carry out the first systematic attempt to quantify changes in locomotor muscle function in bipedal and quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs. Using three-dimensional computational modelling of the major pelvic locomotor muscle moment arms, we examine similarities and differences among individual taxa, between quadrupedal and bipedal taxa, and among taxa representing the three major ornithischian lineages (Thyreophora, Ornithopoda, Marginocephalia). Our results suggest that the ceratopsid Chasmosaurus and the ornithopod Hypsilophodon have relatively low moment arms for most muscles and most functions, perhaps suggesting poor locomotor performance in these taxa. Quadrupeds have higher abductor moment arms than bipeds, which we suggest is due to the overall wider bodies of the quadrupeds modelled. A peak in extensor moment arms at more extended hip angles and lower medial rotator moment arms in quadrupeds than in bipeds may be due to a more columnar hindlimb and loss of medial rotation as a form of lateral limb support in quadrupeds. We are not able to identify trends in moment arm evolution across Ornithischia as a whole, suggesting that the bipedal ancestry of ornithischians did not constrain the
Daley, Monica A; Biewener, Andrew A
Legged animals routinely negotiate rough, unpredictable terrain with agility and stability that outmatches any human-built machine. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how animals accomplish this. Current knowledge is largely limited to studies of steady movement. These studies have revealed fundamental mechanisms used by terrestrial animals for steady locomotion. However, it is unclear whether these models provide an appropriate framework for the neuromuscular and mechanical strategies used to achieve dynamic stability over rough terrain. Perturbation experiments shed light on this issue, revealing the interplay between mechanics and neuromuscular control. We measured limb mechanics of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) running over an unexpected drop in terrain, comparing their response to predictions of the mass-spring running model. Adjustment of limb contact angle explains 80% of the variation in stance-phase limb loading following the perturbation. Surprisingly, although limb stiffness varies dramatically, it does not influence the response. This result agrees with a mass-spring model, although it differs from previous findings on humans running over surfaces of varying compliance. However, guinea fowl sometimes deviate from mass-spring dynamics through posture-dependent work performance of the limb, leading to substantial energy absorption following the perturbation. This posture-dependent actuation allows the animal to absorb energy and maintain desired velocity on a sudden substrate drop. Thus, posture-dependent work performance of the limb provides inherent velocity control over rough terrain. These findings highlight how simple mechanical models extend to unsteady conditions, providing fundamental insights into neuromuscular control of movement and the design of dynamically stable legged robots and prosthetic devices.
Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.
The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo,to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.
Full Text Available The tortoise tick Amblyomma marmoreum was collected from large numbers of reptiles and other animals during the course of numerous surveys conducted in South Africa. A total of 1 229 ticks, of which 550 were adults, were recovered from 309 reptiles belonging to 13 species, with leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis being the most heavily infested. The 269 birds sampled harboured 4 901 larvae, 217 nymphs and no adult ticks, and the prevalence of infestation was greatest on hel meted guinea fowls, Numida meleagris. Only two larvae were recovered from 610 rodents, including 31 spring hares, Pedetes capensis, whereas 1 144 other small mammals yielded 1 835 immature ticks, of which 1 655 were collected from 623 scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis. The 213 carnivores examined harboured 2 459 ticks of which none were adult. A single adult tick and 6 684 larvae and 62 nymphs were recovered from 656 large herbivores, and a total of 4 081 immature ticks and three adults were collected from 1 543 domestic animals and 194 humans. Adult male and female A. marmoreum were most numerous on reptiles during January and February, and larvae during March. The largest numbers of larvae were present on domestic cattle and helmeted guineafowls in the Eastern Cape Province during March or April respectively, whereas larvae were most numerous on helmeted guineafowls, scrub hares and the vegetation in north-eastern Mpumalanga Province during May. In both provinces nymphs were most numerous between October and December. Amblyomma marmoreum appears to be most prevalent in the western regions of the Western and Eastern Cape and Free State provinces, and the north-eastern regions of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu- Natal, Mpumulanga and Limpopo provinces.
Darshana B. Bhaisare
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.
Michael M H Graf
Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study
Petermann, Holger; Sander, Martin
Since the 19th century, identification of muscle attachment sites on bones has been important for muscle reconstructions, especially in fossil tetrapods, and therefore has been the subject of numerous biological and paleontological studies. At the microscopic level, in histological thin sections, the only features that can be used reliably for identifying tendon-bone or muscle-tendon-bone interactions are Sharpey's fibers. Muscles, however, do not only attach to the bone indirectly with tendons, but also directly. Previous studies failed to provide new indicators for muscle attachment, or to address the question of whether muscles with direct attachment can be identified histologically. However, histological identification of direct muscle attachments is important because these attachments do not leave visible marks (e.g. scars and rugosities) on the bone surface. We dissected the right hind limb and mapped the muscle attachment sites on the femur of one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), one Alligator mississippiensis, and one turkey (Meleagris cuniculus). We then extracted the femur and prepared four histological thin sections for the rabbit and the turkey and five histological thin sections for the alligator. Sharpey's fibers, vascular canal orientation, and a frayed periosteal margin can be indicators for indirect but also direct muscle attachment. Sharpey's fibers can be oriented to the cutting plane of the thin section at high angles, and two Sharpey's fibers orientations can occur in one area, possibly indicating a secondary force axis. However, only about 60% of mapped muscle attachment sites could be detected in thin sections, and frequently histological features suggestive of muscle attachment occurred outside mapped sites. While these insights should improve our ability to successfully identify and reconstruct muscles in extinct species, they also show the limitations of this approach. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2013 Anatomical Society.
Juliana Nunes Santos
health workers. Twenty hypothetical situations were investigated, addressing issues related to Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology present in their routine. The variables analysed were: age, work experience, education, perception of health risks in the areas of voice, orofacial myology, language and audiology. RESULTS: The mean age of the agents was 38 years (±9.1, and their mean time of experience in the family health program was 5 years (±2.9. It was observed that 80 professionals (94% had at least complete high school education, and all were female. Among the hypothetical situations investigated, the workers showed to have the perception of risk and attitude to take it to discussion with the team in 49% of the situations involving risks to hearing health, 53% risk to vocal health, 60% and 62% risks related to orofacial myology and language, respectively. There was no relationship between time of experience and the perception of risks. CONCLUSION: The community health workers have perception of many risk situations to hearing and communication health of the population, especially regarding voice and orofacial structures and functions. Community health workers need to go beyond the conceptual and procedural abilities and competencies regarding the health of human communication, because of the idea of professionals with attitudinal skills.
Recent paleontological investigations at the Pliocene site of Laetoli and at neighboring localities on the Eyasi Plateau of northern Tanzania have led to the recovery of a sizable collection of fossil bird eggs. The material comes from the Upper Laetolil Beds, dated at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma, and the Lower Laetolil Beds, dated at 3.8 Ma to older than 4.3 Ma. The preservation of relatively complete eggs (other than those of ratites) is an extremely rare occurrence in the fossil record, and Laetoli is the only locality in Africa that has produced such well-preserved eggs. Deposition of carbonatite air-fall tuffs led to the rapid burial of the eggs sub-aerially, and they were then preserved in paleosols that were geochemically conducive to their preservation. The collection of fossil eggs from Laetoli can be assigned to at least five different species of ground-nesting birds, including two or three species of francolins, a species of guineafowl, and a larger bird of uncertain taxonomic status about the size of a bustard. Most of the eggs can be assigned to a large species of Francolinus, similar in size to the extant F. afer and F. leucoscepus. A smaller species of francolin, about the size of Francolinus coqui or F. sephaena, is also represented, but is less common. A single egg may represent an even smaller species of francolin, about the size of Francolinus lathami or F. nahani, but its attribution to Francolinus is less certain. The evidence of at least two species of Francolinus at Laetoli indicates that francolins were already taxonomically diverse in East Africa by the mid-Pliocene. Three eggs are similar in their overall dimensions and morphology to the living Numida meleagris, the helmeted guineafowl. An avian community including at least one small species of francolin, a larger francolin, and a guineafowl (as well as ostriches and a vulture) implies that the paleoecology at Laetoli was likely to have been open woodland, bushland, savanna or grassland. However
Roberta Lopes de Castro Martinelli
textbooks in the areas of Anatomy, Pediatric Dentistry and Language and Hearing Sciences. All aspects considered relevant were included in the work found in the initial release, which was assessed on three Speech Language Pathologists specialist in Orofacial Myology, obtaining the consensus version, which was applied in 10 term infants to verify the applicability of the instrument. RESULTS: based on literature and the pilot study, the protocol was designed to evaluate the lingual frenum in infants. The first part consists of the clinical history containing general questions of identification and specific questions about family history and breastfeeding. The second part is composed by clinical examination, that consists of anatomofunctional evaluation and evaluation of orofacial functions. CONCLUSIONS: the evaluation protocol of the frenum of the tongue in infants has been developed from a theoretical proposal and depends on its applicability to be configured as validated test. It is hoped that it may help health professionals to assess and diagnose the anatomical variations of the frenum and its possible interference with breast feeding, guiding and promoting effective conduct an evidence-based practice.The second phase of this work will be the experimental research and statistical analysis.
Caracterização da demanda de fonoaudiologia no serviço público municipal de Ribeirão da Neves - MG Characterizing the demand of speech-language pathology in the municipal public service of Ribeirão das Neves - MG
Andréa de Melo César
and ten years (60%. In accordance with the submitted complaints, the most frequent were alterations of speech (46%, followed by alterations of language (18% and orofacial myology (15%. With relation to the number of complaints per guide, one complaint represents 38%, two complaints 53% and 9% three associated complaints. CONCLUSION: the profile of the Speech-Language Pathology demand in the city of Ribeirão das Neves is characterized by the prevalence of male gender, with age between the five and ten years, directed in its majority by doctors and presenting two associated complaints. The most frequent one was speech alterations (46%.
Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies.
Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M
The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often
Eficácia de duas técnicas fonoaudiológicas da estética facial no músculo orbicular dos olhos: estudo piloto Efficacy of two techniques of speech-language pathologists of facial esthetic in the orbicular oculi muscle: a pilot study
Nayara Lana e Silva
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a eficácia de duas técnicas fonoaudiológicas utilizadas no músculo orbicular dos olhos. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo piloto com quatro pacientes, com idades entre 40 e 51 anos. As mesmas foram submetidas a um exercício miofuncional na hemiface esquerda e à massagem na hemiface direita, por um período de 20 dias. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de protocolos de anamnese, avaliação e reavaliação aplicados por uma dermatologista e por um cirurgião plástico, e pela avaliação de fotos realizada por 10 fonoaudiólogas especializandas em Motricidade Orofacial. RESULTADOS: foi constatado que não houve diferença nos resultados em relação às técnicas utilizadas no tratamento. Para a dermatologista e o cirurgião plástico todas as pacientes obtiveram melhora, sendo esta mais evidente na paciente 2 para a dermatologista e na paciente 4 para o cirurgião plástico. De acordo com as fonoaudiólogas houve melhora em todas as pacientes, sendo que a paciente 1 apresentou melhor resultado na hemiface esquerda e as demais mantiveram equilíbrio entre as hemifaces. CONCLUSÃO: com a realização deste estudo constatou-se que, na amostra avaliada, houve melhora nas rugas de expressão do músculo orbicular dos olhos sem diferenças entre as técnicas estudadas.PURPOSE: to compare the efficacy of two techniques speech-language pathologists used in the orbicular oculi muscle. METHODS: we conducted a pilot study with four patients, aged between 40 and 51 years. They were submitted to a myofunctional exercise in the left hemiface and to a massage in the right hemiface for a period of 20 days. Data collection was performed followed by historical protocols, then evaluation and review applied by dermatologist and plastic surgeon and by photos evaluation made by 10 speech therapist specializing in orofacial myology. RESULTS: it revealed that there were no differences on the results related to the techniques used during
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo
Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus
Letícia Maria de Paula Silva
speech therapy treatment for improvement of the apnea/ hypopnea condition, snoring, and day fatigue. Clinical evaluation of orofacial myology and a polysomnography were performed before and after speech therapy. Based on the clinical evaluation, a therapeutic plan was elaborated to provide the patient with cervical relaxation and relaxation of the suprahyoid muscles, for improvement in nasal aeration, tongue strength and position, strengthening of the soft palate muscles and their mobility, as well as the mastication muscles. Alternate bilateral mastication training and lowering of the hyoid bone were included. RESULTS: after twelve-forty-minute sessions of speech therapy, a decrease of cervical tension and relaxation of the suprahyoid muscles were observed. The position of the hyoid bone had been adjusted as well as tongue normotension with the dorsal lowered. The soft palate had normal mobility with adequate mastication. The patient reported important improvement in day fatigue. The result of the second polysomnography indicated a decrease from 44 to 3 events per hour of apnea and hypopnea during sleep, lowering the severe level to an index of breathing disturbance which no longer characterized the disease as sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: speech therapy was effective in the treatment for this case of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.