WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma skin cancers

  1. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer? Many risk factors for melanoma have been found, ... it’s not always clear exactly how they might cause cancer. For example, while most moles never turn into ...

  2. Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Start here to find information on skin cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  3. Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers. Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which make the melanin. Find evidence-based information on skin cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  4. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  5. Lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in Australian recreational and competitive surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climstein, Mike; Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joe

    2016-07-01

    Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P well as significantly (P surf are advised to regularly utilize sun protection strategies (avoid peak ultraviolet radiation (10 am-3 pm), rashvest, hat and sunscreen) and primary care physicians are recommended to regularly screen their patients who surf. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  7. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.G.; Hoover, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell skin cancer, though common, remains largely unreported and unstudied, with little known about its incidence and time trends. The authors have used a unique resource--a continuous population-based registry of cases of squamous cell skin cancer within a single prepaid health plant--to describe basic epidemiologic features of this malignancy and compare it with the more widely studied melanoma. Both malignancies are considerably more common in this population than they expected based on previous reports from the general population. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the incidence of squamous cell skin cancer increased 2.6 times in men and 3.1 times in women, while incidence of melanoma rose 3.5-fold and 4.6-fold in men and women, respectively. Skin cancers of both types involving the head and neck or the extremities increased essentially in parallel over these 27 years. Melanomas of the trunk, however, appeared to increase at a faster rate in both sexes. These observations are consistent with the impression that the rising incidence of both malignancies may be attributable to increased voluntary exposure to the sun over an extended period

  8. [Ultrasound in the management of non-melanoma skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ibáñez, C; Aguilar Bernier, M; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound plays an important role in the study and management of non-melanoma skin cancer. Among other factors, this technique contributes to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of these tumours, the establishment of their size and relation to neighbouring structures, the delimitation of surgical margins, and the detection of subclinical and recurrent lesions. The present article analyses the role of cutaneous ultrasound in the field of non-melanoma skin cancer (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas and dermatofibrosarcoma) through a literature review. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Non melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, K. C.; Hallgren, G. S.; Massoumi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins post translationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to non melanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  10. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 2: Primary Prevention of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Vender, Ronald; Teoh, Hwee; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC), represents the most common malignancy. To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding primary prevention of NMSC. Structured literature searches were conducted, using search terms including prevention, sunscreen, and sun prevention factor. All recommendations concern guidance that physicians should regularly discuss with their patients to help establish photoprotection habits. The GRADE system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. Ultraviolet exposure is the major modifiable risk factor for NMSC. Aspects of photoprotection, including effective sunscreen use and avoidance of both the midday sun and artificial tanning, are discussed. Several widespread misunderstandings that undermine responsible public health measures related to sun safety are addressed. Photoprotection represents both an individual priority and a public health imperative. By providing accurate information during routine patient visits, physicians reinforce the need for ongoing skin cancer prevention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. HDR brachytherapy for superficial non-melanoma skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauden, Ruth; Pracy, Martin; Avery, Anne-Marie; Hodgetts, Ian; Gauden, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Our initial experience using recommended high dose per fraction skin brachytherapy (BT) treatment schedules, resulted in poor cosmesis. This study aimed to assess in a prospective group of patients the use of Leipzig surface applicators for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, for the treatment of small non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) using a protracted treatment schedule. Treatment was delivered by HDR brachytherapy with Leipzig applicators. 36Gy, prescribed to between 3 to 4mm, was given in daily 3Gy fractions. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated weekly during irradiation using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Local response, late skin effects and cosmetic results were monitored at periodic intervals after treatment completion. From March 2002, 200 patients with 236 lesions were treated. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 25–121 months). A total of 162 lesions were macroscopic, while in 74 cases, BT was given after resection because of positive microscopic margins. There were 121 lesions that were basal cell carcinomas, and 115 were squamous cell carcinomas. Lesions were located on the head and neck (198), the extremities (26) and trunk (12). Local control was 232/236 (98%). Four patients required further surgery to treat recurrence. Grade 1 acute skin toxicity was detected in 168 treated lesions (71%) and grade 2 in 81 (34%). Cosmesis was good or excellent in 208 cases (88%). Late skin hypopigmentation changes were observed in 13 cases (5.5%). Delivering 36Gy over 2 weeks to superficial NMSC using HDR brachytherapy is well tolerated and provides a high local control rate without significant toxicity.

  12. The protective role of vitamin d signaling in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bikle, Daniel; Bikle, DD; Jiang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting th

  13. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  16. The development of a non-melanoma skin cancer detection model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Rinkens, F.J.C.H.; Jansen, G.A.E.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence and prevalence of skin cancer is rising. A detection model could support the (screening) process of diagnosing non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods: A questionnaire was developed containing potential actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) characteristics. Three

  17. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  18. Linear Malignant Melanoma In Situ: Reports and Review of Cutaneous Malignancies Presenting as Linear Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-09-18

    Melanomas usually present as oval lesions in which the borders may be irregular. Other morphological features of melanoma include clinical asymmetry, variable color, diameter greater than 6 mm and evolving lesions. Two males whose melanoma in situ presented as linear skin lesions are described and cutaneous malignancies that may appear linear in morphology are summarized in this report. A medical literature search engine, PubMed, was used to search the following terms: cancer, cutaneous, in situ, linear, malignant, malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ, neoplasm, and skin. The 25 papers that were generated by the search and their references, were reviewed; 10 papers were selected for inclusion. The cancer of the skin typically presents as round lesions. However, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may arise from primary skin conditions or benign skin neoplasms such as linear epidermal nevus and linear porokeratosis. In addition, linear tumors such as basal cell carcinoma can occur. The development of linear cutaneous neoplasms may occur secondary to skin tension line or embryonal growth patterns (as reflected by the lines of Langer and lines of Blaschko) or exogenous factors such as prior radiation therapy. Cutaneous neoplasms and specifically melanoma in situ can be added to the list of linear skin lesions.

  19. Melanoma of the skin in the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri

    2018-01-01

    estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n=200) and the Melanoma Database (n=200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as 'gold-standard' reference. We further validated tumor characteristics...

  20. Melanoma in Buckinghamshire: Data from the Inception of the Skin Cancer Multidisciplinary Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubitt, J. J.; Khan, A. A.; Royston, E.; Rughani, M.; Budny, B. G.; Cubitt, J. J.; Middleton, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Melanoma incidence is increasing faster than any other cancer in the UK. The introduction of specialist skin cancer multidisciplinary teams intends to improve the provision of care to patients suffering from melanoma. This study aims to investigate the management and survival of patients diagnosed with melanoma around the time of inception of the regional skin cancer multidisciplinary team both to benchmark the service against published data and to enable future analysis of the impact of the specialisation of skin cancer care. Methods. All patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma between January 1, 2003 and December 3, 2005 were identified. Data on clinical and histopathological features, surgical procedures, complications, disease recurrence and 5-year survival were collected and analysed. Results. Two hundred and fourteen patients were included, 134 female and 80 males. Median Breslow thickness was 0.74 mm (0.7 mm female and 0.8 mm male). Overall 5-year survival was 88% (90% female and 85% male). Discussion. Melanoma incidence in Buckinghamshire is in keeping with published data. Basic demographics details concur with classic melanoma distribution and more recent trends, with increased percentage of superficial spreading and thin melanomas, leading to improved survival are reflected

  1. Quality of life in non-melanoma skin cancer--the skin cancer quality of life (SCQoL) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Christensen, Karl Bang; Esmann, Solveig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are increasingly used to provide patient-reported out-come measures in both malignant and non-malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: To create, validate and test the psychometrics of the Skin Cancer Quality of Life (SCQoL), which was designed...... to measure health-related QoL in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer affecting any area and undergoing any therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The SCQoL was developed in a stepwise approach. Three pilot studies (testing content and face validity) and psychometric testing (scale structure, reliability, domains...

  2. Melanoma of the Skin in the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Gaist, David

    2018-05-01

    The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance, and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n = 200) and the Melanoma Database (n = 200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as "gold standard" reference. We further validated tumor characteristics in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database. Additionally, we estimated the PPV of in situ melanoma diagnoses in the Melanoma Database, and the sensitivity of melanoma diagnoses in 2004-2014. The PPVs of melanoma in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database were 97% (95% CI = 94, 99) and 100%. The sensitivity was 90% in the Cancer Registry and 77% in the Melanoma Database. The PPV of in situ melanomas in the Melanoma Database was 97% and the sensitivity was 56%. In the Melanoma Database, we observed PPVs of ulceration of 75% and Breslow thickness of 96%. The PPV of histologic subtypes varied between 87% and 100% in the Cancer Registry and 93% and 100% in the Melanoma Database. The PPVs for anatomical localization were 83%-95% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The data quality in both the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database is high, supporting their use in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Do non-melanoma skin cancer survivors use tanning beds less often than the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Lauren; Dai, Feng; Chagpar, Anees B

    2016-08-15

    Purpose Indoor tanning is associated with an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), yet little is known about indoor tanning habits of individuals with a history of NMSC. Methods We examined self-reported history of NMSC and tanning bed use among non-Hispanic white respondents in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional population-based survey designed to be representative of the civilian US population. We computed weighted population estimates and standard errors using the Taylor series linearization method. We then evaluated chi-square tests of independence and conducted weighted logistic regression analyses to evaluate if NMSC status was a predictor of indoor tanning. Results In our analytic sample of 14,400 non-Hispanic white participants, representing 145,287,995 in the population, 543 participants (weighted proportion = 3.45%) self-reported a history of NMSC or "skin cancer type not known." In multivariate analyses, non-melanoma skin cancer survivors were no less likely to use tanning beds in the last 12 months than skin cancer free controls (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.34-1.43, p = 0.33). Conclusions Non-melanoma skin cancer survivors should be educated on their increased risk of recurrence and other skin cancers and in particular the role of indoor tanning in skin tumorigenesis.

  4. Prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer is associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Jorge R.; Blake, Patrick W.; Björkholm, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Wang, Zhuoqiao; Landgren, Ola

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether a previous diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients is a predictor of poor outcome. Using the Swedish Cancer Registry, we conducted a population-based study to evaluate the survival patterns among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed. Of a total of 12,041 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases identified, 236 cases, including 111 squamous cell cancer, had a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer had a 1.29-fold (95% CI 1.10–1.52; p=0.0024) increased risk of dying; and those with a history of squamous cell cancer had a further elevated 1.86-fold (95% CI 1.46–2.36; p<0.0001) risk of dying. Kaplan-Meier plots showed that patients with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly those with squamous cell cancer, had significantly poorer survival than chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients without non-melanoma skin cancer (p<0.0001; log-rank test). Non-melanoma skin cancer may be a novel clinical predictor of worse chronic lymphocytic leukemia outcome. PMID:19794092

  5. Extramammary Paget disease: review of patients seen in a non-melanoma skin cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J; Assaad, D; Breen, D; Fialkov, J; Antonyshyn, O; Balogh, J; Tsao, M; Kamra, J; Czarnota, G; Barnes, E A

    2010-10-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare skin disease commonly found in the anogenital region. In this study, we aimed to identify EMPD patients seen in the non-melanoma skin cancer clinic at Odette Cancer Centre and to describe the treatments delivered and outcomes achieved. From 2000 to 2009, 14 patients were seen. Initial treatment recommendations included imiquimod and surgical excision, although half the patients required more than one treatment modality, highlighting the difficulty of achieving complete eradication of this disease.

  6. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Obtaining of marked patches for treatment of skin cancer non melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, P.; Savio, E.; Katz, A.; Blanco, D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the therapeutic devices with colloids of 188Re, are an viable and sure option , with law cost for treatment of skin cancer type no melanoma. There is required an expert radiopharmaceuticals equipment, but is not necessary a complex installation for the treatment [es

  8. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical

  9. Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in myasthenia patients treated with azathioprine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E G; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J

    2014-01-01

    The association between use of azathioprine and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with myasthenia was evaluated in a nationwide setting. Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia frequently involves long-term exposure to immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. Use of azathioprine...

  10. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  11. Study to determine whether intraoperative frozen section biopsy improves surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLETTI, GIOVANNI; BRENTA, FEDERICA; MALOVINI, ALBERTO; MUSUMARRA, GAETANO; SCEVOLA, SILVIA; FAGA, ANGELA

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common types of cancer and their incidence has shown an increase of ∼4 to 8% per year over the last 40 years. The majority of skin cancers (∼97%) are non-melanoma skin cancers, mainly represented by basal cell (80%) and squamous cell carcinomas (20%). The use of intra-operative frozen section remains controversial in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, being commonly considered an optional tool, the reliability and effectiveness of which remain questi...

  12. Updates on the Management of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fahradyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs are the most common malignancy worldwide, of which 99% are basal cell carcinomas (BCCs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of skin. NMSCs are generally considered a curable diseases, yet they currently pose an increasing global healthcare problem due to rising incidence. This has led to a shift in emphasis on prevention of NMSCs with development of various skin cancer prevention programs worldwide. This article aims to summarize the most recent changes and advances made in NMSC management with a focus on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and staging.

  13. [Skin cancer and sun radiation: peruvian experience in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, César

    2013-03-01

    The excessive exposure to sun radiation, especially to ultraviolet radiation (UV), has led to various diseases, in particular to skin cancer. In 1995, the Peruvian Dermatological Association conducted the first "Campaign for Education, Prevention and Early Detection of Skin Cancer and Melanoma" called "Mole's Day". The Ministry of Health has turned it into an official event, and the Health Social Security (EsSalud) also participates. This is a free campaign that takes place every year nationwide. 118,092 people attended from 1995 to 2011 in 76 sites distributed in 18 cities throughout the country. A cutaneous lesion were malignancy was suspected was identified in 2.8% of people attending, out of which 64.9% corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 26.7% to cutaneous melanoma, and 8.4% to squamous cell carcinoma. These campaigns are highly important not only because of the assistance given, but also because of the educational activities aimed at promoting a prevention culture in favor of the most vulnerable populations. Finally, we believe it is important to continue educating the population on skin cancer prevention, to build awareness among the authorities so that they actively participate in the performance of these activities, and to ask all physicians to coordinately join this initiative, in order to continue growing, and to improve all that has been attained for the benefit of our country.

  14. Non-melanoma skin cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, C; Currie, R; Memon, A; Whitaker, S; Woolford, T

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides consensus recommendations on the management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region on the basis of current evidence. Recommendations • Royal College of Pathologists minimum datasets for NMSC should be adhered to in order to improve patient care and help work-force planning in pathology departments. (G) • Tumour depth is of critical importance in identifying high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and should be reported in all cases. (R) • Appropriate imaging to determine the extent of primary NMSC is indicated when peri-neural involvement or bony invasion is suspected. (R) • In the clinically N0 neck, radiological imaging is not beneficial, and a policy of watchful waiting and patient education can be adopted. (R) • Patients with high-risk NMSC should be treated by members of a skin cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care. (G) • Non-infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer prevention measures. (G) • Patients who have had a single completely excised BCC or low-risk cSCC can be discharged after a single post-operative visit. (G) • Patients with an excised high-risk cSCC should be reviewed three to six monthly for two years, with further annual review depending upon clinical risk. (G) • Those with recurrent or multiple BCCs should be offered annual review. (G).

  15. Orbital invasion routes of non-melanoma skin cancers and survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Yusuf; Cannon, Richard; Wiggins, Richard; Monroe, Marcus M; Buchmann, Luke O; Hunt, Jason P

    2018-02-21

    Overall non-melanoma head and neck skin cancer has a good prognosis; however, rarely patients have an aggressive variant which results in orbital invasion via perineural spread or direct extension. Despite these consequences, there are limited published studies defining this clinical entity. The main objectives of the current study are to describe orbital invasion patterns of non-melanoma head and neck skin cancers and their impact on survival. Retrospective case series from a tertiary-care, academic institution performed between 2004 and 2014. Demographic and tumour characteristics are reported as well as patterns of orbital invasion, types of treatments received, and survival outcomes. There were 17 consecutive patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and orbital invasion who met inclusion criteria. Average age at orbital invasion diagnosis was 70.8 years old. 76% were male. Mean follow-up time was 28.5 months. Of these patients, 71% had squamous cell carcinoma and 29% had basal cell carcinoma. Brow (41%) was the most common primary sub-site followed by cheek (23%) and temple (12%). 76% of patients had a history of prior treatment. The lateral orbital wall (41%) was the most common site of invasion, followed by the medial orbital wall (29%) and antero-superior invasion (23%). Age, histology, and location of orbital invasion were associated with disease-specific and overall survival. Orbital invasion for non-melanoma head and neck skin cancers creates a treatment dilemma and the patterns of invasion are described. In addition, the location of orbital invasion is associated with survival outcomes.

  16. In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Kovacic, Dianne; Migden, Michael F.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Nguyen, Tri H.; Tunnell, James W.

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques have widely been used as noninvasive tools for early cancer detection in several organs including the cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Using a combined DOS/LIF approach, one can simultaneously measure the morphology and biochemical composition of tissue and use these features to diagnose malignancy. We report for the first time to our knowledge both the optical properties and native fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in the UV-visible range. We collected in vivo diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence measurements from 44 skin lesions on 37 patients. The skin sites were further categorized into three groups of non-melanoma skin cancer according to histopathology: 1) pre-cancerous actinic keratosis 2) malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We used a custom-built probe-based clinical system that collects both white light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-700 nm. We extracted the blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation, blood vessel size, tissue microarchitecture and melanin content from diffuse reflectance measurements. In addition, we determined the native fluorophore contributions of NADH, collagen and FAD from laser-induced fluorescence for all groups. The scattering from tissue decreased with progression from clinically normal to precancerous actinic keratosis to malignant SCC. A similar trend was observed for clinically normal skin and malignant BCC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen contributions, which were lower in malignant SCC and BCC as compared to normal skin. Our data demonstrates that the mean optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal, benign and malignant nonmelanoma cancers are significantly different from each other and can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early detection of skin cancer.

  17. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Mackenzie R; Shive, Melissa L; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A; Linos, Eleni

    2012-10-02

    To synthesise the literature on indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed (1966 to present), Embase (1974 to present), and Web of Science (1898 to present). All articles that reported an original effect statistic for indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer were included. Articles that presented no data, such as review articles and editorials, were excluded, as were articles in languages other than English. Two investigators independently extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis was used to summarise the relative risk of ever use versus never use of indoor tanning. Dose-response effects and exposure to indoor tanning during early life were also examined. The population attributable risk fraction for the United States population was calculated. 12 studies with 9328 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer were included. Among people who reported ever using indoor tanning compared with those who never used indoor tanning, the summary relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma was 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 2.17) and that for basal cell carcinoma was 1.29 (1.08 to 1.53). No significant heterogeneity existed between studies. The population attributable risk fraction for the United States was estimated to be 8.2% for squamous cell carcinoma and 3.7% for basal cell carcinoma. This corresponds to more than 170 000 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer each year attributable to indoor tanning. On the basis of data from three studies, use of indoor tanning before age 25 was more strongly associated with both squamous cell carcinoma (relative risk 2.02, 0.70 to 5.86) and basal cell carcinoma (1.40, 1.29 to 1.52). Indoor tanning is associated with a significantly increased risk of both basal and squamous cell skin cancer. The risk is higher with use in early life (skin cancer each year in the United States alone and many more worldwide. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence on the harms of indoor

  18. The theoretical risk of non-melanoma skin cancer from environmental radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The skin cancer risk theoretically attributable to radon associated alpha particle radiation is calculated on the basis of recent dosimetry, and published radiation risk factors. The results suggest that of the order of 2% (range 1%-10%) of non-melanoma skin cancers in the UK may be associated with radon exposure at the average UK radon concentration of 20 Bq m -3 . The range quoted is due solely to uncertainties in the estimate of the radon dose to the basal layer of the skin, and additional sources of uncertainty are discussed. The estimate is dependent on the assumption that the target cells for radiation induced skin cancer lie in the basal layer of the epidermis, and that irradiation of the dermis is not necessary for skin cancer induction. Due to the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the risk factors for ionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation exposure must also be involved in the induction of the majority of any skin cancer cases linked to radon exposure. (author)

  19. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  20. Genética molecular aplicada ao câncer cutâneo não melanoma Molecular genetics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Rodrigues Martinez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os cânceres cutâneos não melanoma são as neoplasias malignas mais comuns em humanos. O carcinoma basocelular e o carcinoma espinocelular representam cerca de 95% dos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma, o que os torna um crescente problema para a saúde p��blica mundial devido a suas prevalências cada vez maiores. As alterações genéticas que ocorrem no desenvolvimento dessas malignidades cutâneas são apenas parcialmente compreendidas, havendo muito interesse no conhecimento e determinação das bases genéticas dos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma que expliquem seus fenótipos, comportamentos biológicos e potenciais metastáticos distintos. Apresenta-se uma revisão atualizada da genética molecular aplicada aos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma, em especial ao carcinoma basocelular e carcinoma espinocelular, enfatizando os mais freqüentes genes e os principais mecanismos de instabilidade genômica envolvidos no desenvolvimento dessas malignidades cutâneas.Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignant neoplasms in humans. About 95% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are represented by basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Their prevalences are still increasing worldwide, representing an important public health problem. The genetic alterations underlying basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma development are only partly understood. Much interest lies in determining the genetic basis of non-melanoma skin cancers, to explain their distinctive phenotypes, biological behaviors and metastatic potential. We present here a molecular genetic update, focusing on the most frequent genes and genomic instability involved in the development and progression of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  1. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Study to determine whether intraoperative frozen section biopsy improves surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Brenta, Federica; Malovini, Alberto; Musumarra, Gaetano; Scevola, Silvia; Faga, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Skin cancers are the most common types of cancer and their incidence has shown an increase of ∼4 to 8% per year over the last 40 years. The majority of skin cancers (∼97%) are non-melanoma skin cancers, mainly represented by basal cell (80%) and squamous cell carcinomas (20%). The use of intra-operative frozen section remains controversial in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, being commonly considered an optional tool, the reliability and effectiveness of which remain questionable. A large retrospective study was conducted to examine 670 surgical excisions of non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck in 481 patients over a period of nine years, between May, 2002 and December, 2011, at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit of the University of Pavia, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy. Results demonstrated the paradoxical ineffectiveness of an intra-operative frozen section biopsy in pursuing higher rates of radical excision in non-melanoma skin cancers. Nevertheless, a more detailed analysis on the use of frozen sections focusing on the various anatomical sites of the body demonstrated a reverse trend in the eyelids and canthi, where a higher success rate (87.50 vs. 69.77%) in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers was obtained with the use of an intra-operative frozen section biopsy. Results of the present study suggested that intra-operative frozen section biopsy be routinely used in the surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin tumors involving the eyelids and canthi.

  3. Combination chemoprevention with diclofenac, calcipotriol and difluoromethylornithine inhibits development of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model.......Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model....

  4. Algorithm for comprehensive care for patients with non melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria Bárzaga, Hector Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Sequence of actions, roles of doctors and paramedical staff, preventive and therapeutic methods, diagnostic and clinical monitoring mode: an algorithm for the comprehensive care of patients with non-melanoma skin cancer including presents. Consensus on the theoretical and practical basis of the algorithm was established by the Delphi expert method variant and health personnel involved were trained in its implementation. Algorithm for making national and international specialized literature on the subject was reviewed; a critical analysis of the methods specified in Cuba for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease was made, and weaknesses were determined in the process of medical care for these patients in the Clinical Surgical Teaching Military Hospital D r. Octavio de la Concepción and Pedraja a nd health areas. The results obtained with the implementation of the algorithm demonstrated its effectiveness in comprehensive care for patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, because the prevention, early diagnosis, appropriate physical examination, the correct treatment ensured notification, monitoring periodic clinical and referral of complicated patients, the occurrence of rare complications. (author)

  5. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...

  6. Comparative transforming potential of different human papillomaviruses associated with non-melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massimi, Paola; Thomas, Miranda; Bouvard, Veronique; Ruberto, Irene; Campo, M. Saveria; Tommasino, Massimo; Banks, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect mucosal epithelia are the causative agents of cervical cancer. In contrast, the association of cutaneo-tropic HPV types with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is less well defined. In this study, we have analysed the in vitro transforming potential of various cutaneous HPV types. Using oncogene cooperation assays with activated ras, we have shown that diverse cutaneous types, including 12, 14, 15, 24, 36 and 49, have significant transforming potential. Interestingly, most of this activity appears to be encoded by the E6 gene product. In contrast, the common HPV-10 exhibits no significant transforming potential in these assays. This difference may be a reflection of different patterns of cellular localization, with transforming E6s being nuclear and non-transforming being cytoplasmic. These results provide molecular support for a role of these viruses in the development of certain human malignancies

  7. Non-melanoma skin cancer: occupational risk from UV light and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has a significant impact on public health and health care costs as a result of high morbidity and disfigurement due to the destruction of surrounding tissues. Although the mortality rates of these tumors are low, the high incidence rates determine a considerable number of deaths. NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer, representing about 1/3 of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. The most common NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Studies on humans and experimental animals indicate that ultraviolet (UV) light and arsenic play important roles in the development of these skin malignancies. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of developing NMSC and the potential link between exposure to sunlight and arsenic in the agricultural and industrial occupational settings. To date, the published literature suggests that there is no apparent skin cancer risk as regards workplace exposure to artificial UV light or arsenic. Concerning UV light from sun exposure at the workplace, most published studies indicated an elevated risk for SCC, but are less conclusive for BCC. Many of these studies are limited by the methodology used in the evaluation of occupational exposure and the lack of adjustment for major confounders. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are required to focus on exposure assessment at the individual level as well as potential interactions with other occupational and non-occupational exposures and individual susceptibility. In doing so, we can better quantify the true risk of skin cancer in exposed workers and inform effective public health prevention programs.

  8. Socioeconomic status and non-melanoma skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study of incidence and survival in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Jessen, M; Birch-Johansen, F; Jensen, A

    2010-01-01

    The two main types of non-melanoma skin cancer differ with the pattern of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR): basal cell carcinoma (BCC) appears to be more closely related to intermittent solar exposure and sunburn, while the risk for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a result of lifetime...

  9. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is skin cancer? Skin cancer is cancer that occurs in different kinds ... squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Facts About Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer ...

  10. Indoor tanning in businesses and homes and risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in two US case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Cartmel, Brenda; Lazovich, DeAnn; Mayne, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoor tanning increases skin cancer risk. Beyond early research describing melanoma and sun lamps, few recent reports describe where individuals indoor tan and whether skin cancer risk varies by location (business, home-based). Objective Assess where individuals tanned indoors and skin cancer risk by tanning device location. Methods Multivariate logistic regression in two US case-control studies of melanoma (1,161 cases, 1,083 controls, ages 25–59) and early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (375 cases, 382 controls, under age 40) conducted between 2004 and 2010. Results Most indoor tanners (86.4–95.1%), especially younger individuals, tanned exclusively in businesses. Persons who used indoor tanning exclusively in businesses were at increased risk of melanoma (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.47–2.26) and BCC (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.15–2.48) compared to non-users. Melanoma risk was also increased in the small number who reported tanning indoors only at home relative to non-users (OR=4.14, 95% CI=1.75–9.78); 67.6% used sun lamps. Limitations Self-reported tanning, potential recall bias. Conclusion Business only tanning, despite claims of “safe" tanning, was positively associated with a significant risk of melanoma and BCC. Home tanning was uncommon and mostly from sun lamps which were rarely used by younger participants. Regardless of location, indoor tanning was associated with increased risk of skin cancer. PMID:25062934

  11. Association between risk factors and detection of cutaneous melanoma in the setting of a population-based skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Joachim; Waldmann, Annika; Eisemann, Nora; Noftz, Maria; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2017-07-07

    Early detection is considered to improve the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. The value of population-based screening for melanoma, however, is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of established risk factors in the setting of a population-based screening and to provide empirical evidence for potential risk stratifications. We reanalyzed data (including age, sex, risk factors, and screening results) of 354 635 participants in the Skin Cancer Research to provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany project conducted in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein (2003-2004). In multivariable analysis, atypical nevi [odds ratio (OR): 17.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4-20.1], personal history of melanoma (OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 3.6-7.6), and multiple (≥40) common nevi (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) were associated with an increased risk of melanoma detection. Family history and congenital nevi were not significantly associated with melanoma detection in the Skin Cancer Research to provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany population. The effects of several risk-adapted screening strategies were evaluated. Hypothesizing a screening of individuals aged more than or equal to 35 years, irrespective of risk factors (age approach), the number needed to screen is 559 (95% CI: 514-612), whereas a screening of adults (aged ≥20) with at least one risk factor (risk approach) leads to an number needed to screen of 178 (95% CI: 163-196). Converted into one screen-detected melanoma, the number of missed melanomas is 0.15 (95% CI: 0.12-0.18) with the age approach and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.19-0.26) with the risk approach. The results indicate that focusing on individuals at high risk for melanoma may improve the cost-effectiveness and the benefit-to-harm balance of melanoma screening programs.

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer: new and future synthetic drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Teresa; Garbe, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) mainly comprise two different entities: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); beneath these two entities, Merkel cell carcinoma, adnexal tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, angiosarcoma, and cutaneous lymphoma belong to NMSC. These rare skin tumors are not the topic of this review. BCC and SCC are the most common cancers diagnosed in humans. The preferred treatment is surgery, which in most cases is curative. Although a high recurrence rate is seen, these cancers rarely metastasize. Therefore, systemic treatments were not a priority for these patients. It is long known that the abnormal activation of Hedgehog and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways were involved in BCC and SCC. In the last decade, metastatic disease became an important area of research, mostly because new therapies that targeted components of these two pathways became available. Areas covered: Here we cover the available therapeutic options for patients diagnosed with BCC and SCC, focus on systemic and targeted therapies. Expert opinion: BCC and SCC are common cancers, with good prognosis. More than the metastatic disease, advanced local disease and recurrent disease pose clinicians a great challenge. Albeit there are promising results with targeted therapies, resistance development has already been described.

  13. Laser induced autofluorescence for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Merlemis, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Sianoudis, I. A.; Batsi, O.; Christofidou, E.; Stratigos, A. J.; Katsambas, A. D.; Antoniou, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Non melanoma skin cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors among humans. A non-invasive technique, with high sensitivity and high specificity, would be the most suitable method for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignancies diagnostics, instead of the well established biopsy and histopathology examination. In the last decades, a non-invasive, spectroscopic diagnostic method was introduced, the laser induced fluorescence (LIF), which could generate an image contrast between different states of skin tissue. The noninvasiveness consists in that this biophotonic method do not require tissue sample excision, what is necessary in histopathology characterization and biochemical analysis of the skin tissue samples, which is worldwide used as an evaluation gold standard. The object of this study is to establish the possibilities of a relatively portable system for laser induced skin autofluorescence to differentiate malignant from nonmalignant skin lesions. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a Nd:YAG-3ω laser (λ=355 nm, 6 ns), used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements. A portable fiber-based spectrometer was used to record fluorescence spectra of the sites of interest. The ex vivo results, obtained with this spectroscopic technique, were correlated with the histopathology results. After the analysis of the fluorescence spectra of almost 60 skin tissue areas, we developed an algorithm to distinguish different types of malignant lesions, including inflammatory areas. Optimization of the data analysis and potential use of LIF spectroscopy with 355 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation of tissue autofluorescence for clinical applications are discussed.

  14. Statistical Survey of Deaths from Non melanoma Skin Cancer in Japan during 54 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, H.

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the annual trends in the number of deaths from non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) from 1955 to 2008 in Japan on the basis of the data from the Vital Statistics of Japan. The general trends in the number of deaths from NMSC were downward between 1979 to 1994, but upward after 1995. The general trends in age-standardized death rates were roughly downward, although the death rates plateaued after 1995. The recent annual increased ratio of deaths from NMSC was 3.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.7∼4.9%). The number and proportion of deaths from NMSC among the elderly were increasing in Japan. For females, more than 50% of the deaths occurred recently at or after 85 years of age, whereas, for males, this proportion was at or after 75 years of age, nearly reaching at or after 80 years of age.

  15. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homer S. Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  16. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S.; Rhodes, Lesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk. PMID:26861407

  17. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikle, Daniel D., E-mail: daniel.bikle@ucsf.edu; Jiang, Yan [Department of Medicine and Endocrine, Research Unit and Department of Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement St (111N), San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC.

  18. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC

  19. Nanoparticle-based photodynamic therapy on non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    There are several advantages of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment compared to conventional treatment techniques such as surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Among these advantages its noninvasive nature, the use of non ionizing radiation and its high selectivity can be mentioned. Despite all these advantages, the therapeutic efficiency of the current clinical protocol is not complete in all the patients and depends on the type of pathology. An adequate dosimetry is needed in order to personalize the protocol. There are strategies that try to overcome the current PDT shortcomings, such as the improvement of the photosensitizer accumulation in the target tissue, optical radiation distribution optimization or photochemical reactions maximization. These strategies can be further complemented by the use of nanostructures with conventional PDT. Customized dosimetry for nanoparticle-based PDT requires models in order to adjust parameters of different nature to get an optimal tumor removal. In this work, a predictive model of nanoparticle-based PDT is proposed and analyzed. Dosimetry in nanoparticle-based PDT is going to be influenced by photosensitizer-nanoparticle distribution in the malignant tissue, its influence in the optical radiation distribution and the subsequent photochemical reactions. Nanoparticles are considered as photosensitizer carriers on several types of non-melanoma skin cancer. Shielding effects are taken into account. The results allow to compare the estimated treatment outcome with and without nanoparticles.

  20. Genetic determinants of UV-susceptibility in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M Welsh

    Full Text Available A milieu of cytokines and signaling molecules are involved in the induction of UV-induced immune suppression and thus the etiology of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Targeting the UV-induced immunosuppression pathway, and using a large population based study of NMSC, we have investigated the risk associated with functional variants in 10 genes (IL10, IL4, IL4R, TNF, TNFR2, HTR2A, HRH2, IL12B, PTGS2, and HAL. The most prominent single genetic effect was observed for IL10. There was increasing risk for both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with increasing number of variant IL10 haplotypes (BCC: p(trend = 0.0048; SCC: p(trend = 0.031. Having two IL10 GC haplotypes was associated with increased odds ratios of BCC and SCC (OR(BCC = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; OR(SCC = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, and these associations were largely confined to women (OR(BCC = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4; SCC: OR(SCC = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0. To examine how combinations of these variants contribute to risk of BCC and SCC, we used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and classification and regression trees (CART. Results from both of these methods found that in men, a combination of skin type, burns, IL10, IL4R, and possibly TNFR2 were important in both BCC and SCC. In women, skin type, burns, and IL10 were the most critical risk factors in SCC, with risk of BCC involving these same factors plus genetic variants in HTR2A, IL12B and IL4R. These data suggest differential genetic susceptibility to UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer risk by gender.

  1. Cutaneous Papillomaviruses and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: Causal Agents or Innocent Bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasche, Daniel; Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2018-01-01

    There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Deciphering the etiological role of cutaneous HPVs requires - besides tissue culture systems - appropriate preclinical models to match the obtained results with clinical data from affected patients. Clear scientific evidence about the etiology and underlying mechanisms involved in NMSC development is fundamental to provide reasonable arguments for public health institutions to classify at least certain cutaneous HPVs as group 1 carcinogens. This in turn would have implications on fundraising institutions and health care decision makers to force - similarly as for anogenital cancer - the implementation of a broad vaccination program against "high-risk" cutaneous HPVs to prevent NMSC as the most frequent cancer worldwide. Precise knowledge of the multi-step progression from normal cells to cancer is a prerequisite to understand the functional and clinical impact of cofactors that affect the individual outcome and the personalized treatment of a disease. This overview summarizes not only recent arguments that favor the acceptance of a viral etiology in NMSC development but also reflects aspects of causality in medicine, the use of empirically meaningful model systems and strategies for prevention.

  2. Cutaneous Papillomaviruses and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: Causal Agents or Innocent Bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hasche

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Deciphering the etiological role of cutaneous HPVs requires – besides tissue culture systems – appropriate preclinical models to match the obtained results with clinical data from affected patients. Clear scientific evidence about the etiology and underlying mechanisms involved in NMSC development is fundamental to provide reasonable arguments for public health institutions to classify at least certain cutaneous HPVs as group 1 carcinogens. This in turn would have implications on fundraising institutions and health care decision makers to force – similarly as for anogenital cancer – the implementation of a broad vaccination program against “high-risk” cutaneous HPVs to prevent NMSC as the most frequent cancer worldwide. Precise knowledge of the multi-step progression from normal cells to cancer is a prerequisite to understand the functional and clinical impact of cofactors that affect the individual outcome and the personalized treatment of a disease. This overview summarizes not only recent arguments that favor the acceptance of a viral etiology in NMSC development but also reflects aspects of causality in medicine, the use of empirically meaningful model systems and strategies for prevention.

  3. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  4. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 1: Introduction to the Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Lyn C; Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Lynde, Charles W; Janiszewski, Peter; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common malignancy. The aim of this document is to provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners on NMSC management. After conducting a literature review, the group developed recommendations for prevention, management, and treatment of basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. These tumour types are considered separately in the accompanying articles. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. This introduction describes the scope and structure of the guidelines and the methods used to develop them. The epidemiology of NMSC is reviewed, as are the pathophysiologic changes occurring with damage to the skin, which lead to the formation of actinic keratoses and invasive squamous or basal cell carcinomas. This introduction describes the need for primary prevention and offers an overview of treatment options that are discussed in later chapters of the guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RNA-seq reveals more consistent reference genes for gene expression studies in human non-melanoma skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van L.T. Hoang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of appropriate reference genes (RGs is critical to accurate data interpretation in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR experiments. In this study, we have utilised next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of a panel of non-melanoma skin cancer lesions, identifying genes that are consistently expressed across all samples. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins were amongst the most stable in this dataset. Validation of this RNA-seq data was examined using qPCR to confirm the suitability of a set of highly stable genes for use as qPCR RGs. These genes will provide a valuable resource for the normalisation of qPCR data for the analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  7. The burden of non-melanoma skin cancers in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondicherry, Ashwini; Martin, Richard; Meredith, Ineke; Rolfe, Jack; Emanuel, Patrick; Elwood, Mark

    2018-01-19

    As the New Zealand Cancer Registry does not require mandatory reporting of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), the clinical burden of these diseases is unknown. A retrospective review of all patients with histopathology performed allowed us to estimate invasive BCC and SCC in the Auckland region in 2008 (population 1.44 million). During this period, a total of 21 236 NMSC were diagnosed among 13 996 patients, consisting of 5611 SCC lesions (26%) and 15 525 (74%) BCC. The Auckland incidence rates per 100 000 were 425 for SCC and 1177 for BCC. The overall rate of NMSC per 100 000 was 1906.5 (standardised to the census data of Australia 2001); 1385 for BCC and 522 for SCC. Using published data on incidence trends and population growth, we estimate that 29 000-33 000 NMSC would have been excised in Auckland in 2016, and 78 000-87 000 in New Zealand. Auckland has the highest reported incidence of invasive NMSC in the world. We believe that high-risk cutaneous SCC and complex BCC should be recorded. Our study provides information for clinicians and health economists on the scale of the problem. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Predicting non-melanoma skin cancer via a multi-parameterized artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, David; Hart, Gregory; Girardi, Michael; Ko, Christine J; Deng, Jun

    2018-01-26

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and family history are major associated risk factors for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The objective of this study was to develop and validate a multi-parameterized artificial neural network based on available personal health information for early detection of NMSC with high sensitivity and specificity, even in the absence of known UVR exposure and family history. The 1997-2015 NHIS adult survey data used to train and validate our neural network (NN) comprised of 2,056 NMSC and 460,574 non-cancer cases. We extracted 13 parameters for our NN: gender, age, BMI, diabetic status, smoking status, emphysema, asthma, race, Hispanic ethnicity, hypertension, heart diseases, vigorous exercise habits, and history of stroke. This study yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.81 and 0.81 for training and validation, respectively. Our results (training sensitivity 88.5% and specificity 62.2%, validation sensitivity 86.2% and specificity 62.7%) were comparable to a previous study of basal and squamous cell carcinoma prediction that also included UVR exposure and family history information. These results indicate that our NN is robust enough to make predictions, suggesting that we have identified novel associations and potential predictive parameters of NMSC.

  9. Topical combination of diclofenac, calcipotriol, and difluoromethylornithine has beneficial effects comparable to 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of skin cancer. Owing to the significant adverse effects of existing treatments, alternatives are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of topically administered combination therapy and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) for the treatment...

  10. Monte Carlo simulations for optimal light delivery in photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, R M; Ibbotson, S H; Moseley, H; Wood, K; Brown, C T A

    2012-01-01

    The choice of light source is important for the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of non-melanoma skin cancer. We simulated the photodynamic dose (PDD) delivered to a tumour during PDT using theoretical radiation transfer simulations performed via our 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer (MCRT) model for a range of light sources with light doses up to 75 J cm −2 . The PDD delivered following superficial irradiation from (A) non-laser light sources, (B) monochromatic light, (C) alternate beam diameters and (D) re-positioning of the tumour within the tissue was computed. (A) The final PDD deposited to the tumour at a depth of 2 mm by the Paterson light source was 2.75, 2.50 and 1.04 times greater than the Waldmann 1200, Photocure and Aktilite, respectively. (B) Tumour necrosis occurred at a depth of 2.23 mm and increased to 3.81 mm for wavelengths 405 and 630 nm, respectively. (C) Increasing the beam diameter from 10 to 50 mm had very little effect on depth of necrosis. (D) As expected, necrosis depths were reduced when the tumour was re-positioned deeper into the tissue. These MCRT simulations show clearly the importance of choosing the correct light source to ensure optimal light delivery to achieve tumour necrosis. (paper)

  11. Pre-diagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyu Liang

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that vitamin D status was inversely associated with the risk of various cancers. However, few studies examined the association between vitamin D levels and risk of skin cancer.We prospectively evaluated the association between baseline plasma 25(OHD levels and the risk of incident squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC among 4,641 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS and the NHS II with 510 incident BCC cases and 75 incident SCC cases. We used multivariate logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Plasma 25(OHD levels were positively associated with risk of BCC after adjusting for age at blood draw, season of blood draw, lab batch, hair color, burning tendency, the number of sunburns, and ultra-violet B flux of residence at blood collection. Women in the highest quartile of 25(OHD had more than 2-fold increased risk of BCC compared with women in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.52-2.80, P for trend <0.0001. We also found a significantly positive association between plasma 25(OHD levels and SCC risk after adjusting for the same covariates (OR, highest vs. lowest quartile = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.70-8.36, P for trend= 0.0002.In this prospective study of women, plasma vitamin D levels were positively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer risk. Considering that most circulating vitamin D is due to sun exposure, the positive association between plasma vitamin D and non-melanoma skin cancer is confounded by sun exposure. Our data suggest that one-time measurement of plasma vitamin D levels may reasonably reflect long-term sun exposure and predict the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  12. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Luis Arce-Diego, José

    2015-01-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion. (paper)

  13. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  14. Interactive Tailored Website to Promote Sun Protection and Skin Self-Check Behaviors in Patients With Stage 0-III Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage 0 Skin Melanoma; Stage I Skin Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage II Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma

  15. Non-melanoma skin cancer and risk of Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun A J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Cancer patients may be at decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This hypothesis is best developed for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, but supportive epidemiological data are sparse. We therefore conducted a nationwide cohort study of the association between NMSC and Alzheimer's disease (main outcome and all-cause dementia. Using Danish medical databases, we identified adults diagnosed with NMSC between 1 January 1980 and 30 November 2013 (n = 216,221 and a comparison cohort of five individuals matched to each NMSC patient by sex and birth year (n = 1,081,097. We followed individuals from the time of diagnosis, or corresponding date for matched comparators, until a dementia diagnosis, death, emigration, or 30 November 2013, whichever came first. We used stratified Cox regression adjusted for comorbidities to compute hazard ratios (HRs associating NMSC with dementia. We computed cumulative risks of dementia, treating death as a competing risk. NMSC was associated with a HR of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.98 for Alzheimer's disease and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.94 for all-cause dementia. HRs were similar for basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, the two most common forms of NMSC. Estimates of risk reduction were more pronounced in the beginning of follow-up, reaching null after 5-10 years. At the end of follow-up (34 years, cumulative risk of Alzheimer's disease was 4.6% (95% CI: 4.4%-4.8% among patients with NMSC vs. 4.7% (95% CI: 4.6%-4.9% in the comparison cohort. In conclusion, NMSC was associated with 2%-10% reductions in relative risks of Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia. However, these small inverse associations may have been caused by ascertainment bias due to decreased awareness of NMSC tumors in persons with undiagnosed early cognitive impairment or by confounding from a more neuroprotective lifestyle among persons with NMSC.

  16. Chimeric Monoclonal Antibody Cetuximab Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor in Advanced Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Tchernev, Georgi; Lotti, Torello

    2018-01-25

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in humans. Targeted therapy with monoclonal antibody cetuximab is an option in case of advanced tumor or metastasis. We present and update of the use of cetuximab in NMSC searching PUBMED 2011-2017. The monoclonal antibody cetuximab against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been investigated for its use in NMSC during the years 2011 to 2017 by a PUBMED research using the following items: "Non-melanoma skin cancer AND cetuximab," "cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma AND cetuximab," and "basal cell carcinoma AND cetuximab", and "cetuximab AND skin toxicity". Available data were analyzed including case reports. Current evidence of cetuximab efficacy in NMSC was mainly obtained in cutaneous SCC and to a lesser extend in BCC. Response rates vary for neoadjuvant, adjuvant, mono- and combined therapy with cetuximab. Management of cutaneous toxicities is necessary. Guidelines are available. Cetuximab is an option for recurrent or advanced NMSC of the skin. It seems to be justified particularly in very high-risk tumors. There is a need for phase III trials.

  17. Recommendations for CTV margins in radiotherapy planning for non melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Luluel; Choo, Richard; Breen, Dale; Assaad, Dalal; Fialkov, Jefferey; Antonyshyn, Oleh; McKenzie, David; Woo, Tony; Zhang, Liying; Barnes, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    To provide practice guidelines for delineating clinical target volume (CTV) for radiotherapy planning of non melanoma (NMSC) skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 159 lesions in 150 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen section assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.3mm. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, histology and number of surgical attempts required to obtain a clear margin. To provide a 95% or greater chance of covering microscopic disease we make the following recommendations for CTV margins; 10mm for BCC less than 2 cm, 13 mm for BCC greater than 2 cm, 11 mm for SCC less than 2 cm, and 14 mm for SCC greater than 2 cm. Tumors greater than 2 cm and SCC histology required larger margins to adequately cover the microscopic extent of disease. This information is crucial in radiation planning of NMSC. Clinicians should be cautioned, as these guidelines may not offer optimum treatment for patients with extremely large or small lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recommendations for CTV margins in radiotherapy planning for non melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Luluel; Choo, Richard; Breen, Dale; Assaad, Dalal; Fialkov, Jefferey; Antonyshyn, Oleh; McKenzie, David; Woo, Tony; Zhang Liying; Barnes, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide practice guidelines for delineating clinical target volume (CTV) for radiotherapy planning of non melanoma (NMSC) skin cancers. Methods and materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 159 lesions in 150 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen section assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.3 mm. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, histology and number of surgical attempts required to obtain a clear margin. To provide a 95% or greater chance of covering microscopic disease we make the following recommendations for CTV margins; 10 mm for BCC less than 2 cm, 13 mm for BCC greater than 2 cm, 11 mm for SCC less than 2 cm, and 14 mm for SCC greater than 2 cm. Conclusions: Tumors greater than 2 cm and SCC histology required larger margins to adequately cover the microscopic extent of disease. This information is crucial in radiation planning of NMSC. Clinicians should be cautioned, as these guidelines may not offer optimum treatment for patients with extremely large or small lesions.

  19. The initial experience of electronic brachytherapy for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar Ajay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of people are diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC worldwide each year. While surgical approaches are the standard treatment, some patients are appropriate candidates for radiation therapy for NMSC. High dose rate (HDR brachytherapy using surface applicators has shown efficacy in the treatment of NMSC and shortens the radiation treatment schedule by using a condensed hypofractionated approach. An electronic brachytherapy (EBT system permits treatment of NMSC without the use of a radioactive isotope. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from patients treated from July 2009 through March 2010. Pre-treatment biopsy was performed to confirm a malignant cutaneous diagnosis. A CT scan was performed to assess lesion depth for treatment planning, and an appropriate size of surface applicator was selected to provide an acceptable margin. An HDR EBT system delivered a dose of 40.0 Gy in eight fractions twice weekly with 48 hours between fractions, prescribed to a depth of 3-7 mm. Treatment feasibility, acute safety, efficacy outcomes, and cosmetic results were assessed. Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age 72.5 years with 44 cutaneous malignancies were treated. Of 44 lesions treated, 39 (89% were T1, 1 (2% Tis, 1 (2% T2, and 3 (7% lesions were recurrent. Lesion locations included the nose for 16 lesions (36.4%, ear 5 (11%, scalp 5 (11%, face 14 (32%, and an extremity for 4 (9%. Median follow-up was 4.1 months. No severe toxicities occurred. Cosmesis ratings were good to excellent for 100% of the lesions at follow-up. Conclusions The early outcomes of EBT for the treatment of NMSC appear to show acceptable acute safety and favorable cosmetic outcomes. Using a hypofractionated approach, EBT provides a convenient treatment schedule.

  20. Analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer across the tofacitinib rheumatoid arthritis clinical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Martin, George; Mariette, Xavier; Terry, Ketti K; Chen, Yan; Geier, Jamie; Andrews, John; Kaur, Mandeep; Fan, Haiyun; Nduaka, Chudy I

    2017-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) across the tofacitinib RA development programme. NMSC events (through August 2013) were identified in patients receiving tofacitinib in two Phase (P)1, eight P2, six P3 and two long-term extension (LTE) studies. In P123 studies, tofacitinib was administered at various doses (1-30 mg twice daily [BID], 20 mg once daily), as monotherapy or with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, mainly methotrexate. In LTE studies, patients from qualifying P123 studies received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. Crude incidence rates (IRs; patients with events/100 patient-years) for first NMSC event were evaluated across doses and over time. In the overall population, comprising data from 18 studies (15,103 patient-years), 83 of 6092 tofacitinib-treated patients had NMSC events. The IR for NMSC (0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69] overall population) was stable up to 84 months of observation. IRs for tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID in combined P123 trials were 0.61 (0.34-1.10) and 0.47 (0.24-0.90), respectively. Corresponding IRs for LTE studies were 0.41 (0.26-0.66) and 0.79 (0.60-1.05). The IR for NMSC across the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme was low and remained stable over time. The IR for NMSC in LTE studies was numerically but not significantly higher with tofacitinib 10 versus 5 mg BID; an inverse dose relationship was observed in P123 trials. Longer follow-up is required to confirm these results.

  1. Indoor tanning in businesses and homes and risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in 2 US case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Cartmel, Brenda; Lazovich, DeAnn; Mayne, Susan T

    2014-11-01

    Indoor tanning increases skin cancer risk. Beyond early research describing melanoma and sun lamps, few recent reports describe where individuals indoor tan and whether skin cancer risk varies by location (business, home-based). We sought to assess where individuals tanned indoors and skin cancer risk by tanning device location. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted in 2 US case-control studies of melanoma (1161 cases, 1083 controls, ages 25-59 years) and early-onset basal cell carcinoma (375 cases, 382 controls, agetanned exclusively in businesses. Persons who used indoor tanning exclusively in businesses were at increased risk of melanoma (odds ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.47-2.26) and basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.48) compared with non-users. Melanoma risk was also increased in the small number who reported tanning indoors only at home relative to non-users (odds ratio 4.14, 95% confidence interval 1.75-9.78); 67.6% used sun lamps. Self-reported tanning and potential recall bias are limitations. Business-only tanning, despite claims of "safe" tanning, was positively associated with a significant risk of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Home tanning was uncommon and mostly from sun lamps, which were rarely used by younger participants. Regardless of location, indoor tanning was associated with increased risk of skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations between chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in a population-based case-control study of 4,187 patients diagnosed with a first primary NMSC in 1995 in Denmark. From the National Patient Registry covering all Danish.......99-15)), and skin diseases (IRR 5.28 (95% CI: 1.95-14)). Our study supports the presence of an association between certain chronic diseases and NMSC, and further suggests that these results unlikely are due to bias.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 4 October 2007; doi:10.1038/sj...... hospitals, we obtained data on hospitalizations with chronic diseases, recorded before the date of NMSC diagnosis. Using incidence density sampling, we selected 10 age-, gender-, and residence-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute...

  3. Melanoma and medical education: student’s perceptions of skin cancer screening in three medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Finn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated how the level of medical education affected confidence of counseling on skin health, performing skin examinations, and the likelihood of using those skills in future screenings. Material and Methods: An online survey was distributed to students at three midwest medical schools that assessed sun protection behaviors, and the student’s perception of education and comfort on the complete skin examination and counseling on skin health. Results: 51.6% (n=243 indicated they were in the last two years of medical school and were considered advanced students, compared to less advanced students in the first two years. Advanced students were significantly more comfortable in performing a complete skin examination and counseling patients on skin health when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. However, they were also statistically less likely to indicate they would provide skin screening on future patients when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. Only 29.5% (n = 139 and 60.7% (n = 286 of students indicated they had been educated on performing a complete skin examination and counseling on skin health, respectively. Conclusions: Although advanced students were more likely to report education and comfortability in skin cancer screening they were not as likely to indicate they would practice these skills in the future compared to less advanced students. Also, only a small number of students perceived themselves to be educated in these aspects.

  4. Relationships between skin cancers and blood groups--link between non-melanomas and ABO/Rh factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.

  5. Epidemiological profile of elderly patients with non-melanoma skin cancer seen at the dermatology outpatient clinic of a public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Thiara Cristina Rocha; Reis, Carmelia Matos Santiago; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma, referred to as non-melanoma skin cancer, are the most common malignancies in humans. Their incidence is increasing worldwide every year. In Brazil, even with the advent of educational campaigns on photoprotection and laws that banned tanning beds, they are the most frequent neoplasias, representing a public health problem recognized by the Ministry of health.

  6. Case-control study of smoking and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollison, Dana E; Iannacone, Michelle R; Messina, Jane L; Glass, L Frank; Giuliano, Anna R; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S; Fenske, Neil A; Jonathan, Kristen A; Sondak, Vernon K

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL. Patients with histologically confirmed BCC/SCC were recruited from a university dermatology clinic (n = 215 BCC, 165 SCC). Controls were comprised of individuals with no history of skin cancer who screened negative for skin cancer upon physical examination at the affiliated cancer screening or primary care clinics (n = 315). Information on smoking and other risk factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. After adjustment for age, sex, and other skin cancer-risk factors, ever smoking was not associated with BCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.92), but was statistically significantly associated with SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.19-3.26), with significant trends observed for SCC associated with increasing cigarettes per day (p = 0.01) and pack-years smoked (p = 0.01). Among men, smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with non-significant increased risks of BCC (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.88-4.12) and SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 0.84-4.66), whereas among women, no association was observed with BCC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.39-2.46) while a statistically significant three-fold risk was observed with SCC (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.02-8.80). Cigarette smoking is more strongly associated with SCC than BCC, particularly among women.

  7. Overview on Topical 5-ALA Photodynamic Therapy Use for Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV contributes to a variety of skin diseases including inflammation, degenerative aging, and cancer. Historically, humans have been exposed to UV radiation mainly through occupational exposure; recreational UV exposure, however, has increased dramatically in recent years, because of outdoor leisure activities and to purposely tan for cosmetic purposes. Both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to cause DNA damage and immunosuppression, the important forms of biological damage that lead to NMSC. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized which continues to grow at an alarming rate, becoming an occupational disease. Available treatments alternative to surgery include photodynamic therapy, electrochemotherapy, cryotherapy, ablative lasers, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, ingenol mebutate, and diclofenac. Among these, photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used in initial stages of skin cancers for superficial lesions. It is administered under numerous and significantly varied regimens and there are a wide range of cure rates reported, permitting treatment of large and multiple lesions with excellent cosmetic results. This is an overview of photodynamic applications especially for the treatment of NMSC, with a short focus on daylight modality.

  8. Non-melanoma skin cancer in relation to ionizing and ultraviolet radiation among radiologic technologists in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Hauptmann, M.; Sigurdson, A.J.; Doody, M.M.; Freedman, D.M.; Linet, M.S.; Ron, E.; Mabuchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiations are known to increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. However, the effect of chronic or protracted exposure to ionizing radiation and the modifying effect of UV exposure on skin cancer risk are not well defined. We evaluated risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin among radiologic technologists in the United States. A total of 1,355 incident cases with BCC and 270 with SCC were ascertained in 65,304 white technologists between the baseline questionnaire survey in 1983-1989 and the follow-up survey in 1994-1998. Analysis by Cox's proportional hazard model, stratified by birth cohort and adjusted for potential confounders including pigmentation characteristics (skin complexion, eye and hair color) and estimated index of residential UV exposure, indicated significantly increased relative risks for BCC, but not for SCC, among early technologists who likely had high radiation exposure. Relative risks of BCC were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12-1.79), 2.04 (95% CI: 1.44-2.88), and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.14-4.10) among those who first worked in the 1950s, 1940s, and before 1940, respectively (p for trend: <0.01), compared with technologists who first worked after 1960. The effects of ionizing radiation on BCC were not significantly modified by UV exposure (p for effect modification: 0.31), but they were modified by eye and hair color (p=0.01 and 0.03), with light eye or hair color conferring a higher radiation-related risk. In contrast, relative risks of both BCC and SCC significantly increased with increasing residential UV exposure index, and no modifying effects of pigmentation characteristics were observed. This study provides evidence of increased BCC risk associated with chronic, occupational exposure to a low-to-moderate level of ionizing radiation, which may be modified by pigmentation characteristics

  9. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.I.; Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma.

  10. Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Surdu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. METHODS: Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC. Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.27-0.80; similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned.

  11. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  12. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a

  13. Reduced frequency of non-melanoma skin cancer in 72,739 patients with psoriasis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Andrea; Didona, Biagio; Tabolli, Stefano; Ricci, Francesco; Sobrino, Luciano; Panebianco, Annarita; Abeni, Damiano

    2017-08-01

    Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, may pose an increased risk of cancer due to impaired immunosurveillance resulting from chronic inflammation and immunosuppressive medications. To compare the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in a retrospective cohort of 72,739 psoriasis patients and 25,956 non-dermatological patients. A record linkage was performed for data on hospitalizations, and the occurrence of NMSC was compared by computing the relative risk (RR) and modelled using multiple logistic regression. Overall, the occurrence of NMSC was 9.6‰ (95% CI: 8.9-10.3‰) in psoriasis patients and 19.6‰ (95% CI: 18.0-21.4‰) in non-dermatological patients (RR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.44-0.55). The simultaneous adjustment for gender, age, and phototherapy yielded a RR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75-0.95). With regards to phototherapy, the occurrence of NMSC was significantly higher among psoriasis patients who underwent phototherapy relative to those who did not (27.0‰ vs. 9.3‰). In this large retrospective study, we found that patients with psoriasis had a 16% lower probability of having NMSC when compared to a group of non-dermatological patients. Further studies, preferably with a prospective longitudinal design to collect more precise data, are needed to corroborate our findings.

  14. Dermoscopy, Digital Dermoscopy and Other Diagnostic Tools in the Early Detection of Melanoma and Follow-up of High-risk Skin Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Puig, Susana

    2017-07-05

    Early detection is a key strategy for reducing the mortality and economic burden associated with melanoma. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive and cost-effective tool for melanoma diagnosis, which has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive method for detecting early-stage skin cancer and reducing the number of unnecessary excisions. Patients at high risk of developing melanoma require long-term surveillance. Use of digital dermoscopy follow-up of these patients has led to improved outcomes. Combined follow-up programmes using total-body photography and digital dermoscopy have led to further improvements in early diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy is now widely used by dermatologists, but the public health impact of this tool is yet to be evaluated. Despite the clear advantages of dermoscopy and digital follow-up meth-ods, dermoscopy training and access to digital dermoscopy among dermatologists and general practitioners needs to be improved.

  15. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome and aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers are common in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Emma; Forsyth, Cecily; Grigg, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea complications have been reported in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but their incidence and clinical consequences have not been defined in a large cohort of patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 188 consecutive patients with MPNs specifically addressing the incidence of these complications. Cyclical thrombocytosis was documented in 29 patients (15%), the majority of whom were receiving hydroxyurea. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome was identified in 17 of the 84 screened patients (20%), but was not associated with any major bleeding complications. Non-melanoma skin cancers were reported in 51 patients (27%). Hydroxyurea-related fever occurred in nine of 149 patients (6%) who received hydroxyurea. Seventy-three patients (39%) experienced a total of 98 major thrombotic events, with the majority of these occurring prior to or within 3 months of the diagnosis. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea-related complications are not infrequent in MPNs and have important clinical consequences for management.

  16. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetics of Skin Cancer includes information about genes and hereditary syndromes associated with basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma skin cancer. Get comprehensive information about the genetics of skin cancer and interventions in this summary for clinicians.

  17. Decision tree analysis to stratify risk of de novo non-melanoma skin cancer following liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Voigt, Michael D

    2018-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common de novo malignancy in liver transplant (LT) recipients; it behaves more aggressively and it increases mortality. We used decision tree analysis to develop a tool to stratify and quantify risk of NMSC in LT recipients. We performed Cox regression analysis to identify which predictive variables to enter into the decision tree analysis. Data were from the Organ Procurement Transplant Network (OPTN) STAR files of September 2016 (n = 102984). NMSC developed in 4556 of the 105984 recipients, a mean of 5.6 years after transplant. The 5/10/20-year rates of NMSC were 2.9/6.3/13.5%, respectively. Cox regression identified male gender, Caucasian race, age, body mass index (BMI) at LT, and sirolimus use as key predictive or protective factors for NMSC. These factors were entered into a decision tree analysis. The final tree stratified non-Caucasians as low risk (0.8%), and Caucasian males > 47 years, BMI decision tree model accurately stratifies the risk of developing NMSC in the long-term after LT.

  18. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  19. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  20. Five-year economic evaluation of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Bernier, M; González-Carrascosa, M; Padilla-España, L; Rivas-Ruiz, F; Jiménez-Puente, A; de Troya-Martín, M

    2014-03-01

    The cost associated with treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is expected to rise considerably over the coming decades. This important public health problem is therefore expected to have an enormous economic impact for the various public health services. To estimate the cost of the surgical-care process of non-melanoma skin cancer at the Costa del Sol Hospital and seek areas to improve its efficiency, using the activity-based costing (ABC) method and the tools designed for decision analysis. To compare the costs for hospitalized patients obtained using the ABC method with the data published by the Spanish Ministry of Health, using the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) classification system. Retrospective analysis of the cost of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital. The total estimated cost from 2006 to 2010 was 3 398 540€. Most of the episodes (47.3%) corresponded to minor outpatient surgery. The costs of the episodes varied greatly according to the type of admission: 423€ (minor outpatient surgery), 1267€ (major outpatient surgery), and 1832€ (inpatient surgery). The average cost of an inpatient episode varied significantly depending on the calculation system used (ABC: 2328€ vs. DRG: 5674€). The ABC cost analysis system favours standardization of the care process for these tumours and the detection of areas to improve efficiency. This would enable more reliable economic studies than those obtained using traditional methods, such as the DRG. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  2. Ocular melanoma metastatic to skin: the value of HMB-45 staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A; Kist, Joseph M; Thomas, Isabelle; Fernández, Geover; Cruz, Manuel A; Koziorynska, Ewa I; Lambert, W Clark

    2004-06-01

    Cutaneous metastatic disease is an important finding that may represent the first sign of systemic cancer, or, if already known, that may change tumor staging and thus dramatically altered therapeutic plans. Although cutaneous metastases are relatively frequent in patients with cutaneous melanoma, they are less so from ocular melanoma. To demonstrate the value of HMB-45, staining in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. The immunohistochemical stain HMB-45 a monoclonal antibody directed against intact human melanoma cells, was employed on a skin biopsy specimen from a cutaneous tumor. HMB-45 staining was positive in the atypical hyperchromatic cells of the deep dermis. HMB-45 may be of value in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastatic disease is a somewhat common and extremely important diagnosis. Although cutaneous metastases from cutaneous melanoma are relatively frequent, those from ocular melanomas are less so. Use of histochemical staining, especially the HMB-45 stain, allows confirmation of the diagnosis.

  3. Skin protection behaviour and sex differences in melanoma location in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew; McMeniman, Erin; Adams, Agnieszka; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sunscreen usage, sun-protection measures and self-examination rates in patients with single primary melanomas (SPM) are similar to that in the general population. This study hypothesises that these rates would be different in a population with multiple primary melanomas (MPM). We further hypothesise that there would be a sex difference in melanoma location in patients with MPM. The objectives of this study were to determine skin protection measures, self-examinations and melanoma location in a cohort of patients with MPM. A survey was conducted on 137 patients with MPM examining their sun-protection measures, skin self-examination rates and medical and phenotypic characteristics. These data were combined with a review of their medical records to examine the patients' skin cancer history. Patients with MPM had higher rates of skin self-evaluation (74% vs 22%), sunscreen usage (70% vs 45%) and other sun-protection measures (95% vs 46%) than has been published for patients with a history of a SPM. We have also shown that women have a higher risk of developing melanomas on their arms (p skin self-examination, sunscreen usage and other sun-protection methods in patients with MPM is higher than in studies of patients with SPM. It also highlighted sex differences in terms of melanoma location for patients with MPM. Further studies to examine the cause of the differences in these forms of protective behaviour could help improve the utilisation of these important preventative measures in all patients. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  5. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  7. Head and Neck Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Treated By Superficial X-Ray Therapy: An Analysis of 1021 Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grossi Marconi

    Full Text Available To report a single-institutional experience with the use of Superficial X-Ray Therapy (SXRT for head and neck non-melanoma skin cancer (N-MSC and to compare outcomes by prescribed fractionation schedules.The medical records of 597 patients with 1021 lesions (720 BCC, 242 SCC, 59 SCC in situ treated with kilovoltage radiation from 1979-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The majority of patients were treated according to 1 of 3 institutional protocols based on the discretion of the radiation oncologist: 1 22 x 2.5 Gy; 2 20 x 2.5 Gy; 3 30 x 2.0 Gy. "T" stage at first presentation was as follows: Tis (59; T1 (765; T2 (175; T3 (6, T4 (9; Tx, (7. All patients were clinical N0 and M0 at presentation. Chi-square test was used to evaluate any potential association between variables. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival with the Log Rank test used for comparison. A Cox Regression analysis was performed for multivariate analysis.The median follow up was 44 months. No significant difference was observed among the 3 prescribed fractionation schemes (p = 0.78 in terms of RTOG toxicity. There were no failures among SCC in situ, 37 local failures (23 BCC, 14 SCC, 5 regional failures (all SCC and 2 distant failures (both SCC. For BCC, the 5-year LC was 96% and the 10-year LC was 94%. For SCC the corresponding rates of local control were 92% and 87%, respectively (p = 0.03. The use of >2.0 Gy daily was significantly associated with improved LC on multivariate analysis (HR: 0.17; CI 95%: 0.05-0.59.SXRT for N-MSC of the head and neck is well tolerated, achieves excellent local control, and should continue to be recommended in the management of this disease. Fractionation schedules using >2.0 Gy daily appear to be associated with improved LC.

  8. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  9. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  10. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-21

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Expression of Podoplanin in Non-melanoma Skin Cancers and Actinic Keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Zdrojowy, Marta; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Matusiak, Łukasz; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Puła, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have indicated that expression of podoplanin changes during the neoplastic processes, we therefore aimed at assessing its expression in cancer and stromal cells of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic keratosis (AK). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 134 patients (38 BCC, 57 SCC, 20 AK and from 19 healthy volunteers) were analyzed. Podoplanin-immunoreactivity was detected in 32.1%/44.7%, 70%/20% and 87.7%/79% for BCC, AK and SCC tumour/stroma cells, respectively. Mean podoplanin expression in tumour cells was 1.2±1.8, 1.4±1.1 and 5.6±3.9 for BCC, AK and SCC, respectively. Mean podoplanin expression in stromal cells was 1.5±2.3, 0.65±1.57 and 3.2±2.4 for BCC, AK and SCC, respectively. Podoplanin expression was significantly higher in SCC stromal cells compared to the rest of the analyzed groups (p<0.001), suggesting a potential role of podoplanin in the development and progression of this malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence of complications in dermatological surgery of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with multiple comorbidity and/or antiplatelet-anticoagulants. Five year experience in our Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello-Guerra, Lilia; Vargas-Chandomid, Estefanía; Díaz-González, Jose Manuel; Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Surgery is performed more frequently now at days, due to the increasing incidence of melanoma and no-melanoma skin cancer. There are different opinions among dermatologic surgeons between to continue or discontinue antithrombotic therapy prior to the procedure, which increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Prophylaxis with oral antibiotics in the postsurgical period is controversial. To report the safety of surgery without suspending antithrombotic therapy and without oral antibiotic prophylaxis in dermatology surgery of patients with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. We designed a retrospective study. We included a total of 655 patients; 96.6% had at least one comorbidity; 27.7% used aspirin and 4.3% some type of antithrombotic therapy. The most common type of skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma with 69.8% . The complication rate was 4.2%; the most was wound dehiscence (1.1%), followed by partial necrosis (0.9%), infection (0.9%), reaction to foreign body (0.6%), complete necrosis (0.3%), bleeding (0.2%) and fistulae (0.2%). Based on the literature and our experience, dermatologic surgery is safe without suspending antithrombotic therapy or antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with multiple comorbidity. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  13. Susceptibility of In Vitro Melanoma Skin Cancer to Photoactivated Hypericin versus Aluminium(III Phthalocyanine Chloride Tetrasulphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Ndhundhuma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of human melanoma cells to photoactivated Hypericin (Hyp compared to aluminium(III phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulphonate (AlPcS4Cl is reported in this study. Melanoma cells (A375 cell line were treated with various concentrations of Hyp or AlPcS4Cl alone, for 1, 4, and 24 hrs; varying doses of laser irradiation alone (594 or 682 nm; or optimal concentrations of PSs combined with laser irradiation. Changes in cell morphology, viability, membrane integrity, and proliferation after treatment of cells were determined using inverted microscopy, Trypan blue cell exclusion, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH membrane integrity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP cell proliferation assay, respectively. More than 60% of cell survival was observed when cells were treated with 2.5 μM of Hyp or AlPcS4Cl alone at all incubation times or with 5 J/cm2 of 594 or 682 nm laser alone. Combination of PSs and respective lasers leads to a statistically significant incubation time-dependent decrease in survival of cells. Flow cytometry using the FITC Annexin V/PI apoptosis kit demonstrated that cell death induced after Hyp-PDT is via early and late apoptosis whereas early apoptosis was the main mechanism observed with AlPcS4Cl-PDT. Hyp-PDT compared to AlPcS4Cl-PDT is indicated to be a more effective cancer cell death inducer in melanoma cells.

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  15. Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Yun-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes. Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of ...

  16. Development of a combined OCT-Raman probe for the prospective in vivo clinical melanoma skin cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenka, M.; Behrendt, L.; Meinhardt-Wollweber, M.; Morgner, U.; Roth, B.

    2017-10-01

    A combined optical coherence tomography (OCT)-Raman probe was designed and built into a spectral domain OCT head, and its performance was evaluated and compared to the most common Raman probe setups, based on a fiber bundle and confocal free space optics. Due to the use of the full field of view of an OCT scanning lens, the combined probe has a superior performance within maximum permissible exposure limits, compared to the other two probes. Skin Raman spectra, recorded in vivo, further prove the feasibility of the OCT-Raman probe for the future in vivo clinical applications in skin cancer screening.

  17. Sun protection and skin self-examination in melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Urvi J; Hay, Jennifer L; Monroe-Hinds, Yvette C; Hummer, Amanda J; Begg, Colin B; Wilcox, Homer B; Oliveria, Susan A; Berwick, Marianne

    2009-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with melanoma are at risk for developing recurrent and second primary disease. Skin self-examination (SSE) and sun protection are standard clinical recommendations to minimize risk. In this study we examined performance of these behaviors in individuals with melanoma drawn from the general population. Potential participants (N=148) with a first primary melanoma diagnosed in 2000 were identified through a population-based cancer registry in New Jersey, USA. One hundred and fifteen individuals participated in a 30 min telephone interview concerning behavioral adherence with SSE and sun protection, self-efficacy for performing these behaviors, and perceived risk of developing another skin cancer. We utilized logistic regression to estimate potential associations of demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors with SSE and sun protection, respectively. Seventeen percent of subjects reported performing comprehensive SSE at least once every two months and 23% engaged in regular sun protection. Utilization of SSE was related to the presence of moles (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.1-15) and higher SSE self-efficacy (OR=14.4, 95% CI: 1.9-112). Regular sun protection was related to older age (>60 years; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7), being female (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.3), and higher sun protection self-efficacy (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 1.4-18). These factors remained significant in multivariate models. In this group of primary melanoma survivors, the rates of SSE and sun protection are comparable to, but do not exceed, general population estimates. This study provides justification for further research to address barriers to prevention and control behaviors in melanoma survivors.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  19. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  20. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: ...

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  2. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  3. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  4. The importance of bystander effects in radiation therapy in melanoma skin-cancer cells and umbilical-cord stromal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Millán, Jaime; Katz, Iana Suly Santos; Farias, Virgínea de Araujo; Linares-Fernández, Jose-Luis; López-Peñalver, Jesús; Ortiz-Ferrón, Gustavo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine direct and bystander radiation-induced effects in normal umbilical-cord stromal stem cell (HCSSC) lines and in human cancer cells. Materials and methods: The UCSSC lines used in this study were obtained in our laboratory. Two cell lines (UCSSC 35 and UCSSC 37) and two human melanoma skin-cancer cells (A375 and G361) were exposed to ionizing radiation to measure acute radiation-dosage cell-survival curves and radiation-induced bystander cell-death response. Normal cells, although extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation, were resistant to the bystander effect whilst tumor cells were sensitive to irradiated cell-conditioned media, showing a dose–response relationship that became saturated at relatively low doses. We applied a biophysical model to describe bystander cell-death through the binding of a ligand to the cells. This model allowed us to calculate the maximum cell death (χ max ) produced by the bystander effect together with its association constant (K By ) in terms of dose equivalence (Gy). The values obtained for K By in A375 and G361 cells were 0.23 and 0.29 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings help to understand how anticancer therapy could have an additional decisive effect in that the response of sub-lethally hit tumor cells to damage might be required for therapy to be successful because the survival of cells communicating with irradiated cells is reduced.

  5. Cryptolepine, a Plant Alkaloid, Inhibits the Growth of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Topoisomerase and Induction of DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Pal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Topoisomerases have been shown to have roles in cancer progression. Here, we have examined the effect of cryptolepine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of human non-melanoma skin cancer cells (NMSCC and underlying mechanism of action. For this purpose SCC-13 and A431 cell lines were used as an in vitro model. Our study reveals that SCC-13 and A431 cells express higher levels as well as activity of topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II compared with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Treatment of NMSCC with cryptolepine (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM for 24 h resulted in marked decrease in topoisomerase activity, which was associated with substantial DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. Cryptolepine induced DNA damage resulted in: (i an increase in the phosphorylation of ATM/ATR, BRCA1, Chk1/Chk2 and γH2AX; (ii activation of p53 signaling cascade, including enhanced protein expressions of p16 and p21; (iii downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and proteins involved in cell division (e.g., Cdc25a and Cdc25b leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase; and (iv mitochondrial membrane potential was disrupted and cytochrome c released. These changes in NMSCC by cryptolepine resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and increase in apoptotic cell death.

  6. Cytotoxicity of Labruscol, a New Resveratrol Dimer Produced by Grapevine Cell Suspensions, on Human Skin Melanoma Cancer Cell Line HT-144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nivelle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new resveratrol dimer (1 called labruscol, has been purified by centrifugal partition chromatography of a crude ethyl acetate stilbene extract obtained from elicited grapevine cell suspensions of Vitis labrusca L. cultured in a 14-liter stirred bioreactor. One dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses including 1H, 13C, heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, and correlation spectroscopy (COSY as well as high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS were used to characterize this compound and to unambiguously identify it as a new stilbene dimer, though its relative stereochemistry remained unsolved. Labruscol was recovered as a pure compound (>93% in sufficient amounts (41 mg to allow assessment of its biological activity (cell viability, cell invasion and apoptotic activity on two different cell lines, including one human skin melanoma cancer cell line HT-144 and a healthy human dermal fibroblast (HDF line. This compound induced almost 100% of cell viability inhibition in the cancer line at a dose of 100 μM within 72 h of treatment. However, at all tested concentrations and treatment times, resveratrol displayed an inhibition of the cancer line viability higher than that of labruscol in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Both compounds also showed differential activities on healthy and cancer cell lines. Finally, labruscol at a concentration of 1.2 μM was shown to reduce cell invasion by 40%, although no similar activity was observed with resveratrol. The cytotoxic activity of this newly-identified dimer is discussed.

  7. Patterns in Skin Cancers in Tikur Anbessa Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: The ratio of skin cancer in dark skinned population is reported to be 10 -. 20 times lower than lighter- skinned populations. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomic distribution and patterns of skin cancers such as Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous melanoma ...

  8. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  9. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the

  10. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Gislason, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... Objectives: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Methods: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual...... of skin cancer is only modestly increased in patients with psoriasis, clinicians should remain vigilant. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology...

  11. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  12. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Markham Risica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners who had completed INFORMED, a validated web-based training for detection of skin cancers, particularly melanoma. Participants underwent the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Psychological Consequences of Screening (PCQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Of the entire study sample, 40% were thoroughly screened as determined by patient-reported level of undress and skin areas examined. Participants who were thoroughly screened: did not differ on negative psychosocial measures; scored higher on measures of positive psychosocial wellbeing (PCQ; and were more motivated to conduct monthly self-examinations and seek annual clinician skin examinations, compared to other participants (p < 0.05. Importantly, thoroughly screened patients were more likely to report skin prevention practices (skin self-examinations to identify a concerning lesion, practitioner provided skin exam, recommend skin examinations to peers, and feel satisfied with their skin cancer education than less thoroughly screened individuals (p < 0.01. Our results suggest that visual screening for skin cancer does not worsen patient psychosocial wellbeing and may be associated with improved skin cancer-related practices and attitudes. Keywords: Cancer, Melanoma, Cancer prevention, Screening

  13. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  14. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  15. Seasonal variation of DNA damage and repair in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and referents with and without psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Frentz, G

    1998-01-01

    Quadruples of skin cancer patients with and without psoriasis and referents with and without psoriasis (4 x 20 study persons) were identified and examined for DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet-assay) and DNA-repair by UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear...... to solar radiation. When the comet tail moment data were stratified by sampling period, an interaction between psoriasis and skin cancer was detected, with patients with psoriasis and skin cancer exhibiting more DNA damage. Patients with psoriasis and skin cancer also had lower UDS compared to healthy...

  16. Disease management for chronic skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geer-Rutten (Simone)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a rapidly rising problem. In this thesis we show that an enormous gap exists between the official first primary figures available at cancer registries and the actual burden in a dermatology practice. NMSC needs to be regarded as a chronic

  17. Melanoma in the skin of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldoch, Jennifer A; Burke, Sandy S; Ramer, Jan C; Garner, Michael M

    2010-12-01

    A female nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, estimated at 27 yr of age had a 5.5-yr history of a 6-cm black, raised nodular skin lesion located on the right side of the proximal tail. The lesion was diagnosed on biopsy as a slow-growing melanoma of the skin with no vascular invasion. The nurse shark was euthanized for systemic illness approximately 4.5 mo after diagnosis of the dermal melanoma. No evidence of metastasis was found on histopathologic evaluation of the skin and viscera.

  18. Skin cancers in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Cappellani, Alessandro; Berretta, Massimiliano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele

    2013-11-01

    Cancer in older people is a common problem worldwide. Among various types of cancer, skin cancers represent an important percentage. The principal risk factors are sun exposure, family history of skin cancer, fair skin color, but also the age plays an important role in the genesis of skin cancers. In older people there are a more prolonged exposure to carcinogenesis and a decreased functionality of reparation mechanisms of the cells so they acquire a selective advantage of growing and proliferating. At the same time age causes alteration in immune system by increasing NK-cells absolute number and decreasing both the endogenous and the lymphokine-induced lytic activities. The anti-tumor immune response is also mediated by the cytotoxic T- lymphocytes and in the elderly a strong reduction of T-cell function has been demonstrated. In elderly patients the diagnosis and the treatment of skin cancers can be different from younger counterpart. For example in older patients with melanoma is important to evaluate Breslow depth while higher mitotic rate has major value in younger patients. Moreover, the treatment should consider the performance status of patients and their compliance.

  19. A retrospective review of pain control by a two-step irradiance schedule during topical ALA-photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitouni, Nathalie C; Paquette, Anne D; Housel, Joseph P; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory E; Foster, Thomas H; Henderson, Barbara W

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) of non-melanoma skin cancers is often associated with treatment-limiting pain. A previous study on basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) at Roswell Park Cancer Institute evaluated a two-step irradiance scheme as a means of minimizing pain, preserving outcomes, and limiting treatment time. We used an initial low irradiance until 90% of the protoporphyrin IX was photobleached, followed by a high irradiance interval until the prescribed fluence was delivered. Success of this pilot investigation motivated integration of the protocol into routine practice. Here, we present a retrospective review of recent clinical experience in a broad patient population. This was a retrospective review of an existing dermatology database. Fourteen caucasion patients-nine men and five women, ages 18-80, with a total of 51 superficial and 73 nodular BCCs, and three Bowen's disease lesions-were included. ALA was applied to each lesion for approximately 4 hours. Lesions received an initial irradiance of 30-50 mW/cm(2) for 20 J/cm(2) , followed by 150 mW/cm(2) for a total fluence of 200-300 J/cm(2) . Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcome was determined at 6-12 months. Median VAS scores were 1.0 for both irradiances. Five of 127 lesions required pain control with 1% xylocaine. Pain was strongly influenced by lesion location but not by lesion type, number, or size. Complete responses were achieved in 84.1% of BCCs, which compares favorably with reported results for single ALA-PDT treatments. Two of three Bowen's disease lesions showed a complete response. Complete responses for nodular BCCs were 37%, which are also within the range of reported outcomes. A two-step irradiance protocol in ALA-PDT effectively minimizes pain, maintains excellent clinical outcomes in superficial lesions, and adds minimal treatment time. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Incomplete excision of non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck: can we predict failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    included into the study. Patients were identified by the diagnostic (diagnosis-related group (DRG)) codes from DC44.0 to DC44.4. A total of 437 patients were treated for 516 skin lesions. Results Mean age was 71.4 years and the male–female ratio was 1.29. Incomplete tumor removal was found in 11 % of all...... for complete tumor excision is mandatory prior to reconstruction. Our findings showed that causes of incomplete excision could be identified. With this knowledge, we are able to optimize our quality of treatment, patient satisfaction, and finally, the cost/effectiveness of our department. Level of Evidence......Background Reported incomplete excision rates vary widely. This study described a single center's treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck and investigated possible causes of incomplete excision. Methods All excised BCCs and SCCs in 2011 were...

  1. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies.

  2. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Thygesen, Sandra K; Nelson, Jeanenne J

    2016-05-03

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997-2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40% of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70% died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6% with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9% with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7% with Bowen's disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8% (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8% (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1% (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen's disease, 0.04% (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0%. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1%; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and non-cuSCC were

  3. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Thygesen, Sandra K.; Nelson, Jeanenne J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997–2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40 % of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70 % died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6 % with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9 % with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7 % with Bowen’s disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8 % (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8 % (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1 % (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen’s disease, 0.04 % (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0 %. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1 %; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and

  4. Cáncer de piel y radiación solar: experiencia peruana en la prevención y detección temprana del cáncer de piel y melanoma Skin cancer and sun radiation: peruvian experience in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sordo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La excesiva exposición a la radiación solar, específicamente la ultravioleta (RUV, ha sido causa de diferentes enfermedades, en especial de cáncer de piel. En 1995 el Círculo Dermatológico del Perú realizó la primera “Campaña de Educación, Prevención y Detección Temprana de Cáncer de Piel y Melanoma” denominada el “Día del Lunar”. Fue oficializada por el Ministerio de Salud, y cuenta con la participación del Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud. Es una campaña gratuita que se realiza cada año a nivel nacional, en ella, desde 1995 al 2011 se atendieron a 118 092 personas, en 76 sedes distribuidas en 18 ciudades de todo el país, en el 2,8% de estas se pudo identificar alguna lesión cutánea sospechosa de malignidad, de las cuales el 64,9% correspondió a carcinoma basocelular, 26,7% a melanoma cutáneo y 8,4% a carcinoma espinocelular. Estas campañas destacan en importancia no solo por la práctica asistencial en ellas realizada, sino por las actividades educativas orientadas a fomentar una cultura de prevención en favor de las poblaciones más vulnerables. Finalmente, consideramos que es fundamental seguir educando a la población en la prevención del cáncer de piel, crear conciencia en las autoridades para que participen activamente en la realización de estas actividades, además de solicitar a todos los médicos que se sumen coordinadamente a este esfuerzo para seguir avanzando y mejorar lo logrado en beneficio de nuestro paísThe excessive exposure to sun radiation, especially to ultraviolet radiation (UV, has led to various diseases, in particular to skin cancer. In 1995, the Peruvian Dermatological Association conducted the first “Campaign for Education, Prevention and Early Detection of Skin Cancer and Melanoma” called “Mole’s Day”. The Ministry of Health has turned it into an official event, and the Health Social Security (EsSalud also participates. This is a free campaign that takes place every year

  5. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  6. Skin examination behavior: the role of melanoma history, skin type, psychosocial factors, and region of residence in determining clinical and self-conducted skin examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Bränström, Richard; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tibben, Aad; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy; Bergman, Wilma; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2012-10-01

    To examine the frequency and correlates of skin examination behaviors in an international sample of individuals at varying risk of developing melanoma. A cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from the general population over a 20-month period on behalf of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL). A total of 8178 adults from Northern (32%), Central (33%), and Southern (14%) Europe, Australia (13%), and the United States (8%). Self-reported frequency of skin self-examination (SSE) and clinical skin examination (CSE). After adjustment for age and sex, frequency of skin examination was higher in both Australia (odds ratio [OR]SSE=1.80 [99% CI, 1.49-2.18]; ORCSE=2.68 [99% CI, 2.23-3.23]) and the United States (ORSSE=2.28 [99% CI, 1.76-2.94]; ORCSE=3.39 [99% CI, 2.60-4.18]) than in the 3 European regions combined. Within Europe, participants from Southern Europe reported higher rates of SSE than those in Northern Europe (ORSSE=1.61 [99% CI, 1.31-1.97]), and frequency of CSE was higher in both Central (ORCSE=1.47 [99% CI, 1.22-1.78]) and Southern Europe (ORCSE=3.46 [99% CI, 2.78, 4.31]) than in Northern Europe. Skin examination behavior also varied according to melanoma history: participants with no history of melanoma reported the lowest levels of skin examination, while participants with a previous melanoma diagnosis reported the highest levels. After adjustment for region, and taking into account the role of age, sex, skin type, and mole count, engagement in SSE and CSE was associated with a range of psychosocial factors, including perceived risk of developing melanoma; perceived benefits of, and barriers to, skin examination; perceived confidence in one's ability to engage in screening; and social norms. In addition, among those with no history of melanoma, higher cancer-related worry was associated with greater frequency of SSE. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors and skin examination behaviors, particularly among people with

  7. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  8. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexiang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1, lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2 and lesion classification (task 3. A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  9. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuexiang; Shen, Linlin

    2018-02-11

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  10. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved. PMID:29439500

  11. Burden of Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Holterhues (Cynthia)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. More than 95% of all melanomas occur in the skin, but rarely in the pigmented cells of the eye, meninges or mucosa. This thesis will only regard the invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas.

  12. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  13. Noscapinoids bearing silver nanocrystals augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1, mouse melanoma skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Naina; Jyoti, Kiran; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2017-06-01

    Noscapine (Nos) and reduced brominated analogue of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos) prevent cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. However, owing to poor physicochemical properties, Nos and Red-Br-Nos have demonstrated their anticancer activity at higher and multiple doses. Therefore, in present investigation, silver nanocrystals of noscapinoids (Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals) were customized to augment drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1 mouse melanoma cancer cells. Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals were prepared separately by precipitation method. The mean particle size of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was measured to be 25.33±3.52nm, insignificantly (P>0.05) different from 27.43±4.51nm of Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals. Furthermore, zeta-potential of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was determined to be -25.3±3.11mV significantly (Pcellular uptake. The Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals exhibited an IC 50 of 16.6μM and 6.5μM, significantly (Pcellular morphological alterations in B16F1 cells upon internalization of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals provided the evidences for accumulation within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles and in enlarged lysosomes and thus triggered mitochondria mediated apoptosis via caspase activation. Preliminary investigations substantiated that Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals must be further explored and utilized for the delivery of noscapinoids to melanoma cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  15. Association of atopy and tentative diagnosis of skin cancer - results from occupational skin cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, I; Mohr, P; Zander, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Augustin, M

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin cancer are sparse. To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, non-melanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study. Dermatologists performed whole body examinations and collected medical histories. Subjects comprised all employees (16-70 years) examined from 2006 to 2014. 'Atopy' was defined by clinical screening diagnosis and/or by participant-reported, pre-existing atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or other specified allergies confirmed by a physician. Tentative screening diagnoses of skin cancer related to actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. The study cohort comprised 90 265 employees (mean age 43 ± 11 years, 58.5% male), 30.7% of whom were ever diagnosed with an atopic disease. Persons with atopic conditions recorded in their medical history and at the time of screening had a significantly lower prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and MM. After controlling for age, sex and relevant risk factors (skin type, childhood sun burns), atopy remained significantly protective against BCC (OR 0.77) and MM (OR 0.53). Design limitations of the study include that all findings of skin cancer were based on clinical examination only and must therefore be considered tentative diagnoses. Furthermore, owing to the cross-sectional study design, causal pathways cannot be proven. However, analyses of data from such a large and general population-based cohort afford valuable insights into the relationship between atopic diseases and skin cancer. They provide the grounds for prospective cohort studies to evaluate and dissect the underlying mechanism. © 2017

  16. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers in females aged 15 to 29 years old. Tanning-bed use contributes to this. Melanoma: Who ... Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  17. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    in this area. With respect to the skin, this term is used to define the presence of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer, its precursors, actinic keratoses and dysplastic keratinocytes in sun exposed areas. The multiplicity of the lesions and the extent of the area influence the treatment decision. Providing...... paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use.......Field cancerization is a term that describes the presence of genetic abnormalities in a tissue chronically exposed to a carcinogen. These abnormalities are responsible for the presence of multilocular clinical and sub-clinical cancerous lesions that explains the increased risks of multiple cancers...

  18. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  20. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  1. Further search for selectivity of positron annihilation in the skin and cancerous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guang; Chen Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi; Cheng Meiling; Gadzia, Joseph E.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Oshima, N.; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy and Doppler broadening energy spectra (DBES) have been used to search for selectivity and sensitivity for cancerous skin samples with and without cancer. This study is to further explore the melanoma cancerous system and other different types of skin samples. We found that the S parameter in melanoma skin samples cut at 0.39 mm depth from the same patient's skin is smaller than near the skin surface. However in 10 melanoma samples from different patients, the S parameters vary significantly. Similarly, among 10 normal skin samples without cancer, the S parameters also vary largely among different patients. To understand the sensitivity of PAS as a tool to detect cancer formation at the early stage, we propose a controlled and systematic study of in vivo experiments using UV-induced cancer skin from living animals

  2. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  3. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella, E-mail: gafabbro@unina.it [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Mauriello, Maria Chiara [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Torre, Guglielma [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  4. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Triassi, Maria; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Torre, Guglielma; Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer

  5. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  6. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  7. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted ...

  8. Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zerubia, Josiane

    2015-05-01

    The presence of illumination variation in dermatological images has a negative impact on the automatic detection and analysis of cutaneous lesions. This paper proposes a new illumination modeling and chromophore identification method to correct lighting variation in skin lesion images, as well as to extract melanin and hemoglobin concentrations of human skin, based on an adaptive bilateral decomposition and a weighted polynomial curve fitting, with the knowledge of a multi-layered skin model. Different from state-of-the-art approaches based on the Lambert law, the proposed method, considering both specular reflection and diffuse reflection of the skin, enables us to address highlight and strong shading effects usually existing in skin color images captured in an uncontrolled environment. The derived melanin and hemoglobin indices, directly relating to the pathological tissue conditions, tend to be less influenced by external imaging factors and are more efficient in describing pigmentation distributions. Experiments show that the proposed method gave better visual results and superior lesion segmentation, when compared to two other illumination correction algorithms, both designed specifically for dermatological images. For computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma, sensitivity achieves 85.52% when using our chromophore descriptors, which is 8~20% higher than those derived from other color descriptors. This demonstrates the benefit of the proposed method for automatic skin disease analysis.

  9. Endometriosis and the risk of skin cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Lorrain, Simon; Missmer, Stacey A; Dartois, Laureen; Cervenka, Iris; Savoye, Isabelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kvaskoff, Marina

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis has been associated with an increased risk of skin melanoma. However, associations with other skin cancer types and how they compare with melanoma are unclear. Our objective was to prospectively investigate the relationships between endometriosis and risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. E3N is a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women aged 40-65 years in 1990. Data on surgically confirmed endometriosis and skin cancer diagnoses were collected every 2-3 years through self-report, with skin cancer cases confirmed through pathology reports. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. Between 1990 and 2008, 535 melanoma, 247 squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), and 1,712 basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) cases were ascertained. Endometriosis was associated with an increased overall risk of skin cancer (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.55). When considering skin cancer type, endometriosis was associated with melanoma risk (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.15-2.35), but not with SCC (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.62-2.36) or BCC (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.91-1.48) (non-melanoma skin cancers combined: HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.93-1.46), although no heterogeneity was detected across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.13). These data support an association between a personal history of endometriosis and the risk of skin cancer and suggest that the association is strongest for melanoma.

  10. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  11. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a large...

  12. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  13. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and....../or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on skin areas which may possibly be exposed (neck, head, and upper extremities). METHOD: A Danish national company-based historic cohort of 4333 male metal arc welders was followed from 1987 through 2012 to identify the risk of skin cancer....... An external reference group was established including all Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. Occupational histories were gathered by questionnaires in 1986 and information about skin cancer diagnoses [BCC, SCC, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and precancerous...

  14. XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is no risk factor for skin cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rouf Maqbool

    (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine) triggers mutations, or genetic ... of melanoma, as with all skin cancers, is sun exposure, but this is ... Currently, it is esti- .... The standard protocol for restriction digestion was used.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Laser Microdissected Melanoma Cells from Skin Organ Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L.; Grahovac, Jelena; Flint, Melanie S.; Sun, Mai; Charro, Nuno; Becker, Dorothea; Wells, Alan; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:20459140

  16. Quantifying rates of cell migration and cell proliferation in co-culture barrier assays reveals how skin and melanoma cells interact during melanoma spreading and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Parvathi; Penington, Catherine J; McGovern, Jacqui A; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-06-21

    Malignant spreading involves the migration of cancer cells amongst other native cell types. For example, in vivo melanoma invasion involves individual melanoma cells migrating through native skin, which is composed of several distinct subpopulations of cells. Here, we aim to quantify how interactions between melanoma and fibroblast cells affect the collective spreading of a heterogeneous population of these cells in vitro. We perform a suite of circular barrier assays that includes: (i) monoculture assays with fibroblast cells; (ii) monoculture assays with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells; and (iii) a series of co-culture assays initiated with three different ratios of SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and fibroblast cells. Using immunostaining, detailed cell density histograms are constructed to illustrate how the two subpopulations of cells are spatially arranged within the spreading heterogeneous population. Calibrating the solution of a continuum partial differential equation to the experimental results from the monoculture assays allows us to estimate the cell diffusivity and the cell proliferation rate for the melanoma and the fibroblast cells, separately. Using the parameter estimates from the monoculture assays, we then make a prediction of the spatial spreading in the co-culture assays. Results show that the parameter estimates obtained from the monoculture assays lead to a reasonably accurate prediction of the spatial arrangement of the two subpopulations in the co-culture assays. Overall, the spatial pattern of spreading of the melanoma cells and the fibroblast cells is very similar in monoculture and co-culture conditions. Therefore, we find no clear evidence of any interactions other than cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  18. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Health Awareness Month Diabetes Awareness What Are Skin Cancers of the Feet? Skin cancer can develop anywhere on the body, including ... cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on the skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous ...

  19. Aspectos epidemiológicos del cáncer no melanoma de piel en un servicio de dermatología de la ciudad de Santa Fe - Argentina 2007 Epidemiologic aspects to the skin cancer non melanoma in a dermatologic office of the Santa Fe city - Argentine 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L M Lukaszuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del cáncer no melanoma de piel (CNMP, principalmente en países tropicales ha aumentado en grandes proporciones. La identificación de lesiones sospechosas y aquellas relacionadas directamente con el cáncer de piel es efectuada en ocasiones por colegas de muchas especialidades médicas. Objetivos: estudiar las características de la frecuencia del CNMP en relación con ciertos factores de riesgo en el Hospital José María Cullen, de la ciudad de Santa Fe, capital de la provincia del mismo nombre, Argentina. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, no experimental, descriptivo y de corte transversal. La muestra quedó conformada por 61 pacientes de ambos sexos y de 1 a 83 años. Se confeccionó una historia clínica completa de los pacientes candidatos a la toma de biopsia, que luego fue analizada por el Servicio de Anatomía Patológica. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 11.5, mediante el cual se usó la prueba de Chi cuadrado y tablas de contingencia para relacionar las variables y comparar los datos. Se estableció una asociación estadísticamente significativa cuando se halló un valor de pBackground: The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, mainly in tropical countries has increased in large proportions. The identification of suspicious lesions and those directly related to the skin cancer is made by colleagues of many medical specialities. Objectives: Study the characteristics of the frequency of NMSC and their relation with certain risk factors in the Hospital José María Cullen, city of Santa Fe, capital of the province of the same name, Argentina. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, not experimental, descriptive and transversal cut study. The sample was composed by 61 patients of both sexs and from 1 to 83 years old. A complete clinical history of patients with suspected lesions were developed. After the biopsy collection, the Department of

  20. BNCT clinical trials of skin melanoma patients in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Berta M.; Bonomi, Marcelo R.; Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical outcome of six skin melanoma BNCT irradiations is presented. Three patients (A, B and C), with multiple subcutaneous skin metastases progressed to chemotherapy were infused with ∼14 g/m 2 of boronophenylalanine ( 10 BPA)-fructose and irradiated in the hyperthermal neutron beam of the RA-6 reactor. Patient A received two one fraction irradiations in different areas of the leg, B received one fraction and C was irradiated in three consecutive fields at the calf, heel and foot sole. The maximum prescribed dose to normal skin ranged from 16.5 to 24 Gy-Eq. With a minimum follow-up of 10 months there was a G1 acute epithelitis in A and B and a G3 in C. No late toxicity was observed. Due to the in-field tumor-growth-delay and the absence of severe acute and/or late toxicity observed during the follow-up period, a dose-escalation trial is ongoing. (author)

  1. Claudin11 Promoter Hypermethylation Is Frequent in Malignant Melanoma of the Skin, but Uncommon in Nevus Cell Nevi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walesch, Sara K.; Richter, Antje M. [Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Helmbold, Peter [Department of Dermatology, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dammann, Reinhard H., E-mail: reinhard.dammann@gen.bio.uni-giessen.de [Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-07

    Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-related genes is an important characteristic in the pathology of human cancers, including melanomagenesis. We analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of Claudin 11 (CLDN11) in malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin, including six melanoma cell lines, 39 primary melanoma, 41 metastases of MM and 52 nevus cell nevi (NCN). CLDN11 promoter hypermethylation was found in 19 out of 39 (49%) of the primary MM and in 21 out of 41 (51%) of the MM metastases, but only in eight out of 52 (15%) of NCN (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Moreover, a significant increase in the methylation level of CLDN11 from primary melanomas to MM metastases was revealed (p = 0.003). Methylation of CLDN11 was significantly more frequent in skin metastases (79%) compared to brain metastases (31%; p = 0.007). CLDN11 methylation was also found in five out of six MM cell lines (83%) and its promoter hypermethylation correlated with a reduced expression. Treatment of MM cell lines with a DNA methylation inhibitor reactivated CLDN11 transcription by its promoter demethylation. In summary, CLDN11 proved to be an epigenetically inactivated tumor related gene in melanomagenesis, and analysis of CLDN11 methylation level represents a potential tool for assisting in the discrimination between malignant melanoma and nevus cell nevi.

  2. The measurement of skin impedance for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, S.; Crook, B.; McCarthy, W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In vivo skin impedance measurements have been reported to be diagnostic in differentiating benign from malignant skin tumours (Kiss G et al. Borgyogy Vener Szle 45: 164,1969; Melczer N. In: Cancer of the Skin. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, 1976, pp293-313). However, in contrast to non-melanoma skin cancer, only, a small sample of malignant melanomas were reported in these previous studies. We performed skin impedance measurements on a larger sample of melanomas in order to assess the potential use of such instrumentation for clinical diagnosis. The diagnostic method described by Kiss and Horvath was reproduced with only minor modifications. Low voltage impedance measurements at 1600 Hz were taken over each lesion and on nearby surrounding normal skin. Filter paper (4mm diameter) soaked in 0.1 M KCl was used at the skin-probe interface. A minimum of 2 skin and 1 lesion measurements were taken. All lesions were taken from relatively hairless sites and were non abraded or ulcerated. With the exception of 6 seborrhoeic keratoses all lesions were excised for histological diagnosis. The lesions tested were 27 invasive melanomas, 3 in situ melanomas, 27 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), 70 benign melanocytic lesions, 19 seborrhoeic keratoses, 5 Bowens disease (in situ SCC), 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 25 other benign lesions. Results were interpreted as previously (Melczer) by the quotient of skin impedance / lesion impedance > 1.5 indicating malignancy. Analysis of total melanocytic lesions gave a sensitivity of 44% and specificity of 83% for the diagnosis of invasive melanoma (p < 0.05). Fifty two percent of BCCs were positively diagnosed. Analysis of all benign versus all invasive malignancy gave a sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 77% for the diagnosis of invasive malignancy (p < 0.01). While impedance measurements at 1600 Hz provide a statistically significant differentiation of melanoma versus non-melanoma and invasive malignancy versus benign lesions

  3. Evaluation of skin melanoma in spectral range 450-950 nm using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, D.; Lihacova, I.; Kuzmina, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) of multi-spectral imaging data in the wavelength range 450- 950 nm for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical data by means of PCA resulted in clear separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  4. Individualized 3D scanning and printing for non-melanoma skin cancer brachytherapy: a financial study for its integration into clinical workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Meritxell; Sabater, Sebastià; Sintas, Andreu; Arguís, Monica; Hernández, Víctor; Árquez, Miguel; López, Iolanda; Rovirosa, Àngeles; Puig, Doménec

    2017-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common tumor in the population. There are different therapeutic modalities. Brachytherapy is one of the techniques used, in which it is necessary to build customized moulds for some patients. Currently, these moulds are made by hand using rudimentary techniques. We present a new procedure based on 3D printing and the analysis of the clinical workflow. Moulds can be made either by hand or by automated 3D printing. For making moulds by hand, a patient's alginate negative is created and, from that, the gypsum cast and customized moulds are made by hand from the patient's negative template. The new process is based on 3D printing. The first step is to take a 3D scan of the surface of the patient and then, 3D modelling software is used to obtain an accurate anatomical reconstruction of the treatment area. We present the clinical workflow using 3D scanning and printing technology, comparing its costs with the usual custom handmade mould protocol. The time spent for the new process is 6.25 hours, in contrast to the time spent for the conventional process, which is 9.5 hours. We found a 34% reduction in time required to create a mould for brachytherapy treatment. The labor cost of the conventional process is 211.5 vs. 152.5 hours, so the reduction is 59 hours. There is also a 49.5% reduction in the financial costs, mostly due to lack of need of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the gypsum and the mould. 3D scanning and printing offers financial benefits and reduces the clinical workload. As the present project demonstrates, through the application of 3D printing technologies, the costs and time spent during the process in the clinical workload in brachytherapy treatment are reduced. Overall, 3D printing is a promising technique for brachytherapy that might be well received in the community.

  5. Estimating the cost of skin cancer detection by dermatology providers in a large health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Martha; Secrest, Aaron; Anderson, Alyce; Saul, Melissa I; Ho, Jonhan; Kirkwood, John M; Ferris, Laura K

    2018-04-01

    Data on the cost and efficiency of skin cancer detection through total body skin examination are scarce. To determine the number needed to screen (NNS) and biopsy (NNB) and cost per skin cancer diagnosed in a large dermatology practice in patients undergoing total body skin examination. This is a retrospective observational study. During 2011-2015, a total of 20,270 patients underwent 33,647 visits for total body skin examination; 9956 lesion biopsies were performed yielding 2763 skin cancers, including 155 melanomas. The NNS to detect 1 skin cancer was 12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-12.6) and 1 melanoma was 215 (95% CI 185-252). The NNB to detect 1 skin cancer was 3.0 (95% CI 2.9-3.1) and 1 melanoma was 27.8 (95% CI 23.3-33.3). In a multivariable model for NNS, age and personal history of melanoma were significant factors. Age switched from a protective factor to a risk factor at 51 years of age. The estimated cost per melanoma detected was $32,594 (95% CI $27,326-$37,475). Data are from a single health care system and based on physician coding. Melanoma detection through total body skin examination is most efficient in patients ≥50 years of age and those with a personal history of melanoma. Our findings will be helpful in modeling the cost effectiveness of melanoma screening by dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Melanoma Immunotherapy in Mice by the Skin-Depigmenting Agent Monobenzone and the Adjuvants Imiquimod and CpG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boorn, J.G.; Konijnenberg, D.; Tjin, E.P.M.; Picavet, D.I.; Meeuwenoord, N.J.; Filippov, D.V.; van der Veen, J.P.W.; Bos, J.D.; Melief, C.J.M.; Luiten, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Presently melanoma still lacks adequate treatment options for metastatic disease. While melanoma is exceptionally challenging to standard regimens, it is suited for treatment with immunotherapy based on its immunogenicity. Since treatment-related skin depigmentation is considered a

  7. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling the healthcare costs of skin cancer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Elliott, Thomas M; Wright, Caradee Y; Deghaye, Nicola; Visser, Willie

    2016-04-02

    Skin cancer is a growing public health problem in South Africa due to its high ambient ultraviolet radiation environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual health system costs of cutaneous melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in South Africa, incorporating both the public and private sectors. A cost-of-illness study was used to measure the economic burden of skin cancer and a 'bottom-up' micro-costing approach. Clinicians provided data on the patterns of care and treatments while national costing reports and clinician fees provided cost estimates. The mean costs per melanoma and per SCC/BCC were extrapolated to estimate national costs using published incidence data and official population statistics. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address the uncertainty of the parameters used in the model. The estimated total annual cost of treating skin cancers in South Africa were ZAR 92.4 million (2015) (or US$15.7 million). Sensitivity analyses showed that the total costs could vary between ZAR 89.7 to 94.6 million (US$15.2 to $16.1 million) when melanoma-related variables were changed and between ZAR 78.4 to 113.5 million ($13.3 to $19.3 million) when non-melanoma-related variables were changed. The primary drivers of overall costs were the cost of excisions, follow-up care, radical lymph node dissection, cryotherapy and radiation therapy. The cost of managing skin cancer in South Africa is sizable. Since skin cancer is largely preventable through improvements to sun-protection awareness and skin cancer prevention programs, this study highlights these healthcare resources could be used for other pressing public health problems in South Africa.

  10. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this review we focus on epidermal stem cells in the normal regeneration of the skin as well as in wounded and psoriatic skin. Furthermore, we discuss current data supporting the idea of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Epidermal stem cells present...... or transit amplifying cells constitute a primary pathogenetic factor in the epidermal hyperproliferation seen in psoriasis. In cutaneous malignancies mounting evidence supports a stem cell origin in skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma and a possible existence of cancer stem cells Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  11. Melanoma-specific marker expression in skin biopsy tissues as a tool to facilitate melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Jatkoe, Timothy A; Hartmann, Dan P; Vener, Tatiana; Wang, Haiying; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Wang, Yixin; Palma, John F

    2010-07-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires accurate differentiation of true malignant tumors from highly atypical lesions, which lack the capacity to develop uncontrolled proliferation and to metastasize. We used melanoma markers from previous work to differentiate benign and atypical lesions from melanoma using paraffin-embedded tissue. This critical step in diagnosis generates the most uncertainty and discrepancy between dermatopathologists. A total of 193 biopsy tissues were selected: 47 melanomas, 48 benign nevi, and 98 atypical/suspicious, including 48 atypical nevi and 50 melanomas as later assigned by expert dermatopathologists. Performance for SILV, GDF15, and L1CAM normalized to TYR in unequivocal melanoma versus benign nevi resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively. SILV also differentiated atypical cases classified as melanoma from atypical nevi with an AUC=0.74. Furthermore, SILV showed a significant difference between suspicious melanoma and each suspicious atypia group: melanoma versus severe atypia and melanoma versus moderate atypia had P-values of 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively. SILV showed clear discrimination between melanoma and benign unequivocal cases as well as between different atypia subgroups in the group of suspicious samples. The role and potential utility of this molecular assay as an adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of melanoma are discussed.

  12. Phytochemicals in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest human organ, our protection against various environmental assaults and noxious agents. Accumulation of these stress events may lead to the formation of skin cancers, including both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although modern targeted therapies have ameliorated the management of cutaneous malignancies, a safer, more affordable, and more effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of skin cancer care. Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plants and herbal products. These agents appear to be beneficial in the battle against cancer as they exert anti-carcinogenic effects and are widely available, highly tolerated, and cost-effective. Evidence has indicated that the anti-carcinogenic properties of phytochemicals are due to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects. In this review, we discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of skin cancers. The knowledge compiled here will provide clues for future investigations on novel oncostatic phytochemicals and additional anti-skin cancer mechanisms.

  13. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  14. Protocol for the melatools skin self-monitoring trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention for primary care patients at higher risk of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Lantaff, Rebecca; Radford, Michael; Pannebakker, Merel; Hall, Per; Burrows, Nigel; Williams, Kate; Saunders, Catherine L; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-11-28

    Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK. Incidence rates have quadrupled over the last 30 years and continue to rise, especially among younger people. As routine screening of the general population is not currently recommended in the UK, a focus on secondary prevention through early detection and prompt treatment in individuals at increased risk of melanoma could make an important contribution to improve melanoma outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, in the primary care setting, for patients at increased risk of melanoma. A skin self-monitoring (SSM) smartphone 'App' was used to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help seeking in primary care, thereby promoting early presentation with skin changes suspicious of melanoma. We aim to recruit 200 participants from general practice waiting rooms in the East of England. Eligible patients are those identified at higher melanoma risk (using a real-time risk assessment tool), without a personal history of melanoma, aged 18 to 75 years. Participants will be invited to a primary care nurse consultation, and randomised to the intervention group (standard written advice on skin cancer detection and sun protection, loading of an SSM 'App' onto the participant's smartphone and instructions on use including self-monitoring reminders) or control group (standard written advice alone). The primary outcomes are consultation rates for changes to a pigmented skin lesion, and the patient interval (time from first noticing a skin change to consultation). Secondary outcomes include patient sun protection behaviours, psychosocial outcomes, and measures of trial feasibility and acceptability. NHS ethical approval has been obtained from Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire research ethics committee (REC reference 16/EE/0248). The findings from the MelaTools SSM Trial will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISCTRN16061621

  15. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  16. Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Rossitza; Seeley, Erin H

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging can be successfully used for skin cancer diagnosis, particularly for the diagnosis of challenging melanocytic lesions. This method analyzes proteins within benign and malignant melanocytic tumor cells and, based on their differences, which constitute a unique molecular signature of 5 to 20 proteins, can render a diagnosis of benign nevus versus malignant melanoma. Mass spectrometry imaging may assist in the differentiation between metastases and nevi as well as between proliferative nodules in nevi and melanoma arising in a nevus. In the difficult area of atypical Spitzoid neoplasms, mass spectrometry diagnosis can predict clinical outcome better than histopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  18. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complete chart of side effects. Side effects of Skin Cancer Treatment OrganSystem General Body • cTo ( i D rme ... scrilineesnr/ desbuaoocrnfettedhh) e( ersatkrrieena) tment HELPFUL WEBSITES ON SKIN CANCER TARG E T I NG C A NC ...

  20. Pathology report data extraction from relational database using R, with extraction from reports on melanoma of skin as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    Different methods have been described for data extraction from pathology reports with varying degrees of success. Here a technique for directly extracting data from relational database is described. Our department uses synoptic reports modified from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Protocol Templates to report most of our cancer diagnoses. Choosing the melanoma of skin synoptic report as an example, R scripting language extended with RODBC package was used to query the pathology information system database. Reports containing melanoma of skin synoptic report in the past 4 and a half years were retrieved and individual data elements were extracted. Using the retrieved list of the cases, the database was queried a second time to retrieve/extract the lymph node staging information in the subsequent reports from the same patients. 426 synoptic reports corresponding to unique lesions of melanoma of skin were retrieved, and data elements of interest were extracted into an R data frame. The distribution of Breslow depth of melanomas grouped by year is used as an example of intra-report data extraction and analysis. When the new pN staging information was present in the subsequent reports, 82% (77/94) was precisely retrieved (pN0, pN1, pN2 and pN3). Additional 15% (14/94) was retrieved with certain ambiguity (positive or knowing there was an update). The specificity was 100% for both. The relationship between Breslow depth and lymph node status was graphed as an example of lesion-specific multi-report data extraction and analysis. R extended with RODBC package is a simple and versatile approach well-suited for the above tasks. The success or failure of the retrieval and extraction depended largely on whether the reports were formatted and whether the contents of the elements were consistently phrased. This approach can be easily modified and adopted for other pathology information systems that use relational database for data management.

  1. Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Gobinet, Cyril; Vrabie, Valeriu; Huez, Regis; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most severe tumor affecting the skin and accounts for three quarters of all skin cancer deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a promising nondestructive tool that has been increasingly used for characterization of the molecular features of cancerous tissues. Different multivariate statistical analysis techniques are used in order to extract relevant information that can be considered as functional spectroscopic descriptors of a particular pathology. Paraffin embedding (waxing) is a highly efficient process used to conserve biopsies in tumor banks for several years. However, the use of non-dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for Raman spectroscopic investigations remains very restricted, limiting the development of the technique as a routine analytical tool for biomedical purposes. This is due to the highly intense signal of paraffin, which masks important vibrations of the biological tissues. In addition to being time consuming and chemical intensive, chemical dewaxing methods are not efficient and they leave traces of the paraffin in tissues, which affects the Raman signal. In the present study, we use independent component analysis (ICA) on Raman spectral images collected on melanoma and nevus samples. The sources obtained from these images are then used to eliminate, using non-negativity constrained least squares (NCLS), the paraffin contribution from each individual spectrum of the spectral images of nevi and melanomas. Corrected spectra of both types of lesion are then compared and classified into dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  2. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in White, Hispanic and Black Skin Melanocytes: A Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Amrita [Hampton University Skin of Color Research Institute, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Katdare, Meena, E-mail: mkatdare@gmail.com [Hampton University Skin of Color Research Institute, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the DNA-damaging effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). UVR-induced DNA damage leads to cytogenetic defects visualized as the formation of micronuclei, multinuclei and polymorphic nuclei in cells, and a hallmark of cancer risk. The causative relationship between Sun exposure and CM is controversial, especially in Hispanics and needs further evaluation. This study was initiated with melanocytes from White, Hispanic and Black neonatal foreskins which were exposed to UVR to assess their susceptibility to UVR-induced modulation of cellular growth, cytogenetic damage, intracellular and released melanin. Our results show that White and Hispanic skin melanocytes with similar levels of constitutive melanin are susceptible to UVR-induced cytogenetic damage, whereas Black skin melanocytes are not. Our data suggest that the risk of developing UVR-induced CM in a skin type is correlated with the level of cutaneous pigmentation and its ethnic background. This study provides a benchmark for further investigation on the damaging effects of UVR as risk for CM in Hispanics.

  3. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in White, Hispanic and Black Skin Melanocytes: A Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Amrita; Katdare, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the DNA-damaging effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). UVR-induced DNA damage leads to cytogenetic defects visualized as the formation of micronuclei, multinuclei and polymorphic nuclei in cells, and a hallmark of cancer risk. The causative relationship between Sun exposure and CM is controversial, especially in Hispanics and needs further evaluation. This study was initiated with melanocytes from White, Hispanic and Black neonatal foreskins which were exposed to UVR to assess their susceptibility to UVR-induced modulation of cellular growth, cytogenetic damage, intracellular and released melanin. Our results show that White and Hispanic skin melanocytes with similar levels of constitutive melanin are susceptible to UVR-induced cytogenetic damage, whereas Black skin melanocytes are not. Our data suggest that the risk of developing UVR-induced CM in a skin type is correlated with the level of cutaneous pigmentation and its ethnic background. This study provides a benchmark for further investigation on the damaging effects of UVR as risk for CM in Hispanics

  4. Does the nature of residual immune function explain the differential risk of non-melanoma skin cancer development in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Ji-Won; Overgaard, Nana H; Burke, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    ; in particular, patients switched from calcineurin inhibitors to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors not only displayed a dramatic reduction in new tumor formation but also in some cases a regression of their existing lesions. Studies of cancer models in mice and cell lines in the laboratory have...... attributed these discrepancies in cancer risk to the ability of immunosuppressants such as mTOR inhibitors to elicit direct anticancer effects, including suppressing angiogenesis and increasing autophagy-mediated DNA repair. Recent evidence from the immunological literature however, suggests a significant...... alternative contribution of mTOR inhibitors; namely the promotion of memory T-cell function. Recent advances in understanding memory T-cell establishment and the demonstration of their critical role in long-term immunity make it timely to review the available evidence as to whether the improved nonmelanoma...

  5. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW’s are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin.

  6. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW's are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin.

  7. In-vivo diagnosis and non-inasive monitoring of Imiquimod 5% cream for non-melanoma skin cancer using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietterle, S; Lademann, J; Röwert-Huber, H-J; Stockfleth, E; Astner, S; Antoniou, C; Sterry, W

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous malignancy with increasing incidence rates worldwide. A number of established treatments are available, including surgical excision. The emergence of new non-invasive treatment modalities has prompted the development of non-invasive optical devices for therapeutic monitoring and evaluating treatment efficacy. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical applicability of a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope (CFLSM) for non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of basal cell carcinoma treated with Imiquimod (Aldara®) as topical immune-response modifier. Eight participants with a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were enrolled in this investigation. Sequential evaluation during treatment with Imiquimod showed progressive normalization of the confocal histomorphologic parameters in correlation with normal skin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was able to identify characteristic features of BCC and allowed the visualization of therapeutic effects over time. Thus our results indicate the clinical applicability of CFLSM imaging to evaluate treatment efficacy in vivo and non-invasively

  8. HLA and skin cancer HLA e câncer de pele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Rangel Bonamigo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer - melanoma and non melanoma - are common neoplasm with rising incidence over the last decades. It is an important public health problem. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood and the same happens with the genetic factors involved. The genes that encode the HLA are associated with some tumors and they may be responsible for one of the mechanisms that take part in the development of the before mentioned cancers. We have reviewed the literature on the subject of HLA antigens, melanoma and non melanoma skin cancer.Os cânceres da pele - melanoma e não-melanoma - são neoplasias comuns e com incidência crescente ao longo de décadas. Representam um importante problema de saúde pública. A patogênese destas neoplasias não é completamente compreendida, assim como não o são os fatores genéticos envolvidos. Os genes HLA estão associados a alguns tumores e podem representar um dos mecanismos implicados no desenvolvimento do câncer de pele. Apresenta-se uma revisão atualizada sobre a relação entre antígenos HLA, câncer da pele não-melanoma e melanoma.

  9. Reduced incidence of skin cancer in patients with alopecia areata: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Qureshi, Sarah; Joyce, Cara; Guo, Ye; Huang, Kathie P

    2016-04-01

    The risk of skin cancer in patients with alopecia areata (AA) is unknown. While the risk of skin cancer in chronic inflammatory alopecias may be elevated, AA shares many characteristics with vitiligo, an autoimmune illness associated with decreased risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the risk of developing skin cancer among patients with AA in a validated cohort relative to matched controls at two tertiary care hospitals in Massachusetts. There was a significantly decreased risk of NMSC in AA patients than controls (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81). There was a trend towards a protective effect of AA associated with melanoma (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.39-1.09). There was no difference in anatomic distribution of skin cancer between patients with AA and controls. Our study demonstrates a decreased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and a trend towards reduced risk of melanoma in patients with AA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  11. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  12. THE STUDY OF MECHANISMS OF PHOTOINDUCED APOPTOSIS IN THE SKIN MALIGNANT MELANOMA CELL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gelfond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental study of immune response of human skin malignant melanoma cells Mel 226 on photodynamic exposure are represented in the article. Photoinduced apoptosis of skin malignant melanoma was studied in vitro. The study showed that irradiation with the agent fotoditazin at dose of 0.5–2.5 µg/ml (6 and 10 min exposure 30 min before irradiation; irradiation parameters: wavelength of 662 nm, total light dose from 40 to 60 J/cm2 induced early apoptosis. The increase of the time of laser irradiation significantly accelerates the conversion of photosensitized tumor cells from early to late apoptosis.

  13. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate diagnosis of melanoma relies on a histopathologic gold standard; thus, aggressive excision of melanocytic skin lesions has been the mainstay of treatment. It is estimated that 36 biopsies are performed for every melanoma confirmed by pathology among excised lesions. There is significant morbidity in misdiagnosing melanoma such as progression of the disease for a false negative prediction vs the risks of unnecessary surgery for a false positive prediction. Every year, poor diagnostic precision adds an estimated $673 million in overall cost to manage the disease. Currently, manual dermatoscopic imaging is the standard of care in selecting atypical skin lesions for biopsy, and at best it achieves 90% sensitivity but only 59% specificity when performed by an expert dermatologist. Many computer vision (CV) algorithms perform better than dermatologists in classifying skin lesions although not significantly so in clinical practice. Meanwhile, open source deep learning (DL) techniques in CV have been gaining dominance since 2012 for image classification, and today DL can outperform humans in classifying millions of digital images with less than 5% error rates. Moreover, DL algorithms are readily run on commoditized hardware and have a strong online community of developers supporting their rapid adoption. In this work, we performed a successful pilot study to show proof of concept to DL skin pathology from images. However, DL algorithms must be trained on very large labelled datasets of

  14. Relapses in radiotherapy on non melanoma skin carcinoma in Shumen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikov, P.; Mircheva, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the frequency of the relapses in skin carcinomas depending on the type of the treatment. The study has been carried out for the Shumen region as a part of the National study, co-ordinated by the National Oncological Hospital, Sofia. A total of 128 cases of non-melanoma skin carcinomas are included in the study, registered in 1993 and followed up for 10 years. The information source is the oncological files and therapeutic records , stored in the cancer register. For each patient a special questionnaire is filled. The study presents information about the clinical and morphological diagnoses, the stage of the disease and the treatment applied - surgery, cryotherapy, radiotherapy - short-focus X-ray therapy, brachytherapy, percutaneous radiotherapy. The main data are for the persistency or relapse of the tumor after the particular radiotherapy and about the other therapies applied. It is also important whether metastases in the lymph nodes or visceral metastases have occurred and what type of treatment has been applied

  15. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  16. p53 and the pathogenesis of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2007-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex molecules involved in cellular functions. Genetic alterations within the p53 gene have been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific 'signature' mutations that can result in oncogenic transformation. There are certain 'hot-spots' in the p53 gene where mutations are commonly found that result in a mutated dipyrimidine site. This review discusses the role of p53 from normal function and its dysfunction in pre-cancerous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. Additionally, special situations are explored, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome in which there is an inherited p53 mutation, and the consequences of immune suppression on p53 mutations and the resulting increase in non-melanoma skin cancer in these patients

  17. Evaluation of the National Skin Cancer Campaign: a Swiss experience of Euromelanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Sven; Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Cazzaniga, Simone; Bianchi, Enrica; Schlagenhauff, Bettina; Tscharner, Gion; Hafner, Jürg; Mainetti, Carlo; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; Hunger, Robert E

    2017-10-24

    Skin cancer is a burden to healthcare and patients worldwide. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising during recent decades and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Numerous risk factors have been identified and prevention strategies developed. The Euromelanoma campaign is a pan-European skin cancer prevention programme, targeted to both primary and secondary prevention of malignant melanoma. The current study aimed to evaluate the results of the Swiss skin cancer screening day 2016. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on characteristics and suspected skin cancers of all participants. Follow-up of patients with suspicious lesions was performed 3 to 6 months later. During the campaign, 2795 people were screened. Of the screened individuals, 157 participants (58% female, 42% male; mean age 58.8 years) underwent further evaluations; 6 cutaneous malignant melanomas, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were detected. Detection rates were 0.21% for cutaneous melanoma, 0.75% for basal cell carcinoma and 0.07% for squamous cell carcinoma. Our study provides an up-to-date evaluation of the Swiss Euromelanoma campaign 2016. The results are mostly in line with data from other European studies. Considering the morbidity, mortality and financial and social impact of skin cancer, the capacity to raise awareness of risk factors, skin cancer prevention methods and educating high-risk and at-risk individuals, we may assume that a National Screening Day has a crucial impact on the public health system.

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of knowledge-based interventions in increasing skin cancer awareness, knowledge, and protective behaviors in skin of color populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Ajay; Botwin, Ariel L; Pritchett, Ellen N; Jackson-Richards, Diane; Lewis, Suzanna; Sadhwani, Divya; Desai, Seemal R; Taylor, Susan C

    2017-10-01

    Skin of color (SOC) populations (ie, blacks, Hispanics, Asians) are at a notably higher risk for mortality from skin cancers such as melanoma than white individuals. In this article, we seek to answer the following question: Do knowledge-based interventions increase skin cancer awareness among SOC patients? Following an extensive literature search, a total of 4 articles were analyzed and discussed in this review.

  19. Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin: Mechanisms and Efficacy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) type, is a major health problem in the United States (US); annual BCC incidences alone are higher than all other cancer incidences combined (1.67 million/year). Most BCC cases are curable by surgery/radiation, but these can be painful and highly disfiguring and are not viable treatment options for BCC patients with

  20. UV-radiation and skin cancer dose effect curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.; Dahlback, A.; Larsen, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Norwegian skin cancer data were used in an attempt to arrive at the dose effect relationship for UV-carcinogenesis. The Norwegian population is relatively homogenous with regard to skin type and live in a country where the annual effective UV-dose varies by approximately 40 percent. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 o in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected . The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year. The incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) in these regions were considered and compared to the annual UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose effect curve seems to be valid. Depletions of the ozone layer results in larger UV-doses which in turn may yield more skin cancer. The dose effect curves suggest that the incidence rate will increase by an ''amplification factor'' of approximately 2

  1. Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib Approved for Melanoma, Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA recently approved the combination of dabrafenib (Taflinar) and trametinib (Mekinist) to treat some patients with melanoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer whose tumors have a mutation in the BRAF gene. As this Cancer Currents blog post explains, this is the first treatment approved specifically for anaplastic thyroid

  2. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  3. Radon dose to the skin and the possible induction of skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The radon related alpha particle dose equivalent to the basal layer of the epidermis has been calculated and found to be at least 2 mSv.y -1 , for exposed skin at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq.m -3 . A considerably greater dose equivalent may be received at this same radon concentration depending on the plateout conditions. Using standard risk factors 13% of skin cancers would theoretically be attributed to radon at the UK average exposure of 20 Bq.m -3 . Direct studies of skin cancer and radon in the home are needed before the validity of this prediction can be established. There is little evidence from high dose studies suggesting the induction of malignant melanoma by ionising radiation, although some circumstantial evidence exists, and the possibility that radon may be a co-factor with UV light in the induction of malignant melanoma, should not be dismissed. Due to the nature of the radiation risk factors the majority of any skin cancers linked to radon will simultaneously be linked to ultraviolet light exposure. (author)

  4. Ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moan, J.; Larsen, S.; Dahlback, A.; Henriksen, T.

    1988-01-01

    If the ozone layer is reduced, the fluence rate of carcinogenic UV-light from the sun will increase at the surface of the earth. Calculations based on the assuption that the carcionogenic process starts by absorption of UV-light in DNA in cells in the basal layer of the skin, indicate that a 1% reduction in the ozone level leads to a 4-5% increase in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, i.e. the amplification factor is 4-5. However, light at wavelenghts above 310 nm, which is poorly absorbed by DNA as well as by ozone, seems to be carcinogenic. The amplification factor in South Norway is estimated to be about 2 or slightly less. The amplification factor decreases with increasing distance from the equator. The estimation is based on the action spectrum for mutation of cells in the basal layer of the skin, a spectrum similar to the action spectrum for carcinogenesis in mice, and to that for erythema in humans. The fluence rate of carcionogenic UV-light is probably more dependent on other climatic and environmental factors than on the ozone level. Thus, it was recently reported that the integrated yearly UVB dose measured several places in USA showed a decreasing tendency with time in the period 1974-1985

  5. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  6. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 and Hydroxychloroquine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, Melanoma, Prostate or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v7

  7. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high efficacy in the treatment of large non-melanoma skin cancers that are incurable by other existing methods. Also, Curaderm treatment shows a splendid cosmetic effect. 

  8. Skin Cancer: ClinicoPathological Study of 204 Patients in Southern Governorates of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZou, Amer Bin; Thabit, Mazen Abood Bin; AlSakkaf, Khalid Abdulla; Basaleem, Huda Omer

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is a group of heterogeneous malignancies, in general classified into nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma skin cancer (MSC). Incidences are high in many parts in the world with considerable geographical and racial variation. In the Yemen, there has been scarce information about skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and histological trend of skin cancer in Southern Governorates of Yemen. This retrospective study covered 204 cases of skin cancer at the Modern Histopathology Laboratory and Aden Cancer Registry and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, for the period 20062013. Data were classified regarding different demographic and tumor related variables and analyzed using CanReg4 for cancer registry and SPSS (version 21). The commonest encountered skin cancer was NMSC (93.1%). Generally, skin cancer appears slightly more frequently in females than males with a 1:1.06 male: female ratio, with a mean age of 62.9 years. Slightly higher than onethird (36.3%) were from Aden governorate. The head and neck proved to be the most common site in both males and females (58%). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common histological type of skin cancer (50.5%). Skin cancer is a common cancer in patients living in southern governorates of Yemen. The pattern appears nearly similar to the international figures with a low incidence of MSC.

  9. Incidence of skin cancers during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, Khaled; Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Malvy, Denis

    2010-12-01

    In the SU.VI.MAX study, antioxidant supplementation for 7.5 years was found to increase skin cancer risk in women but not in men. To investigate the potential residual or delayed effect of antioxidant supplementation on skin cancer incidence after a 5-year post-intervention follow-up. Assessment of skin cancer including melanoma and non-melanoma during the post-intervention follow-up (September 2002-August 2007). The SU.VI.MAX study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, in which 12,741 French adults (7713 women aged 35-60 years and 5028 men aged 45-60 years) received daily a placebo or a combination of ascorbic acid (120 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), selenium (100 μg) and zinc (20mg), from inclusion in 1994 to September 2002. Total skin cancer incidence, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. During the post-intervention period, 10 melanomas appeared in women and 9 in men (26 and 18, respectively, for the total period of supplementation+post-supplementation). Six squamous cell carcinomas were found in women and 15 in men (10 and 25, respectively, for the total period). Finally, 40 basal cell carcinomas appeared in women and 36 in men (98 and 94, respectively, for the total period). Regarding potential residual or delayed effects of supplementation in women, no increased risk of melanoma was observed during the post-intervention follow-up period. No delayed effects, either on melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers, were observed for either gender. The risk of skin cancers associated with antioxidant intake declines following interruption of supplementation. This supports a causative role for antioxidants in the evolution of skin cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  11. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

  12. A terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico como modalidade de tratamento para neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Bernardini Antunes de Felício

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A terapia fotodinâmica baseia-se na associação de fonte de luz e fotossensibilizador para destruir seletivamente as células. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos imediatos e tardios, a resposta clínica e os resultados estéticos da terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico em neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro lesões, sendo 19 disceratoses de Bowen e 15 carcinomas basocelulares, foram submetidas à aplicação tópica e oclusiva do ácido 5-aminolevulínico a 20%, por seis horas, e posteriormente a sessão única de laser de diodo (630nm. RESULTADOS: Foram registrados: sensação de queimação durante as sessões; eritema, edema e erosões, nas primeiras 72 horas; cicatrização em média de quatro semanas; resultados estéticos variáveis de excelentes a bons. Aos três meses, a resposta clínica foi de 91,2%, sendo reduzida, aos 18 meses, para 73,3%, de modo similar tanto para disceratose de Bowen (72,2% quanto para carcinoma basocelular (75%. Foi evidenciada relação de tendência linear entre a redução da freqüência da resposta clínica e o aumento da dimensão das neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma (pBACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is based on the association of a light source and photosensitizer in order to selectively destroy cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short and long-term effects, clinical response, and cosmetic outcome of the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid for non-melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: TThirty-four non-melanoma skin cancer - 19 Bowen’s diseases and 15 basal cell carcinomas, were submitted to a single 6-hour topical and occlusive application of 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid, and were later exposed to 630 nm diode laser single session. RESULTS: Burning sensation during the session; erythema, edema and erosions in the first 72 hours; healing process after 4 weeks on average and excellent or good cosmetic results were observed. After 3 months, tumor

  13. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  14. Low Rates of Dermatologic Care and Skin Cancer Screening Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alyce; Ferris, Laura K; Click, Benjamin; Ramos-Rivers, Claudia; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Hashash, Jana G; Dunn, Michael; Barrie, Arthur; Schwartz, Marc; Regueiro, Miguel; Binion, David G

    2018-04-30

    Dermatologic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are common, and certain IBD medications increase the risk of skin cancer. To define the rates of care and factors associated with dermatologic utilization with a focus on skin cancer screening. We utilized a prospective, natural history IBD research registry to evaluate all outpatient healthcare encounters from 2010 to 2016. Gastrointestinal, dermatologic and primary care visits per individual were identified. We calculated the proportion of patients obtaining care, categorized primary indications for dermatologic visits, determined the incidence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, and used logistic regression to determine factors associated with dermatology utilization. Of the 2127 IBD patients included, 452 (21.3%) utilized dermatology over the study period, and 55 (2.6%) had a total body skin examination at least once. The 452 patients incurred 1633 dermatology clinic visits, 278 dermatologic procedures, and 1108 dermatology telephone encounters. The most frequent indication was contact dermatitis or dermatitis. Factors associated with dermatology use were family history of skin cancer, employment, systemic steroids, longer disease duration, emergency room use, and the number of IBD-related clinic visits. Between 8.3 and 11% of IBD patients recommended for skin cancer screening visited dermatology each year, and the resulting incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer was 35.4/10,000 [95% CI 23.3-51.5] and melanoma was 6.56/10,000 [95% CI 2.1-15.3]. Less than one in ten IBD patients obtain dermatologic care. Given the increased risk of skin cancers among IBD patients, an emphasis on education, prevention, and screening merits attention.

  15. Histopathology of normal skin and melanomas after nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Nuccitelli, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can affect the intracellular structures of cells in vitro. This study shows the direct effects of nsPEFs on tumor growth, tumor volume, and histological characteristics of normal skin and B16-F10 melanoma in SKH-1 mice. A melanoma model was set up by injecting B16-F10 into female SKH-1 mice. After a 100-pulse treatment with an nsPEF (40-kV/cm field strength; 300-ns duration; 30-ns rise time; 2-Hz repetition rate), tumor growth and histology were studied using transillumination, light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin and iron within the melanoma tumor were also detected with specific stains. After nsPEF treatment, tumor development was inhibited with decreased volumes post-nsPEF treatment compared with control tumors (Pelectric fields surrounding the needle electrodes. PMID:19730404

  16. Identification of progenitor cancer stem cell in lentigo maligna melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, M R; Doukaki, S; Malleo, F; Aricò, M

    2008-07-01

    The potential role of stem cells in neoplasia has aroused considerable interest over the past few years. A number of known biologic characteristics of melanomas support the theory that they may originate in a mutated stem cell. Melanocytic stem cell markers have been described recently. Moreover, the CD133 cells that show surface markers for CD34 are stem cells primitive. These stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. The identification of cancer stem/initiating cells with a crucial role in tumor formation may open up new pharmacologic perspectives. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of CD133 and CD34, two putative markers of cancer stem cells in the lentigo maligna melanoma. Thirty cases of lentigo maligna melanoma were analyzed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. The vast majority of the samples analyzed showed the presence of rare cells, which were clearly positive for CD133 and CD34. Strong CD133 and CD34 staining was found in the outer root sheath of the mid-lower hair follicles, intermixed with atypical melanocytes extending along layers of the hair follicles. A number of these staminal cells were adjacent and intermixed with melanoma cells. This study supports the stem cell origin of this tumor and suggests that the precursor of the melanoma in question is a stem-like cell rather than the primitive melanoblast committed to be exclusively involved in melanocytic differentiation.

  17. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  18. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  19. Pathology report data extraction from relational database using R, with extraction from reports on melanoma of skin as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different methods have been described for data extraction from pathology reports with varying degrees of success. Here a technique for directly extracting data from relational database is described. Methods: Our department uses synoptic reports modified from College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Protocol Templates to report most of our cancer diagnoses. Choosing the melanoma of skin synoptic report as an example, R scripting language extended with RODBC package was used to query the pathology information system database. Reports containing melanoma of skin synoptic report in the past 4 and a half years were retrieved and individual data elements were extracted. Using the retrieved list of the cases, the database was queried a second time to retrieve/extract the lymph node staging information in the subsequent reports from the same patients. Results: 426 synoptic reports corresponding to unique lesions of melanoma of skin were retrieved, and data elements of interest were extracted into an R data frame. The distribution of Breslow depth of melanomas grouped by year is used as an example of intra-report data extraction and analysis. When the new pN staging information was present in the subsequent reports, 82% (77/94 was precisely retrieved (pN0, pN1, pN2 and pN3. Additional 15% (14/94 was retrieved with certain ambiguity (positive or knowing there was an update. The specificity was 100% for both. The relationship between Breslow depth and lymph node status was graphed as an example of lesion-specific multi-report data extraction and analysis. Conclusions: R extended with RODBC package is a simple and versatile approach well-suited for the above tasks. The success or failure of the retrieval and extraction depended largely on whether the reports were formatted and whether the contents of the elements were consistently phrased. This approach can be easily modified and adopted for other pathology information systems that use

  20. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  1. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, Meintje Hylkje Edwina

    2007-01-01

    Summary and conclusions In the introduction, a short overview of the development of the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept is presented. In addition to melanoma and breast cancer, the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a surgical assessment method for squamous cell carcinoma of penis and

  3. Breast, prostate, and cervical cancer, melanoma, and neuro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer, melanoma, and neuro-endocrine tumours. Nuclear medicine ... for the evaluation of the presence and localisation of skeletal metastases .... is primarily a surgical/histological diagnosis ... and 50 - 70% for pancreatic NETs, and a high speci ... Steyn and Dr A Brink for their assistance in writing this article. References.

  4. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  5. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  6. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  7. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Siemerink, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Verhaegh, M.E.J.M.; Ostertag, J.U.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the incidence of skin cancer is rising rapidly worldwide, but no reliable figures on multiple nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are available. Aim To determine the actual incidence of skin cancer in dermatology practice and to estimate how this relates to the first primary

  8. Next-Gen Therapeutics for Skin Cancer: Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Annapoorna; Li, Jun; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2018-05-15

    Growing modernization and lifestyle changes with limited physical activity have impacted diet and health, leading to an increased cancer mortality rate worldwide. As a result, there is a greater need than before to develop safe and novel anticancer drugs. Current treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, induce unintended side effects, compromising patient's quality of life, and physical well-being. Therefore, there has been an increased global interest in the use of dietary supplements and traditional herbal medicines for treatment of cancer. Recently, nutraceuticals or "natural" substances isolated from food have attracted considerable attention in the cancer field. Emerging research suggests that nutraceuticals may indeed prevent and protect against cancer. The intent of this article is to review some of the current spice-derived nutraceuticals in the treatment of melanoma and skin cancer.

  9. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Tatum, Kristina L.; Devine, Katie A.; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V.; Coups, Elliot J.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of skin self-examin...

  10. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  11. Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Margaret L; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin M

    2017-09-14

    The treatment and prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed substantially since the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), agents that enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Despite the success of these agents, clinically actionable biomarkers to aid patient and regimen selection are lacking. Herein, we summarize and review the evidence for candidate biomarkers of response to ICIs in melanoma. Many of these candidates can be examined as parts of a known molecular pathway of immune response, while others are clinical in nature. Due to the ability of ICIs to illicit dramatic and durable responses, well-validated biomarkers that can be effectively implemented in the clinic will require strong negative predictive values that do not limit patients with who may benefit from ICI therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  14. Mathematical models of age and ultraviolet effects on the incidence of skin cancer among whites in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fears, T.R.; Scotto, J.; Schneiderman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    That sunlight leads to skin cancer has been generally accepted for nearly a century. Physical data are, for the first time, available which support this hypothesis. The authors have found that a simple power relationship can be used to describe the data and that the form of this power function suggests that the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is related to cumulative lifetime ultraviolet (UV) exposure and that the risk of melanoma skin cancer is related to annual UV exposure. The authors emphasize that skin cancer risk also depends on location-specific demographic variables other than ultraviolet radiation

  15. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  16. Sun Exposure, Tanning Beds, and Herbs That Cure: An Examination of Skin Cancer on Pinterest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Park, Sung-Eun

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer affecting the U.S. Pinterest.com, a virtual bookmarking social media site, has the potential to disseminate skin cancer-related information among young women, the group with the fastest increase in skin cancer diagnosis. This article presents a quantitative content analysis of pins about skin cancer on Pinterest guided by agenda-setting theory and the health belief model. Overall, sun exposure and tanning beds were most frequently discussed as the causes of skin cancer, and alternative therapies such as herbal medicine were discussed more than traditional biomedical treatment or prevention. Highly repinned pins tend to include more information than regular pins. Different types of skin cancer (melanoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, and basal-cell carcinoma) received the same amount of coverage; however, pins about nonmelanoma skin cancer (such as squamous-cell carcinoma and basal-cell carcinoma) were often information-poor. They were less likely to include information on the causes, prevention, and the biomedical treatment of skin cancer and were less likely to include health belief constructs associated with the promotion of skin cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Spotlight on talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orloff M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marlana Orloff Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: On October 27, 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, a first in class intralesional oncolytic virotherapy, was granted the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of melanoma in the skin and lymph nodes. Its approval has added yet another therapeutic option to the growing list of effective therapies for melanoma. Though the Phase III OPTiM trial has demonstrated its efficacy as a single agent, the target patient population remains narrow. With numerous effective and tolerable treatments available for unresectable and metastatic melanoma, intralesional therapies such as T-VEC are still finding their niche. T-VEC is now widely accepted as option for treatment; however, its combination with various other agents in an effort to expand its use and synergize with other interventions is still being explored. This article will review the pre-clinical and clinical work that eventually led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this first-in-class agent, as well as address concerns about clinical application and ongoing research. Keywords: T-VEC, talimogene laherparepvec intralesional, melanoma, oncolytic virus, virotherapy, immunotherapy

  18. [Malignant melanoma of the skin in Denmark--epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Maase, H; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Dahlstrøm, K K; Geertsen, P F; Gjedde, S B; Hastrup, N C; Holmberg, S B; Krag, C; Lock-Andersen, J

    1992-07-06

    About 700 new cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are registered annually in Denmark. The incidence is increasing rapidly and the number of new cases increases by more than 5% per annum. The most important phenotypical risk factors are the number of acquired pigmented naevi and exposure to sunlight is the most important risk factor in the external environment so that severe sunburn in children and intermittent intense exposure to sunlight increase the risk of melanoma. The thickness of the tumour at the time of the diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. The prognosis deteriorates with increasing thickness. Treatment is primarily surgical. In cases of inoperable local melanoma and regional recurrences, irradiation may be administered. Chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy are of experimental character. In the light of the rapidly increasing incidence, it is important that knowledge of risk factors for development of the disease and the clinical characteristics of early melanoma is spread to not only the medical profession but also to the general public.

  19. Fatores de risco para câncer da pele não melanoma em Taubaté, SP: um estudo caso-controle Risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer in Taubaté, SP: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados ao câncer da pele não melanoma em Taubaté-SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle de base hospitalar com residentes em Taubaté atendidos entre 01/01/05 e 31/12/06. Os indivíduos foram combinados 1:1 conforme gênero e idade. Foram variáveis independentes: idade, gênero, fototipo, ascendência europeia, tempo de moradia, exposição solar, tempo (em anos, número de horas e horário de exposição solar ocupacional e não ocupacional, fotoproteção, histórico familiar e fotodano. Foi utilizada a regressão logística hierarquizada em três níveis. O ajuste do modelo foi realizado pelo teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow e sua acurácia foi verificada pela curva ROC. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram 132 casos e 132 controles. Compuseram o modelo final: fototipo com OR = 3,14 (IC 95% 1,79-5,49, horas de exposição solar ocupacional 1,76 (1,04-2,99 e não ocupacional 1,80 (0,98-3,29 e histórico familiar 2,10 (1,13-3,93.Teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow, p = 0,97. Acurácia 70% (IC 95% 63-76. CONCLUSÃO: Pele clara, histórico familiar e exposição solar ocupacional e não ocupacional se associaram ao câncer cutâneo não melanoma em Taubaté-SP.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with non-melanoma skin cancer in the city of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hospital-based case-control study with individuals residing in Taubaté, treated between January 2005 and December 2006. The subjects were matched 1:1 according to gender and age. Age, gender, phototype, European descent, time of residence, sun exposure, time (in years, number of hours and time of occupational and non-occupational sun exposure, photoprotection, family history and photodamage were independent variables. A hierarchical logistic regression was used at three levels. The model adjustment was performed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and its accuracy was verified by ROC curve. The significance level was p < 0.05. RESULTS

  20. Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanoma and skin melanocytes in Grey horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Campagne, Cécile; Sundström, Elisabeth; Sousa, Pedro; Imran, Saima; Seltenhammer, Monika; Pielberg, Gerli; Olsson, Mats J; Egidy, Giorgia; Andersson, Leif; Golovko, Anna

    2014-11-21

    Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway, occurring in the vast majority of melanocytic neoplasms, has a pivotal role in melanoma development. Different mechanisms underlie this activation in different tumour settings. The Grey phenotype in horses, caused by a 4.6 kb duplication in intron 6 of Syntaxin 17 (STX17), is associated with a very high incidence of cutaneous melanoma, but the molecular mechanism behind the melanomagenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of the ERK pathway in melanoma development in Grey horses. Grey horse melanoma tumours, cell lines and normal skin melanocytes were analyzed with help of indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting for the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 in comparison to that in non-grey horse and human counterparts. The mutational status of BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes in Grey horse melanomas was determined by direct sequencing. The effect of RAS, RAF and PI3K/AKT pathways on the activation of the ERK signaling in Grey horse melanoma cells was investigated with help of specific inhibitors and immunoblotting. Individual roles of RAF and RAS kinases on the ERK activation were examined using si-RNA based approach and immunoblotting. We found that the ERK pathway is constitutively activated in Grey horse melanoma tumours and cell lines in the absence of somatic activating mutations in BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes or alterations in the expression of the main components of the pathway. The pathway is mitogenic and is mediated by BRAF, CRAF and KRAS kinases. Importantly, we found high activation of the ERK pathway also in epidermal melanocytes, suggesting a general predisposition to melanomagenesis in these horses. These findings demonstrate that the presence of the intronic 4.6 kb duplication in STX17 is strongly associated with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanocytic cells in Grey horses in the absence of somatic mutations commonly linked to the activation of this

  1. Prevalence and Costs of Skin Cancer Treatment in the U.S., 2002–2006 and 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Gery P.; Machlin, Steven R.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the U.S., is a major public health problem. The incidence of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer is increasing; however, little is known about the economic burden of treatment. Purpose To examine trends in the treated prevalence and treatment costs of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Methods This study used data on adults from the 2002–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey full-year consolidated files and information from corresponding medical conditions and medical event files to estimate the treated prevalence and treatment cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer, melanoma skin cancer, and all other cancer sites. Analyses were conducted in January 2014. Results The average annual number of adults treated for skin cancer increased from 3.4 million in 2002–2006 to 4.9 million in 2007–2011 (p<0.001). During this period, the average annual total cost for skin cancer increased from $3.6 billion to $8.1 billion (p=0.001), representing an increase of 126.2%, while the average annual total cost for all other cancers increased by 25.1%. During 2007–2011, nearly 5 million adults were treated for skin cancer annually, with average treatment costs of $8.1 billion each year. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the health and economic burden of skin cancer treatment is substantial and increasing. Such findings highlight the importance of skin cancer prevention efforts, which may result in future savings to the healthcare system. PMID:25442229

  2. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Guy, Gery P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sampson, Blake P.; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  5. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  6. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... left the Congress and starting working as a healthcare consultant, when I finally decided to have a ...

  7. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  8. Breast metastasis from cutaneous malignant melanoma mimicking a breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Marina; Capalbo, Emanuela; Viganò, Sara; Trecate, Giovanna; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco Paride; Panizza, Pietro

    2015-06-25

    Breast metastases are very uncommon, either from solid tumors or malignant melanoma. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of cutaneous melanoma of the shoulder excised 21 years ago. She presented with a palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasound demonstrated a solid mass within a cystic lesion. A core biopsy was taken and first histology reported a poorly differentiated primary breast cancer suspected to be triple negative. MRI detected a satellite lesion in the same breast, a focus of suspected enhancement in the other breast, and the extramammary finding of an enhancing pulmonary lesion. Staging computed tomography detected widespread metastases to the lungs, brain, subcutaneous left shoulder, liver, pancreas, and hepatorenal recess. A core biopsy was taken from the left breast lesion and the previous slides were reviewed; histopathology and immunohistochemistry were in keeping with metastasis from melanoma. The possibility of a metastatic lesion to the breast should be taken into account in any patient presenting with a breast lump and a previous history of melanoma. Breast involvement cannot be considered an isolated finding, as it might be the first manifestation of widespread disease.

  9. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's immune cells to attack the skin ... journal Pediatrics . The biggest increase was among adolescent girls, ages 15 to 19, according to the study ...

  10. Melanoma survivorship: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Susan A; Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Heneghan, Maureen K; McCabe, Mary S; Halpern, Allan C

    2007-03-01

    The rising incidence and mortality rates of melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, are among the greatest increases of all preventable cancers over the past decade. However, because of recent advances in early detection, secondary prevention efforts, and treatment, the number of melanoma survivors is increasing. Little research has been conducted on melanoma survivors and important opportunities exist for research in this understudied population. Here, we outline the important research opportunities related to the study of melanoma survivorship and summarize the paucity of literature currently available. A computerized literature search was performed of the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine from 1966-2005. The scope of the search was limited to those studies published in English. The search was conducted using the following MeSH headings: melanoma, neoplasms, skin neoplasms, survival, and survival rate. The reference lists of relevant book chapters and review articles were further reviewed, and printed materials from recent scientific meetings addressing this topic were obtained. Several factors that affect melanoma survivors warrant further study, including: physiologic long-term effects; psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors; demographic characteristics; surveillance practices; recurrences, secondary primaries, and other cancers; family members of survivors; and economic issues, access to health care/life insurance. Understanding recurrence and second primary cancer risk, psychosocial and cognitive characteristics, behaviors, surveillance patterns, economic sequelae, and family issues of melanoma survivors is important from a public health standpoint to promote the health and well-being of this cohort. Melanoma is an understudied cancer, and the incidence and mortality of this disease are increasing. Describing the long term burden of this cancer and identifying factors that contribute to them will facilitate efforts to develop

  11. Malignant melanoma as a model for cancer education and prevention. 1989 Harvey lecture American Association for Cancer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W A

    1990-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing and highly fatal cancers in the world today. Current estimates suggest that 1 in 90-100 Caucasians will develop MM by the year 2000, and 20%-30% will eventually die of the disease. The cause of the epidemic of malignant melanoma is clearly increasing exposure to the sun from lifestyle and clothing habits that have changed over the past 50 years. The disease occurs primarily in preexisting nevi in sun-exposed sites in specific high risk populations who can be, and have been, defined. These are primarily middle- and upper middle-class Caucasians with blue eyes, brown or blonde hair, and fair skin, with predominantly indoor occupations who spend, or have spent, considerable time outdoors in leisure and other activities. The presence of a clearly definable cause (exposure to the sun) in specific risk groups, the ease of early detection by simple means, and the devastating outcome of late diagnosis make malignant melanoma an ideal model for teaching the basic tenets of cancer causation, development, and prevention to the public and professionals alike.

  12. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Activation of Hallmark Pathways of Cancer in Patient Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Stephanie D; Larson, Signe K; Avaritt, Nathan L; Moreland, Linley E; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Cheung, Wang L; Tackett, Alan J

    2013-03-01

    Molecular pathways regulating melanoma initiation and progression are potential targets of therapeutic development for this aggressive cancer. Identification and molecular analysis of these pathways in patients has been primarily restricted to targeted studies on individual proteins. Here, we report the most comprehensive analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human melanoma tissues using quantitative proteomics. From 61 patient samples, we identified 171 proteins varying in abundance among benign nevi, primary melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. Seventy-three percent of these proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry staining of malignant melanoma tissues from the Human Protein Atlas database. Our results reveal that molecular pathways involved with tumor cell proliferation, motility, and apoptosis are mis-regulated in melanoma. These data provide the most comprehensive proteome resource on patient melanoma and reveal insight into the molecular mechanisms driving melanoma progression.

  13. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hollestein (Loes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in

  14. In vivo skin fluorescence imaging in young Caucasian adults with early malignant melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,2 Sébastien L Piérard,3 Lucas Dewalque,4 Corinne Charlier,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont,2 Philippe Delvenne2 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, 2Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, 3INTELSIG Laboratory, Montefiore Institute, University of Liège, 4Department of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological increase has been disclosed in young women. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of chronic sun exposures in order to rate the extend of melanocytic stimulations in the vicinity of CMM. Methods: The study was designed to evaluate the melanin distribution and density using ultraviolet light illumination. The present study was performed on surgical excision specimens of thin CMM lesion removed from the upper limbs of 55 Caucasian adults (37 women and 18 men. Two control groups comprised 23 men and 21 women of similar ages who had medium-size congenital melanocytic nevi, also present on the upper limbs. The peritumoral skin was scrutinized using a Visioscan® VC98 device, revealing the faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM pattern that grossly indicates early signs of chronic photodamage in epidermal melanin units. Results: The median extent of relative FMM was significantly higher in the CMM male group. By contrast, the CMM female group showed a reverse bimodal distribution in FMM size. Only 12/37 (32.5% of the CMM female group had an increased FMM size, whereas 25/37 (67.5% of females with CMM had a global FMM extent in the normal range, relative to the controls. Conclusion: Thin CMM supervening in young women appear unrelated to repeat

  15. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, B; Patel, M; Ethunandan, M; Ilankovan, V

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for 5% of all skin cancers. The risk of metastasis is related to the thickness of the tumour, and can affect local, regional and distant sites. Adrenal metastasis from melanoma of the head and neck is uncommon and often asymptomatic. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic melanoma is extremely rare and we are unaware of previous reports in the world literature. We report a case of a patient with metastatic melanoma presenting with signs and symptoms of Addison's disease.

  16. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  17. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes in estimating the risk of skin cancer: A case-control study in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2016-04-01

    Light skin pigmentation is a known risk factor for skin cancer. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes were evaluated in terms of their usefulness in predicting the risk of skin cancer. A case-control study involved 133 individuals with skin cancer (100 with basal cell carcinoma, 21 with squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with melanoma) and 156 healthy individuals. All of them had skin phototype determined and spectrophotometric skin color measurements were done on the inner surfaces of their arms and on the buttock. Using those data, prediction models were built and subjected to 17-fold stratified cross-validation. A model, based on skin phototypes, was characterized by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.576 and exhibited a lower predictive power than the models, which were mostly based on spectrophotometric variables describing pigmentation levels. The best predictors of skin cancer were R coordinate of RGB color space (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.687) and melanin index (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.683) for skin on the buttock. A small number of patients were studied. Models were not externally validated. Skin color parameters are more accurate predictors of skin cancer occurrence than skin phototypes. Spectrophotometry is a quick, easy, and affordable method offering relatively good predictive power. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, P A; Knudsen, L; Gniadecka, M

    2013-01-01

    and skin tumour diagnostics in vivo. We obtained Raman spectra in vivo from the normal skin of 55 healthy persons with different skin pigmentation (Fitzpatrick skin type I-VI) and in vivo from 25 basal cell carcinomas, 41 pigmented nevi and 15 malignant melanomas. Increased skin pigmentation resulted...

  19. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Melanoma risk: adolescent females' perspectives on skin protection pre/post-viewing a ultraviolet photoaged photograph of their own facial sun damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F

    2018-03-01

    Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  1. Controversial role of mast cells in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria R; Marone, Giancarlo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Borriello, Francesco; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumor initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment can promote tumor development. Mast cells, widely distributed throughout all tissues, are a stromal component of many solid and haematologic tumors. Mast cells can be found in human and mouse models of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous lymphomas, haemangiomas and Merkel cell carcinoma. However, human and animal studies addressing potential functions of mast cells and their mediators in skin cancers have provided conflicting results. In several studies, mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, whereas in others, they play an anti-tumorigenic role. Other studies have failed to demonstrate a clear role for tumor-associated mast cells. Many unanswered questions need to be addressed before we understand whether tumor-associated mast cells are adversaries, allies or simply innocent bystanders in different types and subtypes of skin cancers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  4. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (p trend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (p trend  baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  6. Communication about melanoma and risk reduction after melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Berwick, Marianne; Hay, Jennifer L

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening. Patients were, on average, 56 years old and 6.7 years' post diagnosis; 51% were male, 93% reported "fair/very fair" skin color, 75% completed at least some college, and 22% reported a family history of melanoma. Patients reported varying levels of regular (always/nearly always) sun protection: sunscreen use (79%), shade seeking (60%), hat use (54%), and long-sleeve shirt use (30%). Only 28% performed thorough SSE regularly, whereas 92% reported undergoing physician-led skin examinations within the past year. Participants who were female, younger, and had a higher perceived risk of future melanoma were more likely to report past communication. In adjusted analyses, communication remained uniquely associated with increased sunscreen use and SSE. Encouraging melanoma patients to have a more active role in discussions concerning melanoma risk and screening with relatives and physicians alike may be a useful strategy to promote 2 key risk-reduction practices post melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Future research is needed to identify additional strategies to improve comprehensive risk reduction in long-term melanoma patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  8. Use of tanning beds and incidence of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Qureshi, Abrar A; Geller, Alan C; Frazier, Lindsay; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2012-05-10

    We sought to evaluate the risk effect of tanning bed use on skin cancers among teenage and young adults. We also expected to determine whether a dose-response relationship was evident. We observed 73,494 female nurses for 20 years (from 1989 to 2009) in a large and well-characterized cohort in the United States and investigated whether frequency of tanning bed use during high school/college and at ages 25 to 35 years were associated with a risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. We used Cox proportional hazards models and carefully adjusted for host risk factors, ultraviolet index of residence, and sun exposure behaviors at a young age. During follow-up, 5,506 nurses were diagnosed with BCC, 403 with SCC, and 349 with melanoma. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of skin cancer for an incremental increase in use of tanning beds of four times per year during both periods was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.19; P tanning bed use at ages 25 to 35 years, we found a significantly higher risk of BCC for use during high school/college (multivariable-adjusted HR for use more than six times per year compared with no use was 1.73 during high school/college v 1.28 at ages 25 to 35 years; P for heterogeneity tanning bed use and the risk of skin cancers, especially BCC, and the association is stronger for patients with a younger age at exposure.

  9. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  10. Management of Skin Cancer in the High-Risk Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, James W; Sutton, Adam; Wysong, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common of human cancers and outnumbers all other types of cancer combined in the USA by over threefold. The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers are easily treated with surgery or locally destructive techniques performed under local anesthesia in the cost-effective outpatient setting. However, there is a subset of "high-risk" cases that prove challenging in terms of morbidity, mortality, adjuvant treatment required, as well as overall cost to the health care system. In our opinion, the term "high risk" when applied to skin cancer can mean one of three things: a high-risk tumor with aggressive histologic and/or clinical features with an elevated risk for local recurrence or regional/distant metastasis, a high-risk patient with the ongoing development of multiple skin cancers, and a high-risk patient based on immunosuppression. We have recently proposed classifying NMSC as a chronic disease in a certain subset of patients. Although no consensus definition exists for a chronic disease in medicine, there are three components that are present in most definitions: duration of at least 1 year, need for ongoing medical care, and functional impairment and/or alteration of activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL). Immunosuppression can refer to exogenous (organ or stem cell transplant patients,) or endogenous (HIV, leukemia, lymphoma, genodermatoses with DNA mismatch repair problems or other immunosuppression) causes. These patients are at risk for high-risk tumors and/or the development of multiple tumors.

  11. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient experiences and outcomes following facial skin cancer surgery: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Klassen, Anne F; Lawson, Jessica L; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-08-01

    Early melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer of the facial area are primarily treated with surgery. Little is known about the outcomes of treatment for facial skin cancer patients. The objective of the study was to identify concerns about aesthetics, procedures and health from the patients' perspective after facial skin surgery. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and develop themes. We identified five major themes on the impact of skin cancer surgery: appearance-related concerns; psychological (e.g., fear of new cancers or recurrence); social (e.g. impact on social activities and interaction); physical (e.g. pain and swelling) concerns and satisfaction with the experience of care (e.g., satisfaction with surgeon). The priority of participants was the removal of the facial skin cancer, as this reduced their overall worry. The aesthetic outcome was secondary but important, as it had important implications on the participants' social and psychological functioning. The participants' experience with the care provided by the surgeon and staff also contributed to their satisfaction with their treatment. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the development of a new patient-reported outcome instrument. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Medical students educate teens about skin cancer: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamell, Jeanette M; Rietkerk, William; Lam, Ken; Phillips, Jason M; Wu, Jashin J; McCullough, Jerry L; Linden, Kenneth G; Osann, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Skin cancer is a serious societal problem, and public awareness outreach, including to youth, is crucial. Medical students have joined forces to educate adolescents about skin cancer with significant impacts; even one 50-min interactive outreach session led to sustained changes in knowledge and behavior in a cohort of 1,200 adolescents surveyed. Medical students can act as a tremendous asset to health awareness public outreach efforts: enthusiastic volunteerism keeps education cost-effective, results in exponential spread of information, reinforces knowledge and communication skills of future physicians, and can result in tangible, life-saving benefits such as early detection of melanoma.

  15. Complex inheritance of melanoma and pigmentation of coat and skin in Grey horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    Full Text Available The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h(2, and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h(2 (POLY, heritability due to the Grey (STX17 mutation (h(2 (STX17, and heritability due to agouti (ASIP locus (h(2 (ASIP. A high heritability was found for greying (h(2 = 0.79, vitiligo (h(2 = 0.63, and speckling (h(2 = 0.66, while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h(2 = 0.37. The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h(2 (ASIP = 0.02. STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h(2 (STX17 = 0.18-0.55 and overall heritability (h(2 (STX17/h(2 = 0.28-0.83 for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the

  16. Reducing skin cancer risk: an intervention based on protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, B T; Prentice-Dunn, S

    2001-05-01

    Caucasian college students who intentionally tanned participated in a brief skin cancer intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT). This intervention targeted skin appearance and consisted of brief lectures, a comprehensive essay, video clips about a young man who died of melanoma, and short discussions. Compared to a waitlist control group, the intervention group showed increases on PMT variables and intentions at post-test. The waitlist group later received the intervention and showed similar increases. Additionally, all but one PMT variable maintained post-test levels at a one-month follow-up. Photographs taken at post-test and at the one-month follow-up were judged by raters blind to the hypothesis. Seventy-two percent of participants were judged to have lighter skin whereas only 16 percent had darker skin. These results provide additional support for theory-based methods for changing maladaptive attitudes and behaviors associated with skin cancer risk.

  17. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  18. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  19. Therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic agent metformin in targeting the skin cancer stem cell diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Anand; Powers, Matthew A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-05-01

    Type II diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of cancer including both melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that diabetic patients on metformin have a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality in a broad range of neoplasms. In both melanoma and SCC, populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumor initiation and metastasis. We propose that metformin constitutes a new class of targeted therapy that acts on the skin CSC diaspora. We posit that metformin selectively and simultaneously targets CSCs of the primary tumor as well as in metastatic niches thereby disrupting the dynamic dispersal of circulating CSCs between the primary tumor and metastatic site. This hypothesis suggests a new concept in dermato-oncology that treatment of type II diabetes and prevention of skin cancer are two sides of the same coin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  1. A simple intervention to reinforce awareness of tanning bed use and skin cancer in non-medical skin care professionals in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Angie T; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cockburn, Myles; Peng, David H

    2012-11-01

    (i) To assess the baseline knowledge of non-medical skin care professionals (estheticians, cosmetologists, massage therapists) on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma; and (ii) to provide preliminary evidence of the potential impact of a fast and simple educational intervention on tanning beds and melanoma on the awareness of non-medical skin care professionals towards skin cancer prevention. A pre-intervention survey was administered to non-medical skin care professional at salons or spas in Southern California to assess baseline knowledge on tanning and skin cancer. This was followed immediately by a 10-minute oral presentation on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma. One month later, a post-intervention survey was distributed to individuals who attended the initial oral presentation. Significant changes pre- and post-intervention were found in non-medical skin care professionals' answer responses to the following: (i) increased speaking to clients about cancer risk with tanning bed use 42-66% (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.39, 4.30)]; (ii) decreased personal tanning bed use (23-15% [OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.37, 1.00]); and (iii) decreased belief that tanning beds are an excellent cosmetic tool (29-20% [OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.38, 0.96]). This study provides preliminary evidence that non-medical skin care professionals could be an important source of primary prevention information for reducing the burden of melanoma. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Accuracy of Skin Cancer Diagnosis by Physician Assistants Compared With Dermatologists in a Large Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alyce M; Matsumoto, Martha; Saul, Melissa I; Secrest, Aaron M; Ferris, Laura K

    2018-05-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are increasingly used in dermatology practices to diagnose skin cancers, although, to date, their diagnostic accuracy compared with board-certified dermatologists has not been well studied. To compare diagnostic accuracy for skin cancer of PAs with that of dermatologists. Medical record review of 33 647 skin cancer screening examinations in 20 270 unique patients who underwent screening at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-affiliated dermatology offices from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code V76.43 and International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code Z12.83 were used to identify pathology reports from skin cancer screening examinations by dermatologists and PAs. Examination performed by a PA or dermatologist. Number needed to biopsy (NNB) to diagnose skin cancer (nonmelanoma, invasive melanoma, or in situ melanoma). Of 20 270 unique patients, 12 722 (62.8%) were female, mean (SD) age at the first visit was 52.7 (17.4) years, and 19 515 patients (96.3%) self-reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white. To diagnose 1 case of skin cancer, the NNB was 3.9 for PAs and 3.3 for dermatologists (P < .001). Per diagnosed melanoma, the NNB was 39.4 for PAs and 25.4 for dermatologists (P = .007). Patients screened by a PA were significantly less likely than those screened by a dermatologist to be diagnosed with melanoma in situ (1.1% vs 1.8% of visits, P = .02), but differences were not significant for invasive melanoma (0.7% vs 0.8% of visits, P = .83) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (6.1% vs 6.1% of visits, P = .98). Compared with dermatologists, PAs performed more skin biopsies per case of skin cancer diagnosed and diagnosed fewer melanomas in situ, suggesting that the diagnostic accuracy of PAs may be lower than that of dermatologists. Although the availability of PAs may help increase access to care and reduce

  3. Results of dermatoplastic operations in case of combined treatment of patients with skin melanomas using preoperational thermoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutskij, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Dermato-plastic operations are possible and justified following a wide resection of skin melanoma in combined treatment of patients using preoperational local thermoradiotherapy. It is shown that frequency of local postoperational complications in the main group of patients in case of plastics by free skin grafts depends on neoplasm localization. Further improvement of performing dermato-plastic operations and research of effective prophylaxis of local postoperational complications are necessary. 6 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway with special reference to the effect of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study deals with the epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin with special reference to the effect of solar radiation. It studies the time trends and geographical variations in incidence and mortality, and the marked differences in the topographic distribution of the tumors according to sex and age. The study indicates that the increasing exposure of the human skin to sunlight leads to a substantial rise in the incidence of a serious malignant disease

  5. The first skin cancer screening day at the Italian parliament: a Euromelanoma initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Mariano; Neri, Luca; Bianchi, Luca; Capizzi, Rodolfo; Carbone, Angelo; Catricalà, Caterina; Chimenti, Sergio; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Fossati, Barbara; Frascione, Pasquale; Peris, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The effort to decrease incidence/mortality of skin cancer should target not only the general public but also politicians and decision makers, to create a proper health policy. We report the results of the first Skin Cancer Screening Day at the Italian Parliament, organized to draw politicians' attention on skin cancer. A questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' characteristics and suspected skin cancers. We screened 70 members of parliament (61.4% males, median age 54 years). Overall skin cancer suspicion rate was 14.5%. Suspicion rate, detection rate, and positive predictive values for melanoma were respectively 1.6, 1.6, and 100%, and for basal cell carcinoma 6.5, 1.6, and 25%. Highly educated, parliament display sun-seeking behaviors similar to those previously described in the general public. Increasing politicians' attention on skin cancer is vital for sufficient resources to be allocated to prevention strategies. Expert medical groups and politicians should cooperate to create a proper, integrated policy on skin cancer. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2008-12-01

    Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society

  7. Associations Among Rotating Night Shift Work, Sleep, and Skin Cancer in Nurses’ Health Study II Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Feskanich, Diane; Culnan, Elizabeth; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Night shift work and sleep duration have been associated with breast and other cancers. Results from the few prior studies of night shift work and skin cancer risk have been mixed and not fully accounted for other potentially important health-related variables (e.g., sleep characteristics). This study evaluated the relationship between rotating night shift work and skin cancer risk and included additional skin cancer risk factors and sleep-related variables. Methods The current study used data from 74,323 Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) II participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for skin cancers across categories of shift work and sleep duration. Results Over 10 years of follow-up, 4308 BCC, 334 SCC and 212 melanoma cases were identified. Longer duration of rotating night shifts was associated with a linear decline in risk of BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.97 per 5-year increase). Shift work was not significantly associated with either melanoma (HR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.86-1.21) or SCC (HR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06). A short sleep duration (≤6 hours per day) was associated with lower risks of melanoma (HR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00) compared with the most common report of 7 hours. SCC was not associated with duration of sleep (HR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.83-1.06). Conclusions Longer duration of rotating night shift work and shorter sleep duration were associated with lower risk of some skin cancers. Further research is needed to confirm and identify the mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:27663986

  8. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC) are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high...

  10. The analysis of a case rate a skin melanoma in the Samara region for 1999-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In article one of oncology problems — a skin melanoma is surveyed. The theme urgency proves to be true that annually the case rate of patients with an oncologic pathology is constantly enlarged. One of oncology problems still has a skin melanoma. The work purpose is studying of a case rate by a skin melanoma in large industrial area on an example of the Samara region over the last 10 years. In article one of oncology problems — a skin melanoma is surveyed. For the task in view decision following materials and methods were used: primary registration documentation for 11 years (1999-2009 About for the first time taped disease a skin melanoma, annual reports of the Samara regional clinical oncologic dispensary, annual statistical reports of the State statistical committee, bureau MSE annual reports. At processing and the forecast of results of research following statistical methods — an extrapolation method, model of linear regress were used. Reliability of the taped pattern of dynamics was defined by means of an error of regress with the subsequent definition t and p. The received results testify to growth of a case rate of all population of the Samara region at the expense of the senior age groups. According to the analysis the invalid population is more often is ill. Conclusions are drawn on appreciable influence on occurrence of this pathology occurring in an organism involutes processes, necessity of carrying out of sanitary-educational work, carrying out of additional profound inspection among the population with high level of a case rate

  11. Changing Trends of Skin Cancer: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study in Malwa Region of Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sonal Tina; Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (phistory of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate use of pesticides is recommended.

  12. Studies of skin cancer and thyroid tumors after irradiation of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.; Moseson, M.; Hildreth, N.

    1992-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of children given medical X-irradiation to the head and neck are described, one of 2,650 infants who received x-ray treatment for enlarged thymus glands and the other of 2,200 children who received x-ray treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). The thymus study showed a dose-related excess of thyroid cancer and a long period of excess risk. The tinea study also showed an excess of thyroid tumors even though the thyroid dose was only about 0.06 Gy. An excess of non-melanotic skin cancers has also occurred in the tinea study, but no evidence for excess malignant melanomas. The skin cancer excess is not evident among blacks in the study, and, among Caucasians, it is more prominent among those with a light complexion. This suggests that host-susceptibility to ultraviolet effects is an important modifier of skin cancer risk from ionizing irradiation. (author)

  13. What Do Germans Want to Know About Skin Cancer? A Nationwide Google Search Analysis From 2013 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Stefanie; Schuster, Barbara; Rüth, Melvin; Biedermann, Tilo; Zink, Alexander

    2018-05-02

    Experts worldwide agree that skin cancer is a global health issue, but only a few studies have reported on world populations' interest in skin cancer. Internet search data can reflect the interest of a population in different topics and thereby identify what the population wants to know. Our aim was to assess the interest of the German population in nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma. Google AdWords Keyword Planner was used to identify search terms related to nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma in Germany from November 2013 to October 2017. The identified search terms were assessed descriptively using SPSS version 24.0. In addition, the search terms were qualitatively categorized. A total of 646 skin cancer-related search terms were identified with 19,849,230 Google searches in the period under review. The search terms with the highest search volume were "skin cancer" (n=2,388,500, 12.03%), "white skin cancer" (n=2,056,900, 10.36%), "basalioma" (n=907,000, 4.57%), and "melanoma" (n=717,800, 3.62%). The most searched localizations of nonmelanoma skin cancer were "nose" (n=93,370, 38.99%) and "face" (n=53,270, 22.24%), and the most searched of melanoma were "nails" (n=46,270, 70.61%) and "eye" (n=10,480, 15.99%). The skin cancer‒related category with the highest search volume was "forms of skin cancer" (n=10,162,540, 23.28%) followed by "skin alterations" (n=4,962,020, 11.36%). Our study provides insight into terms and fields of interest related to skin cancer relevant to the German population. Furthermore, temporal trends and courses are shown. This information could aid in the development and implementation of effective and sustainable awareness campaigns by developing information sources targeted to the population's broad interest or by implementing new Internet campaigns. ©Stefanie Seidl, Barbara Schuster, Melvin Rüth, Tilo Biedermann, Alexander Zink. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.05.2018.

  14. Increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunications industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, L; Theriault, G; Iturra, H; Provencher, S; Cyr, D; Case, B W

    1988-12-01

    In 1982 physicians at a hospital melanoma clinic in Montreal noticed that among their patients there had been seven men working in a single telecommunications company. This raised suspicions that working in that industry might be associated with development of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS). A preliminary gross comparison with general population rates indicated that there was an increased risk in this working group. To estimate the risk of MMS more accurately, a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on the rates of MMS in the local population of the Greater Metropolitan Montreal Area for the years 1976-83. During that period, among workers in all plants for the company, 10 male cases of MMS were observed for an expected number of 3.7 (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.31-5.02). No cases were observed among female workers (expected = 1.3). The excess was significant among cases with a short latency (less than 20 years since beginning of employment). There was no apparent pattern of exposure based on job titles or departments.

  15. Conditional Melanoma Cancer Survival in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond relative survival, which indicates the likelihood that patients will not die from causes associated with their cancer, conditional relative survival probabilities provide further useful prognostic information to cancer patients, tailored to the time already survived from diagnosis. This study presents conditional relative survival for melanoma patients in the United States, diagnosed during 2000–2008 and followed through 2012. Analyses are based on 62,803 male and 50,261 female cases in population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute. Five-year relative survival estimates are presented for melanoma patients who have already survived one, two, three, four, or five years after the initial diagnosis. Five- and ten-year relative survival decreases with age, stage at diagnosis, and is lower among males, Blacks, and Hispanics. Five-year conditional relative survival improves with each year already survived. The potential for improvement in five-year conditional relative survival is greatest for older age, males, Blacks, Hispanics, and in later staged cases. For local disease, five-year conditional relative survival was significantly lower in ages greater than 65 years and in Blacks. It was significantly higher in females, non-Hispanics, and married individuals. Age had a greater inverse relationship with five-year survival in later staged disease. A similar result occurred for females and married individuals. In contrast, non-Hispanics had better five-year survival if diagnosed with local or regional disease, but not distant disease.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Appearance-focused Intervention to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268

  17. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation an...

  18. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  19. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  20. Need for a new skin cancer management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Reijers, H.A.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Vries, de H.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of skin cancer (especially nonmelanoma skin cancer) has increased markedly during the last decades. Skin cancer should be considered a chronic disease. To manage the future costs and quality of care for patients with skin cancer, a revised health strategy is needed. These new

  1. Trends in the incidence of malignant melanoma in Denmark 1978-2007. Incidence on the island of Bornholm compared with the whole country incidence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Klit, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, malignant melanoma is among the most rapidly increasing cancer types. Malignant melanoma accounts for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Sunshine is the main cause of the increase seen in melanoma incidence. Within Denmark, Bornholm is the area that receives most sunshine....... It is therefore relevant to compare incidence data between Denmark and Bornholm....

  2. Is there just one lesion? The need for whole body skin examination in patients presenting with non-melanocytic skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Patricia Jane; Fairbanks, Sian; Bailey, Michael

    2009-10-01

    In patients presenting with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) the frequency of concurrently presenting tumours is poorly documented. Whole body skin examination is recommended but in a recent survey of Australian General Practitioners and skin cancer clinics doctors it was infrequently performed. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of concurrent skin cancer at initial presentation and therefore to examine the need for whole body skin examination for NMSC presentations. One hundred consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis indicative of NMSC were examined. Data was analysed as to the referring doctor's diagnosis, whole body skin examination findings and histology of excised lesions. Epidemiological data was obtained by patient questionnaire. One hundred patients, 41 males and 59 females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 39-91 years) underwent whole body skin examination. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were found to have additional lesions requiring treatment, 46% sin cancers (30 patients basal cell carcinomas, five squamous cell carcinomas, seven basal and squamous cell carcinomas, two lentigo maligna, two adenexal tumours) and 21% solar keratoses. Thirty-four of the additional lesions detected were in areas covered by clothing. Sixty-eight patients had a past history of skin cancer excision. In the Australian patient population, the need for whole body skin examination is essential to avoid missing concurrent lesions. Ongoing surveillance is also essential as these patients have a high risk of developing future NMSC.

  3. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents...... treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance....

  4. Development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free muscle flap: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabek, Robert J; Baletic, Nemanja; McUmber, Harrison; Nahed, Brian; Haynes, Alex; Eberlin, Kyle R; Bojovic, Branko

    2018-01-01

    The development of a primary melanoma within the confines of free tissue transfer is a rare occurrence. In this report, we describe the development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap used to cover a scalp defect.

  5. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer in the German Population: Impact of Socioeconomic and Geographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, J; Kis, A; Sorbe, C; Schäfer, I; Augustin, M

    2018-04-06

    Skin cancer being the most common cancer in Germany has shown increasing incidence in the past decade. Since mostly caused by excessive UV exposure, skin cancer is largely related to behaviour. So far, the impact of regional and sociodemographic factors on the development of skin cancer in Germany is unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the association of potential predictive factors with the prevalence of skin cancers in Germany. Nationwide ambulatory care claims data from persons insured in statutory health insurances (SHI) with malignant melanoma (MM, ICD-10 C43) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, ICD-10 C44) in the years 2009-2015 were analysed. In addition, sociodemographic population data and satellite based UV and solar radiation data were associated. Descriptive as well as multivariate (spatial) statistical analyses (for example Bayes' Smoothing) were conducted on county level. Data from 70.1 million insured persons were analysed. Age standardized prevalences per 100,000 SHI insured persons for MM and NMSC were 284.7 and 1126.9 in 2009 and 378.5 and 1708.2 in 2015. Marked regional variations were observed with prevalences between 32.9% and 51.6%. Multivariate analysis show statistically significant positive correlations between higher income and education, and MM/NMSC prevalence. Prevalence of MM and NMSC in Germany shows spatio-temporal dynamics. Our results show that regional UV radiation, sunshine hours and sociodemographic factors have significant impact on skin cancer prevalence in Germany. Individual behaviour obviously is a major determinant which should be subject to preventive interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic effect of aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines were activated with a 672nm wavelength laser to investigate the photodynamic effects on melanoma cancer, dermal fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cells. Aluminium tetrasulfophthalocyanine was more...

  7. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria | Oseni | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 ... Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower ... Conclusion: skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country.

  8. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  9. Risks for skin and other cancers up to 25 years after burn injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Gridley, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant degeneration of chronic ulcers such as nonhealed burn wounds has been described in the literature, but this phenomenon has never been quantified in an epidemiologic study. We investigated the risks for skin and other cancers among patients with a prior burn. METHODS: We...... with that in the general population of Denmark. RESULTS: Patients with burn had 139 skin cancers, with 189 expected, yielding a standardized incidence ratio of 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-0.9). This reduced risk was due mainly to deficits of basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, whereas the number...... of squamous cell carcinomas observed was close to expected. We saw no consistent increases in risk for skin cancer in the subgroups of patients with the most severe injuries or with the longest periods of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The tendency to malignant degeneration of burn scars, described in previous...

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Its Impact on Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Maguire-Eisen, Maryellen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review research and evidence-based resources on skin cancer prevention and early detection and their importance for oncology nurses. Data Sources Journal articles, federal reports, cancer surveillance data, behavioral surveillance data. Conclusion Most cases of skin cancer are preventable. Survivors of many types of cancer are at increased risk of skin cancers. Implications for Nursing Practice Oncology nurses can play an important role in protecting their patients from future skin cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:27539279

  11. Skin cancer margin analysis within minutes with full-field OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Ogrich, Lauren; Morales, Diego; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Abdelmalek, Mark; Boccara, Claude; Durkin, John

    2017-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the skin cancer. Traditional excision involves the removal of the visible skin cancer with a significant margin of normal skin. On cosmetically sensitive areas, Mohs micrographic tissue is the standard of care. Mohs uses intraoperative microscopic margin assessment which minimizes the surgical defect and can help reduce the recurrence rate by a factor of 3. The current Mohs technique relies on frozen section tissue slide preparation which significantly lengthens operative time and requires on-site trained histotechnicians. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) is a novel optical imaging technique which provides a quick and efficient method to visualize cancerous areas in minutes, without any preparation or destruction of the tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of FFOCT for the analysis of skin cancer margins during Mohs surgery. Over 150 images of Mohs specimens were acquired intraoperatively with FFOCT before frozen section analysis. The imaging procedure took less than 5 minutes for each specimen. No artifacts on histological preparation were found arising from FFOCT manipulation; however frozen section artifact was readily seen on FFOCT. An atlas was established with FFOCT images and corresponding histological slides to reveal FFOCT reading criteria of normal and cancerous structures. Blind analysis showed high concordance between FFOCT and histology. FFOCT can potentially reduce recurrence rates while maintaining short surgery times, optimize clinical workflow, and decrease healthcare costs. For the patient, this translates into smaller infection risk, decreased stress, and better comfort.

  12. Malignant melanoma of the skin among workers in a telecommunications industry: mortality study 1976-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, L; Cyr, D; Thériault, G; Provencher, S; Iturra, H; Case, B W

    1992-10-01

    An incidence study of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS), conducted previously among the workers of four plants of a large telecommunications industry located in Montreal, Canada, showed a standardised incidence ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-5.02) for the years 1976 to 1983. To describe more precisely the magnitude of the problem a mortality study was started among the same population (n = 9590) for the same period (1976-83). At the end of 1983, 9180 workers were alive, 261 were dead, and 149 (1.5%) were not traced. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes of death were surprisingly low for men (SMR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.50-0.64) and women (SMR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.82). The SMRs for major causes of death were also less than expected. These results may be explained by a pronounced selection bias (healthy worker effect) and by the short duration of follow up (eight years). For MMS, two deaths occurred among men (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI 0.24-7.22) and one among women (SMR = 4.81; 95% CI 0.12-26.78). A third man who died of MMS was miscoded as having a primary pulmonary melanoma. Including this case increased the SMR for MMS to 3.00 (95% CI 0.62-8.77; p = 0.08). Polyvinyl chloride and polychlorinated biphenyls were used in the plants and some of the workers did soldering. A planned case-control study will investigate other possible exposures at work.

  13. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.

  14. Peculiarities of clinical course of children skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated the peculiarities of clinical course of children skin cancer. They noted that comprehensive studying of peculiarities of clinical course of children skin cancer proved that they depend not only from age, but from morphologic structure, previous skin illness which was cause of skin cancer

  15. Pediatric melanoma: incidence, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyed FK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Faiez K Saiyed,1 Emma C Hamilton,1 Mary T Austin,1,2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGovern Medical School, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to outline recent advancements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric melanoma. Despite the recent decline in incidence, it continues to be the deadliest form of skin cancer in children and adolescents. Pediatric melanoma presents differently from adult melanoma; thus, the traditional asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, diameter >6 mm, and evolution (ABCDE criteria have been modified to include features unique to pediatric melanoma (amelanotic, bleeding/bump, color uniformity, de novo/any diameter, evolution of mole. Surgical and medical management of pediatric melanoma continues to derive guidelines from adult melanoma treatment. However, more drug trials are being conducted to determine the specific impact of drug combinations on pediatric patients. Alongside medical and surgical treatment, prevention is a central component of battling the incidence, as ultraviolet (UV-related mutations play a central role in the vast majority of pediatric melanoma cases. Aggressive prevention measures targeting sun safety and tanning bed usage have shown positive sun-safety behavior trends, as well as the potential to decrease melanomas that manifest later in life. As research into the field of pediatric melanoma continues to expand, a prevention paradigm needs to continue on a community-wide level. Keywords: melanoma, pediatric, adolescent, childhood

  16. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  17. Melanoma genetics and the development of rational therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Khavari, Paul A; Adams, Amy E

    2005-04-01

    Melanoma is a cancer of the neural crest-derived cells that provide pigmentation to skin and other tissues. Over the past 4 decades, the incidence of melanoma has increased more rapidly than that of any other malignancy in the United States. No current treatments substantially enhance patient survival once metastasis has occurred. This review focuses on recent insights into melanoma genetics and new therapeutic approaches being developed based on these advances.

  18. Genetic variants in FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and skin cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Hongmei; Qureshi, Abrar A; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) play an important role in tumorigenesis. Deregulation of the FGFR2 gene has been identified in a number of cancer sites. Overexpression of the FGFR4 protein has been linked to cutaneous melanoma progression. Previous studies reported associations between genetic variants in the FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and development of various cancers. We evaluated the associations of four genetic variants in the FGFR2 gene highly related to breast cancer risk and the three common tag-SNPs in the FGFR4 gene with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 controls. We found no evidence for associations between these seven genetic variants and the risks of melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Given the power of this study, we did not detect any contribution of genetic variants in the FGFR2 or FGFR4 genes to inherited predisposition to skin cancer among Caucasian women

  19. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction

  20. The Demographics of Patients with Skin Cancer who Underwent Surgery in Diyarbakır and Performed Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Özalp

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The major factor for developing malignant skin cancers is sunlight exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the demographics of patients with skin cancers who underwent surgery in Diyarbakır where the population is exposed to more sunlight than most other Turkish cities. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for malignant skin cancer excision between 2011 and 2016 were searched using University Hospital’s patient database program. Data about patients’ demographics, cancer features, and the surgical techniques performed were collected. Results: Over a 5-year period, 190 patients underwent surgical excision. The male to female ratio was 1.56, and the mean age was 65.8 ± 15.7 (range, 20-94 years. The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (n=138, 72.7%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=45, 23.7% and malignant melanoma (n=5, 2.6%. The most common surgery was primary excision, which was performed in 90 of 190 patients (47.36%; tissue reconstruction with a skin graft or flap surgery was required for the remaining 100 (52.63%, showing a significant difference (p<0.001. Conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, and less than half of the patients sought treatment immediately after they recognized the lesion. The public should be educated about skin cancers to increase early diagnosis and encourage timely treatment, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer.

  1. Sun protection practices among offspring of women with personal or family history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2006-04-01

    Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463

  2. The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This survey highlights the need for mandatory regulations on the prevention, management and potential compensation of work-related UV-induced skin cancer across Europe. Against the background of a joint European domestic market, equal standards of occupational safety across Europe should include......: Ten of 11 participating countries in this survey reported the existence of an established programme available on certain occupational diseases; work-related skin diseases were only specifically recognized in eight countries. Seven of 11 countries recognize cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in outdoor...... workers as 'occupational skin cancer'. Basal cell carcinoma (6 of 11), actinic keratosis (5 of 11), Bowen's disease (5 of 11) and malignant melanoma (5 of 11) are not as regularly approved as potentially 'work-induced'. Only a few of the countries included into this survey established a general...

  3. Label-free, multi-contrast optical coherence tomography for study of skin melanoma mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pei-Yu; Lin, Tim-Han; Chou, Ya-Shuan; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer such as melanoma. Due to the limitations of current developed imaging techniques, visualization of lymphatic vessels within the tissue in vivo has been challenging. Optical imaging of lymphatic vessel is gaining increased interests because it does not involve any radiation and can achieve very high resolution. Here, we developed a multi-contrast, label-free optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology with an axial resolution of 5 μm and lateral resolution of 7 μm, which is capable of providing microstructural information and microcirculatory system including blood and lymphatic vessels simultaneously. Using this technique, we observed the melanoma mice in vivo. Mice were treated topically on the ear with (Z)-4- Hydroxytamoxifen(4-OHT) to elicit BRAFV600E and to silence Pten expression. Also, to observing the structural information, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the ear of the induced melanoma mouse can be done. The advantage of using OCT over other imaging modalities is its ability to assess label-free blood flow along with lymphatic vessels simultaneously for imaging the microcirculatory system within tissue beds without any exogenous agents. Because the metastasis of melanoma is highly related to the lymphatic vessels, our findings can be a powerful tool to help the diagnosis of the metastasis melanoma. In the future, this may become a helpful tool for better understanding pathologic mechanisms and treatment technique development in some diseases.

  4. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  5. Pigmentary Markers in Danes--Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*, or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14 had significantly (p<0.001 lighter skin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average were darker than that of males (p<0.01. We conclude that MC1R variants are associated with quantitative skin colour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related to the genetics of the pigmentary pathway.

  6. [Cutaneous melanoma - "black death" of modern times? Traces in contemporary literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous melanoma, sometimes labeled as "black skin cancer", is increasing in frequency and becoming a more common literary motive. In US literature, Sylvia Plath and Charles Bukowski depicted melanoma more than 50 years ago, later Stephen King and Thomas C. Boyle. In German literature, Charlotte Roche shortly mentioned this tumor. Jörg Pönnighaus, both poet and dermatologist, intensively deals in his poems with the effects melanoma has on patients and doctors alike. Melanoma definitely is not the "Black Death" of modern times. However, the perception of this tumor as extremely malignant and as life-threatening makes melanoma a metaphor of the deadly danger of cancer.

  7. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  8. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprono, Samson Kimaiyo; Chaula, Baraka Michael; Beltraminelli, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  9. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  10. Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity Email ... E – Evolving (changing in any way) How is Skin Cancer Diagnosed? Diagnosis starts with you asking your ...

  11. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  12. Modeling of skin cancer dermatoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iralieva, Malica B.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2018-04-01

    An early identified cancer is more likely to effective respond to treatment and has a less expensive treatment as well. Dermatoscopy is one of general diagnostic techniques for skin cancer early detection that allows us in vivo evaluation of colors and microstructures on skin lesions. Digital phantoms with known properties are required during new instrument developing to compare sample's features with data from the instrument. An algorithm for image modeling of skin cancer is proposed in the paper. Steps of the algorithm include setting shape, texture generation, adding texture and normal skin background setting. The Gaussian represents the shape, and then the texture generation based on a fractal noise algorithm is responsible for spatial chromophores distributions, while the colormap applied to the values corresponds to spectral properties. Finally, a normal skin image simulated by mixed Monte Carlo method using a special online tool is added as a background. Varying of Asymmetry, Borders, Colors and Diameter settings is shown to be fully matched to the ABCD clinical recognition algorithm. The asymmetry is specified by setting different standard deviation values of Gaussian in different parts of image. The noise amplitude is increased to set the irregular borders score. Standard deviation is changed to determine size of the lesion. Colors are set by colormap changing. The algorithm for simulating different structural elements is required to match with others recognition algorithms.

  13. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...

  14. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometry and Imaging in Melanomas: Comparison between Pigmented and Nonpigmented Human Malignant Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Godechal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for a long time that the melanin pigments present in normal skin, hair, and most of malignant melanomas can be detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. In this study, we used EPR imaging as a tool to map the concentration of melanin inside ex vivo human pigmented and nonpigmented melanomas and correlated this cartography with anatomopathology. We obtained accurate mappings of the melanin inside pigmented human melanoma samples. The signal intensity observed on the EPR images correlated with the concentration of melanin within the tumors, visible on the histologic sections. In contrast, no EPR signal coming from melanin was observed from nonpigmented melanomas, therefore demonstrating the absence of EPR-detectable pigments inside these particular cases of skin cancer and the importance of pigmentation for further EPR imaging studies on melanoma.

  16. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  17. Anti-hypertensive drugs and skin cancer risk: a review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Spadola, Giuseppe; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Cocorocchio, Emilia; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Miligi, Lucia; Masala, Giovanna; Caini, Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Several anti-hypertensive drugs have photosensitizing properties, however it remains unclear whether long-term users of these drugs are also at increased risk of skin malignancies. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis on the association between use of anti-hypertensive drugs and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, and included observational and experimental epidemiological studies published until February 28th, 2017. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) through random effect models to estimate the risk of skin malignancies among users of the following classes of anti-hypertensive drugs: thiazide diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), calcium channel blockers (CCB) and β-blockers. We conducted sub-group and sensitivity analysis to explore causes of between-studies heterogeneity, and assessed publication bias using a funnel-plot based approach. Nineteen independent studies were included in the meta-analysis. CCB users were at increased skin cancer risk (SRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and β-blockers users were at increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma (SRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05-1.40), with acceptable between-studies heterogeneity (I 2  skin cancer risk. We found no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. Family doctors and clinicians should inform their patients about the increased risk of skin cancer associated with the use of CCB and β-blockers and instruct them to perform periodic skin self-examination. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the observed associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated c-Src and c-Yes expression in malignant skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Src family kinases (SFKs play an important role in cancer proliferation, survival, motility, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Among the SFKs, c-Src and c-Yes are particularly over-expressed or hyper-activated in many human epithelial cancers. However, only a few studies have attempted to define the expression and role of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas. Objectives To investigate the expression of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas to include malignant melanoma (MM, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Methods We examined 6 normal skin tissues and 18 malignant skin tumor tissues using western blotting for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes. In another set, 16 specimens of MM, 16 SCCs and 16 BCCs were analyzed for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes using immunohistochemical staining. Results Western blotting showed that c-Src was expressed in all malignant skin tumors, but not in normal skin, while c-Yes was expressed in MM and SCC, but not in BCC and normal skin. Immunohistochemical staining results of c-Src and c-Yes in MM, SCC, and BCC mirrored those of the western blot analysis. Conclusions c-Src, rather than c-Yes, plays a key role in the proliferation and progression of malignant skin cancers.

  20. SOLAR RADIATION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CUTANEOUS MELANOMA: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pesce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a particularly aggressive type of skin cancer, and its incidence has been increasing steadily since the 1970s. In this article we have reviewed the main risk factors for this disease in particular: sun exposure, the use of tanning beds or sunlamps and skin phototype. We also mention the importance of primary prevention in subjects at risk to reduce the onset of cutaneous melanoma.

  1. Pigmentary Markers in Danes – Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård

    2016-01-01

    pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average......To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis) contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical...... variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*), or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14) had significantly (pskin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive...

  2. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin

    OpenAIRE

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A.; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylacti...

  3. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  4. The Air Liquid-interface, a Skin Microenvironment, Promotes Growth of Melanoma Cells, but not Their Apoptosis and Invasion, through Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Yee, Chong; Aoki, Shigehisa; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Yamasaki, Fumio; Misago, Noriyuki; Piao, Meihua; Tetsuji, Uemura; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    The air-liquid interface (ALI) is a common microenvironment of the skin, but it is unknown whether the ALI affects melanoma cell behaviors. Using a collagen gel invasion assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blots, here we show that melanoma cell proliferation in cultures with an ALI is higher than melanoma cell proliferation in submerged cultures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake, an indicator of cell proliferation, of melanoma cells at the ALI was about 3 times that of submerged cells, while ALI and submerged melanoma cells had similar levels of single-stranded DNA (a marker of apoptosis). The ALI enhanced the expression of Raf-1, MEK-1 and pERK-1/2 components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, in cells more than the submerged condition did. The increases in BrdU uptake and pERK-1/2 expression promoted by ALI was abolished by the MEK inhibitor, PD-98059. ALI-treated and submerged melanoma cells did not infiltrate into the collagen gel, and they showed no significant difference in the expression of the invasion- and motility-related molecules, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9, laminin 5, and filamin A. Our data indicate that the ALI, a skin microenvironment, accelerates the growth, but not the apoptosis or invasion, of melanoma cells through MAPK activation

  5. Synthetic analysis of associations between IL-10 polymorphisms and skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Yang, Jiaoli; Yu, Zhenzhen; Shen, Hui; Huang, Xinlin; Zhang, Mi; Long, Teng; Cailing, A; Wang, Wenhui

    2018-01-23

    The current study was designed to quantitatively summarize the evidence for the strength of the associations between common IL-10 functional polymorphisms and skin cancer risk. Relevant publications concerning the associations between common IL-10 functional polymorphisms(-1082G>A, -819C>T and -592C>A) and skin cancer were retrieved by a comprehensive electronic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were utilized to assess the strength of the relationship. A total of 26 studies including 4090 cases and 4133 controls (-1082G>A, 10 studies with 1809 cases and 1830 controls; -819C>T, 7 studies with 862 cases and 957 controls; -592C>A, 9 studies with 1419 cases and 1346 controls) were enrolled in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results revealed a borderline decreased risk of skin cancer in heterozygote model (OR = 0.82, 95CI = 0.67-1.00, p = 0.05). The subgroup analysis also presented similar association for non-melanoma skin cancer in heterozygote model (OR = 0.67, 95CI = 0.50-0.91, p = 0.01). Moreover, the further analysis based on the histological type of non-melanoma skin cancer indicated a significantly decreased risk of BCC in allele model (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.91, p = 0.02) and dominant model (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.98, p = 0.04). However, neither overall analysis nor subgroup analysis based on cancer subtype revealed a significant association of -1082G>A or -592C>A polymorphisms with skin cancer. The present study suggested a potential association between IL-10 -819C>T polymorphism and decreased risk of skin cancer, but a lack of association for -1082G>A and -592C>A polymorphisms. Further invalidation is urgently needed.

  6. History of Severe Sunburn and Risk of Skin Cancer Among Women and Men in 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Weinstock, Martin A; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between sunburn and risk of different skin cancers (melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC)) in prospective studies simultaneously, and little is known about the association of severe sunburns at different body sites with skin cancer risk. We used data on 87,166 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1982-2010) and 32,959 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992-2010) to investigate skin cancer risk associated with history of severe sunburns at different body sites (face/arms, trunk, and lower limbs). After adjustment for other risk factors, overall baseline history of severe sunburn was more apparently associated with risk of melanoma than with risk of SCC and BCC in men (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32, 4.41) for melanoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.03) for SCC, and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32) for BCC) but not in women. Sunburn on the trunk appeared to be more closely associated with melanoma risk, but not risk of SCC and BCC, when compared with sunburns at other body sites (face/arms and lower limbs). These differences were more apparent in men than in women. Pending further investigation, our findings add novel insights to the existing literature on sunburn history and skin cancer risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Characterization of long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA signatures in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles in primary melanomas, metastatic melanomas and normal skin samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We used GSE15605 as the training set (n = 74 and GSE7553 as the validation set (n = 58. In three comparisons (primary melanoma versus normal skin, metastatic melanoma versus normal skin, and metastatic melanoma versus primary melanoma, 178, 295 and 48 lncRNAs and 847, 1758, and 295 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed, respectively. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to examine the differentially expressed mRNAs, and potential core lncRNAs were predicted by lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks. Based on our results, 15 lncRNAs and 144 mRNAs were significantly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. A subsequent analysis suggested a critical role for a five-lncRNA signature during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. Low expression of U47924.27 was significantly associated with decreased survival of patients with melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis by re-annotating microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO microarray dataset. These findings reveal potential roles for lncRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and provide a rich candidate

  8. Associations among rotating night shift work, sleep and skin cancer in Nurses' Health Study II participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Feskanich, Diane; Culnan, Elizabeth; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2017-03-01

    Night shift work and sleep duration have been associated with breast and other cancers. Results from the few prior studies of night shift work and skin cancer risk have been mixed and not fully accounted for other potentially important health-related variables (eg, sleep characteristics). This study evaluated the relationship between rotating night shift work and skin cancer risk and included additional skin cancer risk factors and sleep-related variables. The current study used data from 74 323 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for skin cancers across categories of shift work and sleep duration. Over 10 years of follow-up, 4308 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 334 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 212 melanoma cases were identified. Longer duration of rotating night shifts was associated with a linear decline in risk of BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97 per 5-year increase). Shift work was not significantly associated with either melanoma (HR=1.02, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.21) or SCC (HR=0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06). A short sleep duration (≤6 hours per day) was associated with lower risks of melanoma (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.98) and BCC (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.00) compared with the most common report of 7 hours. SCC was not associated with duration of sleep (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). Longer duration of rotating night shift work and shorter sleep duration were associated with lower risk of some skin cancers. Further research is needed to confirm and identify the mechanisms underlying these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  10. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC

  11. Skin cancer associated with commonly prescribed drugs: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and statins -weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Beatrice; Orrell, Kelsey A; Vakharia, Paras P; West, Dennis P

    2018-02-01

    Skin cancers, including both malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the US. The incidence of both MM and NMSC continues to rise. Areas covered: Current evidence for an association between four of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the U.S. and risk for MM and NMSC is reported. Medline was searched (January 2000 to May 2017) for each drug in the classes and for 'basal cell carcinoma', 'squamous cell carcinoma', 'non-melanoma skin cancer', 'skin cancer' and 'melanoma'. Skin cancer risk information was reported for: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors (statins). Expert opinion: Since skin cancer risk is associated with all four classes of these commonly prescribed drugs that represent nearly 20% of the Top 100 drugs in the U.S., these important findings warrant enhanced education, especially for prescribers and those patients at high risk for skin cancer.

  12. Genetic testing for hereditary melanoma and pancreatic cancer: a longitudinal study of psychological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Taber, Jennifer M; Leaf, Samantha L; Kohlmann, Wendy; Leachman, Sancy A

    2013-02-01

    CDKN2A/p16 mutations confer 76% lifetime risk of melanoma and up to 17% lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer. Our objective was to determine the short- and long-term impact of CDKN2A/p16 genetic counseling and test reporting on psychological distress, cancer worry, and perceived costs and benefits of testing. Prospective changes in anxiety, depression, and cancer worry following CDKN2A/p16 counseling and test reporting were evaluated at multiple assessments over 2 years among 60 adult members of melanoma-prone families; 37 participants completed the 2-year follow-up. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of the costs and benefits of testing were carried out. Outcomes were evaluated among unaffected noncarriers (n = 27), unaffected carriers (n = 15), and affected carriers (n = 18). Reported anxiety and depression were low. For carriers and noncarriers, anxiety decreased significantly throughout the 2-year period, whereas depression and melanoma worry showed short-term decreases. Worry about pancreatic cancer was low and decreased significantly. In all groups, test-related distress and uncertainty were low, regret was absent, and positive experiences were high. All participants (>93% at each assessment) reported at least one perceived benefit of genetic testing; only 15.9% listed any negative aspect. Carriers reported increased knowledge about melanoma risk and prevention (78.3%) and increased prevention and screening behaviors for self and family (65.2%). Noncarriers reported increased knowledge (95.2%) and emotional benefits (71.4%). Among US participants familiar with their hereditary melanoma risk through prior epidemiological research participation, CDKN2A/p16 genetic testing provides multiple perceived benefits to both carriers and noncarriers without inducing distress in general or worry about melanoma or pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma. 76. VOL 48, NO. 3, AUGUST 2010 SAJS. Acral lentiginous melanomas develop on palmar, plantar and subungual ... the mucous membranes of the face or anus and therefore not ..... inguinale veldefekte na radikale limfadenektomie.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  15. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral center between 08/01/2004 and 08/31/2009. Analyzed variables were: gender, age, skin phototype, occupational and recreational sun exposure, use of photoprotection, personal and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer, clinical type and location, time between transplantation and the appearance of the first nonmelanoma skin cancer, occurrence of viral warts, timing of transplantation, type of donor, cause of kidney failure, previous transplants, comorbidities, pre-transplant dialysis, type and duration of dialysis. RESULTS 64 subjects were included. Males - 71.9%; low skin phototypes (up to Fitzpatrick III) - 89%; mean age - 57.0 years - and mean age at transplant - 47.3 years; sun exposure - 67.2% occupational - and 64.1% recreational; photoprotection - 78.2% (although only 34.4% in a regular manner); squamous cell carcinoma - 67.2%; squamous cell carcinoma/basal cell carcinoma ratio - 2:1; personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer - 25% - and family history - 10.9%; location at photoexposed area - 98.4%; average latency time between transplantation and first nonmelanoma skin cancer appearance - 78.3 months; viral warts (HPV) after transplant - 53.1%; average timing of transplantation - 115.5 months; living donor - 64.1%; triple regimen (antirejection) - 73.2%; comorbidities - 92.2%; pre-transplant dialysis - 98.4%; hemodialysis - 71.7%; average duration of dialysis - 39.1 months; previous transplants - 3.1%; hypertension as cause of renal failure - 46.9%. CONCLUSION This study allowed

  16. Cross-cultural development of a quality-of-life measure for patients with melanoma : Phase 3 testing of an EORTC Melanoma Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winstanley, J.B.; Young, T.; Boyle, F.M.; Bergenmar, M.; Bottomley, A.; Burmeister, .; Campana, L.G.; Garioch, J.J.; King, M.; Nikolic, D.V.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Saw, R.; Thompson, J.F.; White, E.G.; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group, The

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is an increasingly common skin cancer worldwide. Recent treatment advances have provided patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) with choices where quality of life (QoL) and toxicity are important considerations. A melanoma-specific QoL questionnaire is being developed in a

  17. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Kvaskoff, Marina; Savoye, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cervenka, Iris; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Kritikou, Maria; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Veierød, Marit B; Ghiasvand, Reza; Lukic, Marko; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Salamanca Fernández, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Jirström, Karin; Sonestedt, Emily; Key, Timothy J; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico

    2017-05-15

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Genetic analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene in two epithelial cancers: melanoma and breast cancer case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Eva; Arias, Jose I; Zamora, Pilar; Blanco, Monserrat; Lazaro, Pablo; Benitez, Javier; Ribas, Gloria; Fernandez, Lara P; Milne, Roger L; Pita, Guillermo; Sendagorta, Elena; Floristan, Uxua; Feito, Marta; Aviles, Jose A; Martin-Gonzalez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D serum levels have been found to be related to sun exposure and diet, together with cell differentiation, growth control and consequently, cancer risk. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes may influence cancer risk; however, no epidemiological studies in sporadic breast cancer (BC) or malignant melanoma (MM) have been performed in a southern European population. In this study, the VDR gene has been evaluated in two epithelial cancers BC and MM. We have conducted an analysis in 549 consecutive and non-related sporadic BC cases and 556 controls, all from the Spanish population, and 283 MM cases and 245 controls. Genotyping analyses were carried out on four putatively functional SNPs within the VDR gene. An association with the minor allele A of the non-synonymous SNP rs2228570 (rs10735810, FokI, Met1Thr) was observed for BC, with an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 1.26 (95% CI = 1.02–1.57; p = 0.036). The synonymous variant rs731236 (TaqI) appeared to be associated with protection from BC (OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.64–0.99; p = 0.047). No statistically significant associations with MM were observed for any SNP. Nevertheless, sub-group analyses revealed an association between rs2228570 (FokI) and absence of childhood sunburns (OR = 0.65, p = 0.003), between the 3'utr SNP rs739837 (BglI) and fair skin (OR = 1.31, p = 0.048), and between the promoter SNP rs4516035 and the more aggressive tumour location in head-neck and trunk (OR = 1.54, p = 0.020). In summary, we observed associations between SNPs in the VDR gene and BC risk, and a comprehensive analysis using clinical and tumour characteristics as outcome variables has revealed potential associations with MM. These associations required confirmation in independent studies

  19. SOLAR RADIATION AND INDUCTION OF DNA DAMAGE, MUTATIONS AND SKIN CANCERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SETLOW,R.B.

    2007-05-10

    An understanding of the effects of sunlight on human skin begins with the effects on DNA and extends to cells, animals and humans. The major DNA photoproducts arising from UVB (280-320 nm) exposures are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. If unrepaired, they may kill or mutate cells and result in basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Although UVA (320-400 nm) and visible wavelengths are poorly absorbed by DNA, the existing data indicate clearly that exposures to these wavelengths are responsible, in an animal model, for {approx}95 % of the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Six lines of evidence, to be discussed in detail, support the photosensitizing role of melanin in the induction of this cancer. They are: (1) Melanomas induced in backcross hybrids of small tropical fish of the genus Xiphophorus, exposed to wavelengths from 302-547 nm, indicate that {approx}95% of the cancers induced by exposure to sunlight would arise from UVA + visible wavelengths; (2) The action spectrum for inducing melanin-photosensitized oxidant production is very similar to the spectrum for inducing melanoma; (3) Albino whites and blacks, although very sensitive to sunburn and the sunlight induction of non-CMM, have very low incidences of CMM; (4) The incidence of CMM as a function of latitude is very similar to that of UVA, but not UVB; (5) Use of UVA-exposing sun-tanning parlors by the young increases the incidence rate of CMM and (6) Major mutations observed in CMM are not UVB-induced.

  20. Skin autofluorescence reflects individual seasonal UV exposure, skin photodamage and skin cancer development in organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Hædersdal, Merete; Wulf, Hans Christian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin cancers varies among organ transplant recipients (OTRs). To improve individual risk assessment of skin cancer, objectively quantified skin photodamage is needed. We measured personal UVR-exposure dose in OTRs and assessed the relation between individual UVR exposure, skin cancer and objectively measured photodamage in terms of skin autofluorescence, pigmentation, and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. Danish OTRs with (n=15) and without a history of skin cancer (n=15) kept sun diaries from May to September and wore personal dosimeters recording time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED). Photodamage was quantified as skin autofluorescence with excitation at 370nm (F370) and 430nm (F430), skin pigmentation (pigment protection factor, PPF), and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. OTRs with skin cancer received a higher UVR dose than OTRs without skin cancer (median 116 SED vs. 67 SED, p=0.07) and UVR exposure doses were correlated with increased PPF (p=0.052) and F370 on the shoulder (F370 shoulder ) (p=0.04). We found that skin cancer was associated with F370 shoulder (OR 10.53, CI 3.3-31,938; p=0.018) and time since transplantation (OR 1.34, CI 0.95-1.91, p=0.097). A cut-off at 7.2 arbitrary units, 89% of OTRs with skin cancer had F370 shoulder values above 7.2 arbitrary units and F370 shoulder was additionally related to patient age (p=0.09) and black light-evaluated solar lentigines (p=0.04). F370 autofluorescence indicates objectively measured photodamage and may be used for individual risk assessment of skin cancer development in OTRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  2. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM, a national fast-track referral system (FTRS was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1% were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4% of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5% patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.

  3. Innate immunity based cancer immunotherapy: B16-F10 murine melanoma model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caisová, V.; Vieru, A.; Kumžáková, Z.; Glaserová, S.; Husniková, H.; Vácová, N.; Krejčová, G.; Paďouková, L.; Jochmanová, I.; Wolf, K. I.; Chmelař, J.; Kopecký, Jan; Ženka, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 940. ISSN 1471-2407 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cancer immunotherapy * innate immunity * melanoma * neutrophils * resiquimod * mannan * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.288, year: 2016

  4. Dual Roles of RNF2 in Melanoma Progression | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic regulators have emerged as critical factors governing the biology of cancer. Here, in the context of melanoma, we show that RNF2 is prognostic, exhibiting progression-correlated expression in human melanocytic neoplasms. Through a series of complementary gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mouse and human systems, we establish that RNF2 is oncogenic and prometastatic.

  5. The risk of melanoma and hematologic cancers in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Shivani P; Martires, Kathryn; Wu, Jashin J

    2017-04-01

    The risk of melanoma and hematologic cancers in patients with psoriasis is controversial. We sought to assess the risk of melanoma and hematologic cancers in patients with psoriasis, and the association with different treatments. We used case-control and retrospective cohort designs to determine melanoma or hematologic cancer risk in patients with psoriasis. Risk with treatment type was assessed using Fisher exact test. Patients with psoriasis had 1.53 times greater risk of developing a malignancy compared with patients without psoriasis (P < .01). There were no significant differences in malignancy risk among patients treated with topicals, phototherapy, systemics, or biologic agents. Patients with psoriasis and malignancy did not have significantly worse survival than patients without psoriasis. It is possible that patients developed malignancy subsequent to the follow-up time included in the study. Patients with psoriasis may experience an elevated risk of melanoma and hematologic cancers, compared with the general population. The risk is not increased by systemic or biologic psoriasis therapies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Fork in the Road: The Effects of Different Cellular Pathways on Melanoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most deadly forms of cancer because of its high capacity to metastasize and because there are few treatments effective in stopping its progression. The extensive body of research on melanoma has identified several important protein mutations that contribute to development of the disease. One of these proteins, Ras, is mutated in 25 percent of

  7. [Skin cancer screening and treatment costs : Utilisation of the skin cancer screening and skin cancer treatment costs in organ transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, D; Schlothauer, N I; Zeeb, H; Wagner, G; Sachse, M M

    2018-04-12

    Organ transplant recipients have an up to 250-times higher risk to develop skin cancer. This article evaluated the utilisation of skin cancer screening and the treatment costs for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Patients of the health insurance AOK Bremen/Bremerhaven had been identified and the need for skin cancer prevention trainings was derived. The number of organ transplant recipients (ICD code Z94.0-4) with and without any history of skin cancer (ICD code C43/C44), the utilisation of dermatologic health care services, and the costs for treatments with the diagnosis Z94.0-4 with and without C43/C44 were evaluated. The analyses were carried out for the period from 2009-2014 by using the accounting systems of the AOK. Between 2009 and 2014, 231 organ transplant recipients had been recorded. By mid-2014, 20% of these insured persons developed skin cancer and the mean incidence was 2.76% per year. On average, 43% of these patients were seen by a dermatologist at least once a year, whereby only 15% of the organ transplant recipients participated in the annual skin cancer screening. In 29% of the patients without any history of skin cancer, a skin examination was never performed by a dermatologist or a general practitioner. In all, 17 inpatient cases of organ transplant recipients with the primary diagnosis C43/C44 were analyzed. This resulted in total costs of 54,707 € (on average about 3200 € per case). The increased incidence of skin cancer and the associated treatment costs indicate the need for skin cancer prevention training.

  8. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  9. MELDOQ - astrophysical image and pattern analysis in medicine: early recognition of malignant melanomas of the skin by digital image analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunk, W.; Pompl, R.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.; Abmayr, W.

    1999-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is at present the most powerful clinical method for early detection of malignant melanomas. However, the application requires a lot of expertise and experience. Therefore, a quantitative image analysis system has been developed in order to assist dermatologists in 'on site diagnosis' and to improve the detection efficiency. Based on a very extensive dataset of dermatoscopic images, recorded in a standardized manner, a number of features for quantitative characterization of complex patterns in melanocytic skin lesions has been developed. The derived classifier improved the detection rate of malignant and benign melanocytic lesions to over 90% (sensitivity =91.5% and specificity =93.4% in the test set), using only six measures. A distinguishing feature of the system is the visualization of the quantified characteristics that are based on the dermatoscopic ABCD-rule. The developed prototype of a dermatoscopic workplace consists of defined procedures for standardized image acquisition and documentation, components of a necessary data pre-processing (e.g. shading- and colour-correction, removal of artefacts), quantification algorithms (evaluating asymmetry properties, border characteristics, the content of colours and structural components) and classification routines. In 2000 an industrial partner will begin marketing the digital imaging system including the specialized software for the early detection of skin cancer, which is suitable for clinicians and practitioners. The primary used nonlinear analysis techniques (e.g. scaling index method and others) can identify and characterize complex patterns in images and have a diagnostic potential in many other applications. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Hauri, Dimitri; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.; Schindler, Christian; Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. Objectives: We investigated the effects of radon and UV exposure on skin cancer mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the association between exposures and skin cancer mortality in adults from the Swiss National Cohort. Modeled radon exposure and erythemal-weighted UV dose were assigned to addresses at baseline. Effect estimates were adjusted for sex, civil status, mother tongue, education, job position, neighborhood socioeconomic position, and UV exposure from outdoor occupation. Results: The study included 5.2 million adults (mean age 48 y) and 2,989 skin cancer deaths, with 1,900 indicating malignant melanoma (MM) as the primary cause of death. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for MM at age 60 were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.29) per 100Bq/m3 radon and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) per W/m2 in UV dose. Radon effects decreased with age. Risk of MM death associated with residential UV exposure was higher for individuals engaged in outdoor work with UV exposure (HR 1.94 [1.17, 3.23]), though not statistically significantly different compared to not working outdoors (HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.21], p=0.09). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in radon and UV exposure across Switzerland. Our study suggests both are relevant risk factors for skin cancer mortality. A better understanding of the role of the UV radiation and radon exposure is of high public health relevance. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP825 PMID:28686556

  11. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  12. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  13. Skin and Composite Grafting Techniques in Facial Reconstruction for Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael J; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    Skin and composite grafting provide effective resurfacing and reconstruction for cutaneous defects after excision of the malignancy. The goal is to restore a natural appearance and function while preventing distortion of the eyelid, nose, or lips. With careful planning and attention to aesthetic subunits, the surgeon can camouflage incisions and avoid blunting aesthetically sensitive sulci. The surgical plan is also informed by the pathology, as basal or squamous cell carcinomas removed by Mohs micrographic excision have different prognostic and logistical considerations from melanoma. Skin and composite grafting are useful as stand-alone procedures or may complement local flaps and other soft tissue reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Irradiated riboflavin diminishes the aggressiveness of melanoma in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Daisy; Shishido, Silvia M.; Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Oliveira, Diogo N.; Faria, Ana L. C.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Spek, C. Arnold; Ferreira, Carmen V.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers due to its high capacity to metastasize. Treatment of metastatic melanomas is challenging for clinicians, as most therapeutic agents have failed to demonstrate improved survival. Thus, new candidates with antimetastatic activity are much needed.

  15. Natural compounds' activity against cancer stem-like or fast-cycling melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Sztiller-Sikorska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports the concept that melanoma is highly heterogeneous and sustained by a small subpopulation of melanoma stem-like cells. Those cells are considered as responsible for tumor resistance to therapies. Moreover, melanoma cells are characterized by their high phenotypic plasticity. Consequently, both melanoma stem-like cells and their more differentiated progeny must be eradicated to achieve durable cure. By reevaluating compounds in heterogeneous melanoma populations, it might be possible to select compounds with activity not only against fast-cycling cells but also against cancer stem-like cells. Natural compounds were the focus of the present study. METHODS: We analyzed 120 compounds from The Natural Products Set II to identify compounds active against melanoma populations grown in an anchorage-independent manner and enriched with cells exerting self-renewing capacity. Cell viability, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, gene expression, clonogenic survival and label-retention were analyzed. FINDINGS: Several compounds efficiently eradicated cells with clonogenic capacity and nanaomycin A, streptonigrin and toyocamycin were effective at 0.1 µM. Other anti-clonogenic but not highly cytotoxic compounds such as bryostatin 1, siomycin A, illudin M, michellamine B and pentoxifylline markedly reduced the frequency of ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5-positive cells. On the contrary, treatment with maytansine and colchicine selected for cells expressing this transporter. Maytansine, streptonigrin, toyocamycin and colchicine, even if highly cytotoxic, left a small subpopulation of slow-dividing cells unaffected. Compounds selected in the present study differentially altered the expression of melanocyte/melanoma specific microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and proto-oncogene c-MYC. CONCLUSION: Selected anti-clonogenic compounds might be further investigated as potential adjuvants

  16. Skin cancer in rural workers: nursing knowledge and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo identify the exposure of rural workers to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; to identify previous cases of skin cancer; and to implement clinical and communicative nursing actions among rural workers with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer.METHODObservational-exploratory study conducted with rural workers exposed to ultraviolet radiation and pesticides in a rural area in the extreme south of Brazil. A clinical judgment and risk communication model properly adapted was used to develop interventions among workers with a previous history of skin cancer.RESULTSA total of 123 (97.7% workers were identified under conditions of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; seven (5.4% were identified with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer; four (57.1% of these presented potential skin cancer lesions.CONCLUSIONThis study's results enabled clarifying the combination of clinical knowledge and risk communication regarding skin cancer to rural workers.

  17. Differential Regulation of cGMP Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells at Altered Gravity: Simulated Microgravity Down-Regulates Cancer-Related Gene Expression and Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Krassimira; Eiermann, Peter; Tsiockas, Wasiliki; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Gerzer, Rupert

    2018-03-01

    Altered gravity is known to affect cellular function by changes in gene expression and cellular signaling. The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), a product of guanylyl cyclases (GC), e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive soluble GC (sGC) or natriuretic peptide-activated GC (GC-A/GC-B), is involved in melanocyte response to environmental stress. NO-sGC-cGMP signaling is operational in human melanocytes and non-metastatic melanoma cells, whereas up-regulated expression of GC-A/GC-B and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) are found in metastatic melanoma cells, the deadliest skin cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of altered gravity on the mRNA expression of NOS isoforms, sGC, GC-A/GC-B and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 4/5 (MRP4/MRP5) as selective cGMP exporters in human melanoma cells with different metastatic potential and pigmentation. A specific centrifuge (DLR, Cologne Germany) was used to generate hypergravity (5 g for 24 h) and a fast-rotating 2-D clinostat (60 rpm) to simulate microgravity values ≤ 0.012 g for 24 h. The results demonstrate that hypergravity up-regulates the endothelial NOS-sGC-MRP4/MRP5 pathway in non-metastatic melanoma cells, but down-regulates it in simulated microgravity when compared to 1 g. Additionally, the suppression of sGC expression and activity has been suggested to correlate inversely to tumor aggressiveness. Finally, hypergravity is ineffective in highly metastatic melanoma cells, whereas simulated microgravity down-regulates predominantly the expression of the cancer-related genes iNOS and GC-A/GC-B (shown additionally on protein levels) as well as motility in comparison to 1 g. The results suggest that future studies in real microgravity can benefit from considering GC-cGMP signaling as possible factor for melanocyte transformation.

  18. Prevalence of photoprotection and its associated factors in risk group for skin cancer in Teresina, Piauí.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais E Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho E; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira Dos

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection.

  19. Prevalence of photoprotection and its associated factors in risk group for skin cancer in Teresina, Piauí*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais e Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; dos Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. OBJECTIVES To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. METHODOLOGY Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Results Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. Conclusions The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection. PMID:28538880

  20. Prevalence and correlates of sun protection and skin self-examination practices among cutaneous malignant melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Lessin, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the level of engagement and correlates of sun protection and skin self-exam among individuals diagnosed with melanoma. Participants (N = 229) completed measures of skin self-exam and sun protection practice and knowledge and attitudes. Approximately eighty-four percent of patients reported engaging in skin self-examination at least once in the past year. Engagement in sun protection practices was moderate. Self-exam practice was associated with gender, physician recommendation about self-exam, and perceived benefits and barriers of self-exam. Sun protection was associated with gender, age, medical status and health care access, physician recommendation, knowledge, and a number of psychological factors. Behavioral interventions to improve skin surveillance and sun protection may benefit from an emphasis on physician education regarding self-exam and sun protection, education regarding the efficacy of sunscreen and the risks associated with sunbathing, reducing perceived barriers to self-exam and sun protection, and reducing reliance on social influences on sun protection practices.

  1. [Cutaneous malignant melanomas in New Caledonia. Study of the Cancer Registry (1977-1987)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Schino, M; Merouze, F; Huerre, M; Grimaldi, F; Lorthioir, J M; Breda, Y; Merrien, Y

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of cancer registration files in New Caledonia over a period of 11 years (1977-1987) draws the following conclusions: --The uncorrected incidence rate of cutaneous malignant melanoma is 3.63/100,000 inhabitants/year, for all ethnic groups together. --The incidence rate in the "non-European" population is 0.6/100,000 inhabitants/year. This low incidence and the anatomo-clinical manifestations observed (lentiginous melanoma of extremities) are common in coloured people. --The incidence rate in the "European" population is 8.75/100,000 inhabitants/year is noticeably higher than the incidence in the metropolitan population. Such conclusions are in accordance with the admitted data regarding epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma in high insolation countries. Cumulated incidence rate and topography of lesions are similar in this series whatever the sex.

  2. Apply lightweight deep learning on internet of things for low-cost and easy-to-access skin cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Pranjal; Yu, Dantong; Qin, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer that often resembles moles. Dermatologists often recommend regular skin examination to identify and eliminate Melanoma in its early stages. To facilitate this process, we propose a hand-held computer (smart-phone, Raspberry Pi) based assistant that classifies with the dermatologist-level accuracy skin lesion images into malignant and benign and works in a standalone mobile device without requiring network connectivity. In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid approach based on advanced deep learning model and domain-specific knowledge and features that dermatologists use for the inspection purpose to improve the accuracy of classification between benign and malignant skin lesions. Here, domain-specific features include the texture of the lesion boundary, the symmetry of the mole, and the boundary characteristics of the region of interest. We also obtain standard deep features from a pre-trained network optimized for mobile devices called Google's MobileNet. The experiments conducted on ISIC 2017 skin cancer classification challenge demonstrate the effectiveness and complementary nature of these hybrid features over the standard deep features. We performed experiments with the training, testing and validation data splits provided in the competition. Our method achieved area of 0.805 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our ultimate goal is to extend the trained model in a commercial hand-held mobile and sensor device such as Raspberry Pi and democratize the access to preventive health care.

  3. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  4. A systematic review of clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with skin cancer spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Sankey, Eric W; Liu, Ann; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Fisher, Charles G; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Surgical procedures and/or adjuvant therapies are effective modalities for the treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. However, clinical results specific to the skin cancer spinal metastasis cohort are generally lacking. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for treatments, clinical outcomes, and survival following the diagnosis of a skin cancer spinal metastasis and evaluate prognostic factors in the context of spinal skin cancer metastases stratified by tumor subtype. METHODS The authors performed a literature review using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify articles since 1950 that reported survival, clinical outcomes, and/or prognostic factors for the skin cancer patient population with spinal metastases. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) tool. RESULTS Sixty-five studies met the preset criteria and were included in the analysis. Of these studies, a total of 25, 40, 25, and 12 studies included patients who underwent some form of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or observation alone, respectively. Sixty-three of the 65 included studies were retrospective in nature (Class of Evidence [CoE] IV), and the 2 prospective studies were CoE II. Based on the studies analyzed, the median overall survival for a patient with a spinal metastasis from a primary skin malignancy is 4.0 months; survival by tumor subtype is 12.5 months for patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 4.0 months for those with melanoma, 4.0 months for those with squamous cell carcinoma, 3.0 months for those with pilomatrix carcinoma, and 1.5 months for those with Merkel cell carcinoma (p skin cancer lesion was 3.5% (n = 21/608, range 0.2%-100.0%), and the rate of known spine metastasis recurrence despite treatment for all skin malignancies was 2.8% (n = 17/608, range 0.0%-33.3%). Age greater than 65 years, sacral spinal involvement

  5. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SKIN CANCER USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Birajdar Yogesh; Rengaprabhu P

    2017-01-01

    The proposed work is to present an approach to easily detect the skin cancer and classify into benign and malignant classes differentiating with the wounds. The skin cancer occurs for many people in some regions of the countries like Australia & New Zealand where the sunlight is difficult to reach during winters. Thus the deficiency of Vitamin D causes skin cancer for the people dwelling in such regions. Self-assessment is being encouraged in such cities to detect the skin cancers in early st...

  6. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nakanishi, Takafumi

    1985-01-01

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10 B chlorpromazine compounds and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA) as tumor-seeking 10 B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10 B 1 -BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Calotropis procera extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aparna L; Roham, Pratiksha H; Mhaske, Rooth; Jadhav, Mahadev; Krishnadas, Kavitha; Kharat, Amol; Hardikar, Bhagyashree; Kharat, Kiran R

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera (family: Asclepiadaceae) contains cardiac glycosides which are cytotoxic to cancer cells. The extracts of C. procera have been reported to be cytotoxic to many cancer cell lines and this is the first report against the human skin melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2). The SK-MEL-2 cells treated with C. procera methanolic extract (CPME) were analysed for growth inhibition and apoptosis. The exposure of phosphatidylserine in apoptotic SK-MEL-2 was analysed by using the Annexin-V FITC flow cytometry method. In CPME-treated SK-MEL-2 cells, 19.6% of apoptotic and 58.3% dead cells were observed. The 15.97% and 15.85% of early apoptotic cells were found at 20 μg/mL of the ouabain and paclitaxel, respectively. Active caspases, nuclear degradation confirmed apoptotic SK-MEL-2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis shows that CPME treated cells halt at G2/M phase. Significant cytotoxic activity of CPME against SK-MEL-2 may be attributed to its high cardenolide content.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  9. Preclinical targeted alpha therapy for melanoma, leukaemia, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Rizvi, S.; Li, Y.; Tian, Z.; University of Wollongong, NSW; Ranson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micro-metastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The alpha emitting radioisotopes Tb-149 and Bi-213 are produced by accelerator and generator respectively and are chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody, peptide or protein to form the alpha-conjugates (AC) against melanoma, leukaemia, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. These ACs are tested for stability, specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo using several nude mouse models. The Australian TAT program began some 7 years at ANSTO but was still-born. Later, TAT had a second wind at St George Hospital, where collaborative research led to the investigation of Tb-149 as a new alpha emitting radionuclide. Subsequently, increased emphasis was placed on the Ac-225 generator to produce Bi-213. Although in-house funding was terminated in 1998, the project received its third wind with local fund raising in the Shire and a US grant in 1999, and continues to break new ground in the control of the above cancers. Stable alpha-ACs are produced which are highly specific and cytotoxic in vitro against melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 11.5 million cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. The tumour growth is compared with untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. Local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast cancer tumour growth in the primary site and metastatic invasion of the lymph nodes. These results point to the application of local

  10. Trends in skin cancer knowledge, sun protection practices and behaviours in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Boyle, Rhonda; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Gordon, Sandra; McElwee, Gerry; O'Hagan, Art

    2012-06-01

    Sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer, especially melanoma, incidence of which continues to rise. Reported skin cancer knowledge and trends in sun care behaviours are documented in a UK region where there has been 20 years of sun-related health promotion campaigns. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, a 'care in the sun' module was included in the Northern Ireland (NI) Omnibus survey. Randomly selected subjects were asked to complete a sun-related questionnaire and proportions of respondents analysed by demographic and socio-economic factors, with differences tested using z-tests and the chi-squared test. Around 3623 persons responded. Skin cancer knowledge was high (97%). Sun avoidance decreased with time and was lowest among younger age groups and males. Sunscreen use was high (70%), unchanged over 8 years, and more likely among younger age groups, females, those in paid employment, and those with tertiary level education. Use of sunscreen with minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15 (a campaign message) increased from 45% to 70% (P < 0.01). Skin self-examination was infrequent (8%), less common among those aged ≥65 years, males and those with only primary or secondary level education. Messages on sunscreen use have penetrated the population well, but lower use among the unemployed suggests cost as an issue. Lack of sun avoidance in young people, especially men, poses a risk for further skin cancer increases. Low levels of reported skin self-examination in older people, men and those with lower educational attainment identify areas for further action.

  11. Artificial neural networks for processing fluorescence spectroscopy data in skin cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, L; Zeković, I; Dramićanin, T; Dramićanin, M D

    2013-01-01

    Over the years various optical spectroscopic techniques have been widely used as diagnostic tools in the discrimination of many types of malignant diseases. Recently, synchronous fluorescent spectroscopy (SFS) coupled with chemometrics has been applied in cancer diagnostics. The SFS method involves simultaneous scanning of both emission and excitation wavelengths while keeping the interval of wavelengths (constant-wavelength mode) or frequencies (constant-energy mode) between them constant. This method is fast, relatively inexpensive, sensitive and non-invasive. Total synchronous fluorescence spectra of normal skin, nevus and melanoma samples were used as input for training of artificial neural networks. Two different types of artificial neural networks were trained, the self-organizing map and the feed-forward neural network. Histopathology results of investigated skin samples were used as the gold standard for network output. Based on the obtained classification success rate of neural networks, we concluded that both networks provided high sensitivity with classification errors between 2 and 4%. (paper)

  12. A Probabilistic Framework for Detection of Skin Cancer by Raman Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2003-01-01

    . These identified important features are shown to originate from molecular structure changes in lipids and proteins. While the theme of this dissertation is skin cancer diagnosis from Raman spectra, the dimension reduction and the neural network classifier can be applied in general to other types of pattern...... melanoma. The neural network classifier visualization showed that frequency bands, previously identified by visual inspection of Raman spectra by medical experts, were considered important for classification. Moreover, frequency band not previously used for skin lesion classification were identified...... brugt til diagnosering af hudkræft. Disse vigtige frekvensbånd stammer fra forskel i molekyle struktur i lipider og proteiner. Selv om temaet for denne afhandling er hudkræft diagnosering fra Raman spektra, kan dimensions reduceringen og det neurale netværk bruges til andre mønster genkendelses...

  13. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  14. Skin cancer patients profile at faculty of medicine university of North Sumatera pathology anatomy laboratory and Haji Adam Malik general hospital in the year of 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, E. K.; Delyuzar; Soekimin

    2018-03-01

    The most common types of skin cancer found worldwide are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. In America, about 800,000 people suffer from skin cancer every year and 75% are basal cell carcinoma. According to WHO, around 160,000 people suffer from malignant melanoma every year and 48,000 deaths were reported every year. In Jakarta, in 2000-2009, dr. CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM) reported 261 cases of basal cell carcinoma, followed by 69 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 22 cases of malignant melanoma.This study was descriptive study with retrospective design and consecutive sampling method. Data consisted of age, gender, tumor location, occupation and histopathology subtype which were taken from skin cancer patients’ medical record at Faculty of Medicine University of North Sumatera Pathology Anatomy Laboratory and Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan in 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using SPSS program and classified based on WHO. From 92 study subjects, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer which is 59 cases (64.13%), found in 48 women (52.2%), and often found between 45-47 years old (30.4%).

  15. A regional programme to improve skin cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Graham R; Sycamore, Mark J; Shand, Brett I; Simcock, Jeremy W

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, public specialist and general practice services in Canterbury were unable to manage demand for skin cancer treatment. Local clinicians decided the solution was to develop a see-and-treat skin excision clinic staffed by plastic surgeons and general practitioners (GPs), and the introduction of subsidised excisions in general practice. This paper describes the collaboration between clinicians, managers and funders and the results and quality management measures of these initiatives. There is an increasing incidence of skin cancer. GPs in Canterbury were unable to meet increasing demand for skin cancer treatment because some lacked confidence and competence in skin cancer management. There was no public funding for primary care management of skin cancer, driving patients to fully funded secondary care services. Secondary care services were at capacity, with no coordinated programme across primary and secondary care. The programme has resulted in a greater number of skin cancers being treated by the public health system, a reduction in waiting times for treatment, and fewer minor skin lesions being referred to secondary care. Quality measures have been achieved and are improving steadily. Development of the programme has improved working relationships between primary and secondary care clinicians. The strategy was to facilitate the working relationship between primary and secondary care and increase the capacity for skin lesion excisions in both sectors. Skin cancer management can be improved by a coordinated approach between primary and secondary care.

  16. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  17. Communication by mothers with breast cancer or melanoma with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rikki; Desai, Sapna; Smith, Maureen; Eilers, Steve; Blatt, Hanz; Guevara, Yanina; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-08

    Communication of familial risk of breast cancer and melanoma has the potential to educate relatives about their risk, and may also motivate them to engage in prevention and early detection practices. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy laws, the patient often becomes the sole communicator of such risks to family members. This study surveys mothers diagnosed with either breast cancer or melanoma and their adult children about their family communication style, knowledge of increased risk, and early detection practices. In both cancer groups, most mothers alerted their children of the risk and need for early detection practices. Breast cancer mothers communicated risk and secondary prevention with early detection by breast self-examination and mammograms whereas the melanoma mothers communicated risk and primary prevention strategies like applying sunscreen and avoiding deliberate tanning. Open communication about health matters significantly increased the likelihood that children engaged in early detection and/or primary prevention behaviors. Examining the information conveyed to at-risk family members, and whether such information motivated them to engage in early detection/prevention behaviors, is key to guiding better cancer prevention communication between doctors and patients.

  18. Communication by Mothers with Breast Cancer or Melanoma with Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication of familial risk of breast cancer and melanoma has the potential to educate relatives about their risk, and may also motivate them to engage in prevention and early detection practices. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA privacy laws, the patient often becomes the sole communicator of such risks to family members. This study surveys mothers diagnosed with either breast cancer or melanoma and their adult children about their family communication style, knowledge of increased risk, and early detection practices. In both cancer groups, most mothers alerted their children of the risk and need for early detection practices. Breast cancer mothers communicated risk and secondary prevention with early detection by breast self-examination and mammograms whereas the melanoma mothers communicated risk and primary prevention strategies like applying sunscreen and avoiding deliberate tanning. Open communication about health matters significantly increased the likelihood that children engaged in early detection and/or primary prevention behaviors. Examining the information conveyed to at-risk family members, and whether such information motivated them to engage in early detection/prevention behaviors, is key to guiding better cancer prevention communication between doctors and patients.

  19. Beachfront screening for skin cancer in Texas Gulf coast surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, S; Wagner, R F; Black, S A; Terracina, J

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer screening programs may attract the "worried well," while those at greatest risk for skin cancer are less likely to attend. Our purpose was to compare the results of skin cancer screening examinations between persons participating in the 1992 American Academy of Dermatology-sponsored free skin cancer screening and surfers participating in a free beachfront skin cancer screening held in conjunction with a regional surfing competition. The hypothesis was that screening an at-risk population (ie, surfers) would be more productive in terms of incidence of clinically diagnosed malignant skin lesions. Surfers were significantly younger and predominantly male. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was significantly greater in the surfing population than in the self-selected population with similar ages. This study indicates that directed skin cancer screening of an at-risk population was more productive in finding skin cancer than screening of a self-selected population. Future efforts to identify individuals with skin cancer should be broadened to include high-risk populations such as daytime outdoor athletes and high-risk occupational groups, since they may not be reached by current screening efforts.

  20. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  1. Pro-oxidative and pro-apoptotic action of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa on human skin melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Kośmider, Anita; Kiss, Anna K; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2009-09-23

    Three extracts of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok, aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract, differing by their total content of phenolic compounds and by their contents of individual polyphenols, were investigated in this study. The extracts exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 human skin melanoma cells. After 24 h of incubation, IC(50) values of 169.7 +/- 5.9 micog/mL, 72.4 +/- 3.8 microg/mL, and 155.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL were obtained for HTB-140 cells with the aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract at the tested concentrations (5-200 microg/mL), respectively, while IC(50) for normal fibroblast cells NHDFs was not attained. Moreover, for HTB-140 cells, LD(50) (concentration at which 50% of cells were dead) of 89.2 +/- 4.3 microg/mL and 181.4 +/- 6.5 microg/mL were obtained with 60% ethanolic extract and 30% isopropanolic extract, respectively. In melanoma cells, all three extracts caused a concentration-dependent increase of ROS production, GSH, and ATP lowering, and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC; furthermore, apoptosis without activation of caspase-3 took place. The most effective was 60% ethanolic extract, which had the greatest total content of phenolic compounds and the greatest content of pentagalloyloglucose (PGG).

  2. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and the Incidence of Oral, Pharyngeal and Cervical Cancer and Melanoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Spencer; Lin, Jie; Brown, Derek; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure can cause DNA damage that may activate dormant viruses such as human papilloma virus, a recent ecological study, which estimated state-level UVR exposure, reported positive correlations between annual UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer in 16 U.S. states using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate whether the annual UVR level, estimated on a county level, is associated with incidence rates of such cancers using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data. If UVR exposure is associated with incidence of these cancer types, we would expect to see a similar or stronger association with melanoma because UVR exposure is a well-demonstrated risk factor for this disease. Thus, we also included melanoma in the study. The study subjects were White and Black individuals with oral, pharyngeal, cervical cancer or melanoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 from the SEER 18 data. UVR was estimated at the county level and grouped into high-, medium- and low-exposure levels. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer were calculated and compared among the UVR exposure groups. The comparisons were also stratified by sex and race. There was an inverse association between UVR exposure and incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer. The inverse association was also observed for melanoma. When stratified by race and sex, the inverse associations remained except for melanoma among Blacks. In contrast to a previous study, our study found that there were inverse associations between UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer, as well as of melanoma. Our findings are in agreement with several other published studies reporting no positive correlation between UVR exposure and the incidence rates of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical

  3. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Heerfordt, Ida M.; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were...

  4. Clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated the clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer. They noted that diagnostic of skin cancer have to foresee the determination morphologic implements and degree of malignancy tumorous process why in general depend prognosis of illness

  5. Recent childbirth is an adverse prognostic factor in breast cancer and melanoma, but not in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik; Purushotham, Arnie; Linklater, Karen M; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Lambe, Mats; Yallop, Deborah; Devereux, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between gestation, childbirth and cancer prognosis is unknown for most cancers (e.g. Hodgkin lymphoma), whereas a body of evidence exists for melanoma and breast cancer. The national cancer registration and hospital discharge data for women in England (1998-2007) were linked, and the records for Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma and breast cancer were indexed as to whether women had delivered a child in separate time periods prior to their cancer diagnosis. Survival analyses were conducted in order to characterise prognosis in relation to childbirth, with statistical adjustment for age and (where possible) stage. For melanoma and breast cancer, survival was strongly reduced in women who gave birth in the year prior to cancer diagnosis. The age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.06 (1.42-3.01) for melanoma and 1.84 (1.64-2.06) for breast cancer. The associations were only slightly attenuated by further adjustment for tumour stage. For breast cancer, the excess death rate in women with a recent childbirth peaked at 2 years and remained elevated for 6 to 8 years. Previous childbirth had no overall effect on the outcome of Hodgkin lymphoma. Melanoma and breast cancer prognosis are adversely affected by recent gestation and childbirth in a way that is not due to stage of the cancer, but rather to inherent biological properties of the tumours. Possible biological mechanisms include immunosuppression (melanoma), the hormonal milieu in gestation and a tumour promoting microenvironment post-partum (breast cancer). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Troya-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC. The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0, 7 days after surgery (t1, and 5 months after surgery (t2. The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p<0.05. The lowest values were found at time of diagnosis and postsurgery. Women and patients under 65 years showed the lowest values at the three times. Limitations. Concrete geographic and cultural area. Clinical and histological variables are not analysed. Conclusions. Our results confirm responsiveness of the Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer.

  7. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  8. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the ≤2500 m group than in the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  9. Accumulation of low-avidity anti-melanocortin receptor 1 (anti-MC1R) CD8+ T cells in the lesional skin of a patient with melanoma-related depigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wankowicz-Kalinska, Anna; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Olson, Kathleen; Graham, Fiona; Edington, Howard; Kirkwood, John M.; Martinek, Stephanie; Das, Pranab K.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous or therapy-induced depigmentation in patients with melanoma has long been considered a favourable prognostic indicator. In this report, we isolated T cells infiltrating the depigmented skin of an HLA-A2+/DR4+ patient with melanoma, and detected a very high frequency of CD8+ T cells

  10. Italian Euromelanoma Day Screening Campaign (2005-2007) and the planning of melanoma screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenari, Stefania; Benati, Elisa; Ponti, Giovanni; Borsari, Stefania; Ferrari, Chiara; Albertini, Giuseppe; Altomare, Gianfranco; Arcangeli, Fabio; Aste, Nicola; Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Bongiorno, Maria Rita; Borroni, Giovanni; Calvieri, Stefano; Chimenti, Sergio; Cusano, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Claudio; Gaddoni, Giuseppe; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Guarneri, Biagio; Lanzoni, Anna; Lombardi, Mara; Lotti, Torello; Mariotti, Antonio; Marsili, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe; Parodi, Aurora; Peris, Ketty; Peserico, Andrea; Quaglino, Pietro; Santini, Marcello; Schiavon, Sergio; Tonino, Camillo; Trevisan, Giusto; Tribuzi, Paola; Valentini, Paolo; Vena, Gino A; Virgili, Annarosa

    2012-01-01

    Although no study has definitively shown that unfocused screening of skin cancer is effective, many campaigns have been organized with the aim of increasing awareness on melanoma risk factors. The objective of this study was to analyse the results of the Skin Cancer Screening Day in Italy during the period 2005-2007, to determine the priorities for melanoma control plans in a Mediterranean country. A total of 5002 patients were screened by dermatologists in 31 cities. Individuals who considered themselves to have many naevi and those with a family history of melanoma showed a higher number of common and atypical naevi. Ten melanomas, 20 basal cell carcinomas and two squamous cell carcinomas were histopathologically confirmed. Our observations provide the following suggestions for melanoma prevention strategies: (a) an unfocused campaign is suitable to inform the public about the importance of self-examination of the skin, but is not useful to identify a larger number of melanomas; and (b) melanoma screening campaigns should focus on a selected population, which meets rigorous risk criteria to maintain higher cost-effectiveness. The financial support to effective melanoma screening programmes could be increased, especially in southern populations where lower levels of self-surveillance and socioeconomic conditions represent risk factors for late identification of melanoma.

  11. University Student Awareness of Skin Cancer: Behaviors, Recognition, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Megan; Estaville, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and it often is preventable. The authors sought to evaluate behavior and knowledge regarding skin cancer among students at a Texas university. The authors recruited a diverse group of students in terms of sex, age, and ethnicity to participate in a survey regarding knowledge of skin cancer signs, use of tanning beds, and performance of self-assessment for skin cancer. Participating students could complete surveys in classrooms, at health fairs, or online via Survey Monkey. The authors examined data for the 3 variables in relation to sex, ethnicity, and age. A total of 512 responses were completed. Female students completed 371 (72.46%) surveys, and male students completed 141 (27.54%). The ethnicity of student participants was nearly evenly split among whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Ethnicity was the most significant factor influencing the knowledge of skin cancer and behaviors to prevent it. Specifically, Hispanic and African American students possessed a lower level of skin cancer awareness. More female students than male students used tanning beds, and although use was self-reported as infrequent, the results imply that 4500 of the university's students might use tanning beds, which is concerning if extrapolated to other university student populations in Texas. Behavioral intervention is critical in reducing students' risk of skin cancer in later years, and university students must acquire knowledge to increase their awareness of skin health and to minimize their risk of developing skin cancer. Radiation therapists are uniquely positioned to share knowledge of skin cancer. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  12. Metastatic malignant subungal melanoma: Importance of FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Punshi Nandwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subungual melanoma is a rare type of skin cancer. It is an uncommon form of acral lentiginous melanoma. Approximately 85% of cases are misdiagnosed initially, and it is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic subungal melanoma to the axillary lymph node in a 45-year-old male. Diagnosis of metastasis was made based on cytology, where the clinicians were guided to search for primary. This case report highlights the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of this entity to draw the attention of the reader to the possible underreporting of melanoma because of a variant that evades diagnosis and our reluctance to think about its existence.

  13. Survival from skin cancer and its associated factors in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Galavizh; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Amani, Saeid; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    We explored survival of skin cancer and its determinants in Kurdistan province of Iran. In a retrospective cohort design, we identified all registered skin cancer patients in Kurdistan Cancer Registry from year 2000 to 2009. Information on time and cause of death were obtained from Registrar's office and information on type, stage and anatomic locations were extracted from patients' hospital records. Additional demographic information was collected via a telephone interview. We calculated the 3 and 5 years survival. Survival experiences in different groups were compared using log rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was built and hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of a total of 1353, contact information for 667 patients were available, all of which were followed up. 472 telephone interviews were conducted. Mean follow-up time was 34 months. We identified 78 deaths in this group of patients and 44 of them were because of skin cancer. After controlling for confounding, tumour type, anatomical location, and diseases stage remained significantly associated with survival. Hazard ratios for death because of squamous cell carcinoma was 74.5 (95%CI: 4.8-1146) and for melanoma was 24.4 (95%CI: 1.3-485) compared with basal cell carcinomas. Hazard ratio for tumours in stage 4 was 16.7 (95%CI: 1.8-156.6) and for stage 3 was 16.8 (95%CI: 1.07-260) compared with stage 1 and 2. Tumour stage is independently associated with survival. Relatively low survival rates suggest delayed diagnosis. Increasing public awareness through media about the warning signs of skin cancers could increase the chance of survival in these patients.

  14. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  15. Assessment of the influence of one's education on early diagnosis of multiple primary cancer in patients with uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa-Dobranowska, Marzena; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena

    2012-01-01

    This study will show a comparison of two groups of patients with uveal melanoma; one group with multiple primary cancer, and a second group with no identifiable second cancer, in terms of education and occupation. Study concerns 240 patients, who were isolated from patients being treated with uveal melanoma at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ocular Oncology Jagiellonian University Medical College in the period from 1998 to 2007. On the basis of medical history and medical records 97 patients were diagnosed with the one or more independent primary cancers. These patients were subjected to comparative analysis with a group of 143 patients with uveal melanoma as a control group. Analyzing the impact of education on the recognition of multiple primary cancer, there were significantly more frequent diagnoses of second primary cancers among patients with secondary and higher education than among those who had primary and vocational education. Among the obtained data on patients in the study group, the largest occupational group (according to the ISCO-88 (COM)) constituted "professionals". In the control group prevailed "craft and related trades workers". The results suggest the great importance of knowledge about risk factors for the development of cancer among patients with uveal melanoma and the ensuing more scrupulous search for succesive primary neoplasm and indicate the neccesity of organizing broad prophylactic actions. uveal melanoma, multiple primary cancer.

  16. Curcumin loaded chitin nanogels for skin cancer treatment via the transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalathillam, Sabitha; Rejinold, N Sanoj; Nair, Amrita; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2012-01-07

    In this study, curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water. However, the developed CCNGs form a very good and stable dispersion in water. The CCNGs were analyzed by DLS, SEM and FTIR and showed spherical particles in a size range of 70-80 nm. The CCNGs showed higher release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels were analyzed on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and A375 (human melanoma) cell lines and the results show that CCNGs have specific toxicity on melanoma in a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg mL(-1), but less toxicity towards HDF cells. The confocal analysis confirmed the uptake of CCNGs by A375. The apoptotic effect of CCNGs was analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay and the results indicate that CCNGs at the higher concentration of the cytotoxic range showed comparable apoptosis as the control curcumin, in which there was negligible apoptosis induced by the control chitin nanogels. The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration.

  17. Skin and Sun — Safety First | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA has not approved this for tanning the skin. Tanning make-up products will not protect your skin ... or black skin is not a guarantee against skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that the use of indoor tanning devices increases melanoma risk, expecially for those who ...

  18. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi; Gadzia, Joseph E.; Jean, Y.C.

    2007-01-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 and Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States); Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li (China)

    2007-07-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. What Is the Key to Improving Renal Transplant Recipients' Awareness of Skin Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Battaglia, Yuri; Maietti, Elisa; Minghetti, Sara; Virgili, Annarosa

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown poor compliance rates regarding sun protection among organ transplant recipients. The main objective of the present study was to assess the awareness among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) of their risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development and their sunscreen use. The influence of several potentially relevant variables was also assessed in order to identify possible weak points on which to concentrate efforts in this respect. A total of 132 RTRs (92 males and 40 females) were included. The following information was collected and elaborated: (a) demographics; (b) skin phototype; (c) educational level; (d) time elapsed since transplantation; (e) immunosuppressive treatments; (f) previous dermatological visits; (g) patients' awareness of their NMSC risk; (h) use of sunscreen; and (i) previous documented NMSCs or NMSCs found during the study visit. Overall, 65 patients (49.2%) expressed awareness of their susceptibility to skin cancers. A high educational level was the main factor associated with patients' awareness. Thirty-six RTRs (27.3%) reported using sunscreen regularly. High educational level and awareness of personal susceptibility to NMSC development were the most relevant factors associated with sun protection habits. The present study showed the low level of sunscreen use among RTRs and their scanty awareness of personal skin cancer risk. Since educational level has been found to be highly related to both awareness of cancer risk and adequate use of sunscreen among RTRs, it is necessary to improve the way education is delivered by dermatologists and nephrologists, especially to subjects with a low educational level. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Save Your Skin (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-11

    Too much exposure to the sun raises the risk for melanoma. Rates of this deadly form of skin cancer have doubled in recent years. This podcast discusses ways to prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/11/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/11/2015.

  2. Multimodal fluorescence molecular imaging for in vivo characterization of skin cancer using endogenous and exogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica P.; Habimana-Griffin, LeMoyne; Edwards, Tracy S.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Similarity of skin cancer with many benign skin pathologies requires reliable methods to detect and differentiate the different types of these lesions. Previous studies have explored the use of disparate optical techniques to identify and estimate the invasive nature of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma with varying outcomes. Here, we used a concerted approach that provides complementary information for rapid screening and characterization of tumors, focusing on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Assessment of in vivo autofluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging of endogenous fluorophores that are excitable at longer wavelengths (480 nm) than conventional NADH and FAD revealed a decrease in the short FLT component for SCC compared to normal skin, with mean values of 0.57±0.026 ns and 0.61±0.021 ns, respectively (p=0.004). Subsequent systemic administration of a near-infrared fluorescent molecular probe in SCC bearing mice, followed by the implementation of image processing methods on data acquired from two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence molecular imaging, allowed us to estimate the tumor volume and depth, as well as quantify the fluorescent probe in the tumor. The result suggests the involvement of lipofuscin-like lipopigments and riboflavin in SCC metabolism and serves as a model for staging SCC.

  3. Melanoma reporting to central cancer registries by US dermatologists: an analysis of the persistent knowledge and practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Todd V; Kini, Seema P; Chen, Suephy C

    2011-11-01

    Every state requires diagnosing physicians to report new cases of melanoma to its central cancer registry. Previous regional studies and anecdotal experience suggest that few dermatologists are cognizant of this obligation. This oversight could result in a large number of unreported melanomas annually and, in turn, US melanoma statistics that markedly underestimate the true incidence of the disease. We sought to quantify the percentage of dermatologists who are unaware of melanoma reporting requirements (the knowledge gap) and who are not reporting melanoma diagnoses (the practice gap). We also sought to delineate factors predictive of reporting knowledge and behavior. A survey was administered to attendees of the Cutaneous Oncology Symposium at the 2010 American Academy of Dermatology annual meeting. In all, 104 of 419 eligible attendees completed surveys (response rate 26%). Fifty percent of respondents do not believe they are required to report melanomas and 56% do not actively report their diagnoses to a registry. Practice duration of less than 10 years was significantly associated with both a knowledge gap (P = .047) and practice gap (P = .056). Similarly, dermatologists who diagnosed fewer than 10 melanomas per year were more likely to possess a knowledge gap (P = .096) and a practice gap (P = .087) than those who diagnosed more than 10. Limitations include small sample size and low response rate. A majority of dermatologists are not reporting melanomas they diagnose to a cancer registry, and half of those surveyed were not aware that diagnosing physicians are required to report melanoma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glinvad; Gerstoft, Jan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients and compare it with the risk in the background population. METHODS: In a matched, nationwide population-based cohort study we...... compared the risk of skin cancer in 4280 HIV-infected patients from the Danish HIV cohort study with a background population cohort, according to the level of immunosuppression and route of transmission. Primary outcomes were time to first basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC...

  5. Association of Indoor Tanning Frequency With Risky Sun Protection Practices and Skin Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-10-12

    Indoor tanning is prevalent among young adults and women and is associated with increased risk of melanoma. Evidence suggests that indoor tanners may be more inclined to adopt poor photoprotective practices that further increase their risk of skin cancer; however, gaps in the literature exist in young adults and by indoor tanning frequency. To examine the association between indoor tanning frequency and behaviors related to skin cancer prevention and to investigate whether these associations vary by age group or sex. Cross-sectional population-based study of US 2015 National Health Interview Survey data including 10 262 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 to 60 years without a history of skin cancer. Rare/never use of sunscreen, protective clothing, shade; multiple sunburns within the past year; previous full-body skin examination. Of the 10 262 individuals in our study population (49% female; median age, 39 y), 787 (7.0%) reported having tanned indoors in the past year. Among individuals aged 18 to 34 years, frequent indoor tanners (≥10 times in the past year) were more likely to report never/rare use of protective clothing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) and shade (aPR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70), compared with individuals who did not tan indoors. Among women aged 18 to 60 years, those who frequently tanned indoors were more likely to rarely/never use sunscreen (aPR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62), protective clothing (aPR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and shade (aPR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25-1.90) on a warm sunny day, as well as more likely to report multiple sunburns in the past year (aPR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45) compared with those who did not tan indoors. Individuals who tanned indoors in the past year were not significantly more likely to have undergone a previous full-body skin examination in any subpopulation examined. Individuals who tan indoors often exhibited a concurrent tendency to sunburn, avoid sun protection, and avoid skin cancer

  6. Skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Medine; Yavuz, Betul; Subasi, Media; Kartal, Asiye; Celebioglu, Aysun; Kacar, Halime; Adana, Filiz; Ozyurek, Pakize; Altiparmak, Saliha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students. A total of 1178 nursing students in the Aegean Region of Turkey took part in this descriptive study. A score for knowledge on protection against skin cancer and a score for protective behavior against skin cancer were calculated. In this study, first year students sunbathed more in the middle of the day than fourth year students, and their knowledge of skin cancer was lower. No statistical difference was determined for protective behavior between the two groups. The knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year students were alarmingly low, but the average scores for knowledge and behavior of the fourth year university students were higher. The knowledge levels of the fourth year students were average but their protective behavior was insufficient. It was found that the knowledge levels and the levels of protective behavior of light-skinned students were higher. This study revealed that the knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year nursing students against the harmful effects of the sun and for protection against skin cancer were alarmingly low. It also showed that the knowledge levels of the fourth year nursing students were average, but that their protective behavior was very insufficient. These findings suggest that it is of extreme importance to acquire knowledge and behavior for protection against skin cancers in the education of nursing students. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  8. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, Toby G.; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water has been associated with skin cancers in several countries such as Taiwan, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, and Mexico. This association has not been established in the United States. In addition, inorganic arsenic alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in animals. We recently showed that concentrations as low as 1.25 mg/l sodium arsenite were able to enhance the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in mice. The tumors were almost all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). These data suggest that arsenic in drinking water may need a carcinogenic partner, such as sunlight, in the induction of skin cancers. Arsenite may enhance tumorigenicity via effects on DNA repair and DNA damage-induced cell cycle effects, leading to genomic instability. Others have found that dimethlyarsinic acid (DMA), a metabolite of arsenite, can induce bladder cancers at high concentrations in drinking water. In those experiments, skin cancers were not produced. Taken together, these data suggest that arsenite (or possibly an earlier metabolite), and not DMA, is responsible for the skin cancers, but a second genotoxic agent may be a requirement. The differences between the US and the other arsenic-exposed populations with regard to skin cancers might be explained by the lower levels of arsenic in the US, less sun exposure, better nutrition, or perhaps genetic susceptibility differences

  9. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  10. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  11. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Katta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO supplements and dietary intake of AOs via whole foods. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AOs in preventing tumorigenesis and outline four targeted dietary AOs. We review the results of research evaluating oral AOs supplements as compared to dietary AOs intake via whole foods. While these specific supplements have not shown efficacy, intake of AOs via consumption of whole foods has shown some promise. Lessons learned from the field of hypertension research may provide important guidance in future study design. Further research on the role of dietary AOs in the prevention of NMSC is warranted and should focus on intake via whole food consumption.

  12. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  14. Radiotherapy in skin cancer - present day aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2009-01-01

    Skin carcinomas (SC) are the leading ones in the structure of oncological morbidity in both genders in Bulgaria, as well as in white populations in the world. Regardless of their high frequency, their treatment is successful and mortality due to SC has been reduced by 20 - 30% during the last decades. In Bulgaria SC in 2003 comprise 9.3% of all oncological diseases in men and women. According to their frequency they occupy the second phase after lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The treatment of SC is realized applying various therapeutic approaches, distinguished as basic (radical) and alternative ones. The first include surgical treatment and radiotherapy (RT) (definitive or adjuvant) and the alternative ones - curettage and electro-coagulation, cryotherapy, local chemotherapy and immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, etc. When defining the therapeutic approach, the method affording the best chances of curing with acceptable cosmetic results should be selected. The present review is aimed at considering the contemporary aspects in RT of SC, including used radiotherapy methods and techniques, volumes, doses, fractionation, and achieved therapeutic effects. The indications for implementing definitive and adjuvant RT are given in detail. The applied radiotherapy methods - external beam RT and brachytherapy, are also discussed. The used planned radiotherapy volumes, doses, fractionation schemes, attained therapeutic effects and possible radiation reactions are considered as well. The curability of SC is high, exceeding 90% after adequate treatment. Regardless of the fact that RT has partially ceded its leading role in SC treatment, it still remains to be one of the basic and successful therapeutic approaches

  15. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  16. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

  17. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  18. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care

  19. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  20. Role of the technologist in the lymphoscintigraphy and the identification of sentinel node in malignant skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, D.

    2002-01-01

    The biopsy of the first tumor-draining lymph node (sentinel node) is bound to become the procedure of choice in regional staging of skin melanoma patients. In our department, we do successively: lymphoscintigraphy; identification of sentinel node by γ probe before surgery; identification during surgery of sentinel node with γ probe. During those different steps, the technologist has an important role. The different steps of the technologist's work are: Preparation of radiopharmaceutical Tc 99m Nanocolloides (Nanocis Cis Bio Int); Control of radio chemical purity(RCP) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC); Programming of acquisition protocol on the γ camera; Acquisition of dynamic and static images; Identification percutaneous of the sentinel node with the γ probe and Co 57 pencil; Processing of scintigraphic images; At least identification with surgeon of the sentinel node. After excision of the lymph node, we have to verify the disappearing of radioactivity. Those steps will be illustrated by different clinical cases. Conclusion: Sentinel node identification is: New useful technique for patient: not very much invasive; screening of patients with high risk factors; great parameters of prognosis; Interest for technologist: narrow collaboration with nuclearist and surgeon; psychological role close to the patient; various competency of technologist; diagnostic and therapeutic participations

  1. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Nonwhite Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Ellen N; Doyle, Alden; Shaver, Christine M; Miller, Brett; Abdelmalek, Mark; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Malat, Gregory E; Chung, Christina Lee

    2016-12-01

    Organ transplant recipients have a higher incidence of skin cancer. This risk is magnified over time and with continued exposure to immunosuppression. Skin cancer in nonwhite patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality owing to diagnosis at a more advanced stage, which suggests that nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at even higher risk. To describe demographic and clinical factors and the incidence of skin cancer in nonwhite organ transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients who were organ transplant recipients (154 were white and 259 nonwhite [black, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander]) seen from November 1, 2011, to April 18, 2016 at an academic referral center. Variables were analyzed and compared between racial groups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, Fitzpatrick type, type and location of skin cancer, type of organ transplanted, time to diagnosis of skin cancer after transplantation, and history of condyloma acuminata and/or verruca vulgaris. Most of the 413 patients (62.7%) evaluated were nonwhite organ transplant recipients; 264 were men, and 149 were women. Their mean (SD) age was 60.09 (13.59) years. Nineteen skin cancers were identified in 15 patients (5.8%) representing 3 racial/ethnic groups: black (6 patients), Asian (5), and Hispanic (4). All squamous cell carcinomas in blacks were diagnosed in the in situ stage, located on sun-protected sites, and occurred in patients whose lesions tested positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) and/or who endorsed a history of condyloma acuminata or verruca vulgaris. Most skin cancers in Asians were located on sun-exposed areas and occurred in individuals who emigrated from equatorial locations. Nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at risk for developing skin cancer posttransplantation. Follow-up in a specialized transplant dermatology center and baseline total-body skin examination should be part of posttransplantation care in all organ

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline - Update 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbe, Claus; Peris, Ketty; Hauschild, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is potentially the most dangerous form of skin tumour and causes 90% of skin cancer mortality. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from the European Dermatology Forum, the European Association of Dermato-Oncology and the European Organisation of Research a...

  3. The patterns of melanoma presentation in Rijeka region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović-Ružić, Ira; Jonjić, Nives; Zamolo, Gordana; Zuvić-Butorac, Marta; Katunarić, Miljenko; Pečanić, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    There is a global rising incidence of melanoma. For different reasons, the patterns of the incidence, appearance, gender, anatomical distribution and outcome vary among different geographic areas. Screening programs have led to better early detection of melanoma in Australia and some world areas. National Cancer Registry and practice data show the incidence in Croatia to be constantly rising. Despite public education programs about early detection, at clinical departments there are still many new advanced stage melanoma patients. We analyzed data on 157 patients treated and followed up for 10 years for T1b-T4aN0 skin melanoma. There was a difference in anatomical distribution of melanoma lesions in correlation with patient age (ANOVA test, F=3.51, p=0.009). A higher prevalence of shoulder melanoma was found in young people and of head/neck melanoma in the elderly (post-hoc Sheffe test, p=0.038). T4 lesions were more commonly found in men and T1 mainly in women (Pearson χ(2)-test, χ(2)=12.08, p=0.016). There was no difference in Clark level, but a significantly higher Breslow stage was found in men (t=-2.52, p=0.013). Men were much more prone to have head and neck, body and shoulder melanoma, whereas women had more melanoma on their legs and arms. Clark and Breslow levels were strongly correlated in leg melanoma; head localization showed no correlation at all. In conclusion, more attention should be devoted to improve the results in melanoma detection in men, especially considering the prevalence of body (back) and head/neck localizations, sometimes not readily accessible for visual detection. The pattern of distribution also pointed to the need for more attention to pay to shoulder melanoma in younger people.

  4. Survivorship care planning in skin cancer: An unbiased statistical approach to identifying patterns of care-plan use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benci, Joseph L; Minn, Andy J; Vachani, Carolyn C; Bach, Christina; Arnold-Korzeniowski, Karen; Hampshire, Margaret K; Metz, James M; Hill-Kayser, Christine E

    2018-01-01

    Nearly 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer, and as a result, survivors of skin cancer compose one of the largest groups of cancer survivors. Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are an important tool for improving patient outcomes and provide critical information to both survivors and health care professionals. Recent efforts have been made to expand SCP utilization; however, which patients currently receive SCPs is poorly understood. This study used 596 individuals with a diagnosis of melanoma (n = 391) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (n = 205) who had used an Internet-based SCP tool from May 2010 to December 2016 to model the patient and provider characteristics that determine SCP utilization. Survivors were predominantly white (95.3%) and female (56.5%). Survivors who received a treatment summary were more likely to also receive an SCP. University and nonuniversity cancer centers used SCPs at a higher rate than other care settings. Survivors whose care was managed by a team rather than just an individual physician were also more likely to receive an SCP. Survivors older than 70 years at diagnosis were almost twice as likely to receive a plan as survivors who were diagnosed at a younger age. With a convenience sample of skin cancer survivors, it is possible to model factors that predict the receipt of SCPs. Important variables include the diagnosis age, treatment setting, physician type, and treatment-summary utilization. A closer examination of these variables identified several disparities in care-plan use and, therefore, opportunities to improve the distribution of SCPs. Further validation in additional cohorts of survivors is necessary to confirm these conclusions. Cancer 2018;124:183-91. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaq, M., E-mail: ishaqmusarat@gmail.com [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bazaka, K. [Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ostrikov, K. [Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  6. Development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil loaded chitin nanogels for treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha, M; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Nair, Amrita; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-01-02

    This study focuses on development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded chitin nanogels (FCNGs). It formed good, stable aqueous dispersion with spherical particles in 120-140 nm size range and showed pH responsive swelling and drug release. The FCNGs showed toxicity on melanoma (A375) in a concentration range of 0.4-2.0mg/mL, but less toxicity toward human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by MTT assay. Confocal analysis revealed uptake of FCNGs by both cells. From skin permeation experiments, FCNGs showed almost same steady state flux as that of control 5-FU but the retention in the deeper layers of skin was found to be 4-5 times more from FCNGs. Histopathological evaluation revealed loosening of the horny layer of epidermis by interaction of cationically charged chitin, with no observed signs of inflammation and so FCNGs can be a good option for treatment of skin cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In Report 1 of this series, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors might have increased based on evidence of chromosomal aberrations and clonal formations in cultured skin cells. In Report 2, we described the results of a preliminary study using 110 cases of skin cancer collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City (Nagasaki University Hospital, A-bomb Hospital and Citizens Hospital). In that study a high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01), but no such correlation was noted in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. In this report, 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The results disclosed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance (p<0.01). In addition, this correlation was the same even when the cases were analyzed separately according to sex. (author)

  8. Malignant melanoma: A retrospective series from a regional cancer center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kuldeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To present our experience in treating malignant melanoma patients. Methods and Materials : All melanoma patients treated at the Department of Radiotherapy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2007 were studied retrospectively. The endpoints were loco-regional recurrence, distant recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS, and duration of follow-up (DOFU. RFS and DOFU were analyzed with respect to the factors like age, sex, tissue of origin, site of disease, number of nodes, lymphadenopathy, ulceration, stage, and operability to find out any association. Results : Seventy-two patients were found evaluable with 40 males and 32 females (median age 46.5 years. Eye was the commonest primary site with visual disturbance as the commonest symptom. Overall, 87% of the lesions were single, with most of the nonocular lesions presenting in the advanced stage. During the disease course, regional lymphadenopathy and distant metastases were seen in 33% and 32% of cases, respectively. Highest incidence of lymphadenopathy was seen in skin lesions and in primaries from trunk and extremities. Of all treated patients, 47% achieved complete response, 18% partial response, and others had either stable or progressive disease. The median DOFU was 6.2 months. RFS was studied only in curatively treated cases with a median of 10 months. Operability at presentation was the only prognostic factor influencing DOFU. Conclusion : Malignant melanoma is an uncommon disease in India carrying a lot of morbidity due to late presentation. Its management is still not clear regarding the optimum use and schedule of treatment modalities. More prospective studies in the future are required to come to a definite conclusion.

  9. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  10. Teens, Tweets, and Tanning Beds: Rethinking the Use of Social Media for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Ashley E; Brindis, Claire D; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Junn, Alexandra; Pagoto, Sherry; Wehner, Mackenzie; Linos, Eleni

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance-based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and research is emerging on how best to utilize these platforms for prevention. Social media has the potential to be a cost-effective way to reach large numbers of young people and target messages at characteristics of specific audiences. Recent prevention efforts have shown that comprehensive prevention campaigns that include technology and social media are promising in reducing rates of indoor tanning among young adults. This review examines the literature on psychosocial influences on indoor tanning among adolescents and young adults, and highlights ways in which technology and social media can be used for prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Teens, Tweets, and Tanning Beds: Rethinking the Use of Social Media for Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Ashley E.; Brindis, Claire D.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Junn, Alexandra; Pagoto, Sherry; Wehner, Mackenzie; Linos, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance–based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and research is emerging on how best to utilize these platforms for prevention. Social media has the potential to be a cost-effective way to reach large numbers of young people and target messages at characteristics of specific audiences. Recent prevention efforts have shown that comprehensive prevention campaigns that include technology and social media are promising in reducing rates of indoor tanning among young adults. This review examines the literature on psychosocial influences on indoor tanning among adolescents and young adults, and highlights ways in which technology and social media can be used for prevention efforts. PMID:28818251

  12. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma Treatment: Stage IV Finding the Right Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials ...

  14. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Melanoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  16. Imaging Blood Vessel Morphology in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Sandra; Holmes, Jon; Ulrich, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables the visualization of morphological changes of skin cancer. The use of OCT in the diagnostic investigation and in the therapy decision of non-melanoma skin cancer and other skin changes is already established, and has found its way into routine...... practice. With the development of speckle-variance OCT, also named dynamic OCT (D-OCT), the vascular architecture and the blood flow of the skin can be displayed in vivo and in 3D. This novel angiographic variant of OCT offers the ability to visualize and measure vessel morphology providing a new insight...... into healthy, inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions such as malignant melanoma. This review focuses on the possibilities of using D-OCT on healthy and diseased skin. We suggest and illustrate key diagnostic characteristics by analyzing the initial publications and preliminary unpublished data on vessel...

  17. Comparing Melanoma Invasiveness in Dermatologist- versus Patient-Detected Lesions: A Retrospective Chart Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy L. Lamerson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether patient-identified melanomas were more advanced than dermatologist-identified tumors at routine clinic visits, and whether a personal or family history of skin cancer was associated with patterns of detection. A retrospective chart review was performed on melanoma patients (N=201 in a private dermatology clinic. Variables included age, gender, pattern of detection (i.e., patient or a board certified dermatologist, personal or family history of skin cancer, skin type, and previous sun exposure, as well as tumor location and severity. Dermatologist-diagnosed melanomas were less invasive (P<0.0005, and more likely present on the chest, back, and legs (P<0.01. Conversely, patient-identified lesions were more likely to occur on the face, neck and scalp, be associated with younger patients, and a family history of melanoma, but not other types of skin cancer (P<0.01. In a post-hoc analysis examining these factors as predictors of tumor invasiveness, only diagnostic source was significant. Specifically, dermatologist-identified tumors were significantly less invasive than patient-identified tumors. Although age, family history, and tumor location played roles in the early detection of melanomas, the most important factor was diagnostic source. Thus, board-certified dermatologists play a key role in the early detection of malignant melanoma.

  18. Anatomy of the Skin and the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losquadro, William D

    2017-08-01

    Skin is composed of the epidermis, dermis, and adnexal structures. The epidermis is composed of 4 layers-the stratums basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The dermis is divided into a superficial papillary dermis and deeper reticular dermis. Collagen and elastin within the reticular dermis are responsible for skin tensile strength and elasticity, respectively. The 2 most common kinds of nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Both are caused by a host of environmental and genetic factors, although UV light exposure is the single greatest predisposing factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunohistochemical Expression of MCAM/CD146 in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Asa, S

    2017-07-01

    MCAM/CD146 (melanoma cell adhesion molecule/CD146) is a transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule involved in transendothelial migration and signal transduction. It is expressed in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, prostatic, ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers and promotes tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Melanoma is the most common malignant oral tumour of dogs and also arises in the skin, nail bed and footpad. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MCAM/CD146 in 51 canine melanomas, including oral, cutaneous and ocular tumours. Seventeen of the 51 (33.3%) cases were negative, eight (15.7%) were weakly positive, seven (13.7%) were moderately positive and 19 (37.3%) were strongly positive. MCAM/CD146 was expressed by both oral and cutaneous melanomas; however, the intensity and the extent of the immunoreactivity was higher in oral (P = 0.009) than in cutaneous tumours (P = 0.058). Most ocular melanomas did not express MCAM/CD146 (P = 0.256). Expression of MCAM/CD146 by canine melanomas may suggest the molecule as a target for treatment, especially in oral melanomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of melanoma inhibitory activity gene family in the tumor progression of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a high potential for locoregional invasion and nodal metastasis. Consequently, early detection of such malignancies is of immense importance. The melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) gene family comprises MIA, MIA2, transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (TANGO), and otoraplin (OTOR). These members of the MIA gene family have a highly conserved Src homology 3 (SH3)-like structure. Although the molecules of this family share 34-45% amino acid homology and 47-59% cDNA sequence homology, those members, excluding OTOR, play different tumor-associated functions. MIA has a pivotal role in the progression and metastasis of melanoma; MIA2 and TANGO have been suggested to possess tumor-suppressive functions; and OTOR is uniquely expressed in cochlea of the inner ear. Therefore, the definite functions of the MIA gene family in cancer cells remain unclear. Since the members of the MIA gene family are secreted proteins, these molecules might be useful tumor markers that can be detected in the body fluids, including serum and saliva. In this review, we described the molecular biological functions of the MIA gene family in oral cancer. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K

    2015-03-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

  2. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

  3. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author)

  4. Health Care Coach Support in Reducing Acute Care Use and Cost in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Brain Glioblastoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Head and Neck Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progressive Disease; Recurrent Carcinoma; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bone Sarcoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IVA Bone Sarcoma; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Bone Sarcoma; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. Malignant melanoma - a warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volden, G.; Rajka, G.; Thune, P.; Falk, E.S.; Krogh, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of malignant melonoma of the skin has risen rapidly during the last decades. Mortality rates are also rising, although not so much as incidence rates. There is strong evidence that exposure to sunlight is a major factor in the etiology of melanomas. There appears to be no direct cumulative dose-response relationship, except in the case of lentigo maligna melanoma. Episodes of sunburn among children and young individuals seem to be more important as an etiologic factor for melanoma than chronic exposure to the sun. Very high risk of melanoma exists in persons with dysplastic nevus syndrome. Persons with giant congenital nevi are also at increased risk. However, many melanomas arise de novo. The intension of the authors is to reduce mortality by screening families at risk, by early detection and treatment of melanomas, and by education. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Components in aqueous Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina H. Goldberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is extremely common, and melanoma causes about 80% of skin cancer deaths. In fact, melanoma kills over 50 thousand people around the world each year, and these numbers are rising. Clearly, standard treatments are not effectively treating melanoma, and alternative therapies are needed to address this problem. Hibiscus tea has been noted to have medicinal properties, including anticancer effects. Extracts from Hibiscus have been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. In particular, recent studies found that polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by organic solvents can inhibit melanoma cell growth. However, effects of aqueous extracts from Hibiscus rosa-sinesis flowers, which are commonly used to make traditional medicinal beverages, have not been examined on melanoma cells. Here, we report that aqueous H. rosa-sinesis flower extract contains compounds that inhibit melanoma cell growth in a dose dependent manner at concentrations that did not affect the growth of nontransformed cells. In addition, these extracts contain low molecular weight growth inhibitory compounds below 3 kD in size that combine with larger compounds to more effectively inhibit melanoma cell growth. Future work should identify these compounds, and evaluate their potential to prevent and treat melanoma and other cancers.

  7. In vitro toxicity testing of zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines in fibroblast and keratinocyte cells for the treatment of melanoma cancer by photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available and United States [3]. The standard oncology treatment for melanoma cancer is surgi- Available online xxxx Keywords: Photodynamic therapy Zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines Melanoma cancer Phthalocyanines 1011-1344/$ - see front matter � 2011 Elsevier B... of cancer, 567 The Lancet Oncology 1 (2000) 4212?4219. 568 [15] K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, Photophysics and 569 photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects, Laser Medical 570 Science 24 (2009) 259...

  8. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer